Sample records for xrd hrtem magnetic

  1. XRD, HRTEM, magnetic and Mössbauer studies on chemically prepared Fe 3+-doped nanoparticles of cerium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Modak, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Das, D.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2009-09-01

    Nanocrystalline samples of Fe-doped cerium oxide (Ce 0.90Fe 0.1O 2) are prepared by sol-gel method. The precursor materials used for the synthesis are ferric nitrate and cerium nitrate. The as-prepared samples is annealed at different temperatures to obtain the sample with different particle sizes. The crystallographic phases of the nanocrystalline materials have been confirmed by X-ray diffractograms (XRD). The sizes of the nanoparticles estimated from the peaks of the XRD patterns using Debye-Scherrer equation are in the range 6-58 nm. Results extracted from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are in agreement with the findings obtained from XRD. The average magnetic susceptibilities of all the samples with different particle sizes are measured in the temperature range 300-14 K. The average susceptibilities of the samples annealed below ˜740 °C show paramagnetic behaviour. The susceptibilities of the samples annealed at and above ˜740 °C sharply decrease at ˜240 K and this sharp transition is quite likely due to the anti-parallel alignment of Fe 3+ spins and is attributed to Morin transition of ?-Fe 2O 3. Mössbauer spectra of the samples annealed at and above ˜740 °C give sextet patterns indicating the presence of exchange interaction among the Fe 3+ ions of these samples and these sextets are also of typical nature of the ?-Fe 2O 3 phase. The Mössbauer spectra of the samples annealed below ˜740 °C are doublets which may be attributed to either superparamagnetic and/or paramagnetic type nanoparticles.

  2. XRD, HRTEM, magnetic and Mössbauer studies on chemically prepared Fe 3+-doped nanoparticles of cerium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Acharya; A. Bandyopadhyay; S. Modak; S. Mukherjee; D. Das; P. K. Chakrabarti

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline samples of Fe-doped cerium oxide (Ce0.90Fe0.1O2) are prepared by sol–gel method. The precursor materials used for the synthesis are ferric nitrate and cerium nitrate. The as-prepared samples is annealed at different temperatures to obtain the sample with different particle sizes. The crystallographic phases of the nanocrystalline materials have been confirmed by X-ray diffractograms (XRD). The sizes of the nanoparticles

  3. Comparison of structural parameters of PF carbon from XRD and HRTEM techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Sharma; Takashi Kyotani; Akira Tomita

    2000-01-01

    A new technique to obtain structural parameters Lc, La and d, of phenol formaldehyde resin char (PFC) from TEM images has been developed. Similar structural parameters were also obtained from XRD technique and a comprehensive comparison of the results from the two techniques was made. The present study shows a good agreement between the results from the two techniques. The

  4. Evolution of clay mineral assemblages in the Tinguiririca geothermal field, Andean Cordillera of central Chile: an XRD and HRTEM-AEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Nieto, F.; Morata, D.; Droguett, B.; Carrillo-Rosua, F. J.; Morales, S.

    2014-08-01

    HRTEM textural evidence shows that clay minerals in the Tinguiririca geothermal field (Andean Cordillera, central Chile) are the result of direct alteration of former volcanic glass and minerals by hydrothermal fluids at similar temperatures to the present day. They show the classical pattern of diagenetic transformation from smectite at the top to illite at the bottom, with the progressive formation of corrensite and chlorite. The high fluid/rock ratio, disposability of necessary cations and absence of previous detrital phyllosilicates allow the consideration of this area as a natural laboratory to establish the extreme ideal conditions for very low-T reactions. Transformations from smectite to R1 illite-smectite (I-S) and from these to R3 mixed-layers occur respectively at 80-120 °C and 125-180 °C. In spite of ideal genetic conditions, the new-formed minerals show all the defective character and lack of textural and chemical equilibrium previously described in the literature for diagenetic and hydrothermal low-temperature assemblages. Chemistry of smectite-illite phases evolves basically through a diminution of the pyrophyllitic component toward a theoretical muscovite (Si4 + + ? -> Al3 ++ K+). However, a second chemical vector (Si4 ++ Mg2 + ? Al3 ++ Al3 +), that is, decreasing of the tschermack component, also contributes to the evolution toward the less Si-more Al rich muscovite in relation to the original smectite. Residual Mg (and Fe) from the latter reaction is consumed in the genesis of chloritic phases. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the lack of chemical equilibrium (probably because of the short time-scale of the geothermal alteration processes), the composition of clay minerals is highly heterogeneous at the level of a single sample. Consequently, the respective fields of smectite, R1 I-S and R3 I-S overlap each other, making the distinction among these three phases impossible based exclusively on chemical data.

  5. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (hrtem) Studies on M-Type Barium Ferrite, Barium IRON(12) OXYGEN(19), Magnetic Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongchul Kwon

    1995-01-01

    In high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis of extended structural defects in complex compounds, it is desirable to be able to image atomic columns composed of light elements as well as those composed of heavy elements. For the thinnest possible specimens, HRTEM images tend to be dominated by the heavy elements, however, it is possible to increase the contribution

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 45, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2009 4861 NSOM/HRTEM Characterization of Biologically Derived

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Aditya

    microscopy, magnetooptic Kerr effect, magnetotactic bacteria, magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, nanomagnets, New Delhi 110016, India Nanomagnets synthesized by the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum be transiently magnetized at best. In contrast, there is a class of natural bac- teria, called magnetotactic

  7. XRD, Mössbauer and magnetic properties of MgxCo1-xFe2O4 nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, W. B.; Msomi, J. Z.; Moyo, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization studies of MgxCo1-xFe2O4 (0?x?1.0) nanoferrites. The crystallite size varies between 9 nm and 15 nm. The properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry. The XRD results indicate pure cubic spinel structure for all the compounds. The evolution of the properties has been explained on the basis of Mg content and crystallite sizes. The Mössbauer and magnetization results show strong dependence of the properties on crystallite size and non-magnetic Mg2+ ion concentration.

  8. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) of nanophase ferric oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals are the prime candidates for Fe(III) signatures in remotely sensed Martian surface spectra. Magnetic, Mossbauer, and reflectance spectroscopy have been carried out in the laboratory in order to understand the mineralogical nature of Martian analog ferric oxide minerals of submicron or nanometer size range. Out of the iron oxide minerals studied, nanometer sized ferric oxides are promising candidates for possible Martian spectral analogs. 'Nanophase ferric oxide (np-Ox)' is a generic term for ferric oxide/oxihydroxide particles having nanoscale (less than 10 nm) particle dimensions. Ferrihydrite, superparamagnetic particles of hematite, maghemite and goethite, and nanometer sized particles of inherently paramagnetic lepidocrocite are all examples of nanophase ferric oxides. np-Ox particles in general do not give X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with well defined peaks and would often be classified as X-ray amorphous. Therefore, different np-Oxs preparations should be characterized using a more sensitive technique e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The purpose of this study is to report the particle size, morphology and crystalline order, of five np-Ox samples by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction (ED).

  9. Augmented bone-matrix formation and osteogenesis under magnetic field stimulation in vivo XRD, TEM and SEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Praveen; YashRoy, Rakesh C; Hoque, M

    2006-06-01

    Bone is a composite biomaterial, which is formed, when proteins constituting collagen fibers attract calcium, phosphate and hydroxide ions in solution to nucleate atop the fibers. It grows into a hard structure of tiny crystallites of hydroxyapatite, aligned along the long axis of collagen fibers. The present work reports the stimulating effect of static magnetic field on microstructure and mineralization process of bone repair. A unilateral transverse fracture of mid-shaft of metacarpal was surgically created in healthy goats under thiopental sedation and xylocaine analgesia. Two bar magnets (approximately 800 gauss/cm2 field strength) were placed across the fracture line at opposite pole alignment immobilized in Plaster of Paris (POP) splint bandage for static magnetic field stimulation. Radiographs were taken at weekly intervals up to 45 days. Results show that formation of extra-cellular matrix and its microstructure can be influenced by non-invasive physical stimulus (magnetic field) for achieving an enhanced osteogenesis, leading to quicker regeneration of bone tissue in goats. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of treated (magnetic field-exposed) and control samples revealed the presence and orientation of crystalline structures. Intensity of diffraction peaks corresponding to 310 and 222 planes were enhanced with respect to 211 families of reflections, indicating preferential alignment of the crystals. Also, the percent crystallinity and crystal size were increased in treated samples. The study provides a biophysical basis for augmented fracture healing under the influence of semi-aligned static magnetic field applied across the fracture line. PMID:16967906

  10. XRD analysis and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni20Co80 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensebaa, N.; Loudjani, N.; Alleg, S.; Dekhil, L.; Suñol, J. J.; Al Sae, M.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical alloying process has been used to prepare nanocrystalline Ni20Co80 alloy from elemental Ni and Co powders in a planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements were carried out to investigate morphological, structural, microstructural and magnetic properties changes during the milling process. The interdiffusion of Co and Ni leads to a heterogeneous solid solution with Ni-rich and Co-rich environments after 12 h of milling. The end product is a mixture of a highly disordered structure, fcc-Ni(Co), fcc-Co(Ni) and hcp-Co(Ni) phases having different microstructural and structural parameters. The coercivity, Hc, decreases rapidly up to 3 h of milling to about 58.3 Oe and remains constant on further milling. The saturation magnetization, Ms, value of about 126 emu/g is obtained after 48 h of milling.

  11. Temperature-dependent XRD, IR, magnetic, SEM and TEM studies of Jahn–Teller distorted NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders

    SciTech Connect

    Ptak, M., E-mail: m.ptak@int.pan.wroc.pl; Maczka, M.; G?gor, A.; Pikul, A.; Macalik, L.; Hanuza, J.

    2013-05-15

    In the present work we report detailed structural, magnetic and phonon properties of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders synthesized via a simple coprecipitation method. Temperature-dependent XRD as well as temperature-dependent IR studies reveal that cubic to tetragonal phase transition is lowered due to size effects. Observed changes in the IR spectra indicate that the paramagnetic–ferrimagnetic phase transition taking place at 74 K is related to further lowering of symmetry to orthorhombic system. Assignment of modes was proposed and factor group analyses in three possible symmetries were carried out. Our results show strong anomalies due to the Jahn–Teller tetragonal distortion and weak due to the orthorhombic distortion and onset of collinear ferrimagnetic order. Shifts of wavenumbers observed below 31 K, where the onset of antiferromagnetic ordering occurs, were attributed to spin–phonon interactions. - Graphical abstract: XRD pattern of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample synthesized via a coprecipitation method followed by calcination at 1000 {sup o}C. - Highlights: • NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} starts to crystallize near 750 °C. • Coexistence of cubic and tetragonal phases of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was revealed. • Temperature of the Jahn–Teller distortion is lowered due to the size effects. • Evidences of tetragonal and orthorhombic distortions were found. • Weak spin–phonon interactions were evidenced.

  12. Facile synthesis of magnetic metal (Mn, Co, Fe, and Ni) oxide nanosheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Hu; Haisheng Qian; Ting Mei; Jun Guo; Tim White

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrated a simple, reproducible, and low-cost strategy of controlled synthesis of 2D magnetic Mn2O3, Co3O4, Fe2O3 and NiO nanosheets. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A kinetically controlled growth mechanism via a dissolution–recrystallization process has also been proposed. This method proves the advantage of

  13. Characteristics and genesis of maghemite in Chinese loess and paleosols: Mechanism for magnetic susceptibility enhancement in paleosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianhu Chen; Huifang Xu; Qiaoqin Xie; Jun Chen; Junfeng Ji; Huayu Lu

    2005-01-01

    Morphological characteristics and microstructures of magnetic minerals extracted from Chinese loess and paleosols were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our results indicate that maghemite in loess–paleosol sequences was transformed from magnetite through oxidation of magnetite. Maghemite transformed from eolian magnetite during chemical weathering has low-angle grain boundaries among maghemite nano-crystals. Some nano-crystalline maghemites

  14. XAFS and XRD studies of local structure peculiarities in magnetic R2Fe17-xMnx (R = Ce, Lu) intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Yaroslavtsev, A. A.; Grishina, O. V.; Zaluzhnyy, I. A.; Chernikov, R. V.; Kuchin, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    The rearrangement of cerium and lutetium local environment in Ce2Fe17-xMnx and Lu2Fe17-xMnx intermetallics vs. Mn concentration and temperature was investigated by means of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy above K-Ce absorption edge and powder X-ray diffraction. The valence state of Ce in Ce2Fe17-xMnx was also studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy above L3-Ce absorption edge. The correlation between changes in local electronic and crystal structure and the types of magnetic ordering in these compounds is discussed.

  15. Quantitative HRTEM studies on local lattice distortions in strained materials systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Phillipp; K Du; N. Y Jin-Phillipp

    2003-01-01

    Under favorable experimental conditions high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of coherent structures directly reflect the projected crystal potential. Local lattice strains may then be determined from HRTEM micrographs without the comparison with image simulations. This fast procedure is particularly suited for the analysis of large areas. The strain distribution in multilayer quantum dot structures has been evaluated. A direct

  16. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain)] [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Agouram, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)] [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo -UO - Principado de Asturias- PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain)] [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo -UO - Principado de Asturias- PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Moya, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Esteban, S., E-mail: s.lopez@cinn.es [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17-35 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  17. Advantages of TOF-SIMS analysis of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite in comparison with XRD, HR-TEM and FT-IR.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Masayuki; Hirata, Isao; Matsumoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Junzo

    2005-12-01

    The chemical analysis of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite was carried out using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite were synthesized at 80 +/- 1 degrees C and pH 7.4 +/- 0.2. Fluorapatite was better crystallized, with its (300) reflection shifted to a slightly higher angle. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy clearly revealed a typical, regular hexagonal cross section perpendicular to the c-axis for fluorapatite and a flattened hexagonal cross section for hydroxyapatite. FT-IR spectra of fluorapatite confirmed the absence of OH absorption peak--which was seen in hydroxyapatite at about 3570 cm(-1). TOF-SIMS mass spectra showed a peak at 40 amu due to calcium. In addition, a peak at 19 amu due to fluorine could be clearly seen, although the intensities of PO, PO2, and PO3 were very low. It was confirmed that TOF-SIMS clearly showed the differences between positive and negative mass spectra of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite, especially for F-. We concluded that TOF-SIMS exhibited distinct advantages compared with other methods of analysis. PMID:16445011

  18. Magnetic photocatalysts with a p-n junction: Fe3O4 nanoparticle and FeWO4 nanowire heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Man; Liu, Xu; Li, Lu; Pang, Guangsheng; Feng, Shouhua

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic n-type semiconductor Fe3O4 nanoparticle and p-type semiconductor FeWO4 nanowire heterostructures were successfully synthesized without any surfactants or templates via a facile one-step hydrothermal process at 160 °C. The heterojunction structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Magnetic measurements indicated the coexistence of ferrimagnetic behavior of Fe3O4 and weak antiferromagnetic behavior of FeWO4. The degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV-Visible light irradiation was studied as a model experiment to evaluate the catalytic activity of the Fe3O4/FeWO4 heterostructure p-n junctions. The decomposition efficiency was 97.1% after one hour UV-Visible irradiation. This magnetic photocatalyst can be easily recovered from the solution using a permanent magnet and redispersed by removing the magnet. PMID:25201551

  19. Fullerene C60 functionalized ?-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticle: Synthesis, characterization, and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    K?l?nç, Ersin

    2014-08-14

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles composed from C60 fullerene and ?-Fe2O3 were synthesized by hydrothermal method. XRD, FT-IR, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM were employed for characterizations. The magnetic saturation value of C60-?-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles was 66.5 emu g(- 1). Concentration of Fe in nanoparticles asdetermined by ICP-OES was 40.7% Fe. Particle size of C60-?-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles was smaller than 10 nm. Maximum adsorption capacity of C60-?-Fe2O3 for flurbiprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was calculated from Langmuir isotherm as 142.9 mg g(- 1). PMID:25118710

  20. HRTEM study of zircon from Eliseev anorthosite complex, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, R.; Kaempf, H. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Hoehndorf, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Zircon-bearing rocks of this study are metamorphic oxide-apatite gabbronorites (OAGN) from the Eliseev Anorthosite Complex, Wohlthat-Massif, East Antarctica. These unusual rocks are strongly enriched in accessory minerals apatite: <10 vol.%; zircon: < 1 vol.. Three steps in the evolution of these rocks are distinguished: a magnetic formation, followed by a granulite facies metamorphism and finally a tectonomagmatic overprint. The zircon crystals of this study are brown colored, up to 12 mm in length and up to 3 mm wide. Petrological investigations show that zircon has formed during the granulite facies event. Optical microscopy and cathodoluminiscence microscopy reveal a rhythmic zoning and many microcracks. The concentrations of uranium and thorium are low (U: 34-89 ppm and Th: 3-9 ppm). The radiation damage by radioactive decay of U and Th is expected to be minor due to the low uranium and thorium content. The investigations were carried out in a Philips CM200 transmission electron microscope. Analytical electron microscopy was performed by energy dispersive analysis (EDAX).

  1. Soot and char molecular representations generated directly from HRTEM lattice fringe images using Fringe3D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Fernandez-Alos; Justin K. Watson; Randy vander Wal; Jonathan P. Mathews

    2011-01-01

    Char and soot are complex carbonaceous structures that are important in traditional energy generation, reactivity, biomass combustion, pollution, climate change, and human health. HRTEM lattice fringe images have significantly improved how we “see” these complex structures. Yet our attempts to use molecular modeling to explore the structure behavior relationships are hampered by the complexity and difficulty in capturing the alignment,

  2. Aberration Corrected HRTEM of Au Nanoparticles on MgO in a Controlled Gas Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Aberration Corrected HRTEM of Au Nanoparticles on MgO in a Controlled Gas Atmosphere Linus D the atomic structures of supported nanoparticles directly under a controlled gas atmosphere [1]. This method nanoparticles supported on MgO in a controlled gas atmosphere, in order to elucidate the mobility of Au surface

  3. Step by Step tutorial Powder XRD Short-Arm

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    Step by Step tutorial for Powder XRD Short-Arm Data Collection #12;Creating the Parameter File Step to Step 5 directly. 1. Click on the XRD wizard icon #12;Step 2. You will get the XRD Wizard program window

  4. Magnetic properties of nanosized Mg0.5Mn0.5(RE)0.1Fe1.9O4 ferrites synthesized by glycol-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Hafiz M. I.; Moyo, T.; Msomi, J. Z.

    2013-04-01

    Nanosized Mg0.5Mn0.5(RE)0.1Fe1.9O4 ferrites, where RE are the rare earth elements, have been synthesized by the glycol-thermal method from pure metal chlorides. The as-prepared samples in the form of powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD and HRTEM data show formation of the single-phase cubic spinel structure. The grain sizes are found in the range 9-15 nm. Magnetic properties of the as-prepared samples were obtained at room temperature by 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The distributions of Fe3+ ions were also deduced from Mössbauer measurements. The variations of grain size, lattice parameter, coercive field, magnetizations are presented as a function of the number of (RE)3+ 4f electrons. Our results show the evidence for superparamagnetic behavior of the rare earth substituted compounds. The highest grain size and magnetizations are obtained for the Gd substituted sample. We also find strong correlation of the saturation magnetizations, grain sizes and microstrains with the de Gennes factor.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles on polysaccharide templates and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi, M. Mohamed; Ahmed, K. Syed Zameer; Nazeer, K. Prem; Siva Kumar, D.; Thamilselvan, M.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles on different polysaccharide templates calcined at controlled temperature, characterizing them for spectroscopic and magnetic studies leading to evaluate their antibacterial property. The synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer. The iron oxide nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. The XRD confirms the crystalline nature of iron oxide nanoparticles with the mean crystallite size of 10 nm. The functional groups of the synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles were 547, 543 and 544 cm-1 characterizing the Fe-O and the broad bands at 3,398, 3,439 and 3,427 cm-1 were attributed to the stretching vibrations of hydroxyl group absorbed by iron oxide nanoparticles. HRTEM analyses revealed that the average particle size of the hematite nanoparticles are about 85, 92 and 77 nm for AF, DF and GF, respectively, which was a coincident with the results obtained from the HRSEM analysis. Magnetic measurement exhibited ferromagnetic behavior of the ?-Fe2O3 at the room temperature with higher coercivity of H C = 2,303, 2,333 and 1,019 Oe for AF, DF and GF, respectively. Antibacterial test showed the inhibition against Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli with significant antagonistic activity.

  6. Local Structural Ordering in Cluster-Glass RE2CuSi3 (RE = Ce and Nd) compounds from HRTEM image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubuta, K.; Yamamura, T.; Li, D. X.

    2013-03-01

    Direct mapping of nano-domains with short-range order was presented via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) on cluster-glass (CG) magnetic compounds RE2CuSi3 (RE=Ce and Nd) related to a hexagonal AlB2-type structure. A new image processing technique using scanning a region of interest can be used in order to obtain the information of the structural ordering with nano-meter range. The degrees of CG on the short-range order, which shows -typed superstructure spots, are consistent with those of magnetic properties. The present observations strongly support that local structures with clustering relate directly to the origin of the CG magnetic behavior in RE2CuSi3.

  7. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Activated Carbon Fibers Characterized by Using HRTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng-Hong Huang; Feiyu Kang; Wen Lai Huang; Jun-Bing Yang; Kai-Ming Liang; Meng-Long Cui; Zhiying Cheng

    2002-01-01

    The pore microstructures in two viscouse rayon-based ACF samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and HRTEM. For TEM, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the original TEM images was performed, and pores in different size ranges were extracted by the inverse FFT (IFFT) operation. The surface fractal dimensions of the samples were evaluated by using both N2 adsorption and

  8. Si-SiO/sub 2/ interfaces: A HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy) study

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, N.M.; Fathy, D.; Holland, O.W.; Narayan, J.

    1987-01-01

    A High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) study of the Si-SiO/sub 2/ interfaces is reported here. The study has been carried out on the thermal oxidation of (1) Si and (2) Ge implanted Si. Evolution of the Si-SiO/sub 2/ interface with oxide thickness and the presence of small amounts of Ge, i.e., one mono-layer at the interface and its influence on the oxidation kinetics is discussed.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Studies on Optical, Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of undoped and Cobalt doped Nanocrystalline Bismuth Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, K.; Mukherjee, Soumya; Mukherjee, S.; Mitra, M. K.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroic perovskite nanocrystalline Bismuth ferrite (BFO) and Co doped Bismuth ferrite are synthesized by chemical route annealed at 500, 550 and 600 °C. XRD studies revealed the phases formed during synthesis while crystallite size is calculated in the range of 15.4-55 nm by Scherrer's formula from the identified XRD major peaks. The FTIR spectra of undoped BFO sample synthesized at 500, 550 and 600 °C exhibits clear presence of peaks at 554 cm-1 confirms the existence of Bi-O, Fe-O stretching and bending behavior of two different M-O co-ordination using Shimadzu-8400S Spectroscopy. The microstructure, lattice image and interplanar spacing are obtained by HRTEM analysis. The particle sizes are also measured from HRTEM while the chemistry is verified by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) (Oxford Instruments, INCA). Dielectric properties are observed for both undoped and Co doped samples. The band gap energy is measured by UV-VIS characterization using Tauc equation. Magnetic measurements are carried out using Physical Properties Measurement systems.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Studies on Optical, Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of undoped and Cobalt doped Nanocrystalline Bismuth Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, K.; Mukherjee, Soumya; Mukherjee, S.; Mitra, M. K.

    2014-10-01

    Multiferroic perovskite nanocrystalline Bismuth ferrite (BFO) and Co doped Bismuth ferrite are synthesized by chemical route annealed at 500, 550 and 600 °C. XRD studies revealed the phases formed during synthesis while crystallite size is calculated in the range of 15.4-55 nm by Scherrer's formula from the identified XRD major peaks. The FTIR spectra of undoped BFO sample synthesized at 500, 550 and 600 °C exhibits clear presence of peaks at 554 cm-1 confirms the existence of Bi-O, Fe-O stretching and bending behavior of two different M-O co-ordination using Shimadzu-8400S Spectroscopy. The microstructure, lattice image and interplanar spacing are obtained by HRTEM analysis. The particle sizes are also measured from HRTEM while the chemistry is verified by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) (Oxford Instruments, INCA). Dielectric properties are observed for both undoped and Co doped samples. The band gap energy is measured by UV-VIS characterization using Tauc equation. Magnetic measurements are carried out using Physical Properties Measurement systems.

  11. Pore structure and fractal characteristics of activated carbon fibers characterized by using HRTEM.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Wen Lai; Yang, Jun-Bing; Liang, Kai-Ming; Cui, Meng-Long; Cheng, Zhiying

    2002-05-15

    The pore microstructures in two viscouse rayon-based ACF samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and HRTEM. For TEM, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the original TEM images was performed, and pores in different size ranges were extracted by the inverse FFT (IFFT) operation. The surface fractal dimensions of the samples were evaluated by using both N(2) adsorption and TEM image analysis. The results show that TEM can portray the shapes of the pore, and it can give a quantitative evaluation of surface irregularity that is consistent with nitrogen adsorption results. PMID:16290620

  12. Measurement of Crystallinity and Phase Composition of Hydroxyapatite by XRD

    E-print Network

    1 . Measurement of Crystallinity and Phase Composition of Hydroxyapatite by XRD VAMAS TWA#3 Project. #12;2 . The XRD pattern for HA has many peaks in the range from about 7° to about 60° 2 CuK. The most or poorly crystallized HA as illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 1. XRD patterns obtained from phase pure HA

  13. Swelling of ion-irradiated 3C-SiC characterized by synchrotron radiation based XRD and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Ru; Ho, Chun-Yu; Chuang, Wei-Tsung; Ku, Ching-Shun; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-12-01

    An experimental technique was established to characterize irradiation-induced volume swelling through a combined utilization of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 3C-SiC specimens were irradiated by Si2+ ions (5 MeV) with fluences up to 5 × 1017 ion/cm2 at 1000 °C. In order to avoid the accumulation of implanted Si ions in the SiC layer, specific thicknesses of the epitaxy layer and implanted ion energy were chosen. Unresolvable black spot defects were studied by TEM, and the average size and density were calculated. XRD radial scan results of surface (0 0 2), (1 1 1), (0 2 2), (1 1 3), and (2 0 0) including peak shift and asymmetry peak broadening were observed. Different interplanar spacing information of single crystal SiC can be obtained from this XRD measurement method, making it possible to investigate the lattice expansion and volume swelling more precisely. While TEM provided a direct visualization of the microstructures and the interplanar spacing was measured from HRTEM images. It is suggested that irradiation induced point defects and compressive stress from the Si substrate were the cause of anisotropic (a = b < c) volume swelling of irradiated 3C-SiC in this study.

  14. A HRTEM study on serpentinized peridotite from the Southwest Indian Ridge and implications for the deep ocean hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Jin, Z.; Li, W.; Li, H.

    2013-12-01

    Abyssal peridotites generate at mid-ocean ridges. Along the Earth's mid-ocean ridges, abyssal peridotites undergo hydration reactions to become serpentinite minerals, especially in slow to ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridges. The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is one of the two ultraslow spreading ridges in the world. The studied serpentinized peridotite sample was collected by the 21st Voyage of the Chinese oceanic research ship Dayang Yihao (aka Ocean No. 1) from a hydrothermal field (63.5°E, 28.0°S, and 3660 m deep) in SWIR. Serpentinized reaction has attracted increasing attention as they are an expression of mantle hydration and water cycles in the deep Earth. There are three main types of serpentinite, antigorite (forms at T > 300°c ), lizadite (forms at T < 200°c ), and chrysotile (forms at intermediate temperatures) [1]. The mineral assemblages of the SWIR serpentinized peridotite was determined by petrography and XRD techniques, which comprises lizardite, chrysotile, olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, magnetite, and chlorite. From SEM and TEM study, serpentinized olivine and orthopyroxene were found changed to chrysotile. However, seldom lizadite was found coexisting with chrysotile in clinopyroxene. From nanobeam SAED and HRTEM analysis, it was observed that the topological structure between lizadite and clinopyroxene is [100]cpx//[001]liz, while there is no topological relationship between chrysotile and clinopyroxene. A little chlorite was observed in serpentine vein, and some nanometer-sized amphibole was observed existing at the side of serpentine vein with [100]cpx//[001]amp. Chrysotile is the dominant serpentine mineral composition in this sample, which is different from most seafloor serpentinized peridotite [2]. The coexistence of chrysotile and lizadite indicates hydration temperature below 300°c , while the existence of chlorite and amphibole suggest hydration temperature reaching greenschist facies conditions, i.e. above 300°c, in the east part of SWIR [1, 2]. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSFC (41172050) and CSC. The electron microscopy was accomplished at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Laboratory operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 by UChicago Argonne, LLC. References [1] O'Hanley, D.S. Serpentinites. 1984. [2] Mével, C., Geoscience, 335:825, 2003.

  15. Simulation of bonding effects in HRTEM images of light element materials

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jannik C; Künzel, Daniela; Groß, Axel; Kaiser, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Summary The accuracy of multislice high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) simulation can be improved by calculating the scattering potential using density functional theory (DFT) [1–2]. This approach accounts for the fact that electrons in the specimen are redistributed according to their local chemical environment. This influences the scattering process and alters the absolute and relative contrast in the final image. For light element materials with well defined geometry, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers, the DFT based simulation scheme turned out to be necessary to prevent misinterpretation of weak signals, such as the identification of nitrogen substitutions in a graphene network. Furthermore, this implies that the HRTEM image does not only contain structural information (atom positions and atomic numbers). Instead, information on the electron charge distribution can be gained in addition. In order to produce meaningful results, the new input parameters need to be chosen carefully. Here we present details of the simulation process and discuss the influence of the main parameters on the final result. Furthermore we apply the simulation scheme to three model systems: A single atom boron and a single atom oxygen substitution in graphene and an oxygen adatom on graphene. PMID:22003447

  16. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  17. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

  18. RBS and XRD Characterization of Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Roumie, M.; Abdel Samad, B.; Basma, H.; Korek, M.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic materials such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG or Y3Fe5O12) present a great importance for their magneto-optic properties. They are potential materials used for applications in the domain of optical telecommunications for example. In this work, we have investigated YIG thin films deposited on substrates of quartz and GGG (gadolinium gallium garnet or Gd3Ga5O12). Using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) we characterized the performed layers (thickness and stoichiometry) in order to correlate the films preparation conditions with the quality of the final material. We determined the optimal energy of the alpha particles beam used for RBS measurements and we fitted the experimental spectra using the SIMNRA simulated code. Our RBS results showed that the films have a stoichiometry close to that of the starting material. In addition, we found that the film thickness is proportional to deposition time but inversely proportional to the substrate temperature. Moreover, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) we determined the annealing effect on the structure of the profile of our thin films.

  19. Room temperature optical and magnetic properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone capped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Mahuya, E-mail: mahuya@veccal.ernet.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Das, S. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Chakrabarti, Keka R.; Sanyal, D.; Chakrabarti, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Defect induced room temperature ferromagnetic properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped nanocrystalline ZnO samples have been studied. Crystal phase and the lattice parameter of the synthesized nanocrystalline samples have been determined from X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron micrographs (HR-TEM). Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for the bare ZnO sample shows a strong band at {approx} 379 nm and another band at {approx} 525 nm. The PL spectra also revealed that the number of oxygen vacancies in the uncapped sample is more than the PVP capped sample. Both sample exhibit ferromagnetic property at room temperature when annealed at 500 deg. C for 3 h, due to the formation of adequate oxygen vacancy related defects. The saturation magnetization for the annealed PVP capped sample is found to be larger compared to that for the uncapped sample.

  20. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

    2009-11-02

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Structures and magnetic anisotropy of ?-Mn2V2O7 crystals synthesized by the molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan-Cang; Liu, Fa-Min; Ding, Peng

    2009-11-01

    ?-Mn2V2O7 crystals with strip shape are successfully prepared by the molten salt method in a closed crucible, and are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area of electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicate that the sample is of the ?-Mn2V2O7 crystal with monoclinic symmetry, level natural cleavage facets and directional growth. Magnetic properties are measured by vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) at room temperature, and the magnetic hysteresis loop indicates that the ?-Mn2V2O7 has anti-ferromagnetic properties with low coercive force and remnant magnetization. The magnetic measurement results in different directions exhibit that the ?-Mn2V2O7 has magnetic anisotropy, which is due to the fact that the magnetic interaction energy of the ?-Mn2V2O7 is lowest only when the electron configuration is in a certain direction.

  2. Ceramic Nano-particle/Substrate Interface Bonding Formation Derived from Dynamic Mechanical Force at Room Temperature: HRTEM Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Yang, Guan-Jun; Fan, Sheng-Qiang; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-02-01

    The bonding of TiO2 nano-particle/substrate is a critical factor influencing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to reveal the bonding properties at TiO2 nano-particle/substrate interface, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis was adopted to TiO2 coatings prepared by three different approaches. In the HRTEM analysis, the effective bonding mode is allowed to distinguish from the false image overlapping. Results show that large areas of effective bonding between nano-TiO2 particles and the substrate surface formed in the room temperature cold sprayed coating and mechanically pressed coating, while only limited interface areas with the effective bonding were observed in the coating deposited by non-pressed method. These results confirm that both high impact pressure during the room temperature cold spraying and mechanical pressure contribute to the bonding formation at the particle/substrate interface.

  3. Simple XRD algorithm for direct determination of cotton crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary; Bauer, Philip; VanDerveer, Don

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, XRD had been used to study the crystalline structure of cotton celluloses. Despite considerable efforts in developing the curve-fitting protocol to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI), in its present state, XRD measurement can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline and amorphous cellulosic components in a sample. The greatest barrier to establish quantitative XRD is the lack of appropriate cellulose standards needed to calibrate the measurements. In practical, samples with known CIs are very difficult to be prepared or determined. As an approach, we might assign the samples with reported CIs from FT-IR procedure, in which the threeband ratios were first calculated and then were converted into CIs within a large and diversified pool of cotton fibers. This study reports the development of simple XRD algorithm, over time-consuming and subjective curve-fitting process, for direct determination of cotton cellulose CI by correlating XRD with the FT-IR CI references.

  4. 29Si MAS NMR, XRD and FESEM studies of rice husk silica for the synthesis of zeolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halimaton Hamdan; Mohd Nazlan Mohd Muhid; Salasiah Endud; Endang Listiorini; Zainab Ramli

    1997-01-01

    We have used rice husk ash as a silica source for the synthesis of zeolites. Amorphous silica is a highly reactive silicon source, but not all silica which is amorphous to XRD is equally suitable. The local structure of amorphous silica was investigated by 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) in

  5. Anomalous magnetic behavior of La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 nano-tubes constituted with 3-12 nm particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nirupam; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2013-05-01

    Uniform La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) nanotubes of an average diameter 180 nm were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method employing nanochannel porous anodic alumina templates. The nanotubes were characterized chemically and structurally by XRD, SEM, EDX, and TEM. Postannealed (700 °C for 1 h hour) nanotubes were found to be polycrystalline from XRD and SAED studies. To get further insight into the nanotube structure, HRTEM studies were done, which revealed that obtained LSMO nanotubes were structurally constituted with nanoparticles of 3-12 nm size. These constituent nanoparticles were randomly aligned and self-knitted to build the nanotube wall. Investigation of magnetic properties at this structured nanoscale revealed remarkable irreversibility between the zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) magnetization curves accompanied with a peak in the ZFC curve indicating spin-glass-like behavior. Structural defects and compositional variations at surfaces and grain-boundaries of constituent nanoparticles might be responsible for this anomalous magnetic behavior.

  6. XRD analysis and leachability of solidified phenol-cement mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vipulanandan; S. Krishnan

    1993-01-01

    The microstructure and leachability of phenol from solidified phenol-Portland cement mixtures cured up to 6 months were investigated. Phenol was solidified with Type I Portland cement at concentrations of 0.5% and 2% by weight of the cement. XRD studies and pore fluid analyses indicate that phenol inhibits cement setting by reacting with the calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration of

  7. Quantitative XRD analysis of zirconia-toughened alumina ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fillit; R. P. Homerin; R. J. Schafer; R. H. Bruyas; R. F. Thevenot

    1987-01-01

    An equation is proposed to give, from XRD data, the tetragonal to monoclinic phase ratio of zirconia in a toughened alumina ceramic material. Using several X-ray wavelengths, with different depths of penetration, quantitative analyses of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase ratio of zirconia as a function of depth were performed, on an as-sintered sample as well as on treated specimens.

  8. Role of inhomogeneous cation distribution in magnetic enhancement of nanosized Ni0.35Zn0.65Fe2O4: A structural, magnetic, and hyperfine study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Dey, S. K.; Ghosh, B.; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Reddy, V. R.; Kumar, S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we report the structural, microstructural, and magnetic properties of nanosized (particle size ranging from 20 to 30 nm) Ni0.35Zn0.65Fe2O4 (MA4) system synthesized via mechanochemical route followed by annealing. The Rietveld refinement is used for the first time to precisely resolve the crystal structure of a ferrite system at nanoscale. MA4 is a cubic spinel of Fd3¯m symmetry. According to XRD and HRTEM studies, it is a well crystalline sample which possesses large microstrain. In spite of its nanometric size, MA4 has displayed some notably distinct magnetic properties like, enhancement of magnetization (64 emu g-1 at 15 K), magnetic order, magnetic ordering temperature, coercivity (1000 Oe at 15 K), magnetic anisotropy energy, and reduction of superparamagnetic relaxation compared with its counterparts synthesized by chemical route. It exhibits clear hysteresis loop (HC = 50 Oe) at 300 K and ferrimagnetic ordering below the blocking temperature (˜250 K). These improvements in magnetic properties of the system are likely to be very helpful for its technological applications. Again, particles in the sample possess a ferrimagnetically aligned core (with small canting) surrounded by a magnetically disordered shell with canted spin structure. The magnetically disordered surface region of MA4 has an equilibrium cation distribution, whereas the ferrimagnetic core region possesses a nonequilibrium cation distribution. Moreover, the infield Mössbauer spectroscopic study reveals that the nearest neighbor ion configuration about [B] site Fe3+ ions is not identical. Thus, there is local chemical inhomogeneity in the sample. The cation redistribution, chemical inhomogeneity, lattice strain are identified as the causes for magnetic enhancement in MA4.

  9. In situ dynamic HR-TEM and EELS study on phase transitions of Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 chalcogenides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se Ahn Song; Wei Zhang; Hong Sik Jeong; Jin-Gyu Kim; Youn-Joong Kim

    2008-01-01

    The phase transition phenomena of Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenides were investigated by in situ dynamic high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). A 300kV field emission TEM and a 1250kV high voltage TEM were employed for the in situ heating experiments from 20 to 500°C for undoped and 3wt% nitrogen-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films deposited by DC sputtering. Crystallization

  10. Two-phase nc-TiN/a-(C,CN{sub x}) nanocomposite films: A HRTEM and MC simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Lu, Y. H.; Hu, X. J.; Shen, Y. G. [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-18

    The grain growth in two-phase nanocomposite Ti-C{sub x}-N{sub y} thin films grown by reactive close-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture with microstructures comprising of nanocrystalline (nc-) Ti(N,C) phase surrounded by amorphous (a-) (C,CN{sub x}) phase was investigated by a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The HRTEM results revealed that amorphous-free solid solution Ti(C,N) thin films exhibited polycrystallites with different sizes, orientations and irregular shapes. The grain size varied in the range between several nanometers and several decade nanometers. Further increase of C content (up to {approx}19 at.% C) made the amorphous phase wet nanocrystallites, which strongly hindered the growth of nanocrystallites. As a result, more regular Ti(C,N) nanocrystallites with an average size of {approx}5 nm were found to be separated by {approx}0.5-nm amorphous phases. When C content was further increased (up to {approx}48 at.% in this study), thicker amorphous matrices were produced and followed by the formation of smaller sized grains with lognormal distribution. Our MC analysis indicated that with increasing amorphous volume fraction (i.e. increasing C content), the transformation from nc/nc grain boundary (GB)-curvature-driven growth to a/nc GB-curvature-driven growth is directly responsible for the observed grain growth from great inhomogeneity to homogeneity process.

  11. Chemical characterization of soot particles emitted by Wood-Burning Cook Stoves: A XPS and HRTEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Torres, Ricardo; Ruiz, Gerardo; Molina, Luisa; Saavedra, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and electronic structure of soot particles emitted directly from biofuel cook stoves have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to obtain freshly emitted soot particles, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot chain. Additionally, the morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The XPS survey spectrum for soot particles shows that the main particle composition is carbon. We also observed differences in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles, which probably depends on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The XPS C-1s spectra show carbon with two peaks that correspond to sp2 and sp3 hybridization. Also, real-time absorption (?a) and scattering (?s) coefficients of the particles emitted by cook stoves were measured. The trend in ?a and ?s indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  12. Earliest stages of crystal growth in a silicate glass containing titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements — HRTEM and XAS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A.; Gandais, M.

    1990-03-01

    The earliest stages of crystallization have been studied for a SiO 2-Al 2O 3-Li 2O glass-ceramics containing a few percent of titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements. After heat treatments at temperatures ranging between T=750°C and T=860°C, the growth process has been studied by combining HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectrometry). A fine phase separation has been found in the parent glass (? 7 nm in size) independent of the presence of the nucleating elements. From HRTEM, the earliest crystalline phase has been definitely stated as being TiZrO 4. The incorporation of titanium atoms into TiZrO 4 crystals is correlated with a change of their coordinance from 4 to 6, directly evidenced in XAS spectra by the "prepeak" analysis at titanium K-edge. The crystallization of the aluminosilicate occurs after full precipitation of TiZrO 4. In glass ceramics, the number of aluminosilicate and TiZrO 4 crystals per unit volume are nearly equal, in good agreement with heterogeneous nucleation of the silicate solid solution on TiZrO 4 crystals. For samples heat treated at 750°C and 780°C, the number of TiZrO 4 crystallites is constant for a given temperature. These crystallites grow until the matrix becomes free of zirconium atoms. Their growth activation energy has been found to be 400±50 kJ/mol.

  13. Physical characterization of molybdenum oxycarbide catalyst; TEM, XRD and XPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Delporte; Fre´de´ric Meunier; Cuong Pham-Huu; Philippe Vennegues; Marc J. Ledoux; Jean Guille

    1995-01-01

    Controlled reduction of MoO3 can produce different phases of catalytic interest. One of these phases has been considered as being an oxycarbide of molybdenum. Various techniques mainly TEM but also XRD and others have been extensively used to understand the mechanism of formation and the structure of this oxycarbide. Its structure is reminiscent of the MoO3 structure as shown by

  14. FTIR and XRD study of PMMA/PCTFE blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, S., E-mail: shilpatr3@gmail.com; Shripathi, T. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India); Tripathi, J. [Dept. of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore-452008 (India); Agrawal, A. [Dept. of Electronics and Communications, Global Engineering College, Jabalpur-482001 (India); Sharma, A. [Department of Physics, Manipal University, Jaipur-302026 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The results are reported on solution cast PMMA-PCTFE blend films characterized using x-ray diffraction and FTIR. The nanocrystalline nature of PMMA is still seen in the blends, however, the bond modifications are clearly observed. The addition of PCTFE results in the modification in structural properties, as reflected in the XRD and FTIR spectra showing modifications in bonding as a function of PCTFE percentage.

  15. An introduction to XRD using the MSA Crystal Structure Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zeb Page

    This is a variant on a traditional mineralogy XRD lab with a few twists: 1. Rather than use "black box" search software or IPCC cards, the lab outlines a procedure for students to identify their patterns using the MSA online database with the following benefits: a. This allows the flexibility to have students do this work alone or in groups, in lab or on their own time. This can be an advantage at institutions where the XRD is not as accessible for individual student use as we might like. b. Identifying the powder pattern requires trial and error and thinking about the data, rather than simply putting faith in a search/match routine. Students have to exercise judgement as they proceed. 2. I use samples that students have already characterized by other means. Recently I have chosen samples that students have identified in optical labs. In particular we have a Mn-rich tourmaline sample with no pleochroism that students routinely identify as apatite. By revisiting the same sample in the XRD lab students are able to test and revise hypotheses they have made using other means. This also provides them with an important filter in finding matches for their pattern, and make the job more tractable. 3. Samples should be chosen that are of relatively high symmetry to make estimating unit cell dimensions feasible. Students can use reference books to relate unit cell dimensions to solid solutions. The lab could be extended to use a statistical treatment of the unit cell dimensions determined from different peaks.

  16. Characterization of collision cascade damage in Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 by HRTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, W. J.; Wang, L. M.

    1994-12-01

    Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 thin crystals become amorphous under ion beam irradiation. The ion dose required for complete amorphization of the thin crystal (critical amorphization dose, D(sub c)) increased with the increasing irradiation temperature and decreased with ion mass at elevated temperatures. Samples irradiated with 1-1.5 MeV Ar(+), Kr(+) and Xe(+) ions to doses much lower than D(sub c), in the temperature range from 20 to 498 K were used for a detailed HRTEM study to better understand the amorphization process. The residual collision cascade damage after irradiation appeared as manometer scale amorphous domains. The images of these domains are extremely sensitive to the sample thickness. Small domains of cascade size were only found at the very thin edge of the sample. In thicker regions, amorphous domains appear after higher doses as the result of cascade overlap in projection. At higher temperatures, the observed amorphous domains are smaller indicating thermal recovery at the amorphous/crystalline interface. The amorphous domains are also larger in size after irradiation with ions of higher mass at a fixed ion dose. These results are consistent with the D(sub c) temperature curves determined by in situ TEM with the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The width of the amorphous rim along the edge of the specimen grew with increasing ion dose suggesting that amorphization also proceeds from the sample surface. Images of the collision cascade damage were compared to the cascade sizes calculated with the TRIM code. Some digitally acquired HRTEM images of the cascade damage were processed to reveal more detailed information.

  17. An NMR, XRD and EDS study of solidification\\/stabilization of chromium with Portland cement and C 3S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiou-Kuo Lin; Jong-Nan Chen; Cheng-Chong Lin

    1997-01-01

    Solidification \\/ stabilization (SS) of chromium with Portland cement type I and tricalcium silicate (C3S) was investigated by using the 29Si solid state magic angle spinning\\/nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MASNMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The present study confirms that chromium nitrate can increase the extent of C3S hydration. It also confirms that the chromium ion is

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Shafie, Afza, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper examines the effect of calcination process on the structural and magnetic properties material nanostructure composite of Ni{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 5}Zn{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites. The samples were successfully prepared by sol-gel method at different calcination temperature, which are 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C. Morphological investigation, average crystallite size and microstructure of the material were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The effects of calcination temperature on the magnetic properties were calculated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with interval average size 5.9-38 nm, and grain size microstructure of the material was increasing with temperature increases. The highest magnetization saturation was reached at a temperature 800°C with value 53.89 emu/g, and the value coercive force (Hc) was inversely with the grain size.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles prepared via EDTA-based sol-gel reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Shaban I.; Elkady, Ashraf S.; Rashad, M. M.; Mostafa, A. G.; Megahid, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared, for the first time, by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol-gel combustion method. The prepared ferrite system is calcined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were applied for elucidating the structural and magnetic properties of the prepared system. XRD patterns revealed that the prepared system have two spinel MgFe2O4 structures, namely cubic and tetragonal phases that are dependent on calcination temperature (Tc). The crystallite sizes varied from 8.933 to 41.583 nm, and from 1.379 to 292.565 nm for the cubic and tetragonal phases respectively depending on Tc. The deduced lattice parameters for the cubic and (tetragonal) systems are a=8.368, 8.365 and 8.377 and (a=7.011, 5.922, 5.908 and c=6.622, 8.456, 8.364) Å at Tc=400, 500 and 600 °C respectively. While the cation distribution of the cubic phase is found to be mixed spinel and Tc-dependent, it is an inverse spinel in the tetragonal phase where the Fe3+ ions occupy both the tetrahedral A- and octahedral B-sites in almost equal amount; the Mg2+ ions are found to occupy only the B-sites. The HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed the detailed morphology of the nanoparticles, and confirmed their crystalline spinel structure. VSM indicated the existence of an appreciable fraction of superparamagnetic particles at room temperature, with pure superparamagnetic behavior observed for samples calcined at 400 °C. Besides, the magnetic properties are found to change by thermal treatment as a result of the varied phase concentration, cation distribution and lattice parameters. Thus, the new synthesis route used in this study by applying EDTA as an organic precursor for preparing MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at rather low temperatures proved to be efficient in obtaining nanoparticles with favorable structural and magnetic properties. Such properties would qualify them for several potential applications including e.g. in hyperthermia treatment, as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in ferroelastomers technology.

  20. A Combined XRD/XRF Instrument for Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Blacic, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic surface missions to the Moon should be capable of measuring mineral as well as chemical abundances in regolith samples. Although much is already known about the lunar regolith, our data are far from comprehensive. Most of the regolith samples returned to Earth for analysis had lost the upper surface, or it was intermixed with deeper regolith. This upper surface is the part of the regolith most recently exposed to the solar wind; as such it will be important to resource assessment. In addition, it may be far easier to mine and process the uppermost few centimeters of regolith over a broad area than to engage in deep excavation of a smaller area. The most direct means of analyzing the regolith surface will be by studies in situ. In addition, the analysis of the impact-origin regolith surfaces, the Fe-rich glasses of mare pyroclastic deposits, are of resource interest, but are inadequately known; none of the extensive surface-exposed pyroclastic deposits of the Moon have been systematically sampled, although we know something about such deposits from the Apollo 17 site. Because of the potential importance of pyroclastic deposits, methods to quantify glass as well as mineral abundances will be important to resource evaluation. Combined x ray diffraction (XRD) and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis will address many resource characterization problems on the Moon. XRF methods are valuable for obtaining full major-element abundances with high precision. Such data, collected in parallel with quantitative mineralogy, permit unambiguous determination of both mineral and chemical abundances where concentrations are high enough to be of resource grade. Collection of both XRD and XRF data from a single sample provides simultaneous chemical and mineralogic information. These data can be used to correlate quantitative chemistry and mineralogy as a set of simultaneous linear equations, the solution of which can lead to full characterization of the sample. The use of Rietveld methods for XRD data analysis can provide a powerful tool for quantitative mineralogy and for obtaining crystallographic data on complex minerals.

  1. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of monodispersed ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay; Layek, Samar; Yashpal, Madhu; Materny, Arnulf; Ojha, Animesh K.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, monodispersed CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) of size 8.5 ± 1.0, 11.4 ± 1.0 and 15.4 ± 1.0 nm were synthesized using the sol-gel method. Size-dependent structural, optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), ultra-violet visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The value of optical band gap is calculated for each particle size. The decrease in the value of optical band gap with increase of particle size may be attributed to the quantum confinement, which causes to produce localized states created by the oxygen vacancies due to the conversion of Ce4+ into Ce3+ at higher calcination temperature. The Raman spectra showed a peak at ˜461 cm-1 for the particle size 8.5 nm, which is attributed to the 1LO phonon mode. The shift in the Raman peak could be due to lattice strain developed due to variation in particle size. Weak ferromagnetism at room temperature is observed for each particle size. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), coercivity (Hc) and retentivity (Mr) are increased with increase of particle size. The increase of Ms and Mr for larger particle size may be explained by increase of density of oxygen vacancies at higher calcination temperature. The latter causes high concentrations of Ce3+ ions activate more coupling between the individual magnetic moments of the Ce ions, leading to an increase of Ms value with the particle size. Moreover, the oxygen vacancies may also produce magnetic moment by polarizing spins of f electrons of cerium (Ce) ions located around oxygen vacancies, which causes ferromagnetism in pure CeO2 samples.

  2. Coaxial-electrospun magnetic core-shell Fe@TiSi nanofibers for the rapid purification of typical dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Sihui; Zhu, Dandan; Ren, Guangyuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Mingying; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Hongbing; Li, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic mesoporous ?-Fe2O3@Ti0.9Si0.1O2 (abbreviated as Fe@TiSi) core-shell nanofibers were prepared using sol-gel chemistry combined with coaxial-electrospinning technology by adjusting the inner and outer feed ratios. The properties of these novel core-shell nanofibers were characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, BET, XPS, and UV-vis spectra. To evaluate the chemical properties of the nanofibers for cleaning typical organic wastewater, methylene blue (MB) was used as a target organic pollutant and was cleaned under irradiation with sunlight and visible light. The Fe@TiSi hierarchical nanofibers composed of a 1:10 feed ratio displayed a mesoporous structure and showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB in water. Furthermore, 86.8% and 71.1% of the MB, which was added at an original concentration of 1 mg/L, was removed after 60 min of irradiation with sunlight and visible light in the presence of Fe@TiSi at a concentration of 0.2 g/L, and 100% of the MB was removed after 75 min. It is very important that the magnetic nanofibers could be recycled rapidly with an outside magnet, and the actual water treatment process was easy to achieve. Moreover, the mechanism of MB degradation by Fe@TiSi core-shell nanofibers was proposed. PMID:25226354

  3. Characteristics and genesis of maghemite in Chinese loess and paleosols: Mechanism for magnetic susceptibility enhancement in paleosols [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianhu; Xu, Huifang; Xie, Qiaoqin; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Lu, Huayu

    2005-12-01

    Morphological characteristics and microstructures of magnetic minerals extracted from Chinese loess and paleosols were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our results indicate that maghemite in loess-paleosol sequences was transformed from magnetite through oxidation of magnetite. Maghemite transformed from eolian magnetite during chemical weathering has low-angle grain boundaries among maghemite nano-crystals. Some nano-crystalline maghemites with nanoporous texture resulted from microbe-induced precipitation of magnetite or transformation of poorly crystalline ferric Fe (oxy)hydroxides in presence of Fe-reducing bacteria. Aggregates of euhedral maghemite nano-crystals were transformed from magnetite magnetosomes. Both microbe-induced nanoporous magnetite and microbe-produced magnetite magnetosomes are directly related to microbial activities and pedogenesis of the paleosols. It is proposed that the formation of nano-crystalline maghemite with superparamagnetic property in paleosol results in the enhancement of magnetic susceptibility, although the total amount (weight percent) of magnetic minerals in both paleosol and loess units is similar. Our results also show that nano-crystalline and nanoporous magnetite grains prefer to transform into maghemite in semi-arid soil environments instead of hematite, although hematite is a thermodynamically stable phase. This result also indicates that a decrease in crystal size will increase stability of maghemite. It is also inferred that surface energy of maghemite is lower than that of hematite.

  4. Interplay of bulk and surface on the magnetic properties of low temperature synthesized nanocrystalline cubic Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K.; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K.

    2014-10-01

    Synthesis of Cu1-xZnxFe2O4, (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08) nanoparticles by a low-temperature combustion method is achieved and its structural and magnetic characterizations are performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) study and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images confirm the formation of single cubic phase of nanocrystalline copper ferrite. The inter-planar spacing (d) and particle size increases with increasing Zn content. Cation distribution of mixed spinel Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 nanoparticles are estimated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and further verified by 57Fe Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy. Detailed magnetic properties are studied by means of Field Cooled (FC) - Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetization measurements and hysteresis loops at various temperatures by the physical property measurement system (PPMS). A transition from superparamagnetic state to ferrimagnetic state is observed as the Zn concentration increases in Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 nanoparticles. The temperature dependence of intrinsic magnetic parameters, i.e., coercivity (HC), saturation magnetization (MS), effective anisotropy constant (Keff) and paramagnetic susceptibility (?p) of Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 reveals the existence of low-temperature spin-glass-like state, which is more prominent for smaller particles and starts to disappear with increasing Zn concentration.

  5. Design of Smart PEO-PPO-PEO-Magnetic Drug Delivery System for Alzheimer's Diseases Diagnosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dehvari, Khalilalrahman; Lin, Kuen-Song

    2012-08-16

    Amyloid-? (A?) oligomers are more likely to be the pathogenic agents of Alzheimer's disease. Development of multiple approaches in detection and clearance pathway for A?, may eventually lead to diagnosis and treatments of AD. Following this concept, we proposed temperature-responsive magnetic drug delivery system (DDS). This system designed to enhance imaging tool and controlled drug delivery with the aid of conjugated antibodies to amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (anti-ADDLs), which can identify targeted ADDLs. The magnetic cores compose of conjugated Congo red (CR) to maghemite (Fe2O3) (CR-Fe2O3) have shown great advantage as multimodal imaging agents, while superparamagnetic Fe2O3 also possesses the hyperthermia therapy function. Pluronic F127 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer known to be stimuli-responsive and show structure changes when subjected to external, temperature and magnetic signals. To form nanocomposites, magnetic cores coated with Pluronic and produce core/shell structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize as-synthesized magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs). Furthermore, Vibrating magnetometer experiments showed that MNCs have higher magnetization value than bare magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and are easy to conduct with an external magnetic field. The dependence of hydrodynamic size of MNCs to the temperature showed an increase in temperature corresponds to a decrease in the size. These results confirm that proposed system can be engineered and employed as smart drug delivery system for AD treatment. PMID:22934765

  6. Mechanism of uranium(VI) uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under environmentally relevant conditions: batch, HRTEM, and FTIR studies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xia; Zhou, Xiao-jiao; Wang, Tie-shan

    2013-11-15

    Biosorption is of significance for the safety evaluation of high-level nuclear wastes repositories and remediation of radioactive contamination places. Quantitive study and structural characterization of uranium uptake by both live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae at environmentally relevant uranium concentration and with different ionic strengths were carried out. Kinetic investigation showed the equilibrium reached within 15 min. In equilibrium studies, pH shift towards neutral indicated release of hydroxyl ions. pH was the most important factor, which partly affected electrostatic interaction between uranyl ions and S. cerevisiae surface. The high ionic strength inhibited biosorption capacity, which can be explained by a competitive reaction between sodium ions and uranyl ions. Heat killing process significantly enhanced biosorption capacity, showing an order of magnitude higher than that of live cells. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) showed needle-like uranium-phosphate precipitation formed on the cell walls for both live and heat-killed cells. Besides, dark-field micrographs displayed considerable similar uranium-phosphate precipitation presented outside the heat-killed cells. The phosphate released during heat-killing process. FTIR illustrated function groups hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphate, and amino groups played important role in complexation with uranium. PMID:24041822

  7. HRTEM investigations between minerals, fluids and lithobiontic communities during natural weathering. Progress report, September 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F.; Barker, W.W.

    1994-02-01

    HRTEM and AEM analysis of riebeckite and acmite from the interiors of moderately weathered syenite reveals that interaction of these minerals with surficial fluids resulted in the almost complete removal of Na, Ca, and Si. Fe remained relatively immobile, forming arrays of semi-oriented nanocrystalline ferrihydrite and goethite at the primary mineral-secondary mineral interface. The goethite intimately contacts an irregularly corroded amphibole surface. Smectite occurs sporadically as isolated crystallites a few layers thick which are surrounded by goethite. No obvious structural alignment between clay and amphibole or pyroxene was seen. Data suggest that almost all Si is transported in solution to more open regions between islands of nanocrystalline goethite, where it crystallizes as an Fe - rich smectite. Alteration assemblages in wider channels are comprised of euhedral goethite crystals that, within a submicron-sized area, range in size from 5--40 manometers. Sub-grain boundary structures and the porosity distribution suggests evolution of particle size by coarsening. Optical microscopy demonstrates intimate contact between lichen thalli and mineral surfaces. Lichen thalli exploit cracks and open cleavages to extend several millimeters within mineral interiors. Preliminary TEM data suggest the alteration assemblage consists of a polymer-bound mass of chemically complex aluminosilicates.

  8. Science Highlight January 2010 Figure 1. Time-resolved XRD results obtained

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Science Highlight ­ January 2010 Figure 1. Time-resolved XRD results obtained for both low and high concentration reactions. (A) In situ XRD plots; the position of the (111) and (200) reflections for bulk fcc X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectroscopy techniques

  9. How-to-series Pseudo Merohedral Twin Refinement 1.0.0 XRD Laboratory Reibenspies

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    How-to-series Pseudo Merohedral Twin Refinement 1.0.0 XRD Laboratory Reibenspies How-to-series 1 as is refines poorly .... #12;How-to-series Pseudo Merohedral Twin Refinement 1.0.0 XRD Laboratory Reibenspies-to-series Pseudo Merohedral Twin Refinement 1.0.0 XRD Laboratory Reibenspies How-to-series 3 To refine

  10. Nickel xide eduction tudied by nvironmental TEM and in situ XRD Q. Jeangros1

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Nickel xide eduction tudied by nvironmental TEM and in situ XRD Q. Jeangros1 , T.W. Hansen2 , J catalyst and to the redox stability of the SOFC. In situ XRD yields comparable results to ETEM for similar pressure and flow conditions. XRD experiments at different flows and pressures underline the effect of H2O

  11. XRD, TEM and thermal analysis of yttrium doped boehmite nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Frost, Ray L

    2009-05-01

    Yttrium doped boehmite nanofibres with varying yttrium content have been prepared at low temperatures using hydrothermal treatment in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene oxide (PEO). The resultant nanofibres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM images showed the resulting nanostructures are predominantly nanofibres when Y doping is less than 5%. When the doping was at the 10 or 20% content Y(OH)3 nanorods were formed. The nanorods show similar morphology to GaO(OH) nanorods. The doped boehmite and the subsequent nanofibres were analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric methods. The boehmite nanofibres produced thermally transform at higher temperatures than boehmite crystals and boehmite platelets. In general two thermal decomposition steps are observed at around 45 and 379 degrees C assigned to dehydration and dehydroxylation. The dehydration step is attributed to interstitial water trapped between the boehmite layers. The dehydroxylation steps in the boehmite samples with doping above 3% are strongly asymmetric and additional peaks are resolved in the thermal analysis patterns. This peak becomes clear in the 10 and 20% Y doped boehmite samples and is attributed to the thermal decomposition of the Y(OH)3 nanorods. PMID:19452988

  12. Xray diffraction in materials science Use XRD spectra to determine the orientation of single crystals and preferred orientations

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Xray diffraction in materials science Goals: · Use XRD spectra to determine the orientation affect the shape of XRD peaks. · Use XRD as an analytical tool to determine the composition of a sample. In the XRD1 lab you learned how the position and relative intensities of XRD peaks can be used to determine

  13. Effect of sintering pressure on structure and magnetic properties of Zn0.99Ni0.01O bulk samples synthesized under different pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Chaosheng; Su, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Hao, Junhong; Ren, Yufen

    2015-01-01

    A series of Zn0.99Ni0.01O bulk samples were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and then sintered at 600 °C under various pressures from normal pressure(NP) to 3 GPa. The effects of sintering pressure (PS) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the doping samples were investigated in detail. The XRD and HRTEM results reveal that all samples are of single-phase hexagonal structure. Compared with the sample sintered at normal pressure, the lattice parameters a and c of the samples sintered at high pressures (HP) show a sharply decrease. With the increase of sintering pressure, the particle size gradually increases as well as the particles get closer to each other. At 300 K, the sample sintered at normal pressure shows a superparamagnetic-like behavior, while the samples sintered at high pressures display typical ferromagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetization of the samples sintered at high pressures is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the one sintered at normal pressure. Our results reveal that an appropriate sintering pressure can tune the magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO system by changing the lattice parameters, particle size and inter-particle spacing, which may be helpful to the practical applications.

  14. How isopolyanions self-assemble and condense into a 2D tungsten oxide crystal: HRTEM imaging of atomic arrangement in an intermediate new hexagonal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Chemseddine, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: chemseddine@hmi.de; Bloeck, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solarenergieforschung SE4, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The structure and structural evolution of tungstic acid solutions, sols and gels are investigated by high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). Acidification of sodium tungstate solutions, through a proton exchange resin, is achieved in a way that ensures homogeneity in size and shape of intermediate polytungstic species. Gelation is shown to involve polycondensation followed by a self-assembling process of polytungstic building blocks leading to sheets with a layered hexagonal structure. Single layers of this new metastable phase are composed of three-, four- and six-membered rings of WO{sub 6} octahedra located in the same plane. This is the first time that a 2D oxide crystal is isolated and observed by direct atomic resolution. Further ageing and structural evolution leading to single sheets of 2D ReO{sub 3}-type structure is directly observed by HRTEM. Based on this atomic level imaging, a model for the formation of the oxide network structure involving a self-assembling process of tritungstic based polymeric chain is proposed. The presence of tritungstic groups and their packing in electrochromic WO{sub 3} films made by different techniques is discussed. - Graphical abstract: From the isopolyanion to the extended bulk tungsten oxide: HRTEM imaging.

  15. Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Windows to the Universe team

    2007-12-12

    This webpage is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Windows to the Universe program. It describes the nature and configuration of magnetic fields, which are the result of moving electric charges, including how they cause magnetic objects to orient themselves along the direction of the magnetic force points, which are illustrated as lines. Magnetic field lines by convention point outwards at the north magnetic pole and inward at the south magnetic pole. The site features text, scientific illustrations and an animation. Text and vocabulary are selectable for the beginning, intermediate, or advanced reader.

  16. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction

    E-print Network

    Moeck, Peter

    X-ray Diffraction (XRD) · 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction · 2.0 Basics of Crystallography · 3.0 Production of X-rays · 4.0 Applications of XRD · 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error · 6.0 Conclusions #12 (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic

  17. Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

  18. Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast discusses the history of magnetism from the time of its discovery by an apocryphal Greek sheperd until the late 16th century and the work of William Gilbert. There is also discussion of who pioneered the study of magnetism, what theories they constructed from its curious abilities, and how the power of the magnet was brought out of the realm of magic and into the service of science. The broadcast concludes with a discussion of why magnetism is still mysterious and how the modern search for the single magnetic pole, or magnetic monopole, could provide a fundamental unit of magnetism, essential for ultimate explanation. The broadcast is 41 minutes and 45 seconds in length.

  19. Fluorescent and superparamagnetic hybrid quantum clusters for magnetic separation and imaging of cancer cells from blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgadas, C. V.; Sharma, Chandra P.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate here the generation of fluorescent superparamagnetic quantum clusters through a greener aqueous route by fusing highly fluorescent gold clusters with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We conjugated transferrin onto the hybrid clusters to get cell accessibility and assessed their hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity. The ability of the clusters to selectively remove cancer cell lines (C6 glioma cells) from fluids including blood and the fluorescent imaging of the separated cells is demonstrated. The pattering of the clusters in response to an external magnetic field is also shown. Efficient cancer cell separation, imaging and magnetic pattering can be realized by the highly hemocompatible and noncytotoxic hybrid clusters reported here. It seems the probe has potential for further exploration in multimodal imaging of circulating cancer cells.We demonstrate here the generation of fluorescent superparamagnetic quantum clusters through a greener aqueous route by fusing highly fluorescent gold clusters with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We conjugated transferrin onto the hybrid clusters to get cell accessibility and assessed their hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity. The ability of the clusters to selectively remove cancer cell lines (C6 glioma cells) from fluids including blood and the fluorescent imaging of the separated cells is demonstrated. The pattering of the clusters in response to an external magnetic field is also shown. Efficient cancer cell separation, imaging and magnetic pattering can be realized by the highly hemocompatible and noncytotoxic hybrid clusters reported here. It seems the probe has potential for further exploration in multimodal imaging of circulating cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HRTEM, FTIR spectra, XRD of the samples and fluorescent microscope images are showed in supporting information in the order they discussed in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10900f

  20. Remote In-Situ Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis Using XRD/XRF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Collins, S. A.; Elliott, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most direct and accurate method for determining mineralogy. The CHEMIN XRD/XRF instrument has shown promising results on a variety of mineral and rock samples. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Fractionation and characterization of Texas lignite class F fly ash by XRD, TGA, FTIR and SFM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Vempati; A. Rao; T. R. Hess; D. L. Cocke; H. V. Jr. Lauer

    1994-01-01

    Fly ash is a complicated heterogeneous material and utilization of it requires a detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics. In the present study Texas lignite class F fly ash was examined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), Fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and scanning force microscopy (SFM). The XRD and FTIR data indicated that the bulk fly

  2. TEM, XRD and Raman scattering of germanium processed by severe deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Islamgaliev; R. Kuzel; E. D. Obraztsova; J. Burianek; F. Chmelik; R. Z. Valiev

    1998-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (NC) Ge samples processed by severe plastic deformation under high pressure (6 GPa) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering. TEM studies of NC Ge revealed a mean grain size of about 24 nm and high angle misorientations of neighbouring grains. The XRD patterns showed decreasing peak intensities, peak broadening and a mean

  3. A HRTEM study of the Ruddlesden-Popper compositions Sr{sub 2}LnMn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Y, La, Nd, Eu, Ho)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.; Battle, P.D.; Green, M.A.; Rosseinsky, M.J.; Vente, J.F. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy has been used to probe the microstructure of the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper manganates Sr{sub 2}LnMn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = Y, La, Nd, Eu, Ho). Intergrowths of n = 1 (K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}) are observed only for Ln = La. Intergrowths with n {ge} 5, essentially perovskite microdomains, are seen in the other compositions. The density of perovskite regions is greatest near the edges of the thin specimens, with the n = 2 structure becoming established in the bulk. The complementarity of HRTEM and neutron diffraction is discussed.

  4. Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Stern

    This overview of magnetism provides a brief history prior to 1600 and continues with the work of William Gilbert, Hans Christian Oersted, and Andre-Marie Ampere in describing and exploring the magnetosphere and learning the role that electric current plays in producing magnetism. Magnetic field lines are then discussed, citing the work of Michael Faraday. The work of James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz is mentioned in a discussion of the relationship of light waves and radio waves as part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Improved magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Sc and Ti codoped multiferroic nano BiFeO? prepared via sonochemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dimple P; Mandal, B P; Mukadam, M D; Yusuf, S M; Tyagi, A K

    2014-06-01

    The room temperature multiferroic properties of bulk BiFeO3 are not exciting enough for its application in devices. Here, we report the sonochemical synthesis of scandium and titanium codoped BiFeO3 nanoparticles which exhibit improved magnetic and ferroelectric properties at room temperature. The nanoparticles have been checked for phase purity and composition using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size and morphology of the nanoparticles have been confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and both low and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM). The breaking of the spin cycloid due to the smaller size and slight structural distortion caused by the doping has been found to be instrumental for the enhancement of multiferroic properties. The electrical polarization increases significantly in the case of BiFe(0.925)Sc(0.05)Ti(0.025)O3 nanoparticles. A marked reduction in the leakage current was seen compared to undoped BiFeO3. Magnetoelectric coupling was also observed in the BiFe(0.925)Sc(0.05)Ti(0.025)O3 sample. Our results demonstrate that codoping with Sc and Ti ions is an effective way to rectify and enhance the multiferroic nature of BiFeO3. PMID:24705584

  6. Mössbauer, TEM/SAED and XRD investigation on waste dumps of the Valea lui Stan gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Serban Grigore; Udubasa, Sorin S.; Udubasa, Gheorghe; Kuncser, Victor; Popescu-Pogrion, Nicoleta; Mercioniu, Ionel; Feder, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    The complementary investigation techniques, Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the fate of the Valea lui Stan, Romania, gold-ore nanoscale-minerals during the long time of residence in the waste dumps. The preliminary investigations showed such waste dumps to contain significant amount of metals which cannot be identified by conventional methods. An intense research activity started up in order to evaluate the possibilities to recycle Valea lui Stan waste dumps and to recover metals by chemical or phytoextraction procedures. The waste dumps naturally show different mineral constituents with clay minerals as major phases, observed by XRD-technique. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colours, MÖSSBAUER technique evidences the presence of the finely dispersed iron bearing minerals. The authors are focusing to inspect and analyze Fe-compounds in the samples collected from Valea lui Stan's waste dumps in order to identify the magnetic phases by Mössbauer technique.

  7. Thermo-XRD-analysis of montmorillonite treated with protonated Congo-red. Curve fitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Yermiyahu; I. Lapides; S. Yariv

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of protonated Congo red (CR) by montmorillonite was investigated by thermo-XRD-analysis. Montmorillonite was loaded at pH 1 with increasing amounts of CR up to 75 mmol per 100 g clay. Diffractograms of samples treated at 420 °C showed broad peaks and were curve-fitted to determine the different basal spacings, which composed the XRD peaks. The broad peak of

  8. Clay pigment structure characterisation as a guide for provenance determination--a comparison between laboratory powder micro-XRD and synchrotron radiation XRD.

    PubMed

    Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Žižak, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Application of X-ray diffraction (XRD)-based techniques in the analysis of painted artworks is not only beneficial for indisputable identification of crystal constituents in colour layers, but it can also bring insight in material crystal structure, which can be affected by their geological formation, manufacturing procedure or secondary changes. This knowledge might be helpful for art historic evaluation of an artwork as well as for its conservation. By way of example of kaolinite, we show that classification of its crystal structure order based on XRD data is useful for estimation of its provenance. We found kaolinite in the preparation layer of a Gothic wall painting in a Czech church situated near Karlovy Vary, where there are important kaolin deposits. Comparing reference kaolin materials from eight various Czech deposits, we found that these can be differentiated just according to the kaolinite crystallinity. Within this study, we compared laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) with synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysing the same real sample. We found that both techniques led to the same results. PMID:21104235

  9. Characterization of collision cascade damage in Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} by HRTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Wang, L.M.

    1994-12-01

    Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} thin crystals become amorphous under ion beam irradiation. The ion dose required for complete amorphization of the thin crystal (critical amorphization dose, D{sub c}) increased with the increasing irradiation temperature and decreased with ion mass at elevated temperatures. Samples irradiated with 1-1.5 MeV Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +} and Xe{sup +} ions to doses much lower than Dc, in the temperature range from 20 to 498 K were used for a detailed HRTEM study to better understand the amorphization process. The residual collision cascade damage after irradiation appeared as manometer scale amorphous domains. The images of these domains are extremely sensitive to the sample thickness. Small domains of cascade size were only found at the very thin edge of the sample. In thicker regions, amorphous domains appear after higher doses as the result of cascade overlap in projection. At higher temperatures, the observed amorphous domains are smaller indicating thermal recovery at the amorphous/crystalline interface. The amorphous domains are also larger in size after irradiation with ions of higher mass at a fixed ion dose. These results are consistent with the Dc-temperature curves determined by in situ TEM with the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The width of the amorphous rim along the edge of the specimen grew with increasing ion dose suggesting that amorphization also proceeds from the sample surface. Images of the collision cascade damage were compared to the cascade sizes calculated with the TRIM code. Some digitally acquired HRTEM images of the cascade damage were processed to reveal more detailed information.

  10. Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD profile modeling approach

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD Keywords: montmorillonite, ion pairs, XRD profile modeling. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Montmorillonite was equilibrated properties, were characterized from the modeling of experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles

  11. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    SciTech Connect

    Don Pellinen and Michael Griffin

    2009-01-23

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG&G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the “risetime” for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps.

  12. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  13. Studying cellulose fiber structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and acid hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibo Zhao; Ja Hun Kwak; Z. Conrad Zhang; Heather M. Brown; Bruce W. Arey; Johnathan E. Holladay

    2007-01-01

    Cotton linters were partially hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the morphology of remaining macrofibrils was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under various magnifications. The crystalline region in cellulose is composed of microfibril bundles instead of separated microfibrils. These microfibril bundles in the macrofibrils were exposed by removing amorphous cellulose on and near the surface of the macrofibers. XRD suggests

  14. XRD evaluation of KOH activation process and influence of coal rank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Yoshizawa; K Maruyama; Y Yamada; E Ishikawa; M Kobayashi; Y Toda; M Shiraishi

    2002-01-01

    Three Japanese coals with different rank (Ohmine, Miike and Taiheiyo coals) were activated with KOH from 300 to 850°C. Higher rank coal with lower oxygen content showed a high yield and also a large specific surface area determined by N2 adsorption isotherms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the activated carbons were measured to characterize stacking structure of aromatic layers by

  15. XRD study of the goethite-hematite transformation: Application to the identification of heated prehistoric pigments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vignaud; G MORIN

    1998-01-01

    When heated, yellow goethite dehydrates and transforms to red hematite. Both iron oxides were used by the Palaeolithic artists as pigments, one question being whether those people took advantage of the phase transformation. To answer this question, the dehydration of synthetic goethite was studied by XRD coupled to Rietveld refinement. It was shown that no hydroxylated hematite is formed during

  16. Limits of OM, XRD and SEM G.B.-Grain boundary

    E-print Network

    Moeck, Peter

    Limits of OM, XRD and SEM BT NN BT NN EDS G.B. G.B. BT-BaTiO3 NN-NaNbO3 G.B.-Grain boundary M inhomogeneity phase distribution, grain boundaries, interfaces, precipitates, dislocations, etc. NN/BT M.G.J.0

  17. Effect of a Transverse Tensile Stress on the Electric-Field-Induced Domain Reorientation in Soft PZT: In Situ XRD Study

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    PZT: In Situ XRD Study Xiaoping Li,*, Wan Y. Shih,*, James S. Vartuli, David L. Milius, Ilhan A. Aksay was investigated in situ using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD intensity ratio, I(002)/I(200), which represents

  18. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel with Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio

    2014-01-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel with Zr addition, i.e., SOC-14 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.63Zr-0.35Y2O3), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide ODS steel without Zr addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y2O3), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-14 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-14 were found to be consistent with trigonal ?-phase Y4Zr3O12 oxides and coherent with the bcc steel matrix, with semi-coherent orthorhombic Y2TiO5 oxides occasionally detected. The large particles were mainly identified as tetragonal or cubic ZrO2 oxide. The results are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the extraordinary corrosion resistance, excellent irradiation tolerance and superior strength of SOC-14.

  19. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in 16Cr-4Al-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 ODS Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Wall, M; Kimura, A

    2009-11-18

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles in 16Cr-4Al-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles lead us to propose three-stage mechanisms to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels.

  20. Copper(0) nanoparticles supported on silica-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic particles: cost effective catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with an exceptional reusability performance.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ozkar, Saim; Volkan, Mürvet

    2012-08-01

    Herein we report the development of a new and cost-effective nanocomposite catalyst for the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane (NH(3)BH(3)), which is considered to be one of the most promising solid hydrogen carriers because of its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6% wt) and low molecular weight. The new catalyst system consisting of copper nanoparticles supported on magnetic SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) particles was reproducibly prepared by wet-impregnation of Cu(II) ions on SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) followed by in situ reduction of the Cu(II) ions on the surface of magnetic support during the hydrolysis of NH(3)BH(3) and characterized by ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and N(2) adsorption-desorption technique. Copper nanoparticles supported on silica coated cobalt(II) ferrite SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) (CuNPs@SCF) act as highly active catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane, providing an initial turnover frequency of TOF = 2400 h(-1) at room temperature, which is not only higher than all the non-noble metal catalysts but also higher than the majority of the noble metal based homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts employed in the same reaction. More importantly, they were easily recovered by using a permanent magnet in the reactor wall and reused for up to 10 recycles without losing their inherent catalytic activity significantly, which demonstrates the exceptional reusability of the CuNPs@SCF catalyst. PMID:22856878

  1. The application of a combined PIXE and XRD approach to the analysis of human stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pougnet, M. A. B.; Peisach, M.; Rodgers, A. L.

    1988-12-01

    In an attempt to establish a powerful methodology for the analysis of human stones, a combined PIXE and XRD approach was implemented. Stones, cut with Ti blades, were scanned using 4 MeV protons in beam spots of 0.5-1.0 mm diameter. The elements determined were Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Small samples from selected areas were removed for X-ray powder diffraction analysis to identify the crystalline constituents present. Different concentration patterns were found in the various types of stones. Positive correlation was established of Zn, Sr and Pb with the Ca content in some kidney stones, while Rb showed marked negative correlation with Ca. The results obtained suggest that a combined PIXE-XRD approach has the potential to provide meaningful data for gaining some insight into the mechanisms of stone growth with respect to trace element content.

  2. TEM, XRD and nanoindentation characterization of Xenon ion irradiation damage in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Li, D. H.; Liu, R. D.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Yan, L.

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional and bulk specimens of a 20% cold-worked 316 austenitic stainless steel (CW 316 SS) has been characterized by TEM, XRD and nanoindentation to determine the microstructural evolution and mechanical property changes of 316 SS after irradiation with 7 MeV Xe26+ ions. TEM results reveal the presence of dislocation loops with a number density of approximately 3 × 1022 m-3 and sizes between 3 to 10 nm due to the collapse of vacancy rich cores inside displacement cascades. Peak broadening observed in XRD diffraction patters reveal systematic changes to lattice parameters due to irradiation. The calculated indentation values in irradiated 316 SS were found to be much higher in comparison to the unirradiated specimen, indicating the dose dependent effect of irradiation on hardness. The relationship between irradiation induced microstructural evolution and the changes to the mechanical properties of CW 316 SS are discussed in the context of fluence and irradiation temperature.

  3. The application of a combined PIXE and XRD approach to the analysis of human stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. B. Pougnet; M. Peisach; A. L. Rodgers

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to establish a powerful methodology for the analysis of human stones, a combined PIXE and XRD approach was implemented. Stones, cut with Ti blades, were scanned using 4 MeV protons in beam spots of 0.5-1.0 mm diameter. The elements determined were Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Small samples from selected areas were

  4. Lattice Expansion of LSCF-6428 Cathodes Measured by In-situ XRD during SOFC Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Edwards, Danny J.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-01-03

    A new capability has been developed for analyzing solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper describes the initial results of in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) of the cathode on an operating anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell. It has been demonstrated that XRD measurements of the cathode can be performed simultaneously with electrochemical measurements of cell performance or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). While improvements to the technique are still to be made, the XRD pattern of a lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode with the composition La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428) was found to continually but gradually change over the course of more than 60 hours of operation in air under typical SOFC operating conditions. It was determined that the most significant change was a gradual increase in the cubic lattice parameters of the LSCF from 3.92502 Å (as determined from the integration of the first 20 hours of XRD patterns) to 3.92650 Å (from the integration of the last 20 hours). This analysis also revealed that there were several peaks from unidentified minor phases that increased in intensity over this timeframe. After a temporary loss of airflow early in the test, the cell generated between 225 and 250 mW/cm2 for the remainder of the test. A large low frequency arc in the impedance spectra suggests the cell performance was gas diffusion limited and that there is room for improvement in air delivery to the cell.

  5. Mössbauer effect and XRD studies of iron-zinc binary alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Grant; D. C. Cook

    1994-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy and XRD were employed to characterize the microstructural properties of iron-zinc binary alloys between 0–31 at.% Fe. Samples were prepared with accuracies of ±0.5 at.% Fe, and the Mössbauer and lattice parameters were monitored as a function of iron concentration across each phase. Two iron sites were observed in the ? phase (18–31 at.% Fe), whose occupancies and

  6. A new simultaneous apparatus for X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Arii; Akira Kishi; Yuji Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    An instrument was developed for performing simultaneous X-ray diffractometric and differential scanning calorimetric (XRD-DSC) measurement using a power compensation DSC (pc-DSC). The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by examining the thermal dehydration measurement of zinc formate dihydrate (Zn(HCO2)2·2H2O). The DSC curve shows apparent double endothermic peaks during the dehydration process, while X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the resulting anhydrous

  7. A Comparative Study of Particle Size Dependency of IR and XRD Methods for Quartz Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragula Bhaskar; Jianliang Li; Lijun Xu

    1994-01-01

    Quartz (SiO2) is considered a probable carcinogen. In order to enforce health and safety standards, techniques that can accurately determine the quartz content of materials are necessary. Currently, two techniques dominate quartz analysis—the infrared (IR) spectrophotometry method and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Unfortunately, there are problems associated with these techniques, such as sample preparation and particle size effect. This

  8. The use of thermo-XRD-analysis in the study of organo-smectite complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yariv; I. Lapides

    2005-01-01

    Summary Thermo-XRD-analysis is applied to identify whether or not the adsorbed organic species penetrates into the interlayer space of the smectites mineral. In this technique an oriented smectite sample is gradually heated to temperatures above the irreversible dehydration of the clay, and after each thermal treatment is diffracted by X-ray at ambient conditions. In the thermal treatment of organo-clays, under

  9. Determination of grain size by XRD profile analysis and TEM counting in nano-structured Cu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhong; Dehai Ping; Xiaoyan Song; Fuxing Yin

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a serial of pure copper sample with different grain sizes from nano- to micro-scale were prepared by sparkle plasma sintering (SPS) and following anneal treatment at 873K and 1073K, respectively. The grain size distributions of these samples were determined by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) micrograph counting. Although these two methods

  10. Formation of carbon supported PtRu alloys: an XRD analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Antolini; F. Cardellini

    2001-01-01

    Carbon supported PtRu alloys were prepared by impregnation of Pt and Ru precursors on a porous carbon support, followed by reduction of the metals with Na2S2O4. After reduction, the samples were thermal treated in argon up to 700°C. The samples were characterized by atomic absorption (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Before thermal treatment only carbon reflexions were visible in

  11. Luminescence and magnetic properties of novel nanoparticle-sheathed 3D Micro-Architectures of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) for bifunctional application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful synthesis of novel nanoparticle-sheathed bipyramid-like and almond-like Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) 3D hierarchical microstructures through a simple disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) facilitated hydrothermal method. Interestingly, time-dependent experiments confirm that the assembly-disassembly process is responsible for the formation of self-aggregated 3D architectures via Ostwald ripening phenomena. The resultant products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic measurements. The growth and formation mechanisms of the self-assembled 3D micro structures are discussed in detail. To confirm the presence of all the elements in the microstructure, the energy loss induced by the K, L shell electron ionization is observed in order to map the Fe, Gd, Mo, O, and Eu components. The photo luminescence properties of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5 doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+ are investigated. The room temperature and low temperature magnetic properties suggest that the interaction between the local-fields introduced by the magnetic Fe3+ ions and the R3+ (La, Gd) ions in the dodecahedral sites determine the magnetism in Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Eu3+. This work provides a new approach to synthesizing the novel Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ for bi-functional magnetic and luminescence applications.

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2261 Structure and Thermomagnetic Properties of New

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2261 Structure and Thermomagnetic. Magnetic data showed structural and magnetic phase transitions including primary and secondary. Samples were characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), x-ray diffraction (XRD

  13. A Raman, infrared and XRD analysis of the instability in volcanic opals from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2007-12-01

    A series of natural volcanic opal samples with the destabilization phenomena from Mexican deposits (states of Queretaro and Jalisco) was investigated by Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared spectrometry and XRD analysis. These techniques show that at low and room temperatures the unaltered transparent opals may be transformed into destabilized white opals, which are a mixture of different polymorphs of tridymite and ?-cristobalite with various degrees of crystallinity. We found systematic changes in frequencies of both the Raman and the infrared bands, caused by increasing regularities of bond-lengths and bond-angles Si-O-Si groups under the effect of stability. Micro-Raman spectrometry confirms that in the destabilized opal the principal mineral phases are MC (monoclinic ordered)- and MX (incommensurate monoclinic)-tridymites that are characterized by more structural order in comparison with other structural modification of this phase in unaltered opal (POn pseudo-orthorhombic disordered tridymite). XRD investigations show that in the sequence from unaltered to destabilized opal the position of principal maximum (4.30, 4.10 and 2.50 Å) shifts towards higher d-spacing. This XRD shifting to higher d-spacing can largely be explained by an increasing amount of tridymite stacking and unresolved superposition of cristobalite and tridymite reflections. The destabilization phenomena in volcanic opals is due to the structural ordering/disordering that is characterized mainly by the formation of the different tridymite polymorphs (MC and MX) in the destabilized opal-CT as well as the decreasing content of molecular water in the structure.

  14. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S.; Downs, R.; Morrison, S.; Gellert, R.; Campbell, I.; Treiman, A. H.; Achilles, C.; Bristow, T.; Crisp, J. A.; McAdam, A.; Archer, P. D.; Sutter, B.; Rampe, E. B.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyrox-ene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was cal-culated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiome-try (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (~71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical compositon are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be~0 wt.% in the amporphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because the position of its 02l diffraction peak is similar to that reported for John Klein. In both cases, the amorphous component has low SiO2 and MgO and high FeO + Fe2O3, P2O5, and SO3 concentrations relative to bulk sample. The chemical composition of the bulk drill fines and XRD crystalline, smectite, and amorphous components implies alteration of an initially basaltic material under near neutral conditions (not acid sulfate), with the sulfate incorporated later as veins of CaSO4 injected into the mudstone.

  15. [Enlargement test of synthesis of MCM-22 zeolite by means of XRD].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-gong; Lu, Guan-zhong; Cao, Gang; Yu, Xiao-dong

    2007-05-01

    On the basis of MCM-22 zeolite synthesis at the static condition in 100 mL lined PTFE autoclave, 250 and 1000 mL stainless steel autoclave respectively, the synthesis of MCM-22 zeolite was studied at the rotating condition in 2, 5 and 200 L autoclave respectively. The samples as-synthesized and calcined were characterized by means of XRD and so on. The resultsshow that all the synthesized samples are the pure MCM-22 zeolites, and their crystallinities were high, and MCM-22 zeolite can be synthesized successfully at the rotating condition in 200 L stainless steel autoclave. PMID:17655132

  16. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming,, Douglas W.; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, Iain; Treiman, Alan H.; Achilles, Cherie; Bristow, Thomas; Crisp, Joy A.; McAdam, Amy; Archer, Paul Douglas; Sutter, Brad; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was calculated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiometry (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (approx 71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical composition are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be approx 0 wt.% in the amorphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because the position of its 021 diffraction peak is similar to that reported for John Klein. In both cases, the amorphous component has low SiO2 and MgO and high FeO + Fe2O3, P2O5, and SO3 concentrations relative to bulk sample. The chemical composition of the bulk drill fines and XRD crystalline, smectite, and amorphous components implies alteration of an initially basaltic material under near neutral conditions (not acid sulfate), with the sulfate incorporated later as veins of CaSO4 injected into the mudstone.

  17. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Alias, Nor Hayati, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Norriza Mohd, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhammad, Azali [Malaysian Society for Non-Destructive Testing (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures.

  18. Analytical electron microscopy of Mg-SiO smokes - A comparison with infrared and XRD studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Nuth, J. A.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy conducted for Mg-SiO smokes (experimentally obtained from samples previously characterized by IR spectroscopy) indicates that the microcrystallinity content of unannealed smokes increases with increased annealing for up to 30 hr. The growth of forsterite microcrystallites in the initially nonstoichiometric smokes may give rise to the contemporaneous growth of the SiO polymorph tridymite and MgO; after 4 hr of annealing, these react to form enstatite. It is suggested that XRD analysis and IR spectroscopy should be conducted in conjunction with detailed analytical electron microscopy for the detection of emerging crystallinity in vapor-phase condensates.

  19. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles XRD Analyses: An Insight

    E-print Network

    Theivasanthi, T

    2013-01-01

    This work reports aspect related to nano-sized particles of tetragonal anatase phase Titania. This approach is simple, faster, Eco-friendly, cost effective and suitable for large scale production. X-Ray Diffraction studies analyze particles size. It is found to be 74 nm and specific surface area is 19.16m2g-1. Morphology index (MI) derived from FWHM of XRD data explains the interrelationship of particle size and specific surface area. It is observed that MI has direct relationship with particle size and an inverse relationship with specific surface area. This work throws some light on and helps in the production line of Titania nano-particles.

  20. IN-SITU XRD OF OPERATING LSFC CATHODES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-11-19

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research capability has been developed that facilitates measuring the electrochemical performance of an operating SOFC while simultaneously performing x-ray diffraction on its cathode. The evolution of this research tool’s development is discussed together with a description of the instrumentation used for in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of operating SOFC cathodes. The challenges that were overcome in the process of developing this capability, which included seals and cathode current collectors, are described together with the solutions that are presently being applied to mitigate them.

  1. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. PMID:24055999

  2. Upgrades to the XRD1 beamline optics and endstation at the LNLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, H.; Fontoura, A.; Neuenschwander, R. T.; Diaz, B.; Rodella, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    XRD1 was the first X-ray diffraction beamline to be built at the LNLS and after approximately 12 years of operation it was substantially updated to improve beam stability, increase the reliability of the monochromator movement as well as provide an experimental hutch that would meet the demands of users. The improvements included the construction of an independent concrete slab below the mirror and monochromator to minimize the vibrations originating from the floor. In addition, the installation of new monochromator mechanisms as well as the replacement of the two Si(111) crystals were performed in order to attain higher precision, stability and reproducibility during operation. Moreover, the diffractometer was replaced by a 3-circle heavy duty diffractometer from Newport to collect XRD patterns primarily in capillary geometry. A robotic arm was installed for fast and automated replacement of samples as well as to secure a cryojet or a hot air blower in front of the sample during measurements. In addition, a housing equipped with 24 Mythen detectors was installed at the beamline allowing for extremely fast data acquisition. Another upgrade was the integration of motors and control systems from PXI National Instruments and Galil controllers with Phytron. These systems are crucial for the next upgrade that is underway at the beamline: enabling remote access for users to collect their measurements without the need to travel to the LNLS.

  3. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G.; Molera, J.; Pla, J.; Labrador, A.

    2013-04-01

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD.

  4. Effect of relative humidity constraint on the metal exchanged montmorillonite performance: An XRD profile modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Walid; Ben Rhaiem, Hafsia; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem

    2012-11-01

    This work aims at examining the effect of an applied hydrous strain on the cation exchange process of a dioctahedral smectite by quantitative XRD analysis. The hydrous constraint is created by a continuous, in situ, hydration-dehydration cycles using variation of %RH (relative humidity) rate. In order to examine the effect of the retained materials stress on the cation exchange capacity of the host materials, the starting, the intermediate and the final stressed samples are deposed in contact with saturated Cd(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) chloride solutions. To characterize structural changes, an XRD profile modeling approach is used. This investigation allowed us to determine parameters related to the nature, abundance, size, position, organization of exchangeable cation and water molecule in the interlamellar space, along the c* axis. Qualitatively, the hydration behavior is affected by the number of hydration-dehydration cycle, and an interstratified hydration phases due probably to a new organization of the interlamellar space content is observed. Quantitatively, the theoretical mixed layer structure (MLS) suggests the coexistence of more one "crystallite" specie which are saturated by more than one exchangeable cations indicating a partial saturation of all exchangeable sites. Using optimum structural parameter values, deduced from the theoritecals models, some equations which described the evolution of exchangeable cation amount versus the applied hydrous strain were derived.

  5. [Research on reducing mold flux's radiative heat transfer based on FTIR and XRD].

    PubMed

    Diao, Jiang; Xie, Bing

    2009-02-01

    The mold fluxes samples containing transition metal oxides TiO2 were designed based on the composition of commercial mold fluxes in continuous casting of steel, and the relation between radiative heat transfer and the content of TiO2 was obtained through FTIR spectrum analysis and XRD analysis. The result of FTIR analysis indicates that TiO2 has a great negative effect on infrared transmittance of flux samples in the wavelength range of 1-6 microm. The result of XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of cuspidine was restrained with addition of TiO2, and CaTiO3 and other phases were found in the samples. The decrease in cuspidine phase is beneficial to strand lubrication in the mold. Radiation heat flux from the strand to the mold was calculated using a radiative heat transfer model concluded in previous study. Addition of TiO2 was found to result in a remarkable decrease in radiation heat flux for both glassy and crystalline samples, and the heat flux tended to decrease with increasing TiO2, with the maximal decrease reaching 30%. As a result of great refraction and scatter at surface and grain boundaries of samples, the negative effect of crystalline samples was much larger than that of the glassy ones. PMID:19445198

  6. Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Zinc and Copper A 57Fe-Mössbauer and XRD Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Waanders, F. B.

    2005-02-01

    The most commonly used route in the hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc and copper from a sulphide ore is the concentrate roast leach electro winning process. In the present investigation a zinc copper ore from the Maranda mine, located in the Murchison Greenstone Belt, South Africa, containing sphalerite (ZnS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), was studied. The 57Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of the concentrate yielded pyrite, chalcopyrite and clinochlore, consistent with XRD data. Optimal roasting conditions were found to be 900°C for 3 h and the calcine produced contained according to X-ray diffractometry equal amounts of franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) and half the amount of willemite (Zn2SiO4). The Mössbauer spectrum showed predominantly franklinite (59%), hematite (6%) and other Zn- or Cu-depleted ferrites (35%). The latter could not be detected by XRD analyses as peak overlapping with other species occurred. Leaching was done with HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3, to determine which process would result in maximum recovery of Zn and Cu. More than 80% of both were recovered by using either one of the three techniques. From the residue of the leaching, the Fe-compounds were precipitated and <1% of the Zn and Cu was not recovered.

  7. XRD and FTIR structural investigation of gadolinium-zinc-borate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pascuta, P.; Dan, V.; Pop, V. [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, R. [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radulescu, D. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements have been employed to investigate the (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}?(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60?x)}?(ZnO){sub 40} glass ceramics system, with 0 ? x ? 15 mol%. After heat treatment applied at 860 °C for 2 h, some structural changes were observed and new crystalline phases appeared in the structure of the samples. In these glass ceramics four crystalline phases were identified using powder diffraction files (PDF 2), namely ZnB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Zn{sub 4}O(B{sub 6}O{sub 12}), Zn{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and GdBO{sub 3}. From the XRD data, the average unit-cell parameter and the quantitative ratio of the crystallographic phases in the studied samples were evaluated. FTIR data revealed that the BO{sub 3}, BO{sub 4} and ZnO{sub 4} are the main structural units of these glass ceramics network. The compositional dependence of the different structural units which appear in the studied samples was followed.

  8. An Integrated XRF/XRD Instrument for Mars Exobiology and Geology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppel, L. N.; Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Fonda, M. L.; Schwartz, D. E.; Marshall, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    By employing an integrated x-ray instrument on a future Mars mission, data obtained will greatly augment those returned by Viking; details characterizing the past and present environment on Mars and those relevant to the possibility of the origin and evolution of life will be acquired. A combined x-ray fluorescence/x-ray diffraction (XRF/XRD) instrument was breadboarded and demonstrated to accommodate important exobiology and geology experiment objectives outlined for MESUR and future Mars missions. Among others, primary objectives for the exploration of Mars include the intense study of local areas on Mars to establish the chemical, mineralogical, and petrological character of different components of the surface material; to determine the distribution, abundance, and sources and sinks of volatile materials, including an assessment of the biologic potential, now and during past epoches; and to establish the global chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. The XRF/XRD breadboard instrument identifies and quantifies soil surface elemental, mineralogical, and petrological characteristics and acquires data necessary to address questions on volatile abundance and distribution. Additionally, the breadboard is able to characterize the biogenic element constituents of soil samples providing information on the biologic potential of the Mars environment. Preliminary breadboard experiments confirmed the fundamental instrument design approach and measurement performance.

  9. XRD and FTIR structural investigation of gadolinium-zinc-borate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Stefan, R.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements have been employed to investigate the (Gd2O3)x?(B2O3)(60-x)?(ZnO)40 glass ceramics system, with 0 ? x ? 15 mol%. After heat treatment applied at 860 °C for 2 h, some structural changes were observed and new crystalline phases appeared in the structure of the samples. In these glass ceramics four crystalline phases were identified using powder diffraction files (PDF 2), namely ZnB4O7, Zn4O(B6O12), Zn3(BO3)2 and GdBO3. From the XRD data, the average unit-cell parameter and the quantitative ratio of the crystallographic phases in the studied samples were evaluated. FTIR data revealed that the BO3, BO4 and ZnO4 are the main structural units of these glass ceramics network. The compositional dependence of the different structural units which appear in the studied samples was followed.

  10. Modal Mineralogy of CV3 Chondrites by PSD-XRD: Mineralogic Insights into a Complex Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2009-03-01

    CV3 chondrites Vigarano, Efremovka, Allende, Mokoia, Grosnaja and Kaba are amongst the most studied rocks in existence. By XRD we define the first quantitative modal mineralogy of these samples and explore implications of our data to petrogenesis.

  11. The Mars-XRD Instrument for ExoMars: Combined X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. S.; Hansford, G. M.; Vernon, D.; Talboys, D. L.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bridges, J. C.; Hutchinson, I. B.

    2011-03-01

    Mars-XRD is a combined X-ray diffractometer and fluorescence spectrometer to analyse the mineralogy and chemical composition of Mars. We present our initial investigation into its ability to identify minerals under representative conditions.

  12. Characterization of quenched high pressure phases in CaSiO3 system by XRD and 29Si NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Kanzaki; Jonathan F. Stebbins; Xianyu Xue

    1991-01-01

    We have studied quenched high pressure phases in the CaSiO3 system by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and 29Si MAS NMR, XRD study of the previously reported “?-CaSiO3 phase” synthesized at 12 GPa and 1500 °C reveals that it is actually a mixture of ?-Ca2SiO4 (larnite) and a previously unknown CaSi2O5 phase. This result is supported by the 29Si NMR spectra. Furthermore,

  13. SHI Induced Modifications in CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} Thin Film: XRD Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Rajesh A.; Taur, Vidya S.; Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, Maharashtra (India); Ghule, Anil V. [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-15

    CuInSe{sub 2}(CIS nanostructured) thin films were prepared by ion exchange method at room temperature on ITO coated glass substrates in an alkaline medium. The as prepared thin films were irradiated by 120 MeV Au{sup 9+} swift heavy ion (SHI) at 5x10{sup 11} and 5x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence respectively. To study the effect of irradiation, the pristine and irradiated nanostructured thin films were characterized by X ray Diffraction (XRD) and analyzed the improvement in crystalline quality and crystallite size. The observed structural modifications discussed considering the high electronic energy deposition by 120 MeV gold heavy (Au{sup 9+}) ions in CuInSe{sub 2} thin films.

  14. SHI Induced Modifications in CdS/CuInSe2 Thin Film: XRD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rajesh A.; Taur, Vidya S.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2011-07-01

    CuInSe2 (CIS nanostructured) thin films were prepared by ion exchange method at room temperature on ITO coated glass substrates in an alkaline medium. The as prepared thin films were irradiated by 120 MeV Au9+ swift heavy ion (SHI) at 5×1011 and 5×1012 ions/cm2 fluence respectively. To study the effect of irradiation, the pristine and irradiated nanostructured thin films were characterized by X ray Diffraction (XRD) and analyzed the improvement in crystalline quality and crystallite size. The observed structural modifications discussed considering the high electronic energy deposition by 120 MeV gold heavy (Au9+) ions in CuInSe2 thin films.

  15. A high-pressure study of PbCO3 by XRD and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Liu, Jing; Qin, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Chuan-Long; Xiong, Lun; Li, Rui; Bai, Li-Gang

    2013-03-01

    The pressure-induced phase transitions of PbCO3 are studied using synchrotron radiation in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The XRD measurement indicates that PbCO3 with an initial phase of aragonite-type structure undergoes two phase transitions at ~7.8 GPa and ~15.7 GPa, respectively. The higher-pressure phase appearing at ~15.7 GPa is stable up to 51.8 GPa. The two phase transitions are further confirmed by Raman scattering up to 23.3 GPa. During the decompression process, the high-pressure phases of PbCO3 are gradually recovered to the starting aragonite-type structure, but exhibit some hysteresis. The bulk modulus B0 of the aragonite-type structure is obtained to be 63±(3) GPa by fitting the volume-pressure data to the Birch—Murnaghan equation of states with B'0 fixed to 4.

  16. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Tsapin, A.; Kulleck, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we describe an analytical method for determining the presence of organic compounds in rocks, limestone, and other composite materials. Our preliminary laboratory experiments on different rocks/limestone show that the organic component in mineralogical matrices is a minor phase on order of hundreds of ppm and can be better detected using high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC). The matrix, which is the major phase, plays an important role in embedding and protecting the organic molecules from the harsh Martian environment. Some rocks bear significant amounts of amino acids therefore, it is possible to identify these phases using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) by crystallizing the organic. The method of detection/analysis of organics, in particular amino acids, that have been associated with life will be shown in the next section.

  17. Powder XRD and dielectric studies of gel grown calcium pyrophosphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bharat; Parikh, Ketan; Joshi, Mihir

    2013-06-01

    Formation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in soft tissues such as cartilage, meniscus and synovial tissue leads to CPPD deposition diseases. The appearance of these crystals in the synovial fluid can give rise to an acute arthritic attack with pain and inflammation of the joints, a condition called pseudo-gout. The growth of CPP crystals has been carried out, in the present study, using the single diffusion gel growth technique, which can broadly mimic in vitro the condition in soft tissues. The crystals were characterized by different techniques. The FTIR study revealed the presence of various functional groups. Powder XRD study was also carried out to verify the crystal structure. The dielectric study was carried out at room temperature by applying field of different frequency from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and a.c. resistivity decreased as frequency increased, whereas the a.c. conductivity increased as frequency increased.

  18. Studying Cellulose Fiber Structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and Acid Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Brown, Heather M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Holladay, John E.

    2007-03-21

    Cotton linters were partially hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the morphology of remaining macrofibrils studied with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) under various magnifications. The crystal region (microfibril bundles) in the macrofibrils was not altered by hydrolysis, and only amorphous cellulose was hydrolyzed and leached out from the macrofibrils. The diameter of microfibril bundles was 20-30 nm after the amorphous cellulose was removed by hydrolysis. XRD experiments confirm the unaltered diameter of the microfibrils after hydrolysis. The strong stability of these microfibril bundles in hydrolysis limits both the total sugar monomer yield and the size of nano particles or rods produced in hydrolysis. The large surface potential on the remaining microfibril bundles drives the agglomeration of macrofibrils.

  19. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania.

    PubMed

    Margineanu, R M; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O G

    2014-12-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of (228)Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the (226)Ra and traces of (40)K. No significant amount of anthropogenic (137)Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM-EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars. PMID:25181034

  20. XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigation of Mn substituted CuFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rai, A; Banerjee, M

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Mn substitution in Cu ferrite may present a challenge, as there are three transition metals ions distributed among the two available crystallographic sub lattices. This system also presents complicated super exchange interactions. In this study a series of five powdered samples with composition Cu(1-x)Mn(x)Fe2O4 were investigated using XRD and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The variation of lattice parameter, crystallite size, and Mössbauer parameters of the product formed with the variation in the concentration of Mn has been studied. XRD study revealed the formation of pure phase spinels with FCC cubic structure having particle size ranging from 7.2 nm to 20 nm. Lattice constant value showed constant increase with increasing Mn concentration. AFM image confirms the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectroscopy proves to be an excellent tool for probing the local environment of Fe atoms present in such materials. Results show two sets of six finger patterns for all the samples with two double line pattern obtained for the composition with x = 0.75 and 1.0, indicating the presence of Fe in both A and B site. Increase in Mn concentration first increases the hyperfine field and then it gradually decreases. This effect is observed at both the sites. This effect is due to the relative strengths of Fe-O-X super exchange (X = Fe, Mn, Cu) as well as number of different nearest neighbour of A and B sites. The unexpected behaviour for the last two compositions can be explained by the presence of particle size distribution that results in superparamagnetic behaviour. PMID:19049197

  1. Characterization of mullite in silicoaluminous fly ash by XRD, TEM, and 29Si MAS NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gomes; M. François

    2000-01-01

    Mullite contained in a silicoaluminous fly ash (originating from power plant of La Maxe, near Metz in the east of France) issue from bituminous coal combustion has been studied by X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance of 29Si spinning at magic angle, and transmission electron microscopy linked with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. By using results from X-ray diffraction [1] and nuclear magnetic resonance

  2. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  3. Preparation of fluorescent magnetic nanodiamonds and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, In Pin; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-11-19

    Magnetic nanodiamonds were prepared via solid-state microwave arcing of a nanodiamond-ferrocene mixed powder in a focused microwave oven. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images show that a magnetic nanodiamond is composed of iron nanoparticles encapsulated by graphene layers on the surface of nanodiamonds. Fluorescence property was introduced onto magnetic nanodiamonds by chemical modification of magnetic nanodiamonds via surface grafting of poly(acrylic acids) and fluorescein o-methacrylate. Fluorescent magnetic nanodiamonds are water soluble with a solubility of approximately 2.1 g/L. Cellular-imaging experiments show that fluorescent magnetic nanodiamonds could be ingested by HeLa cells readily in the absence of agonist (i.e., folate) moieties on the surface of nanodiamonds. PMID:18939829

  4. The proposed icy mineralogy package (XRD/XRF) for TandEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Andrew Dominic; Wood, Ian G.; Dobson, David P.; Fewster, Paul F.; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    Introduction: Understanding the geology of Titan's crust, and its interaction with the atmosphere, requires determination of the chemistry and mineralogy of surface materials which can only be achieved unambiguously using a combination of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Here we describe an icy mineralogy package (IMP) consisting of a miniaturised XRD/XRF instrument designed primarily with Titan (and the TandEM ESA Cosmic Vision proposal [1]) in mind; however, the instrument is not predicated upon an a priori knowledge of surface mineralogy and consequently is applicable with little modification to any solar system body (rocky or icy). The proposed instrument is well suited to integration with other analytical tools, such as IR and UV Raman spectrometers. Instrument design: Two design concepts are currently under study, which differ in the complexity of the sample handling system, and the range of Bragg angles which may be observed. Both are focusing cameras, one (IMP senior) working in transmission, and the other (IMP junior) working in back-reflection. IMP jnr is intended for deployment on a static surface probe with no sample acquisition capability, collecting a single diffraction pattern through a window in the probe's underside. IMP snr is intended for deployment on a balloon with a sample collection arm able to deliver scoops of surface material to a rotating specimen stage. The latter may therefore be used to analyse many samples at geographically dispersed points. In each case we will use X-rays generated by high specific-activity radioisotope sources, 55 Fe and 241 Am. Our paper will present the results of the following activities: (a) compilation of a crystallographic database of materials expected on Titan's surface; (b) simulation of single-phase and polyphase diffraction data to illustrate the ease with which substances may be distinguished (even in complex mixtures); (c) blind tests of peak-matching software against synthetic diffraction data to estimate detection limits as a function of resolution and count times; and (d) trade-off studies of synthetic multilayer optics versus crystal monochromators. We will also report on environmental factors which affect (both positively and negatively) the likely instrument performance, including sample and atmosphere X-ray attenuation lengths. Summary: The proposed IMPs will be able to identify any crystalline substances (including organic polymers) present on Titan's surface at > 1 wt % levels, and quantify their relative abundance [2,3], as well as, in principle, estimate the abundance of any amorphous material. The focusing geometry maximises the flux and resolution obtainable from radioisotope sources and also has the advantage of illuminating a relatively large sample volume (compared to other mini-XRD designs); this improves the measured powder statistics. Most of the mass, and all of the power use is confined to the detector system (which is cooled passively by Titan's atmosphere) and data rates will be very small. The robustness of the technique renders it the method of choice for unambiguous determination of Titan's surface mineralogy. References: [1] Coustenis, A., et al. (2008) paper in press Astrophys. Instr. Methods. [2] Rietveld, H. (1969) J. Appl. Cryst. 2, 65-71. [3] Hill, R. J. & C. J. Howard (1987) J. Appl. Cryst. 20, 467-474.

  5. XRD monitoring of ? self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±?) transmutation fuels (with x ? 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) ?-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±?) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ? 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±?) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±?), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am ? self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ?0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample ?-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, ? self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with increasing americium content). PMID:24266774

  6. XRD Analysis of Cement Paste Samples Exposed to the Simulated Environment of a Deep Repository - 12239

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Eduardo G.A.; Marumo, Julio T.; Vicente, Roberto [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gobbo, Luciano [Institute of Geosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Portland cement materials are widely used as engineered barriers in repositories for radioactive waste. The capacity of such barriers to avoid the disposed of radionuclides to entering the biosphere in the long-term depends on the service life of those materials. Thus, the performance assessment of structural materials under a series of environmental conditions prevailing at the environs of repositories is a matter of interest. The durability of cement paste foreseen as backfill in a deep borehole for disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources is investigated in the development of the repository concept. Results are intended to be part of the body of evidence in the safety case of the proposed disposal technology. This paper presents the results of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis of cement paste exposed to varying temperatures and simulated groundwater after samples received the radiation dose that the cement paste will accumulate until complete decay of the radioactive sources. The XRD analysis of cement paste samples realized in this work allowed observing some differences in the results of cement paste specimens that were submitted to different treatments. The cluster analysis of results was able to group tested samples according to the applied treatments. Mineralogical differences, however, are tenuous and, apart from ettringite, are hardly observed. The absence of ettringite in all the seven specimens that were kept in dry storage at high temperature had hardly occurred by natural variations in the composition of hydrated cement paste because ettringite is observed in all tested except the seven specimens. Therefore this absence is certainly the result of the treatments and could be explained by the decomposition of ettringite. Although the temperature of decomposition is about 110-120 deg. C, it may be initially decomposed to meta-ettringite, an amorphous compound, above 50 deg. C in the absence of water. Influence of irradiation on the mineralogical composition was not observed when the treatment was analyzed individually or when analyzed under the possible synergic effect with other treatments. However, the radiation dose to which specimens were exposed is only a fraction of the accumulated dose in cement paste until complete decay of some sources. Therefore, in the short term, the conditions deemed to prevail in the repository environment may not influence the properties of cement paste at detectable levels. Under the conditions presented in this work, it is not possible to predict the long term evolution of these properties. (authors)

  7. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body was de-coupled from formation of Fe-rich secondary minerals. Low temperature fluid-assisted metamorphism can also not easily explain the origin of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite, since the reduced CVs appear to be largely unaffected by this process. Parent body models require an anhydrous low-temperature mechanism of secondary alteration. The alternative is that these phases formed prior to accretion of the final CV parent body.

  8. EPR, SEM and XRD investigation of ornamental limestone and marbles from some renowned Romanian quarries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covaci, D.; Costea, C.; Dumitras, D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    Ornamental limestone and marble samples were collected and analysed by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), in order to evidence any systematic peculiarities able to be used in further provenance studies as well as to get more detailed information regarding geochemistry and mineralogy of three of the most important deposits from Romania. In this respect, 20 samples of limestone (Arnota quarry, Capatani Mountains and Mateias South quarry, Iezer Mountains) and 9 of calci-dolomitic marble (Porumbacu de Sus quarry, Fagaras Mountains) were collected over a significant sampling area. EPR spectroscopy, primarily used to asset the degree of homogeneity of considered samples, evidenced, for both Arnota and Mateias South limestone, the presence of a typical six hyperfine lines spectrum of Mn2+ ions in calcite but no traces of Fe ferromagnetic clusters. A more careful investigation has showed that although within the same quarry, there were no significant differences regarding EPR spectra, the resonance lines were systematic narrower in the case of Mateias South samples which suggested a lower content of divalent manganese ions. The Porumbacu calci-dolomitic marble, presented a more intricate Mn2+ spectrum, consisting of a superposition of typical dolomitic and calcitic spectra. Again, the EPR spectra were almost identical, attesting, as in the previous cases, a relative uniform distribution of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions within quarry. In the case of SEM, scattered, back scattered and absorbed electron modes were used to visualise the mineral formations on the sample surfaces while an EDAX quantitative analysis was used to determine the content of the most abundant elements. Although, at a first inspection, both groups of limestone looked almost similar, displaying a great variety of randomly orientated micro-crystalline agglomeration, only in the case of Arnota samples, we have noticed the presence of some micron size graphite inclusions, potential proxies for further provenance studies. The Porumbacu South marble showed a different pattern, characterized by a more uniform crystallite distribution, all of them presenting almost perfect cleaving surfaces. EDAX results evidenced, excepting the dominant Ca and Mg (the last one in the case of Porumbacu de Sus marble), the presence, in small quantities, of some other element such as Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn whose content represent also a good provenance proxy. XRD investigation evidenced not only of the dominant calcite and dolomite mineral phases, but also other minor mineral fraction, whose presence could be well related to the content of mentioned trace elements. Principal Component and Cluster Analysis, finally used to classify all investigated samples, allowed us to group them in three cluster in accordance with their provenance.

  9. Influence of pH on the interlayer cationic composition and hydration state of Ca-montmorillonite: analytical chemistry, chemical modelling and XRD

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -montmorillonite: analytical chemistry, chemical modelling and XRD profile modelling study Revised Version n°2 ERIC FERRAGE,1.ferrage@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr; Keywords : smectite, hydration state, XRD modelling, pH, chemical modelling, interlayer protons #12 composition was monitored together with the interlayer composition and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were

  10. New magnetic nanoparticles for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hütten, Andreas; Sudfeld, Daniela; Ennen, Inga; Reiss, Günter; Hachmann, Wiebke; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Wojczykowski, Klaus; Jutzi, Peter; Saikaly, Wahib; Thomas, Gareth

    2004-08-26

    Paramagnetic carriers, which are linked to antibodies enable highly specific biological cell separations. With the colloidal synthesis of superparamagnetic Co and FeCo nanocrystals with superior magnetic moments the question about their potential to replace magnetite as the magnetically responsive component of magnetic beads is addressed. Starting from a magnetic analysis of the corresponding magnetophoretic mobility of Co and FeCo based alloys their synthesis and resulting microstructural and magnetic properties as function of the underlying particle size distribution are discussed in detail. The stability of the oleic acid ligand of Co nanocrystals has been investigated. The oxidation kinetics were quantified using magnetic measurements. As a result, this ligand system provides sufficient protection against oxidation. Furthermore, the kinetics of the synthesis of Fe(50)Co(50) nanoparticles has been monitored employing Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and is modeled using a consecutive decomposition and growth model. This model predicts the experimentally realized FeCo nanoparticle composition as a function of the particle size fairly well. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was performed to uncover the resulting microstructure and composition on a nanometer scale. PMID:15288940

  11. Compositional and structural alteration of pyrrhotite surfaces in solution: XPS and XRD studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colin F.; LeCount, Sean; Smart, Rogert St. C.; White, Timothy J.

    Ground pyrrhotite (Fe 1- xS) surfaces oxidised by exposure to (i) air, (ii) water and (iii) de-oxygenated perchloric acid solution (0.05-1M) were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In air or water, the surfaces form amorphous layers containing carbonate species; sulfate species; iron(III) oxide/hydroxides; and an iron-deficient sulfide species with an S(2p) doublet shifted 1.0-1.8 eV to higher binding energy (BE). After acid reaction, the surface partly restructures to a crystalline, defective tetragonal Fe 2S 3 product in which linear chains of S n atoms have a S-S distance similar to elemental sulfur (S 8) but the S(2p) BE is still 0.2-0.6 eV less than S 8. Initially, the acid-reacted surface may be partly hydrophobic, giving flotation separation, but, as oxidation proceeds, hydrophilic iron hydroxides deposit on the surface depressing flotation. The chemical forms of Fe and S in the surface layers are discussed in detail with changes in the proportion of the oxidised and iron-deficient sulfide products.

  12. Correlative Characterization of Li-S Batteries Using In situ TXM and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Johanna; Misra, Sumohan; Yang, Yuan; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Andrews, Joy; Toney, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Sulfur is an attractive Li-ion battery cathode material candidate because of its high specific energy (2600 Wh/kg); however, it is well known that Li-S batteries suffer from capacity loss or fading. It is generally accepted that this is due to the loss of active material and the formation of nonconducting Li2S as a thin film coating the electrode. Both phenomena stem from the dissolution of active sulfur particles in the non-aqueous electrolyte as soluble long chain polysulfides form during the early stages of cell discharge. Using in situ, high resolution transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) at SSRL beam line 6-2 and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) at beam line 11-3, we have explored initial discharge and charge cycle of Li-S batteries in real time. By combining these complementary methods, we can characterize the morphological changes of the active material as well as changes in crystallinity and crystal structure. We can then correlate these changes and the electrochemistry to better understand the reduction of elemental sulfur and various adaptations employed to retain battery capacity over many cycles.

  13. A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole: Microwave assisted synthesis, spectral, thermal, XRD and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajmane, S. V.; Ubale, V. P.; Lawand, A. S.; Nalawade, A. M.; Karale, N. N.; More, P. G.

    2013-11-01

    A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole (CPAT) has been synthesized by reacting o-chloroacetophenone, iodine and thiourea under microwave irradiation as a green chemistry approach. The reactions proceed selectively and within a couple of minutes giving high yields of the products. The compound was characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-visible, IR, NMR and GC-MS), XRD and thermal analyses. The TG curve of the compound was analyzed to calculate various kinetic parameters (n, E, Z, ?S and ?G) by using Coats-Redfern (C.R.), MacCallum-Tanner (M.T.) and Horowitz-Metzger (H.M.) method. The compound was tested for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. The compound was evaluated for their in vitro nematicidal activity on plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and molluscicidal activity on fresh water helminthiasis vector snail Lymnea auricularia. The compound is biologically active in very low concentration. X-ray diffraction study suggests a triclinic crystal system for the compound.

  14. A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole: microwave assisted synthesis, spectral, thermal, XRD and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Rajmane, S V; Ubale, V P; Lawand, A S; Nalawade, A M; Karale, N N; More, P G

    2013-11-01

    A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole (CPAT) has been synthesized by reacting o-chloroacetophenone, iodine and thiourea under microwave irradiation as a green chemistry approach. The reactions proceed selectively and within a couple of minutes giving high yields of the products. The compound was characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-visible, IR, NMR and GC-MS), XRD and thermal analyses. The TG curve of the compound was analyzed to calculate various kinetic parameters (n, E, Z, ?S and ?G) by using Coats-Redfern (C.R.), MacCallum-Tanner (M.T.) and Horowitz-Metzger (H.M.) method. The compound was tested for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. The compound was evaluated for their in vitro nematicidal activity on plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and molluscicidal activity on fresh water helminthiasis vector snail Lymnea auricularia. The compound is biologically active in very low concentration. X-ray diffraction study suggests a triclinic crystal system for the compound. PMID:23860403

  15. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. PMID:23041780

  16. FTIR spectroscopic, thermal and XRD characterization of hydroxyapatite from new natural sources.

    PubMed

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Moussa A; Moharram, Mohamed A

    2011-12-01

    The inorganic constituents of 5 different plants (leaves and stalks) were investigated by using Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis including thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These plants are Catha edulis (Khat), basil, mint, green tea and trifolium. The absorption bands of carbonate ions CO(3)(2-) was exhibited at 1446 cm(-1), and the phosphate ions PO(4)(3-) was assigned at 1105 and 1035 cm(-1). At high temperatures (600, 700 and 600°C) further absorption bands of the phosphate ions PO(4)(3-) was assigned at the frequencies 572, 617, 962, 1043 and 1110 cm(-1) and the vibrational absorption band of the carbonate ions CO(3)(2-) was assigned at 871, 1416 and 1461 cm(-1). X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis confirm the obtained results of FITR. Results showed that the main inorganic constituents of C. edulis and basil leaves are hydroxyapatite whereas the hydroxyapatite content in the other plant samples is less than that in case of C. edulis and basil plant leaves. PMID:21903453

  17. XRD Technique: A way to disseminate structural changes in iron-based amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C K; Lian, T; Day, D; Farmer, J

    2007-05-24

    Prevention of corrosion is a vital goal for the Department of Defense when billions of dollars are spent every year. Corrosion resistant materials have applications in all sort of military vehicles, and more importantly in naval vessels and submarines which come in contact with the seawater. It is known that corrosion resistance property can be improved by the used of structurally designed materials in the amorphous state where the atoms are arranged in a non-periodic fashion and specific atoms, tailored to the required properties can be interjected into the matrix for specific application. The XRD techniques reported here is to demonstrate the optimal conditions for characterization of these materials. The samples, which normally contain different compositions of Fe, Cr, B, Mo, Y, Mn, Si and W, are in the form of powders, ribbons and coatings. These results will be compared for the different forms of the sample which appears to correlate to the cooling rate during sample processing. In most cases, the materials are amorphous or amorphous with very small amount of crystallinity. In the ribbon samples for different compositions we observed that the materials are essentially amorphous. In most cases, starting from an amorphous powder sample, the coatings are also observed to be amorphous with a small amount of iron oxide on the surface, probably due to exposure to air.

  18. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  19. XRD and XAS structural study of CuAlO2 under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porres, J; Segura, A; Ferrer-Roca, Ch; Polian, A; Munsch, P; Kim, D

    2013-03-20

    We present the results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments in CuAlO(2) under high pressure. We discuss the polarization dependence of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure at the Cu K-edge. XRD under high pressure evidences anisotropic compression, the a-axis being more compressible than the c-axis. EXAFS yields the copper-oxygen bond length, from which the only internal parameter of the delafossite structure is deduced. The combination of anisotropic compression and the internal parameter decrease results in a regularization of the AlO(6) octahedra. The anisotropic compression is related to the chemical trends observed in the lattice parameters when Al is substituted by other trivalent cations. Both experiments evidence the existence of an irreversible phase transition that clearly manifests at 35 ± 2 GPa. The structure of the high-pressure polymorph could not be determined, but it implies a change of the Cu environment, which remains anisotropic. Precursor effects are observed from the lowest pressures, which are possibly related to crystal breaking at a submicroscopic scale with partial reorientation of the crystallites. PMID:23423689

  20. XRD and XAS structural study of CuAlO2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Porres, J.; Segura, A.; Ferrer-Roca, Ch; Polian, A.; Munsch, P.; Kim, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments in CuAlO2 under high pressure. We discuss the polarization dependence of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure at the Cu K-edge. XRD under high pressure evidences anisotropic compression, the a-axis being more compressible than the c-axis. EXAFS yields the copper-oxygen bond length, from which the only internal parameter of the delafossite structure is deduced. The combination of anisotropic compression and the internal parameter decrease results in a regularization of the AlO6 octahedra. The anisotropic compression is related to the chemical trends observed in the lattice parameters when Al is substituted by other trivalent cations. Both experiments evidence the existence of an irreversible phase transition that clearly manifests at 35 ± 2 GPa. The structure of the high-pressure polymorph could not be determined, but it implies a change of the Cu environment, which remains anisotropic. Precursor effects are observed from the lowest pressures, which are possibly related to crystal breaking at a submicroscopic scale with partial reorientation of the crystallites.

  1. XRD, Electron Microscopy and Vibrational Spectroscopy Characterization of Simulated SB6 HLW Glasses - 13028

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation) [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry RAS, Leninskii av. 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nikonov, B.S.; Omelianenko, B.I. [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry RAS, Staromonetniy lane 35, Moscow 100117 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry RAS, Staromonetniy lane 35, Moscow 100117 (Russian Federation); Choi, A.; Marra, J.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773A, Aiken 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773A, Aiken 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sample glasses have been made using SB6 high level waste (HLW) simulant (high in both Al and Fe) with 12 different frit compositions at a constant waste loading of 36 wt.%. As follows from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data, all the samples are composed of primarily glass and minor concentration of spinel phases which form both isometric grains and fine cubic (?1 ?m) crystals. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) spectra of all the glasses within the range of 400-1600 cm{sup -1} consist of the bands due to stretching and bending modes in silicon-oxygen, boron-oxygen, aluminum-oxygen and iron-oxygen structural groups. Raman spectra showed that for the spectra of all the glasses within the range of 850-1200 cm{sup -1} the best fit is achieved by suggestion of overlapping of three major components with maxima at 911-936 cm{sup -1}, 988-996 cm{sup -1} and 1020-1045 cm{sup -1}. The structural network is primarily composed of metasilicate chains and rings with embedded AlO{sub 4} and FeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Major BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} triangles form complex borate units and are present as separate constituents. (authors)

  2. Crystallinity of cellulose, as determined by CP\\/MAS NMR and XRD methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Teeäär; R. Serimaa; T. Paakkarl

    1987-01-01

    The crystallinity of six cellulose samples with different origin and treatment was determined using x-ray diffraction (XDR) and nuclear magnetic resonance with cross polarization and magic angle sample spinning (CP\\/MAS NMR) methods. The numerical results for crystallinity obtained by using curve fitting methods in both cases correlated very well. It was concluded that the values for the crystallinity can be

  3. Quantitative shock stage assessment in olivine and pyroxene bearing meteorites via in situ micro-XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, P. J.; Flemming, R. L.; Izawa, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Shock metamorphism is observed in most meteorites and impact structures [1]. Qualitative petrographic observations underpin a shock classification system [1-3] based on the deformation features in common silicates and on textural relations such as the development of maskelynite from feldspars, mobility of sulphides and metal in veins and local Fe-reduction in silicates. Shock deformation of minerals produces streaks (mosaicity) rather than discrete spots in 2D X-ray diffraction patterns, representing the progressive disruption of the crystal lattice into a mosaic of rotated domains [4,5]. Here we use in situ micro-XRD [5,6] to measure the mosaicity of olivine and pyroxene in ordinary chondrites of increasing shock stages S1 to S5 and then apply the method to achondrites with qualitatively low to high shock. X-ray diffraction data were collected in situ on polished thin sections and slab cut surfaces using a Bruker D8 Discover micro X-ray diffractometer [5], operated using CuK? radiation generated at 40 kV and 40 mA with a beam diameter of 500 ?m. Diffracted X-rays were recorded with a 2D detector, giving images with information in both the 2-theta and chi dimensions, in which each lattice plane (hkl) will have a diffraction spot or streak lying along an arc in chi of radius 2-theta (hkl). Individual reflections can be indexed and then integrated as a function of chi angle, allowing examination of the peak shape and quantitative analysis of the mosaic peak FWHM along chi. We find that both forsterite and enstatite exhibit greater mosaicity in chi with increasing shock stage: Forsterite chi ranges from <1° for S1 to >6° for S5. Enstatite chi values from the same meteorites show a more subdued growth of streak length with shock state, from ~1° to ~4°. A slab of the olivine shergottite DaG 476 exhibits forsterite mosaicity of 6.9°+/-1.1°, indicating that it has experienced shock stage S5, with shock pressures 30-45 GPa [1,4], consistent with the 40-45 GPa shock pressure estimated for DaG 476 by plagioclase refractive index [7]. These observations show that shock classification -and potentially shock pressure calibration- can be done using in situ XRD mineral data. [1] Stoffler, D. et al., (1991) GCA 55, 3845-3867. [2] Scott, E.R.D. et al., (1992) GCA 56, 4281-4293. [3] Rubin, A.E. et al., (1997) GCA 61, 847-858. [4] Horz, F. and Quiade, W.I. (1973) The Moon 6, 45-86. [5] Flemming, R.L. (2007) Can. Jour. Earth Sci. 44, 1333-1346. [6] Izawa, M.R.M. et al., (2009) LPSC XV. [7] Fritz, J. et al., (2005) MAPS 40, 1393-1411.

  4. XAFS and XRD Studies of the Cd1-xZnxTe Crystal Fine Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feng; Gangqiang, Zha; Jian, Yang; Jiong, Li; Zheng, Jiang; Lingyan, Xu; Tao, Wang; Wanqi, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Cd1-xZnxTe crystal is a new kind of room temperature semiconductor radiation detector material developed in recent years. Cd1-xZnxTe is zinc-blende structure, which is similar to CdTe, but the fine structure of Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor is different from CdTe and ZnTe binary compound semiconductors. In this contribution, the fine structure of Cd1-xZnxTe has been studied by the synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The K-edges XAFS spectra of cadmium, zinc and tellurium in Cd1-xZnxTe have been obtained, and the differences between the structures of binary and ternary compound crystals have also been analyzed. The Fourier transform of the k2-weighted absorption spectra prove that Zn atoms occupy the position of the Cd atoms. The bond lengths of Cd1-xZnxTe have also been obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the results imply that the local atomic structure of Cd1-xZnxTe is distorted. The doping of Zn in the structure contributes to the distortion, which should be responsible for the different properties in Cd1-xZnxTe. Normalized X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cd K-edge, Zn K-edge and Te K-edge in CdTe, Cd0.96Zn0.04Te, Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and ZnTe are also shown.

  5. Crystallization behavior of silica-calcium phosphate biocomposites: XRD and FTIR studies.

    PubMed

    Ning, C Q; Greish, Y; El-Ghannam, A

    2004-11-01

    Silica and calcium phosphates (CaP) are the most important ingredients in bioactive materials that bond to bone and enhance bone tissue formation. In this study, silica-calcium phosphate (SiO2-CaP) composites were developed by powder metallurgy method, using silica (SiO2) and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4) powders (CaP) in the ratios (wt%): 20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20. The effects of temperature and chemical composition on crystallization and phase transformation of the SiO2-CaP composites were evaluated by XRD and FTIR. Thermal treatment of the starting material suggested that CaHPO4 transforms into: gamma-Ca2P2O7 at 800 degrees C; beta-Ca2P2O7 at 1000 degrees C and alpha-Ca2P2O7 at 1200 degrees C. On the other hand, beta-quartz was the only detected phase after thermal treatment of silica in the temperature range 800-1200 degrees C. For all SiO2-CaP composites, SiO2 and CaP did not modify the crystallization behavior of each other when sintered in the temperature range 800-1000 degrees C. However, at 1200 degrees C, CaP promoted the transformation of gamma-quartz into alpha-cristobalite. Moreover, SiO2 stabilized beta-Ca2P2O7. The modifications in the crystallization behavior were related to ion substitution and formation of solid solutions. PMID:15880933

  6. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Piamba, J. F.; Sánchez, H.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez

    2015-01-01

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al-0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  7. Charge location effect on the hydration properties of synthetic saponite and hectorite saturated by Na +, Ca 2+ cations: XRD investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Karmous; H. Ben Rhaiem; J. L. Robert; B. Lanson; A. Ben Haj Amara

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing the effect of charge location on the hydration properties of two trioctahedral synthetic minerals: saponite and hectorite. The samples were characterised by a layer charge of 0.4 charge per half unit cell and were saturated with Na+ or Ca2+. The hydration behaviour was studied by determining the structural characteristics which were obtained by modelling XRD

  8. Corrosion of Depleted Uranium in an Arid Environment: Soil-Geomorphology, SEM\\/EDS, XRD, and Electron Microprobe Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRENDA J. BUCK; AMY L. BROCK; WILLIAM H. JOHNSON; APRIL L. ULERY

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion of anthropogenic uranium in natural environments is not well understood, but is important for determining potential health risks and mobility in the environment. A site in the southwestern United States contains depleted uranium that has been weathering for approximately 22 years. Soil-geomorphic, SEM\\/EDS, XRD, and electron microprobe analyses were conducted to determine the processes controlling the uranium corrosion. Schoepite

  9. Review of XRD-based quantitative analyses of clay minerals in soils: the suitability of mineral intensity factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren Kahle; Markus Kleber; Reinhold Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the types and relative amounts of the minerals present in soil forms an essential component of most soil characterization efforts. This paper reviews protocols for XRD-based quantitative clay mineral analysis in soils, with emphasis on methods using mineral intensity factors in combination with the so-called 100% approach. We summarize methodological differences and characteristic features and give information

  10. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    for rf heating applications K. N. Collier,1,2 N. J. Jones,1 K. J. Miller,1 Y. L. Qin,1 D. E. Laughlin,1 for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction the FeCo core and oxide shell. We show HRTEM images of MNP chaining and compare the rf heating of samples

  11. Directional growth of organic NLO crystal by different growth methods: A comparative study by means of XRD, HRXRD and laser damage threshold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Arivanandhan; Xinming Huang; Satoshi Uda; G. Bhagavannarayana; N. Vijayan; K. Sankaranarayanan; P. Ramasamy

    2008-01-01

    Unidirectional benzophenone single crystals grown by vertical Bridgman (VB), microtube-Czochralski (?T-CZ), uniaxially solution crystallization method of Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution XRD (HRXRD), laser damage threshold (LDT) studies and the results were compared. The XRD study exhibits the growth direction of the benzophenone crystal ingots. The HRXRD curves recorded by multicrystal X-ray diffractometer (MCD) revealed that

  12. The Chemical Composition of Serpentine\\/Chlorite in the Tuscaloosa Formation, United States Gulf Coast: EDX vs. XRD Determinations, Implications for Mineralogic Reactions and the Origin of Anatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. RYANt; R. C. REYNOLDS

    1997-01-01

    The chemical composition of mixed-layer serpentine\\/chlorite (Sp\\/Ch) in Tuscaloosa Formation sandstone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in the scanning electron miscro- scope (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). EDX results indicate little depth-controlled variation in composition, whereas XRD results suggest distinct decreases in octahedral Fe and tetrahedral A1. XRD- determined compositions appear to be erroneous and actually

  13. Reduction of CuO in H2: in situ time-resolved XRD studies Jose A. Rodriguez a;*, Jae Y. Kim a

    E-print Network

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    Reduction of CuO in H2: in situ time-resolved XRD studies Jose´ A. Rodriguez a;*, Jae Y. Kim powders and films of CuO was carried out using in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface normal process conditions, in situ time-resolved XRD shows that Cu1þ is not a stable intermediate

  14. An exploratory method to detect tephras from quantitative XRD scans: Examples from Iceland and east Greenland marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.; Kristjansdottir, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Tephras, mainly from Iceland, are becoming increasingly important in interpreting leads and lags in the Holocene climate system across NW Europe. Here we demonstrate that Quantitative Phase Analysis of x-ray diffractograms of the 150 um fraction and identify these same peaks in XRD scans - two of these correlate geochemically and chronologically with Hekla 1104 and 3. At a distal site to the WNW of Iceland, on the East Greenland margin (core MD99-2317), the weight% of volcanic glass reaches values of 11% at about the time of the Saksunarvatn tephra. The XRD method identifies the presence of volcanic glass but not its elemental composition; hence it will assist in focusing attention on specific sections of sediment cores for subsequent geochemical fingerprinting of tephras. ?? 2006 SAGE Publications.

  15. Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. C.; Li, Z. Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G. W.; Eastman, J. A.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Baldo, P. M.; Rehn, L. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Materials Science Division; Univ.of Pittsburgh; State Univ. of New York at Binghamton

    2009-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of Cu{sub 2}O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Synthesis and Properties of Magnetic Composites of Carbon Nanotubes/Fe Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mei-Hua; Qi, Xiao-Si; Zhong, Wei; Ye, Xiao-Juan; Deng, Yu; Au, Chaktong; Jin, Chang-Qing; Yang, Zai-Xing; Du, You-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic composites of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized by the in situ catalytic decomposition of benzene at temperatures as low as 400°C over Fe nanoparticles (mean grain size = 26 nm) produced by sol-gel fabrication and hydrogen reduction. The yield of CNT composite is up to about 3025% in a run of 6 h. FESEM and HRTEM investigations reveal that one-dimensional carbon species are produced in a large quantity. A relatively high value of magnetization is observed for the composite due to the encapsulation of ferromagnetic Fe3C and/or ?-Fe. The method is suitable for the mass-production of CNT composites that contain magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. Study of Gadolinium-doped cerium oxide by XRD, TG-DTA, impedance analysis, and positron lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, S.; Kosaka, T.; Sato, K.

    2010-04-01

    X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis, impedance analysis, and positron lifetime spectroscopy were conducted for Gadolinium-doped cerium oxides (GDC) prepared using oxalate coprecipitation method. XRD revealed the fluorite structure indicating that gadolinium is successfully doped into cerium oxide. Prior to sintering, the vacancy-sized free volume and nanovoid were observed at grain boundaries. The vacancy-sized free volumes shrank with increasing sintering temperatures and finally got dominant.

  18. In and Al composition in nano-Cu(InAl)Se 2 thin films from XRD and transmittance spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kavitha; M. Dhanam

    2007-01-01

    Cu(InAl)Se2 (CIAS) thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) onto well-cleaned substrates at different temperatures from two different chemical baths. The thickness of the deposited films has been determined by gravimetric technique. The composition of indium and aluminum constituents in the prepared CIAS films has been found from XRD and transmittance spectra. The results

  19. Raman scattering and XRD analysis in argon ion implanted CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Senthil; D. Mangalaraj; Sa. K Narayandass; R. Kesavamoorthy; G. L. N Reddy

    2001-01-01

    CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation at a substrate temperature of 423 K were implanted with a mass analysed beam of 140 keV Ar+ for various doses ranging from 1015 to 1017 ions\\/cm2. XRD pattern of the as-deposited film shows hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. Formation of metallic cadmium clusters were observed in the

  20. 1 + 1 = 3: Coupling ?-XRD 2 and DTA New insights in temperature-dependent phase transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Berthold; Volker Presser; Nadja Huber; Klaus G. Nickel

    2011-01-01

    The article shows how additional information can be obtained from coupling a self constructed DTA-system with a commercially\\u000a available BRUKER D8 DISCOVER GADDS XRD2-microdiffractometer. The dehydration process of gypsum to anhydrite in the temperature range from room temperature up to\\u000a 723 K is used as an example. Due to the short measurement times of 10 s for each diffraction pattern the three

  1. XRD Analysis of Burnt Cotton Fabric Impregnated by Ammonium Iron (II) Sulfate Hexahydrate as a Flame-Retardant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Morteza Mostashari; Hadi Fallah Moafi

    2007-01-01

    Ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate [(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O] as a nondurable finish was deposited onto cotton fabric, and its uniformity was ensured by means of squeeze rolls. By using a vertical flame test the optimum add-on values to impart flame-retardancy to the fabric was determined to be about 23.62–25.82%. The XRD analysis of ashes of impregnated samples showed the existence of iron

  2. Temperature dependence of the cation distribution in nickel aluminate (NiAl 2 O 4 ) spinel: a powder XRD study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. St. C. O'Neill; W. A. Dollase; C. R. Ross

    1991-01-01

    NiAl2O4 is a largely inverse spinel, which in detail shows increasing randomisation with temperature of Ni and Al between the octahedral and tetrahedral cation sites of the spinel structure. We have used powder XRD to determine this cation distribution in various samples of NiAl2O4 quenched after annealing between 700 and 1400° C. The inversion parameter (x) can be measured with

  3. Transmission X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Patterns Relevant to the MSL Chemin Amorphous Component: Sulfates And Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Graff, T. G.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) CheMin instrument on the Curiosity rover is a transmission X-ray diffractometer (Co-Kalpha radiation source and a approx.5deg to approx.52deg 2theta range) where the analyzed powder samples are constrained to have discrete particle diameters <150 microns by a sieve. To date, diffraction patterns have been obtained for one basaltic soil (Rocknest (RN)) and four drill fines of coherent rock (John Klein (JK), Cumberland (CB), Windjana (WJ), and Confidence Hills (CH)). The CheMin instrument has detected and quantified the abundance of both primary igneous (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene) and secondary (e.g., Ca-sulfates, hematite, akaganeite, and Fe-saponite) minerals. The diffraction patterns of all CheMin samples are also characterized by a broad diffraction band centered near 30deg 2theta and by increasing diffraction intensity (scattering continuum) from approx.15deg to approx.5deg, the 2theta minimum. Both the broad band and the scattering continuum are attributed to the presence of an XRD amorphous component. Estimates of amorphous component abundance, based on the XRD data itself and on mass-balance calculations using APXS data crystalline component chemistry derived from XRD data, martian meteorites, and/or stoichiometry [e.g., 6-9], range from approx.20 wt.% to approx.50 wt.% of bulk sample. The APXSbased calculations show that the amorphous component is rich in volatile elements (esp. SO3) and is not simply primary basaltic glass, which was used as a surrogate to model the broad band in the RN CheMin pattern. For RN, the entire volatile inventory (except minor anhydrite) is assigned to the amorphous component because no volatile-bearing crystalline phases were reported within detection limits [2]. For JK and CB, Fesaponite, basanite, and akaganeite are volatile-bearing crystalline components. Here we report transmission XRD patterns for sulfate and silicate phases relevant to interpretation of MSL-CheMin XRD amorphous components.

  4. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Bish, David L.; Bristow, Thomas; Archer, Paul Douglas; Blake, David; Achilles, Cherie; Ming, Douglas W.; Vaniman, David; Crisp, Joy A.; DesMarais, David J.; Downs, Robert; Farmer, Jack D.; Morookian, John Michael; Morrison, Shaunna; Sarrazin, Philippe; Spanovich, Nicole; Treiman, Allan H.; Yen, Albert S.

    2013-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help determine the types and abundances of amorphous phases in the martian rocks and sand shadow. These models suggest that the rocks and sand shadow are composed of approx 30% amorphous phases. Sulfate-adsorbed allophane and ferrihydrite were measured by EGA to further understand the speciation of the sulfur present in the amorphous component. These data indicate that sulfate adsorbed onto the surfaces of amorphous phases could explain a portion of the SO2 evolution in the Rocknest SAM data. The additional constraints placed on the mineralogy and chemistry of the aqueous alteration phases through our laboratory measurements can help us better understand the nature of the fluids that affected the different samples and devise a history of aqueous alteration for the Sheepbed Member of the Yellowknife Bay Fm. at Gale crater.

  5. TiSnSb a new efficient negative electrode for Li-ion batteries: mechanism investigations by operando-XRD and Mossbauer techniques

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    by operando-XRD and Mossbauer techniques M. T. Sougrati,* J. Fullenwarth, A. Debenedetti, B. Fraisse, J. C capacities of 540 mA h gÃ?1 and 4070 mA h cmÃ?3 at 2 C rate. From complementary operando XRD and Mossbauer

  6. Comparative investigation of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) in the determination of cotton fiber crystallinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite considerable efforts in developing the curve-fitting protocol to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI) from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, in its present state XRD procedure can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline or amorphous po...

  7. Rapid characterisation of archaeological midden components using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and micro-XRD.

    PubMed

    Shillito, Lisa-Marie; Almond, Matthew J; Nicholson, James; Pantos, Manolis; Matthews, Wendy

    2009-07-01

    Samples taken from middens at the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey have been analysed using IR spectroscopy backed up by powder XRD and SEM-EDX. Microcomponents studied include fossil hackberries (providing evidence of ancient diet and seasonality), mineral nodules (providing evidence of post-depositional change) and phytoliths (mineralised plant cells, providing evidence of usage of plant species). Finely laminated ashy deposits have also been investigated allowing chemical and mineralogical variations to be explored. It is found that many layers which appear visually to be quite distinctive have, in fact, very similar mineralogy. PMID:19268629

  8. Preparation, thermal, XRD, chemical and FTIR spectral analysis of NiMn 2 O 4 nanoparticles and respective precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Sawant; V. M. S. Verenkar; S. C. Mojumdar

    2007-01-01

    Metal carboxylato-hydrazinates are very good precursors for the synthesis of metal as well as mixed metal oxides as these\\u000a decompose to nanosized oxides with high surface area most of the times at comparatively lower temperatures. In the present\\u000a study one such novel precursor nickel manganese fumarato-hydrazinate (NiMn2(C4H2O4)3·6N2H4) has been prepared and characterized by XRD, FTIR and chemical analysis. The thermal

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  10. XRD study on the electrochemical hydriding\\/dehydriding behavior of the La–Mg–Ni–Cotype hydrogen storage alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongfeng Liu; Hongge Pan; Mingxia Gao; Yongquan Lei; Qidong Wang

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical hydriding\\/dehydriding behavior of the La–Mg–Ni-based alloy La0.7Mg0.3(Ni0.85Co0.15)3.5 consisting of a (La,Mg)Ni3 phase with the PuNi3-type rhombohedral structure and a LaNi5 phase with the CaCu5-type hexagonal structure was systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results indicate that the PuNi3-type rhombohedral structure and the CaCu5-type hexagonal structure of the alloy are still preserved during hydriding\\/dehydriding process. For

  11. A comprehensive review of the XRD data of the primary and secondary phases present in the BSCCO superconductor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, B. J.; Hubbard, C. R.

    1992-02-01

    X-ray powder patterns for the phases in the CaO-SrO-PbO ternary system, along with the corresponding crystal structures, were obtained from the literature and from the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). Available X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were compared with each other and, when possible, with a calculated pattern for each phase, yielding a recommended reference pattern. The simulated powder patterns presented here deal with the phases found within the (Ca,Sr)2PbO4 solid solution series and are recommended for the PDF.

  12. Preparation and structure characterization of nanocrystalline BaFeO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiao-Min; Ji, Ming-Rong; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Zheng, Hua-Gui

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaFeO 4 was prepared and purified by special measures. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the existence of Fe(VI). X-ray diffraction studies indicated that they have an orthorhombic unit cell with space group Pnma and lattice parameters a=0.8880 nm, b=0.5512 nm, c=0.7214 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area diffraction (SAED) characterization provided further proofs to the accuracy of XRD data. Both the lattice fringe intervals in the HRTEM image and the cell parameters calculated from SAED pattern corresponded well with those resulted from the XRD analysis.

  13. Magnetic measurements on ??CS{sub 2}U{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanrar, Buddhadev, E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.in; Misra, N. L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sastry, P. U. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Dube, V.; Ravikumar, G. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Magnetic and XRD measurements on ??CS{sub 2}U{sub 4}O{sub 12} having uranium in mixed valent states of U (V) and U (VI) have been made. The study reveals that the compound undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 25K and an anomalous magnetic behavior was seen around 75K. This anomalous behavior indicates towards a structural phase transition. However, the low temperature XRD could not confirm this observation.

  14. Structural Investigation of MFe2O4 (M ) Fe, Co) Magnetic Fluids Guilherme V. M. Jacintho,

    E-print Network

    Brolo, Alexandre G.

    Structural Investigation of MFe2O4 (M ) Fe, Co) Magnetic Fluids Guilherme V. M. Jacintho, Alexandre, providing very stable magnetic fluids, readily usable in nonpolar media. The structural properties of the ferrites and modified ferrites as well as the magnetic fluids were characterized by XRD (X-ray powder

  15. Comparative investigation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the determination of cotton fiber crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary; Bauer, Philip; VanDerveer, Don

    2012-08-01

    Despite considerable efforts in developing curve-fitting protocols to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI) from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, in its present state XRD can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline or amorphous fraction in a sample. The greatest barrier to establishing quantitative XRD is the lack of appropriate cellulose standards, which are needed to calibrate the XRD measurements. In practice, samples with known CI are very difficult to prepare or determine. In a previous study, we reported the development of a simple algorithm for determining fiber crystallinity information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hence, in this study we not only compared the fiber crystallinity information between FT-IR and XRD measurements, by developing a simple XRD algorithm in place of a time-consuming and subjective curve-fitting process, but we also suggested a direct way of determining cotton cellulose CI by calibrating XRD with the use of CI(IR) as references. PMID:22800914

  16. Characterization of stabilized/solidified refinery oily sludge and incinerated refinery sludge with cement using XRD, SEM and EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Psycharis, Vasileios; Nicolis, Ioannis; Pavlidou, Eleni; Benazeth, Simone; Voudrias, Evangelos A

    2008-08-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of refinery oily sludge and incinerated oily sludge (ash) with cement type I42.5 and II42.5 was investigated using, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The results showed that delayed ettringite formation (DEF) and major cement hydration reactions occurred. XRD analysis of S/S oily sludge samples revealed cement-bearing solid phases, such as portlandite, calcite, C(3)S, C(2)S and C(4)AF. SEM analysis, confirmed ettringite at solidified oily sludge samples. Solidified ash samples contained ettringite substituted by chromates. However, solid phases found in solidified ash samples with I42.5 cement showed minor variation in type and structure compared to those observed in solidified ash samples with II42.5 cement. Fe K edge EXAFS analysis revealed the presence of iron oxides in both S/S wastes. The comparison between spectra of the S/S resulting materials and the ones of their original components, showed that the first sphere Fe-O distances were longer than in the pure iron oxide thereby providing evidence that the resulting materials were not simple mixtures, but products of a reaction that modified the local environment of iron. PMID:18584430

  17. Synthesis of metal complexes involving Schiff base ligand with methylenedioxy moiety: Spectral, thermal, XRD and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, M. L.; Jeyakumar, T.; Anandakumaran, J.; Karpanai Selvan, B.

    2014-10-01

    Metal complexes of Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Mn(II) Hg(II), and Ag(I) have been synthesized from Schiff base ligand, prepared by the condensation of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline and 5-bromo salicylaldehyde. All the compounds have been characterized by using elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectra, powder XRD and thermal analysis (TG/DTA) technique. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). The FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectral data suggest that the ligand coordinate to the metal atom by imino nitrogen and phenolic oxygen as bidentate manner. Mass spectral data further support the molecular mass of the compounds and their structure. Powder XRD indicates the crystalline state and morphology of the ligand and its metal complexes. The thermal behaviors of the complexes prove the presence of lattice as well as coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Melting point supports the thermal stability of all the compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial effects of the synthesized compounds were tested against five bacterial and three fungal species by well diffusion method. Antioxidant activities have also been performed for all the compounds. Metal complexes show more biological activity than the Schiff base.

  18. XRD analysis on ZnO and Au film crystal orientation in ZnO/Au/SiO2 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huibin; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yunxang

    2000-05-01

    The orientation of the Zn/Au/Si structure was examined by XRD. The experiment showed that the ZnO/Au/Si films deposited by magnetron sputtering were possessed of a preferred orientation in C axis perpendicular to the film surface. The (111) of Au film was possessed of a preferred <111> orientation which was perpendicular to the film surface also. The XRD (theta) approximately 2 (theta) scan irradiated that there were only (001) peaks in excellent orientated ZnO films. The rock cure scan demonstrated that the C axis of ZnO film was not exactly perpendicular to the surface, the angular divergence was about 2 degree(s), and the space divergence angle about 1.5 degree(s). Expert the (kkk) main peaks of Au film there were weak diffraction peaks, such as (002), (022), and (311) peaks. The phenomena indicated that in Au film there was not only (111) plane in parallel to the surface of substrate. As there was only 12% dis-matching between Au (111) and ZnO (001), the Au (111) oriented film was facilitated for the ZnO (001) orientation in C axis and deposing parameters adjustment.

  19. Solidification/stabilization of Cr(VI) with cement leachability and XRD analyses[X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Vipulanandan, C.

    2000-03-01

    The leachability of Cr(VI) from solidified Cr(VI)-Portland cement mixtures cured for 28 days were investigated. Cr(VI) was solidified with Type 1 Portland cement at concentrations of 0.5%, 2%, and 5% (based on K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}) by weight of the cement. The addition of Cr(VI) increased the initial and final setting times of cement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study indicates that Cr(VI) inhibits cement hydration process by reacting with Ca{sup 2+} during the hydration of cement, which was also supported by increased setting times. Increasing the Cr(VI) content in the cement reduced the compressive strength of the solidified cement. The leachability of Cr(VI) during the toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP) test was dependent on the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the leaching time. The treatment efficiency of cement was independent of the initial Cr(VI) concentration. The reaction products and crystalline phases were identified using the XRD. One of the reaction products identified was CaCrO{sub 4}. An empirical relationship was developed to predict the leaching of Cr(VI). Based on this relationship, the treatable amount should be limited to K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}/cement ratio of 0.2% to meet the TCLP limit of 5 mg/l.

  20. Synthesis of metal complexes involving Schiff base ligand with methylenedioxy moiety: spectral, thermal, XRD and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, M L; Jeyakumar, T; Anandakumaran, J; Karpanai Selvan, B

    2014-10-15

    Metal complexes of Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Mn(II) Hg(II), and Ag(I) have been synthesized from Schiff base ligand, prepared by the condensation of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline and 5-bromo salicylaldehyde. All the compounds have been characterized by using elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectra, powder XRD and thermal analysis (TG/DTA) technique. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). The FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and UV-Vis spectral data suggest that the ligand coordinate to the metal atom by imino nitrogen and phenolic oxygen as bidentate manner. Mass spectral data further support the molecular mass of the compounds and their structure. Powder XRD indicates the crystalline state and morphology of the ligand and its metal complexes. The thermal behaviors of the complexes prove the presence of lattice as well as coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Melting point supports the thermal stability of all the compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial effects of the synthesized compounds were tested against five bacterial and three fungal species by well diffusion method. Antioxidant activities have also been performed for all the compounds. Metal complexes show more biological activity than the Schiff base. PMID:24820326

  1. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and titania nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04694c

  2. XRD Measurement of Mean Thickness, Thickness Distribution and Strain for Illite and Illite-Smectite Crystallites by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Drits; D. D. EBERL; J. SRODOI

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach (BWA) technique (Bertaut 1949, 1950; Warren and Averbach 1950) has been developed to measure coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes and strains in minerals by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. This method is used to measure CSD thickness distributions for calculated and experimental XRD patterns of illites and illite-smectites (I-S). The method almost exactly

  3. Spectral Resolution for Five-Element, Filtered, X-Ray Detector (XRD) Arrays Using the Methods of Backus and Gilbert

    SciTech Connect

    FEHL,DAVID LEE; BIGGS,F.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.

    2000-01-17

    The generalized method of Backus and Gilbert (BG) is described and applied to the inverse problem of obtaining spectra from a 5-channel, filtered array of x-ray detectors (XRD's). This diagnostic is routinely fielded on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories to study soft x-ray photons ({le}2300 eV), emitted by high density Z-pinch plasmas. The BG method defines spectral resolution limits on the system of response functions that are in good agreement with the unfold method currently in use. The resolution so defined is independent of the source spectrum. For noise-free, simulated data the BG approximating function is also in reasonable agreement with the source spectrum (150 eV black-body) and the unfold. This function may be used as an initial trial function for iterative methods or a regularization model.

  4. Identification of reaction compounds in micrometric layers from gothic paintings using combined SR-XRD and SR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Nicholson, James; Emerich, Hermann; Labrador, Ana; Pradell, Trinitat

    2009-07-15

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (micro-SR-XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-SR-FTIR) are used in the non-destructive identification of reaction and aging compounds from micrometric ancient painting layers. The combination of the micrometer size and non-destructive nature of the techniques together with the high resolution and brilliance of the synchrotron radiation has proved to be a procedure most advantageous for the study of reaction, aging and degradation processes. Copper, lead and calcium carboxylates and oxalates are determined in the chromatic, preparation and alteration layers from 15th century egg tempera and oil paintings. Their nature and crystallinity have been assessed. Some hypothesis about the mechanisms of development of both carboxylates and oxalates are presented. PMID:19559899

  5. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2014-11-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

  6. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials? microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials? crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface?s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  7. [XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit, inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xue-Ling; Cao, Jian-Jin; Xie, Fang-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Jie; Yan, Hong-Bin; Lai, Pei-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Hai; Zeng, Jian-Nian

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, characteristics of material compositions, phase structures, surface element states, and transformation mechanism of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit were studied using modern analytical testing technology including XRD, FTIR and XPS. The results show that the samples consist of gypsum, calcite, quartz, muscovite, goethite, organic matter, etc. Primary ore in deep oxidation zone mainly under went such processes as oxidization, hydrolysis, dehydration and carbonation. Compared to the surface oxidation zone of arid and extremely arid regions in the northwestern China, the oxidation process and oxidizing condition of the deep oxidation zone were less complex. New mineral type was also not found, and extensively developed sulfate minerals were rare to be seen. The research results can not only be applied to mineral identification of oxidized particles from this type of ore deposit but also play an important role in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing, etc. PMID:23586262

  8. Preparation of biocompatible magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite: Characterization of nanocomposite by FTIR, XRD, FESEM and TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-10-01

    The preparation and characterization of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite (M-CMC) material is described. Magnetite nano-particles were synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method using ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate in ammonium hydroxide solution. The M-CMC nano-composite particles were synthesized by embedding the magnetite nanoparticles inside carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a freshly prepared mixture of Fe3O4 with CMC precursor. Morphology, particle size, and structural properties of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. As a result, magnetite nano-particles with an average size of 35 nm were obtained. The biocompatible Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite particles obtained from the natural CMC polymers have a potential range of application in biomedical field.

  9. Preparation of biocompatible magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite: characterization of nanocomposite by FTIR, XRD, FESEM and TEM.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-10-15

    The preparation and characterization of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite (M-CMC) material is described. Magnetite nano-particles were synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method using ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate in ammonium hydroxide solution. The M-CMC nano-composite particles were synthesized by embedding the magnetite nanoparticles inside carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a freshly prepared mixture of Fe3O4 with CMC precursor. Morphology, particle size, and structural properties of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. As a result, magnetite nano-particles with an average size of 35nm were obtained. The biocompatible Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite particles obtained from the natural CMC polymers have a potential range of application in biomedical field. PMID:24820322

  10. GREGÓRIO LOPES painting workshop: characterization by X-ray based techniques. Analysis by EDXRF, ?-XRD and SEM-EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, V.; Candeias, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Oliveira, M. J.; Manso, M.; Seruya, A. I.; Coroado, J.; Dias, L.; Mirão, J.; Longelin, S.; Serrão, V.

    2014-05-01

    Gregório Lopes is one of the most famous Portuguese painters of the 15th-16th centuries. This work is a contribution to the study of his painting technique, specifically addressing the methodology used in the preparation of ground layers, which has never been carried out previously with this multianalytical method. For this purpose characterization of the ground layers of a selection of his paintings was carried out by micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (?-EDXRF), micro-X-ray Diffraction (?-XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and complemented by micro-Raman spectroscopy. This work presents the results obtained on two altarpieces (c.1544) produced at the same period by this Portuguese artist. Ground layers are composed mainly of calcium sulfate — anhydrite and gypsum — and other compounds such as dolomite. Reference samples were prepared to obtain diffraction pattern of different percentage of gypsum and anhydrite and compared with the results from historical samples.

  11. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garza-Navarro, Marco [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.torrescs@uanl.edu.m [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); De la Rosa, Elder [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, Leon Gto. 37160 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  12. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of black sands at Chituc placer deposit North of the City of Navodari, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Margineanu, Romul M.; Costea, Constantin; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sandbank situated northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), displayed anomalous high ambient dose rates. Field measurements performed during 2013 Summer campaign recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h recorded along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Here, the sand presented a black-brownish hue, different by the usual white yellowish colour. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahove Underground Low Background Laboratory and Gological Institute Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228-Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226-Ra and traces of 40-K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137-Cs were identified. The other granulometric fractions, i.e. 315, 200 as well 100 microns presented a significant lower level of radioactivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) data attested the presence of monazite, zircon, magnetite, ilmenite, andradite, quartz, aragonite and albite in different proportions, the monazite and zircon being preponderant in the 50 microns, the most radioactive fraction. Based on both radiometric and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent in the garnet fraction. By its position with respect to Danube Delta, the Chituc marine sandbank could be regarded as a placer where heavy minerals discharged in the Black Sea by the Danube River and transported southward by the Great Black Sea Rim are deposited by gravity separation during sedimentary processes. The implications of the Chituc levee radioactive anomaly for any further human activity are analysed and discussed. Acknowledgement: Work done within the BS ERA NET 041 project in the frame of BS-ERA.NET Pilot Joint CAll 2010-2011.

  13. Novodneprite (AuPb3), anyuiite [Au(Pb, Sb)2] and gold micro- and nano-inclusions within plastically deformed mantle-derived olivine from the Lherz peridotite (Pyrenees, France): a HRTEM-AEM-EELS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Cristiano; Lorand, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    To contribute the problem of the missing ("invisible") gold fraction in mantle rocks, olivine grains separated from orogenic lherzolite of the peridotite body of Lherz (Eastern Pyrenees, France) have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results indicate the presence of micrometric inclusions of novodneprite, AuPb3, and anyuiite, Au(Pb,Sb)2, together with nanometric clusters of metallic gold. Both minerals have been recognised on TEM images as darker contrast inclusions and identified through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Gold clusters have been indirectly identified in randomly distributed nano-sized rectangular areas that occur in TEM images obtained from the edges of olivine crystals. Within these volumes the EDS analyses reveal a constant presence of Au (0.1-0.2 wt %). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations evidence series of regularly alternating sigmoidal and ellipsoidal domains developed along [110]. The EELS investigations revealed that the Au signal (M-series lines) arises from the ellipsoidal domains. It is proposed that novodneprite and anyuiite are the result of subsolidus recrystallization of the Pyrenean lherzolites accompanied by a secondary olivine grains growth that trapped inter-granular components. Likely, a process of plastic deformation favoured the formation of edge dislocations within olivine grains and thus, the circulation through them of Au-enriched fluids. A mass balance calculation of the missing gold percentage within this lherzolite points to olivine as one of the potential hosts for about the 80 % of the "invisible" gold in form of nano-inclusions, whereas only 20 % of the whole-rock Au-budget, would be hosted within assemblages of Cu-Fe-Ni sulphides.

  14. The thermal, magnetic, and structural characterization of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous soft magnetic materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Hsiao

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. The characterization of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous soft magnetic materials, namely NANOPERM™, an Fe88Zr7B4Cu1 amorphous soft magnetic alloy, and its derivatives, is presented. Crystallization kinetics are observed isothermally and non-isothermally by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Vibrating sample magnetometry and x-ray diffractometry, used concurrently with differential scanning

  15. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published ?13C, ?18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El límite norte del Terreno Piedra Alta (Uruguay). Importancia de la faja milonítica sinestral de Colonia. Actas XVI Congreso Argentino de Geología, de La Plata. Gaucher, C., Poiré, D.G., Finney, S.C., Valencia, V.a., Blanco, G., Pamoukaghlian, K., Gómez Peral, L. (2008). Detrital zircón ages of Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions in Uruguay and Argentina: Insights into the geological evolution of the Rio de la Plata Craton. Precambrian Research. Hartmann, L.A., Campal, N., Santos, J.O., Mc. Neughton, N.J., Schipilov, A., Lafon, J.M. (2001). Archean crust in the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay - SHRIMP U-Pb zircon reconnaissance geochronology. Journal of South American Earth Science, 14, 557-570. Pamoukaghlian, K., Gaucher, C., Bossi, J., Sial, N., Poire, D.G. (2006). First C and O isotopic data for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Tandilia Terrane, Uruguay: their bearing on correlation and age. Fifth South American Symposium on Isotope Geology, Punta del Este.

  16. Mineralogical Capabilities of the CheMin XRD/XRF instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL ’11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Chen, C.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S.; Morris, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL ‘11) mission is to identify and characterize present or past habitable environments on Mars. By determining the mineralogical composition of rocks or soil, one can often deduce the conditions under which they formed, or their subsequent diagenetic or metamorphic history. The CheMin mineralogical instrument [1-3] will return quantitative X-ray diffraction data (XRD) and qualitative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF; 14 < Z < 92) from scooped soils and drilled rock powders collected from the Mars surface. Small amounts (45-65 mm3) of sample material sieved to <150 µm will be delivered through a funnel to one of 27 reuseable sample cells located on a sample wheel. Sample cells are 8-mm diameter discs bounded by 7-µm thick Mylar or Kapton windows spaced 170 µm apart. Within this volume, the sample is shaken by piezoelectric vibration at sonic frequencies, causing the powder to flow past a narrow, collimated X-ray beam in random orientations during the course of an analysis. CheMin is designed to have a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of <3% by mass, accuracy better than 15% and precision better than 10% for phases present in concentrations >4X MDL (12%). CheMin uses a Co X-ray tube so that absorption in iron-rich samples is minimized. The resolution of the diffraction patterns is <0.35° 2?, and the angular measurement range is 4-55° 2?. The capabilities of the FM instrument were tested during ThermoVac using mineral and ceramic standards contained on the FM sample wheel. Standards include 88:12 and 97:3 mixtures of beryl:quartz for assessment of the accuracy and precision of quantitative analyses, miminum detection limits, 2? range and 2? resolution; a compositionally diverse ceramic material for XRF evaluation; arcanite (K2SO4); and an amphibole. Analyses were performed under Mars atmospheric pressure at a range of Rover Avionics Mounting Platform (RAMP) temperatures from -40C to +26C. Within the predicted Mars RAMP operating temperatures of 0C to +20C, peak-to-background ratios in the XRD pattern and FWHM of elemental peaks in XRF spectra were within proscribed limits. The beryl:quartz mixtures show some anomalous phase segregation during sample shaking that is being investigated. Mineral detection and energy resolution capabilites meet or exceed requirements. References: [1] http://msl-scicorner.jpl.nasa.gov/Instruments/CheMin/. [2] LPSC40 #1484 (2009). [3] Martian Phyllosilicates: Recorders of Aqueous Processes #7006 (2008).

  17. SR-XRD and SR-FTIR study of the alteration of silver foils in medieval paintings.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Labrador, Ana; Cinque, Gianfelice; Emerich, Hermann; Pradell, Trinitat

    2011-03-01

    Altarpieces and polychrome carved wood from the fifteenth century AD usually exhibit golden and silvery areas by the application of a very thin foil of metal. The metal foils were normally protected from the atmosphere by a varnish or resin which maybe either preserved or absent. Moreover, they were glued to the background surface by adhesive substances (egg yolk, drying oil or animal glue). The high proportion of the glueing substances often renders the development of reaction compounds. With time, silver alters blacken or simply disappear completely. In this paper, we study the alterations to metal foils from a selection of fifteenth century artworks showing different glueing agents, organic coatings and several degrees of conservation of the organic coatings and metal leafs. The submillimetric layered structure and the high variability and low amount of most of the compounds present in the different layers, as well as their differing nature (organic and inorganic) make the use of micron-sensitive high-resolution techniques essential for their study. In particular, the high resolution, high brilliance and small footprint renders synchrotron radiation most adequate for their study. SR-XRD was performed to identify the reaction compounds formed in the different layers; ?FTIR was used at to identify the silver protecting organic coatings, the metal foil glueing layers and the corresponding reaction compounds. The results obtained suggest that atmospheric corrosion is the dominant mechanism, and therefore that the degree of corrosion of the metal foils is mainly related to the conservation state of the protecting coatings. PMID:21079931

  18. Simplified Procedure for Estimating Epitaxy of La2Zr2O7-Buffered NiW RABITS Using XRD

    SciTech Connect

    Rikel, Mark O. [Nexans Superconductors; Isfort, Dirk [Nexans Superconductors; Klein, Marcel [Nexans Superconductors; Ehrenberg, Jurgen [Nexans Superconductors; Bock, Joachim [Nexans Superconductors; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Sun-Wagener, Ming [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Silicatforschung, Wurzburg; Weber, Oxana [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Silicatforschung, Wurzburg; Sporn, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Silicatforschung, Wurzburg; Engel, Sebastian [Evico; de Haas, Oliver [Evico; Semerad, Robert [Theva Dunnschichttechnik, Germany; Schubert, Margitta [IFW Dresden; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A procedure is developed for assessing the epitaxy of La(2-x)Zr(2+x)O(7) (LZO) layers on NiW RABITS. Comparing XRD patterns (theta / 2-theta scans and 2D rocking curves) of LZO films of known thickness (ellipsometry or reflectometry measurements) with those of standard samples (100% epitaxial LZO film and an isotropic LZO pellet of known density), we estimate the epitaxial (EF), and polycrystalline (PF) fractions of LZO within the layer. The procedure was tested using MOD-LZO(100 nm)/NiW tape samples with varied from 3 to 90% (reproducibly prepared by varying the humidity of Ar-5%H2 gas during heat treatment). A qualitative agreement with RHEED and quantitative (within 10%) agreement with the EBSD results was shown. Correlation between EF and Jc in 600 nm thick YBCO layer deposited on MOD-LZO/NiW using thermal coevaporation enables us to impose the EF=80% margin on the quality of LZO layer for the particular conductor architecture.

  19. In Situ XAS and XRD Studies of Substituted Spinel Lithium Manganese Oxides in the 4-5 V Region

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.; Ein-Eli, Y.

    1998-11-01

    Partial substitution of Mn in lithium manganese oxide spinel materials by Cu and Ni greatly affects the electrochemistry and the phase behavior of the cathode. Substitution with either metal or with a combination of both shortens the 4.2 V plateau and results in higher voltage plateaus. In situ x-ray absorption (XAS) studies indicate that the higher voltage plateaus are related to redox processes on the substituents. In situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) on LiCu{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} shows single phase behavior during the charge and discharge process. Three phases are observed for LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and two phases are observed in the case of LiNi{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}. The electrolyte stability is dependent on both the operating voltage and the cathode composition. Even though Ni substituted materials have lower voltages, the electrolyte is more stable in cells with the Cu substituted materials.

  20. Microanalysis (micro-XRF, micro-XANES, and micro-XRD) of a tertiary sediment using microfocused synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Melissa A; Somogyi, Andrea; Janssens, Koen; Simon, Rolf; Dardenne, Kathy; Noseck, Ulrich

    2007-06-01

    Micro-focused synchrotron radiation techniques to investigate actinide elements in geological samples are becoming an increasingly used tool in nuclear waste disposal research. In this article, results using mu-focus techniques are presented from a bore core section of a U-rich tertiary sediment collected from Ruprechtov, Czech Republic, a natural analog to nuclear waste repository scenarios in deep geological formations. Different methods are applied to obtain various, complementary information. Elemental and element chemical state distributions are obtained from micro-XRF measurements, oxidation states of As determined from micro-XANES, and the crystalline structure of selected regions are studied by means of micro-XRD. We find that preparation of the thin section created an As oxidation state artifact; it apparently changed the As valence in some regions of the sample. Results support our previously proposed hypothesis of the mechanism for U-enrichment in the sediment. AsFeS coating on framboid Fe nodules in the sediment reduced mobile groundwater-dissolved U(VI) to less-soluble U(IV), thereby immobilizing the uranium in the sediment. PMID:17490498

  1. Mechanical properties and XRD studies of silicon carbide inert matrix fuel fabricated by a low temperature polymer precursor route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chunghao; Rohbeck, Nadia; Gopalakrishnan, Karthik; Tulenko, James S.; Baney, Ronald H.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) inert matrix fuel (IMF) pellets fabricated by a low temperature (1050 °C) polymer precursor route were evaluated at room temperature. The Vickers hardness was mainly related to the chemical bonding strength between the amorphous SiC phase and the ?-SiC particles. The biaxial fracture strength with pre-notch and fracture toughness were found to be mostly controlled by the pellet density. The maximum Vickers hardness, biaxial fracture strength with pre-notch and fracture toughness achieved were 5.6 GPa, 201 MPa and 2.9 MPa m1/2 respectively. These values appear to be superior to the reference MOX or UO2 fuels. Excellent thermal shock resistance for the fabricated SiC IMF was proven and the values were compared to conventional UO2 pellets. XRD studies showed that ceria (PuO2 surrogate) chemically reacted with the polymer precursor during sintering, forming cerium oxysilicate. Whether PuO2 will chemically react in a similar manner remains unclear.

  2. [TG-FTIR and XRD spectroscopic analysis for the preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon supported cobalt electrocatalysts].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Sheng-zhou; Zou, Han-bo; Lin, Wei-ming

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon supported cobalt electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen were prepared from the high nitrogen content prepolymer of melamine formaldehyde resin and cobalt acetate. The preparation and structure of the electrocatalysts were investigated by TG-FTIR and XRD spectroscopic analysis methods. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied at the nitrogen-doped carbon supported cobalt by using the rotating disk electrode method. The results indicated that the catalyst structure changed with the carbonization temperature under the protection of the inert gases. Some organic groups were decomposed into CO, CO2, HCHO, NH3 and NO2, which were taken away by the protecting gas. The electrocatalysts exhibited face-centered cubic structure. The RDE results showed that good electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction at these electrocatalysts was found under the experimental condition. The onset potential for oxygen reduction (E(onset)) was 0.5 V (vs. SCE). The catalyst prepared under 700 C was found to have the highest activity. PMID:22715797

  3. Sol-gel synthesis of Fe-Co nanoparticles and magnetization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nautiyal, Pranjal; Seikh, Md. Motin; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Kundu, Asish K.

    2015-03-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon encapsulated Fe-Co nanoparticles using conventional sol-gel route and its magnetization studies. The x-ray diffraction indicates the formation of the single phase body centered cubic alloy Fe-Co phase with cell parameter of 2.857 Å. Nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit low index faceting as determined from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigation. The observed orthogonal lattice planes with lattice distance of 2.86 Å are attributed to (100) and (010). HRTEM image confirms the cube like Fe-Co nanoparticles with core-shell structure of carbon encapsulation, composed of carbon and graphite materials. The magnetometry results of the carbon encapsulated alloy Fe-Co nanoparticles with core-shell structure designate as a ferromagnetically ordered soft magnet with coercive field of 890 Oe (at 5 K). The coercive field and magnetization value depend on the size of nanoparticles as well as the diamagnetic contribution of carbon encapsulation.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline Ag + doped NiFe 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; El-Dek, S. I.; El-Kashef, I. M.; Helmy, N.

    2011-05-01

    Ni ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using citrate method. XRD pattern revealed the formation of the samples as synthesized in the spinel cubic structure. Silver doping effect on the magnetic properties of Ni ferrite was investigated. The lattice parameter was slightly increased while the values of the Curie temperature decreased with increasing Ag content. The magnetic susceptibility was measured using Faraday's method and the calculated magnetic constants were reported. The data showed that ?M and effective magnetic moment decrease with increasing Ag content.

  5. Magnetism and Magnetic Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Schneck

    2011-10-13

    Students will identify properties of magnetism and begin to develop understanding of their practical applications. Students will also begin to develop understanding of the essential nature of Earth's magnetic fields.

  6. Use of an ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer to obtain sample powder for chemin, a combined XRD/XRF instrument.

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S. J. (Steve J.); Bish, D. L. (David L.); Vaniman, D. T. (David T.); Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Blake, D.

    2003-01-01

    One of the technical issues that must be addressed before landing an XRD,iXRF spectrometer on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a powder that is extremely fine grained to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the Xray beam. Although a 2 dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve with the quality of the sample powder.

  7. High temperature XRD of Cu{sub 2.1}Zn{sub 0.9}SnSe{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Raju, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Quaternary compound with chemical composition Cu{sub 2.1}Zn{sub 0.9}SnSe{sub 4} is prepared by solid state synthesis. High temperature XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of this compound is used in studying the effect of temperature on lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. Thermal expansion coefficient is one of the important quantities in evaluating the Grüneisen parameter which further useful in determining the lattice thermal conductivity of the material. The high temperature XRD of the material revealed that the lattice parameters as well as thermal expansion coefficients of the material increased with increase in temperature which confirms the presence of anharmonicty.

  8. Nano-clusters structure and magnetic properties of high fluence Mn + ion-implanted GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Ding, Zhibo; Yao, Shude; Hua, Wei; Wang, Kun; Chen, Tianxiang

    2008-06-01

    The n-type GaN film was grown on sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Mn + ions of 75 keV with the fluence of 8 × 10 17/cm 2 were implanted in the GaN at 350 °C. The implanted sample was annealed at 850 °C to recrystallize the sample and to remove implantation damage. We investigated the structural and magnetic properties of Mn + ion-implanted GaN by using Rutherford back-scattering (RBS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). RBS results showed the Mn + ions were concentrated near the surface. HRTEM results showed nano-clusters structure in the sample. The temperature dependence of magnetization taken in zero-field-cooling and field-cooling conditions with the block temperature was 267 K and hysteresis loops which exhibited a transformation from ferromagnetism to superparamagnetism showed the features of magnetic nano-clusters system. And it could be explained the magnetic property of this film originated from Mn-rich clusters.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of granular Co-Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, J.; García, L. M.; Bartolomé, F.; Bun?u, O.; Stankiewicz, J.; Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Petroff, F.; Deranlot, C.; Pascarelli, S.; Bencok, P.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Smekhova, A.; Rogalev, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of granular Co-Pt multilayers by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), SQUID-based magnetic measurements, anomalous Hall effect (AHE), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We describe these granular films as composed of particles with a pure cobalt core surrounded by an alloyed Co-Pt interface, embedded in a Pt matrix. The alloy between the Co and Pt in these granular films, prepared by room temperature sputter deposition, results from interdiffusion of the atoms. The presence of this alloy gives rise to a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the granular films, as consequence of the anisotropy of the orbital moment in the Co atoms in the alloy, and comparable to that of highly-ordered CoPt L 10 alloy films. Their magnetic properties are those of ferromagnetically coupled particles, whose coupling is strongly temperature dependent: at low temperatures, the granular sample is ferromagnetic with a high coercive field; at intermediate temperatures the granular film behaves as an amorphous asperomagnet, with a coupling between the grains mediated by the polarized Pt, and at high temperatures, the sample has a superparamagnetic behavior. The coupling/decoupling between the grains in our Co-Pt granular films can be tailored by variation of the amount of Pt in the samples.

  10. Characterizing the Phyllosilicate Component of the Sheepbed Mudstone in Gale Crater, Mars Using Laboratory XRD and EGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Sutter, B.; Farmer, J. D.; Downs, R. T.; Leveille, R.; Achilles, C. A.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Spanovich, N.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover investigated the mineralogy of the Sheepbed mudstone member of the Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale crater. Data from the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffractometer (XRD) helped identify phyllosilicates in the two drilled samples, John Klein and Cumberland. These patterns showed peaks at low angles, consistent with (001) peaks in 2:1 swelling phyllosilicates [1]. Evolved gas analyses (EGA) by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument of these samples confirmed the presence of phyllosilicates through the release of H2O at high temperatures, consistent with dehydroxylation of octahedral OH in phyllosilicates [2]. CheMin data for the phyllosilicates at John Klein and Cumberland show that they are structurally similar in that their (02l) peaks are near 22.5 deg 2theta, suggesting both samples contain trioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates [1]. However, the positions of the (001) peaks differ: the phyllosilicate at John Klein has its (001) peak at 10 Angstroms, whereas the phyllosilicate at Cumberland has an (001) peak at 14 Angstroms. Such differences in (001) dspacings can be ascribed to the type of cation in the interlayer site [3]. For example, large monovalent cations (e.g., K(+)) have low hydration energies and readily lose their H2O of hydration, whereas small divalent cations (e.g., Mg(2+)) have high energies of hydration and retain H2O in the phyllosilicate interlayers [3,4]. The goal of this study is to determine whether differences in the interlayer cation composition can explain the CheMin data from John Klein and Cumberland and to use this knowledge to better understand phyllosilicate formation mechanisms.

  11. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jacqueline R; Maxwell, Robert S; Carroll, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (+/- 0.1) x 10(-5) s(-1) for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (+/- 0.8) x 10(-4) s(-1) for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150 degrees C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at delta iso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (+/- 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  12. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (± 0.1) × 10-5 s-1 for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (± 0.8) × 10-4 s-1 for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150°C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at ?iso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (± 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  13. Formation and magnetic properties of Co Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with supercooled liquid region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Sun; X. B. Liang; T. Kulik

    2006-01-01

    A new Co Fe-based ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) was synthesized by copper mould casting method. The thermal stability and crystallization processes were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The soft magnetic behavior was studied by DC magnetic measurements. The high glass formation ability was interpreted in terms of the effective suppression of nucleation and growth

  14. Interface charge transfer in polypyrrole coated perovskite manganite magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pana, O.; Soran, M. L.; Leostean, C.; Macavei, S.; Gautron, E.; Teodorescu, C. M.; Gheorghe, N.; Chauvet, O.

    2012-02-01

    Different hybrid structures were obtained by coating magnetic nanoparticles of perovskite type manganite at optimal doping (La0.67Sr0.33MnO3,LSMO) with different quantities of polypyrrole (PPy). The amorphous layer of polypyrrole surrounding the crystalline magnetic core was observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analyzed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements in near edge structure (XANES) techniques. By analyzing the magnetic behavior of the samples one can observe that the surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by PPy results in an increase in the saturation magnetization of the composites. The process is ascribed to paired electrons transferred from the delocalized ? states of the PPy into the outer disordered layers of the manganite. The analysis of pre-edge peak of the Mn K-edge XANES spectra in the case of PPy coated LSMO nanoparticles indicates that the charge transfer between polymer and nanoparticles is (directed) going to missing or distorted oxygen positions, hence increasing the 3d electrons' mobility and orbital hybridization between the neighboring manganese ion. As a consequence, within the surface layers of LSMO nanoparticles, both energy bands disrupted the structure, and the double exchange process between Mn ions was reestablished determining the saturation magnetizations and pre-edge features increase, respectively.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 doped chitosan polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, E.; ?at?r, M.; Kazan, S.; Aç?kgöz, M.; Öztürk, E.; Gürda?, G.; Uluta?, D.

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles doped into chitosan films were prepared by the solution casting technique. Various samples were synthesized in atmospheric medium and in vacuum. The morphological properties of the samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The structural, magnetic, and microwave absorption properties of magnetic chitosan films have been carried out using the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR). It is shown that the composite polymer behaves like a superparamagnetic material with high blocking temperature. The effective magnetization shows gradual increments with the concentration of dopant Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The microwave absorption characteristic of superparamagnetic composite polymer shows low reflection loss.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Magnetic Pigment via Coordinated Precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gharagozlou

    anocrystalline cobalt ferrite as a magnetic black pigment was synthesized via coordinated precursors with a significant decrease of the synthesis temperature using citric acid as a coordinating agent. The structure and properties of the cobalt ferrite powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), colorimetric analysis (L * a * b * color parameters), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer

  17. Cooperative use of VCD and XRD for the determination of tetrahydrobenzoisoquinolines absolute configuration: a reliable proof of memory of chirality and retention of configuration in enediyne rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shovan; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Campolo, Damien; Giorgi, Michel; Bertrand, Michéle P; Nechab, Malek

    2013-12-01

    The absolute configurations (AC) of azaheterocylic compounds resulting from the cascade rearrangement of enediynes involving only light atoms were unambiguously assigned by the joint use of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and copper radiation single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). These AC determinations proved that the rearrangements of enediynes proceeded with memory of chirality and retention of configuration. PMID:23939869

  18. XRD measurement of mean crystallite thickness of illite and illite/smectite: Reappraisal of the Kubler index and the Scherrer equation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drits, V.; Srodon, J.; Eberl, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    The standard form of the Scherrer equation, which has been used to calculate the mean thickness of the coherent scattering domain (CSD) of illite crystals from X-ray diffraction (XRD) full width data at half maximum (FWHM) intensity, employs a constant, Ksh, of 0.89. Use of this constant is unjustified, even if swelling has no effect on peak broadening, because this constant is valid only if all CSDs have a single thickness. For different thickness distributions, the Scherrer "constant" has very different values. Analysis of fundamental particle thickness data (transmission electron microscopy, TEM) for samples of authigenic illite and illite/smectite from diagenetically altered pyroclastics and filamentous illites from sandstones reveals a unique family of lognormal thickness distributions for these clays. Experimental relations between the distributions' lognormal parameters and mean thicknesses are established. These relations then are used to calculate the mean thickness of CSDs for illitic samples from XRD FWHM, or from integral XRD peak widths (integrated intensity/maximum intensity). For mixed-layer illite/smectite, the measured thickness of the CSD corresponds to the mean thickness of the mixed-layer crystal. Using this measurement, the mean thickness of the fundamental particles that compose the mixed-layer crystals can be calculated after XRD determination of precent smectitic interlayers. The effect of mixed layering (swelling) on XRD peak width for these samples is eliminated by using the 003 reflection for glycolated samples, and the 001, 002 or 003 reflection for dehydrated, K-saturated samples. If this technique is applied to the 001 reflection of air-dried samples (Kubler index measurement), mean CSD thicknesses are underestimated due to the mixed-layering effect. The technique was calibrated using NEWMOD ??-simulated XRD profiles of illite, and then tested on well-characterized illite and illite/smectite smaples. The XRD measurements are in good agreement with estimates of the mean thickness of fundamental particles obtained both TEM measurements and from fixed cations content, up to a mean value of 20 layers. Correction for instrumental broadening under the conditions employed here is unnecessary for this range of thicknesses.

  19. XRD measurement of mean thickness, thickness distribution and strain for illite and illite-smectite crystallites by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drits, V.A.; Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach (BWA) technique (Bertaut 1949, 1950; Warren and Averbach 1950) has been developed to measure coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes and strains in minerals by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. This method is used to measure CSD thickness distributions for calculated and experimental XRD patterns of illites and illite-smectites (I-S). The method almost exactly recovers CSD thickness distributions for calculated illite XRD patterns. Natural I-S samples contain swelling layers that lead to nonperiodic structures in the c* direction and to XRD peaks that are broadened and made asymmetric by mixed layering. Therefore, these peaks cannot be analyzed by the BWA method. These difficulties are overcome by K-saturation and heating prior to X-ray analysis in order to form 10-A?? periodic structures. BWA analysis yields the thickness distribution of mixed-layer crystals (coherently diffracting stacks of fundamental illite particles). For most I-S samples, CSD thickness distributions can be approximated by lognormal functions. Mixed-layer crystal mean thickness and expandability then can be used to calculate fundamental illite particle mean thickness. Analyses of the dehydrated, K-saturated samples indicate that basal XRD reflections are broadened by symmetrical strain that may be related to local variations in smectite interlayers caused by dehydration, and that the standard deviation of the strain increases regularly with expandability. The 001 and 002 reflections are affected only slightly by this strain and therefore are suited for CSD thickness analysis. Mean mixed-layer crystal thicknesses for dehydrated I-S measured by the BWA method are very close to those measured by an integral peak width method.

  20. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsár, Zoltán [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  1. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmann, Ern?; Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen; Homonnay, Zoltán; Klencsár, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila; Machala, Libor; Kubuki, Shiro; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek; Nath, Amar

    2014-10-01

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with FeIIIPc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  2. Microstructure of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy with Enhanced Magnetic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-02-14

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of ?5?nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  3. Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-07-30

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of 􏰫5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  4. Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-02-01

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of ˜5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  5. XRD and mineralogical analysis of gypsum dunes at White Sands National Monument, New Mexico and applications to gypsum detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, B.; Bishop, J. L.; Fenton, L. K.; King, S. J.; Blake, D.; Sarrazin, P.; Downs, R.; Horgan, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    A field portable X-ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument was used at White Sands National Monument to perform in-situ measurements followed by laboratory analyses of the gypsum-rich dunes and to determine its modal mineralogy. The field instrument is a Terra XRD (Olympus NDT) based on the technology of the CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity which is providing the mineralogical and chemical composition of scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale Crater [1]. Using Terra at White Sands will contribute to 'ground truth' for gypsum-bearing environments on Mars. Together with data provided by VNIR spectra [2], this study clarifies our understanding of the origin and history of gypsum-rich sand dunes discovered near the northern polar region of Mars [3]. The results obtained from the field analyses performed by XRD and VNIR spectroscopy in four dunes at White Sands revealed the presence of quartz and dolomite. Their relative abundance has been estimated using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method. For this study, particulate samples of pure natural gypsum, quartz and dolomite were used to prepare calibration mixtures of gypsum-quartz and gypsum-dolomite with the 90-150?m size fractions. All single phases and mixtures were analyzed by XRD and RIR factors were calculated. Using this method, the relative abundance of quartz and dolomite has been estimated from the data collected in the field. Quartz appears to be present in low amounts (2-5 wt.%) while dolomite is present at percentages up to 80 wt.%. Samples from four dunes were collected and prepared for subsequent XRD analysis in the lab to estimate their composition and illustrate the changes in mineralogy with respect to location and grain size. Gypsum-dolomite mixtures: The dolomite XRD pattern is dominated by an intense diffraction peak at 2??36 deg. which overlaps a peak of gypsum, This makes low concentrations of dolomite difficult to quantify in mixtures with high concentration of gypsum. Dolomite has been detected in some locations at dune 3 as high as 80 wt.%. Gypsum-quartz mixtures: The intensity of the main diffraction peak of quartz at 2??31 deg. decreases progressively with the decrease of the amount of quartz in the mixtures. Samples from dune 1 and 2 show quartz abundance at 5.6 and 2.6 wt.% respectively . [1] Blake et al. Space Sci. Rev. (2012). doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9905-1. [2] King et al. (2013) AGU, submitted. [3] Langevin et al. (2005). Science 307, 1584-1586.

  6. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Brinza, Loredana; Schofield, Paul F.; Hodson, Mark E.; Weller, Sophie; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500?p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced. PMID:24365942

  7. Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Nelia, E-mail: nelia.castro@ntnu.no [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sem Saelands vei 1, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)] [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sem Saelands vei 1, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Sorensen, Bjorn E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sem Saelands vei 1, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)] [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sem Saelands vei 1, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M. [Geological Survey of Norway, Department of Industrial Minerals and Metals, PO Box 6315 Sluppen, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-15

    The mineral content of 5 aggregate samples from 4 different countries, including reactive and non-reactive aggregate types, was assessed quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using polished sections. Additionally, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the opal-CT identified in one of the aggregate samples. Critical review of results from polished sections against traditionally powdered specimen has demonstrated that for fine-grained rocks without preferred orientation the assessment of mineral content by XRD using polished sections may represent an advantage over traditional powder specimens. Comparison of data on mineral content and silica speciation with expansion data from PARTNER project confirmed that the presence of opal-CT plays an important role in the reactivity of one of the studied aggregates. Used as a complementary tool to RILEM AAR-1, the methodology suggested in this paper has the potential to improve the strength of the petrographic method.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hard magnetic composites—Hollow microsphere\\/titania\\/barium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohong Mu; Xifeng Pan; Na Chen; Chihuan He; Mingyuan Gu

    2008-01-01

    Hard magnetic composites—hollow microsphere (core)\\/titania (intermediate layer)\\/barium ferrite (magnetic shell) (M\\/T\\/B) were prepared by wet-chemical method. Barium ferrite nanoparticles were directly coated on the rutile titania-coated hollow microsphere forming light hard magnetic composites using sol–gel technique. The prepared composites were characterized with FESEM, EDS, XRD and vibrating sample magnetometry. The composites are composed of barium ferrite, hematite, titania and mullite.

  9. Low-temperature synthesis of SrAl 2O 4 by a modified sol–gel route: XRD and Raman characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purificación Escribano; Mónica Marchal; María Luisa Sanjuán; Pablo Alonso-Gutiérrez; Beatriz Julián; Eloisa. Cordoncillo

    2005-01-01

    Among other alkaline-earth aluminates, the monoclinic (M) polymorph of SrAl2O4 can be used as host material for Eu2+ luminescence based phosphors. With the aim of reducing the synthesis temperature of this polymorph, we have produced and characterized by XRD and Raman scattering solid solutions of the SrAl2?xBxO4 system (x?0.3) obtained by two different methods, a ceramic route and a modified

  10. Re-dating of Chinese celadon shards excavated on Mapungubwe Hill, a 13th century Iron Age site in South Africa, using Raman spectroscopy, XRF and XRD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda C. Prinsloo; Nigel Wood; Maggi Loubser; Sabine M. C. Verryn; Sian Tiley

    2005-01-01

    Chinese celadon shards of the Longquan type, believed to date from the Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279 AD), were excavated in 1934 on Mapungubwe Hill, a 13th century Iron Age site in the Limpopo valley, South Africa. We studied the shards with Raman spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The Raman polymerization index (Ip), calculated from the spectra

  11. In situ cell for combined XRD and on-line catalysis tests: Studies of Cu-based water gas shift and methanol catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Clausen; G. Steffensen; B. Fabius; J. Villadsen; H. Topsoe; R. Feidenhansl

    1991-01-01

    A newly developed in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) cell has been used to obtain information on the structure of binary Cu-Zn and ternary Cu-Zn-Al catalysts during reduction and water gas shift and methanol synthesis. A major advantage of the cell is that it also serves as an ideal plug flow catalytic reactor such that realistic catalytic and structural information can

  12. Alteration of the Callovo–Oxfordian clay from Meuse-Haute Marne underground laboratory (France) by alkaline solution. I. A XRD and CEC study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ram??rez; P. Vieillard; A. Bouchet; A. Cassagnabère; A. Meunier; E. Jacquot

    2005-01-01

    The reaction of the clay fraction of the Callovo–Oxfordian hard shale formation hosting the French underground laboratory site, with high pH NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 solutions has been investigated through closed system experiments at 60, 90 and 120 °C over 6, 24 and 168 h. The mineralogical composition of the run samples has been determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) of

  13. Anion and cation distributions in Fe(II–III) hydroxysalt green rusts from XRD and Mössbauer analysis (carbonate, chloride, sulphate, …); the “fougerite” mineral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie R. Génin; Christian Ruby

    2004-01-01

    Main crystallographic features of Fe(II–III) hydroxysalts usually named green rusts are known from XRD. However, Mössbauer spectroscopy often used to characterise them revealed that several Fe(II) sites exist that have not been elucidated yet. The structure is classified in green rust one, GR1, and green rust two, GR2, according to the sequence of stacking of Fe(OH)2 brucite-like layers that depends

  14. XRD and XPS characterization of superplastic TiO2 coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V surgical alloy by an electrochemical method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shirkhanzadeh

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in conjunction with argon ion etching, were used to characterize the microstructure and the chemical composition of alkoxy-derived TiO2 coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V surgical alloy by an electrochemical method. The as-deposited oxide coatings prepared at room temperature (up to 40 µm thick) were amorphous, but transformed into nanocrystalline anatase at 550°C. Using

  15. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) characterization of the speciation of arsenic (V) in Portland cement type-V

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yousuf A. Mollah; Felix Lu; David L. Cocke

    1998-01-01

    The speciation of As(V) bearing oxyanions (AsO43?) in cementitious environment has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The hydration of Portland cement type-V(OPC-V) was found to be retarded in presence of AsO43?, and the retardation was caused mainly by the formation of highly insoluble calcium arsenate on the surface of hydrating cement particles. Arsenate

  16. Analysis of ferrate(VI) compounds and super-iron Fe(VI) battery cathodes: FTIR, ICP, titrimetric, XRD, UV\\/VIS, and electrochemical characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Licht; Vera Naschitz; Leonid Halperin; Nadezhda Halperin; Lin Lin; Jianjun Chen; Susanta Ghosh; Bing Liu

    2001-01-01

    Chemical and electrochemical techniques are presented for the analysis of Fe(VI) compounds used in super-iron electrochemical storage cells. Fe(VI) analytical methodologies summarized are FTIR, ICP, titrimetric, UV\\/VIS, XRD Fe(VI), potentiometric, galvanostatic, cyclic voltammetry, and constant load, current or power electrochemical discharges probes. The investigated FTIR methodology becomes quantitative with introduction of an internal standard such as added barium sulfate. Electrochemical

  17. X-ray diffraction microtomography (XRD-CT), a novel tool for non-invasive mapping of phase development in cement materials.

    PubMed

    Artioli, G; Cerulli, T; Cruciani, G; Dalconi, M C; Ferrari, G; Parisatto, M; Rack, A; Tucoulou, R

    2010-07-01

    A recently developed synchrotron-based imaging technique, X-ray diffraction microtomography (XRD-CT), has been applied here for the first time to a complex system, the hydrating Portland cement paste, in order to monitor the evolution of microstructure and phase formation with a 3D non-invasive imaging approach. The ettringite-XRD-peak-based image reconstructions, combined with transmission microtomography (X-microCT) images, allowed to assess the ubiquitous distribution of this phase, which appears early in the hydration process and showed its preferential concentration in the relatively less compact regions of the paste. The comparison of greyscale histograms for cement pastes after 9 and 58 h from hydration showed an increase of ettringite content with age, in agreement with the quantitative Rietveld analysis of the sum patterns. By renormalizing the greyscale histograms to the relative weight fraction, as obtained from Rietveld refinements, a new technique which allows estimation of phase contents with spatial resolution has been developed. The results achievable by combining XRD-CT, X-microCT and Rietveld appear very promising to provide experimental snapshots of the cement hydration process to be compared with results obtained from computer simulations. PMID:20358183

  18. Specialty magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1986-07-01

    A number of basic conceptual designs are explained for magnet systems that use permanent magnet materials. Included are iron free multipoles and hybrid magnets. Also appended is a discussion of the manufacturing process and magnetic properties of some permanent magnet materials. (LEW)

  19. Magnetic Pendulum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about magnetism (page 15 of the PDF), learners will explore how opposite and similar magnetic poles affect a swinging (pendulum) magnet. Learners will see firsthand how gravity and magnetism can work together to create a chaotic system. This is an excellent activity for experimenting with different variables to see how they affect the overall movement of a magnet.

  20. Magnetic Levitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets

  1. Effect of deposition pressure on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nongjai, R.; Khan, S.; Ahmad, H.; Khan, I. [Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, A.M.U., Aligarh (India); Asokan, K. [Material Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2013-06-03

    We present the influence of deposition pressure on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite thin films. Thin films of Co ferrite were deposited by rf sputtering on Si (100) substrate and characterized by X - Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns showed the formation of crystalline single phase of the films. The particle size and surface roughness of the films were strongly influence by gas pressure. Hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed the enhancement of magnetic properties with the increase of gas pressure which is attributed to the decrease of particle size.

  2. Magnetic, electronic and structural properties of Zn x Fe 3? x O 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meilan Wen; Qi Li; Yongtao Li

    2006-01-01

    A series of samples ZnxFe3?xO4 have been prepared by the chemical coprecipitation technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD demonstrates all the samples of ZnxFe3?xO4 have a spinel structure same as Fe3O4. The magnetic hysteresis loops of ZnxFe3?xO4 obtained from VSM indicate that the saturation magnetization has a maximum when

  3. Magnetic Attraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students complete a series of six short investigations involving magnets to learn more about their properties. Students also discuss engineering uses for magnets and brainstorm examples of magnets in use in their everyday lives.

  4. Magnet Mania

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the relationship between electric charges and magnetic fields. Learners create a magnetic field using electricity and observe its effect on the magnetic needle of a compass.

  5. Magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Harrison, S. E.; Schönherr, P.; Steinke, N.-J.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Alba-Veneroa, D.; Pushp, A.; Kellock, A. J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Harris, J. S.; Langridge, S.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2014-09-01

    We report the structural and magnetic study of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). Epitaxial layers were grown on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy in a two-step process. High-resolution XRD shows the exceptionally high crystalline quality of the doped films with no parasitic phases up to a Cr concentration of 12% (in % of the Bi sites occupied by substitutional Cr). The magnetic moment, measured by SQUID magnetometry, was found to be {\\sim}2.1\\ \\mu_\\text{B} per Cr ion. The magnetic hysteresis curve shows an open loop with a coercive field of {\\sim}10\\ \\text{mT} . The ferromagnetic transition temperature was determined to be 8.5\\ \\text{K} analyzing the magnetization-temperature gradient. PNR shows the film to be homogeneously ferromagnetic with no enhanced magnetism near the surface or interface.

  6. Preparation of magnetic fluorochromate hybrid nanomaterials with triphenylphosphine surface modified iron oxide nanoparticles and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Maleki, Ali; Maleki, Saied

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a new magnetic hybrid nanomaterial Fe3O4@SiO2@PPh3@[CrO3F]- is instituted. Firstly, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Next, the produced magnetic nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell via modified Stöber method. Then, the core-shell magnetic nanoparticles system Fe3O4@SiO2 functionalization was combined by utilizing (3-chloropropyl)trimethoxysilane and triphenylphosphine, to give the cationic part for immobilization of the anionic part of the Cr(VI) catalysts including [CrO3F]-. The structure of the catalyst after immobilization was investigated by using elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid state UV-vis. The particle size and morphology were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD. Magnetization properties of nanoparticles were confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  7. Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Anup; Kale, Sonia; Yadav, Prasad; Gholap, Haribhau; Pasricha, Renu; Jog, J. P.; Lefez, Benoit; Hannoyer, Béatrice; Shastry, Padma; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2011-06-01

    A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Cd Substituted Ni-Cu Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belavi, P. B.; Chavan, G. N.; Bammannavar, B. K.; Naik, L. R.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2011-07-01

    Cadmium substituted Ni-Cu Ferrites with the general formula Ni0.95-xCdxCu0.05Fe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were prepared by the standard double sintering ceramic method. The existences of single phase formation with crystalline size of 25-38 nm were confirmed from XRD measurements. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms) and Magnetic moment (?B) were studied by VSM analysis. The existence of multidomain (MD) particles in the samples was revealed from the small values of Mr/Ms.

  9. A new magnetic expanded graphite for removal of oil leakage.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Lilin

    2014-04-15

    Magnetic expanded graphite (MEG) was prepared using the blended calcination method under a nitrogen atmosphere. MEG was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetization (VSM). Results show that the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were uniformly and efficiently deposited on expanded graphite (EG). The saturation magnetization reached 55.05 emu g(-1), and the adsorption capacity of MEG under the optimal condition was 35.72 g g(-1) for crude oil. PMID:24559739

  10. Novelty Preparation, Characterization and Enhancement of Magnetic Properties of MN Nanoferrites Using Safety Binder (egg White)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Okasha, N.; El-Dek, S. I.

    2013-03-01

    Nanocrystalline MnFe2O4 ferrite was prepared using natural binder; egg white was used as an aqueous medium to extend nanoparticle preparation better than any other interesting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed also that the investigated samples revealed the nanosized structure with crystallite size of 39nm. The magnetic susceptibility measurements give a Curie temperature TC = 613K with effective magnetic moment 23 B. M. The values of magnetic constants as obtained from hysteresis data are, saturation magnetization Ms = 13.71 emu/g, remanent magnetization Mr = 0.1694 emu/g and coercivity Hc = 25.6 Oe.

  11. Molecular insights of oxidation process of iron nanoparticles: spectroscopic, magnetic, and microscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Auffan, Mélanie; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rose, Jérôme; Olivi, Luca; Borschneck, Daniel; Kvapil, Petr; Jublot, Michael; Kaifas, Delphine; Malleret, Laure; Doumenq, Pierre; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    Oxidation behavior of nano-Fe(0) particles in an anoxic environment was determined using different state-of-the-art analytical approaches, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) combined with energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and magnetic measurements. Oxidation in controlled experiments was compared in standard double distilled (DD) water, DD water spiked with trichloroethene (TCE), and TCE contaminated site water. Using HR-TEM and EFTEM, we observed a surface oxide layer (?3 nm) formed immediately after the particles were exposed to water. XAS analysis followed the dynamic change in total metallic iron concentration and iron oxide concentration for the experimental duration of 35 days. The metallic iron concentration in nano-Fe(0) particles exposed to water, was ?40% after 35 days; in contrast, the samples containing TCE were reduced to ?15% and even to nil in the case of TCE contaminated site water, suggesting that the contaminants enhance the oxidation of nano-Fe(0). Frequency dependence measurements confirmed the formation of superparamagnetic particles in the system. Overall, our results suggest that nano-Fe(0) oxidized via the Fe(0) - Fe(OH)2 - Fe3O4 - (?-Fe2O3) route and the formation of superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles due to disruption of the surface oxide layer. PMID:25369322

  12. Low-Temperature Magnetic Properties of Environmentally Relevant Iron Oxyhydroxides and Their Alteration Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Y. J.; Lagroix, F.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Bonville, P.

    2011-12-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides such as ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite are weakly magnetic mineral that are thought to be, in some environments, precursors of more magnetic phases such as magnetite or maghemite. Deciphering the alteration pathways of these minerals, and others, should allow quantified interpretations of sediment magnetic properties in terms of climate and environmental change in various natural settings. At this meeting, we will present recent low temperature magnetic properties acquired on synthetic iron oxyhydroxides. Comparison of these low-temperature data with other characterizations (e.g., HR-TEM, Mossbauer, XMCD) point to the complex nature of the magnetism of these minerals, which can no longer be considered as simple antiferromagnets. Results from alteration experiments using these minerals as starting material will also be presented. Several experimental approaches have been used for these alterations, including bio-reduction using Shewanella putrefaciens and solid-state reduction (or oxidation) by slow heating in CO/CO2 (or in air). The low-temperature magnetic properties of the resulting materials actually help in building conceptual structural/compositional models explaining the unusual low-temperature magnetic behavior of the initial iron oxyhydroxides.

  13. Fabrication of surface magnetic nanoclusters using low energy ion implantation and electron beam annealing.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J; Leveneur, J; Williams, G V M; Mitchell, D R G; Markwitz, A

    2011-03-18

    Magnetic nanoclusters have novel applications as magnetic sensors, spintronic and biomedical devices, as well as applications in more traditional materials such as high-density magnetic storage media and high performance permanent magnets. We describe a new synthesis protocol which combines the advantages of ion implantation and electron beam annealing (EBA) to produce surface iron nanoclusters. We compare the structure, composition and magnetic properties of iron nanoclusters fabricated by low dose 15 keV Fe implantation into SiO(2) followed by 1000?°C EBA or furnace annealing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images together with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements show that only EBA leads to the rapid formation of surface crystalline Fe spherical nanoclusters, showing magnetic moments per Fe atom comparable to that of bulk bcc Fe and superparamagnetic properties. We propose a fabrication mechanism which includes e-beam enhanced desorption of SiO(2). This method has potential for fabricating nanoscale magnetic sensors integrated in microelectronic devices. PMID:21297238

  14. PyXRD v0.6.2: a FOSS program to quantify disordered, layered minerals using multi-specimen X-ray diffraction profile fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumon, M.; Van Ranst, E.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a free and open-source model called PyXRD (short for Python X-ray diffraction) to improve the quantification of complex, poly-phasic mixed-layer phyllosilicate assemblages. The novelty of this model is the ab initio incorporation of the multi-specimen method, making it possible to share phases and (a selection of) their parameters across multiple specimens. By effectively reducing the number of parameters and increasing the number of observations, this approach speeds up the manual refinement process significantly when automated algorithms are used. To check the hypothesis that the multi-specimen set-up can improve automatic parameter refinement, we calculated X-ray diffraction patterns for four theoretical mineral assemblages. These patterns were then used as input for a refinement employing the multi-specimen set-up and one employing the single-pattern set-ups. For all of the assemblages, PyXRD was able to reproduce or approximate the input parameters with the multi-specimen approach. Diverging solutions only occurred in single-pattern set-ups which do not contain enough information (e.g. patterns of heated samples) to discern all the different minerals. Assuming a correct qualitative interpretation was made and a single pattern exists in which all phases are sufficiently discernible, the obtained results indicate a good quantification can often be obtained with just that pattern. For naturally occurring samples, this could mean modelling air-dry and/or ethylene-glycolated patterns might be sufficient. However, these results from theoretical experiments cannot automatically be extrapolated to all real-life experiments. In any case, PyXRD has proven to be very useful when X-ray diffraction patterns are modelled for complex mineral assemblages containing mixed-layer phyllosilicates with a multi-specimen approach.

  15. Crystal hack' to predict h, k, l from 'c' as well as 'a' values for cubic and HCP binary alloy crystals from XRD data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. M. Kanagasabapathy

    'Crystal hack' by Dr M Kanagasabapathy is used to predict h, k, l from 'c' as well as 'a' values for cubic and HCP binary alloy crystals from XRD data (2-Theta diffraction and wavelength of X-rays). d-spacing and hkl can be predicted precisely. Inbuilt data base for some elemental crystal system is included. It can be a useful tool for powder diffraction researchers / students to predict or shift in diffraction angle with hkl indices for cube-HCP binary alloy crystals.

  16. Effect of interparticle interactions on size determination of zirconia and silica based systems – A comparison of SAXS, DLS, BET, XRD and TEM

    PubMed Central

    Pabisch, Silvia; Feichtenschlager, Bernhard; Kickelbick, Guido; Peterlik, Herwig

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is a systematic comparison of size characterisation methods for two completely different model systems of oxide nanoparticles, i.e. amorphous spherical silica and anisotropic facet-shaped crystalline zirconia. Size and/or size distribution were determined in a wide range from 5 to 70 nm using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nitrogen sorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A nearly perfect coincidence was observed only for SAXS and TEM for both types of particles. For zirconia nanoparticles considerable differences between different measurement methods were observed. PMID:22347721

  17. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (< 5N) and thus offers significant advantages for operation from lightweight platforms and in low gravity environments. The USDC is lightweight (<0.5kg), and can be driven at low power (<5W) using duty cycling. It consists of an actuator with a piezoelectric stack, ultrasonic horn, free-mass, and drill bit. The stack is driven with a 20 kHz AC voltage at resonance. The strain generated by the piezoelectric is amplified by the horn by a factor of up to 10 times the displacement amplitude. The tip impacts the free-mass and drives it into the drill bit in a hammering action. The free-mass rebounds to interact with the horn tip leading to a cyclic rebound at frequencies in the range of 60-1000 Hz. It does not require lubricants, drilling fluid or bit sharpening and it has the potential to operate at high and low temperatures using a suitable choice of piezoelectric material. To assess whether the powder from an ultrasonic drill would be adequate for analyses by an XRD/XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL ultrasonic drill were analyzed and the results were compared to carefully prepared powders obtained using a laboratory bench scale Retsch mill.

  18. XRD and xanes studies of copper complexes using (diethyl 4-amino-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5 dicarboxylate) as ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Jain, Garima

    2013-06-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies have been done on three copper complexes using (diethyl 4-amino-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5 dicarboxylate) as ligand. The X-ray diffraction studies of copper complexes have been recorded using Rigaku RINT-2000 X-ray diffractometer equipped with a rotating anode with tube voltage of 40 kV and current of 100 mA. The X-ray absorption spectra of the complexes have been recorded at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore and is called beamline.

  19. Magnet Tower

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners build magnetic towers to explore the forces and properties of magnets. This activity allows learners to experiment and play with magnets and feel first-hand the force of magnets pushing and pulling. Note: this activity requires the use of a drill and saw, which are not included in the cost of materials.

  20. Magnets and Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-29

    This lesson demonstrates how students can apply the process of identifying main idea and supporting details to show how the force of magnetism works and how it can be useful in everyday life. The lesson provides an opportunity for students to interact with informational text and participate in a jigsaw learning activity.

  1. Synthesis, structural and vibrational investigation on 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide combining XRD diffraction, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies with DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Jilu; Yohannan Panicker, C; Nayak, Prakash S; Narayana, B; Sarojini, B K; Van Alsenoy, C; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-01-25

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The title compound was optimized by using the HF/6-31G(6D,7F) and B3LYP/6-31G(6D,7F) calculations. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with the XRD data. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital (1)H-NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential was performed by the DFT method. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non linear optics. From the XRD data, in the crystal, molecules are held together by strong C-H?O and N-H?O intermolecular interactions. PMID:25124846

  2. Synthesis, structural and vibrational investigation on 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide combining XRD diffraction, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies with DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose, Jilu; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Nayak, Prakash S.; Narayana, B.; Sarojini, B. K.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-phenyl-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)acetamide have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The title compound was optimized by using the HF/6-31G(6D,7F) and B3LYP/6-31G(6D,7F) calculations. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with the XRD data. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital 1H-NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential was performed by the DFT method. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non linear optics. From the XRD data, in the crystal, molecules are held together by strong Csbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O intermolecular interactions.

  3. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    PubMed

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-03-24

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±? ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±? phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD. PMID:25742991

  4. Combined In-Situ XRD and In-Situ XANES Studies on the Reduction Behavior of a Rhenium Promoted Cobalt Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitin [Louisiana State University; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Jothimurugesan, K [Chevron Energy Technology Company; Spivey, James J [Louisiana State University

    2011-01-01

    A 10% Co 4% Re/(2% Zr/SiO2) catalyst was prepared by co-impregnation using a silica support modified by 2% Zr. The catalyst was characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), in situ XRD and in situ XANES analysis where it was simultaneously exposed to H2 using a temperature programmed ramp. The results showed the two step reduction of large crystalline Co3O4 with CoO as an intermediate. TPR results showed that the reduction of highly dispersed Co3O4 was facilitated by reduced rhenium by a H2-spillover mechanism. In situ XRD results showed the presence of both, Co-hcp and Co-fcc phases in the reduced catalyst at 400 C. However, the Co-hcp phase was more abundant, which is thought to be the more active phase as compared to the Co-fcc phase for CO hydrogenation. CO hydrogenation at 270 C and 5 bar pressure produces no detectable change in the phases during the time of experiment. In situ XANES results showed a decrease in the metallic cobalt in the presence of H2/CO, which can be attributed due to oxidation of the catalyst by reaction under these conditions.

  5. Mineralogical In-situ Investigation of Acid-Sulfate Samples from the Rio Tinto River, Spain, with a Portable XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Amils, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A field campaign was organized in September 2006 by Centro de Astobiologica (Spain) and Washington University (St Louis, USA) for the geological study of the Rio Tinto river bed sediments using a suite of in-situ instruments comprising an ASD reflectance spectrometer, an emission spectrometer, panoramic and close-up color imaging cameras, a life detection system and NASA's CheMin 4 XRD/XRF prototype. The primary objectives of the field campaign were to study the geology of the site and test the potential of the instrument suite in an astrobiological investigation context for future Mars surface robotic missions. The results of the overall campaign will be presented elsewhere. This paper focuses on the results of the XRD/XRF instrument deployment. The specific objectives of the CheMin 4 prototype in Rio Tinto were to 1) characterize the mineralogy of efflorescent salts in their native environments; 2) analyze the mineralogy of salts and oxides from the modern environment to terraces formed earlier as part of the Rio Tinto evaporative system; and 3) map the transition from hematite-dominated terraces to the mixed goethite/salt-bearing terraces where biosignatures are best preserved.

  6. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of high purity CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL material

    SciTech Connect

    Kamarudin, Nadira [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor, Malaysia and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan; Dollah, Mohd Taufik [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This paper presents the characterization and TL properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) TL material produced by co-precipitation technique with 0.5mol% concentration of dopant. The morphology of the produced TL material was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the micrograph shows that rectangular parallelepiped shaped crystal with the average of 150 ?m in length were produced. The crystallinity of the produced powder was studied using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD spectra show that the TL material produced is high purity anhydrite CaSO{sub 4} with average crystallite size of 74 nm with orthorhombic crystal system. The TL behavior of produced CaSO{sub 4}:Dy was studied using a TLD reader after exposure to gamma ray by Co{sup 60} source with the doses of 1,5 and 10 Gy. The glow curve shows linear response with glow peak around 230°C which is desired development in the field of radiation dosimetry.

  7. The production of magnetic nanoparticles of Iron Oxide by arc discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Fathollah, Sara; Nikeyn, Maryam; Khatami, Shohreh

    2012-10-01

    Nanoparticles can be utilized for any practical application. In recent years; considerable attention has been paid to iron oxide magnetic. Iron oxide nanoparticles are the class of nanoparticle which can have useful magnetic properties. In this research, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were produced by Arc discharge method in water. Structural analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Spectrophotometer. Various magnetic nanoparticles like iron carbide (Fe3c), magnetic iron oxide (magnetite /maghemite) are obtained by arc discharge method in water. In this work have been showed, the influence of the time duration on the number of magnetic nanoparticles and the influence of the gap between the two electrodes on particle structure and size distribution. Furthermore, when iron nanoparticles are used under applied magnetic field, the particles would move in the direction of magnetic field. When the magnetic field is removed, the particles stop moving and still remain stably suspend in the dielectric liquid.

  8. Magnetic properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Hongyu

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the magnetic properties of magnetotactic bacteria (MTBs) is of great interest in fields of life sciences, geosciences, biomineralization, biomagnetism, and planetary sciences. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans), obtaining energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron and various reduced inorganic sulfur compounds, can synthesize intracellular magnetite magnetosomes. However, the magnetic properties of such microorganism remain unknown. Here we used transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), magneto-thermogravimetric analysis (MTGA), and low temperature magnetometry to comprehensively investigate the magnetic characteristics of At. ferrooxidans. Results revealed that each cell contained only 1 to 3 magnetite magnetosomes, which were arranged irregularly. The magnetosomes were generally in a stable single-domain (SD) state, but superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite particles were also found. The calcined bacteria exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie Temperature of 454 °C and a coercivity of 16.36 mT. Additionally, the low delta ratio (?FC/?ZFC=1.27) indicated that there were no intact magnetosome chains in At. ferrooxidans. Our results provided the new insights on the biomineralization of bacterial magnetosomes and magnetic properties of At. ferrooxidans. PMID:23910310

  9. Polymer nanocomposites exhibiting magnetically tunable microwave properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, K.; Pal, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morales, C.; Dewdney, J.; Weller, T.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been synthesized using Rogers polymer and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFO NPs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the inverse spinel crystal structure of CFO NPs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles (10 nm ± 1) into the polymer matrix. Magnetic measurements indicate superparamagnetic response near room temperature for all PNCs. A blocking temperature TB ~ 298 K was observed and does not vary for different loading fractions of CFO NPs for the PNCs. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was found to be 11 emu g - 1 for 30 wt% CFO, increasing to 32 emu g - 1 for the 80 wt% CFO loaded PNC. A large value of coercivity (Hc = 19 kOe) is also observed at 10 K and is not affected by varying CFO loading. Microwave measurements show significant absorption in the 80 wt% CFO loading PNC and the quality factor shows a strong enhancement with applied magnetic field.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of chromium doped zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Rintu Mary; Thankachan, Smitha; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M., E-mail: emmohammed2005@gmail.com [Research Department of Physics, Maharaja's College, Ernakulam, Kerala (India); Joseph, Shaji [Department of Physic, St. Albert's College, Ernakulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Zinc chromium ferrites with chemical formula ZnCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by Sol - Gel technique. The structural as well as magnetic properties of the synthesized samples have been studied and reported here. The structural characterizations of the samples were analyzed by using X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The single phase spinel cubic structure of all the prepared samples was tested by XRD and FTIR. The particle size was observed to decrease from 18.636 nm to 6.125 nm by chromium doping and induced a tensile strain in all the zinc chromium mixed ferrites. The magnetic properties of few samples (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0) were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

  11. Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students visualize the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet using a compass. The lesson begins with an analogy to the effect of the Earth's magnetic field on a compass. Students see the connection that the compass simply responds to the Earth's magnetic field since it is the closest, strongest field, and thus the compass responds to the field of the permanent magnets, allowing them the ability to map the field of that magnet in the activity. This information will be important in designing a solution to the grand challenge in activity 4 of the unit.

  12. Magnetic Anisotropy Enhancement for hcp Structured Co Alloy Thin Films through Pt Doping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Shen; A. Das; M. Racine; R. Cheng; J. H. Judy; J. Wang

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the Pt doping effects in Ru interlayer to adjust Ru lattice. A DC magnetron sputtering system is used to deposit the films. XRD and TEM are used to evaluate the film orientation and microstructure. Magnetic properties such as perpendicular hysteresis loops and coercivity are tested using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Results show that the highest

  13. Preparation and structure characterization of nanocrystalline BaFeO 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Min Ni; Ming-Rong Ji; Zhi-Ping Yang; Hua-Gui Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaFeO4 was prepared and purified by special measures. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the existence of Fe(VI). X-ray diffraction studies indicated that they have an orthorhombic unit cell with space group Pnma and lattice parameters a=0.8880nm, b=0.5512nm, c=0.7214nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area diffraction (SAED) characterization provided further proofs to the accuracy of XRD data. Both the

  14. Development of magnetic composite photocatalytic particles for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo

    Hard magnetic composite photocatalytic particles were developed for the purpose of enhancing the separation efficiency, reusability, and photocatalytic activity by applying an external magnetic field. Two types of core-shell structured magnetic composite photocatalysts were developed; the first one is composed of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/titania (photoactive shell) and the second one consists of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/silica (intermediate layer)/titania (photoactive shell). The physical and chemical properties of the developed composite particles were characterized using the various analytical instruments (i.e., SEM, TEM, XRD, W-Vis, BET, and EDS) and the photocatalytic activities of the particles were evaluated by the photodegradation of an organic dye under UV irradiation. A magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was developed for the hard magnetic composite photocatalyst developed. A simple model was used to estimate the resonant frequency as a function of particle magnetization and magnetic field gradient. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composite photocatalytic particles in the magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was compared to that in the photocatalytic reactor. Various TiO2-SnO2 composite nanoparticles were synthesized with the three different preparation procedures based on the wet-chemical method to improve the overall photocatalytic activity. The crystal structures of the prepared TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were evaluated using XRD and the photocatalytic activities of the composite particles were compared to those of pure TiO2 particles. Furthermore, the developed TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were adopted and tested on the magnetic composite photocatalytic particles.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic behavior of Co/MCM-41 nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuello, N.; Elías, V.; Crivello, M.; Oliva, M.; Eimer, G.

    2013-09-01

    Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Co/MCM-41 as magnetic nano-composites have been investigated. Mesoporous materials with different degrees of metal loading were prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by ICP, XRD, N2 adsorption, UV-vis DRS, TPR and EPMA-EDS. Cobalt oxide clusters and Co3O4 nano-particles could be confined inside the mesopores of MCM-41, being this fact favored by the Co loading increasing. In addition, larger crystals of Co3O4 detectable by XRD also grow on the surface when the Co loading is enhanced. The magnetic characterization was performed in a SQUID magnetometer using a maximum magnetic applied field µ0Ha=1 T. While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion.

  16. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  17. Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  18. Magnetic Declination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geophysical Data Center

    A page with basic information about magnetic declination and how it changes over time. The page includes a calculator to determine the magnetic declination at your location, as well as tools for comparing the current declination to historical declination.

  19. A new approach in quantitative in-situ XRD of cement pastes: Correlation of heat flow curves with early hydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Christoph; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, Friedlinde; Neubauer, Juergen, E-mail: neubauer@geol.uni-erlangen.d

    2011-01-15

    XRD measurements of the hydration of synthetical cement (SyCem) were used to calculate the resulting heat flow from changes in the phase content. Calculations were performed by application of thermodynamic data. The comparison with data recorded from heat flow calorimetry was in good agreement with the calculated heat flow. The initial maximum of heat flow mainly is caused by the aluminate reaction. During the entire main period the silicate reaction dominates hydration with a high and long first maximum of heat flow. The second but less intense heat flow maximum - only visible as a shoulder in most of the technical cements - can be attributed to an acceleration of the aluminate reaction with the enhanced dissolution of C{sub 3}A and the final formation of ettringite. Moreover, the investigation showed that the dissolution process of C{sub 3}A is directly controlled by the availability of the calcium sulfate phases.

  20. A comprehensive review of the XRD data of the primary and secondary phases present in the BSCCO superconductor system. Part 1: Ca-Sr-Cu oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, B. J.; Hubbard, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray powder patterns for the phases in the CaO-SrO-CuO ternary system, along with the corresponding crystal structures, were obtained from the literature and from the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). Available X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were compared with each other and, when possible, with a simulated pattern for each phase, yielding a recommended reference pattern. The simulated powder patterns presented here deal with the phases found within the (Ca, Sr)O, (Ca,Sr)2CuO3, (Ca,Sr)14Cu24O41, (Ca,Sr)CuO2, (Ca,Sr)Cu2O3, and (Ca,Sr)Cu2O2 solid solution series and are recommended for the PDF.

  1. Formation and magnetic properties of Co–Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with supercooled liquid region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Sun; X. B. Liang; T. Kulik

    2006-01-01

    A new Co–Fe-based ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) was synthesized by copper mould casting method. The thermal stability and crystallization processes were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The soft magnetic behavior was studied by DC magnetic measurements. The high glass formation ability was interpreted in terms of the effective suppression of nucleation and growth of

  2. Studies on the magnetism of cobalt ferrite nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Zhao; Hongjie Zhang; Yan Xing; Shuyan Song; Shiyong Yu; Weidong Shi; Xianmin Guo; Jianhui Yang; Yongqian Lei; Feng Cao

    2008-01-01

    Fe–Co\\/CoFe2O4 nanocomposite and CoFe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The structure of magnetic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravity analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) techniques, while magnetic properties were determined by

  3. Magnetic and Reflection Loss Characteristics of Substituted Barium Ferrite\\/Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ghasemi; Sirus Javadpour; Xiaoxi Liu; Akimitsu Morisako

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) nanocomposites have been created by the assembly of Mg-Ni-Ti substituted barium ferrite nanoparticles onto surface of MWCNTs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to demonstrate the successful attachment of ferrite nanoparticles to MWCNTs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirms the relatively strong dependence of saturation of magnetization and coercivity with the volume

  4. Magnetic Microstructure of Amorphous\\/Nanocrystalline Fe-Mo-Cu-B Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miglierini; J. Degmová; T. Ka?uch; P. Švec; E. Illeková; D. Jani?kovi?

    Structure-to-magnetic arrangement relationship is investigated in NANOPERM- type Fe76Mo8Cu1B15 metallic ribbons prepared by planar flow casting. Its particular composition proved to be suitable for model case studies of the complexity of magnetic interactions frequently observed in nanocrystalline alloys. As-quenched as well as annealed samples are characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and

  5. Magnetism Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about magnetism (page 4 of the PDF), learners will experiment with magnets and different objects to find out that not all metals are attracted to magnets. Even though there are only a few supplies listed, the possibilities are really endless when it comes to what learners can try to attract to the magnet. Learners make predictions and compare their predictions to actual outcomes.

  6. Magnetic Pendulums

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-05

    In this activity and demonstration about electricity and magnetism, learners observe how the current generated when one copper coil swings through a magnetic field starts a second coil swinging. Learners also explore what happens when they change the polarity of the magnet, reverse the coil, or add a clip lead to short-circuit the coils. Use this activity to illustrate how electricity and magnetism interact. The assembly of the electromagnetic swing device takes about an hour.

  7. Magnetic Storms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson to introduce the Kp index, a common numerical indicator of magnetic storminess. Learners will access and analyze Kp index plots of magnetic storm strength and determine the relative frequency of stronger versus weaker magnetic storms during years of maximum solar activity. This resource is activity 13 from the Magnetic Mysteries of the Aurora teachers guide. Internet access is required for this activity.

  8. Free volume in ionic liquids: a connection of experimentally accessible observables from PALS and PVT experiments with the molecular structure from XRD data.

    PubMed

    Beichel, Witali; Yu, Yang; Dlubek, Günter; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pfefferkorn, Dirk; Bulut, Safak; Bejan, Dana; Friedrich, Christian; Krossing, Ingo

    2013-06-14

    In the current work, free volume concepts, primarily applied to glass formers in the literature, were transferred to ionic liquids (ILs). A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4MIM](+)) based ILs was investigated by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The phase transition and dynamic properties of the ILs [C4MIM][X] with [X](-) = [Cl](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [OTf](-), [NTf2](-) and [B(hfip)4](-) were reported recently (Yu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 6856-6868). In this subsequent work, attention was paid to the connection of the free volume from PALS (here the mean hole volume, ) with the molecular structure, represented by volumes derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. These were the scaled molecular volume Vm,scaled and the van der Waals volume V(vdw). Linear correlations of at the "knee" temperature ((T(k))) with V(m,scaled) and V(vdw) gave good results for the [C4MIM](+) series. Further relationships between volumes from XRD data with the occupied volume Vocc determined from PALS/PVT (Pressure Volume Temperature) measurements and from Sanchez-Lacombe Equation of State (SL-EOS) fits were elaborated (V(occ)(SL-EOS) ? 1.63 V(vdw), R(2) = 0.981 and V(occ)(SL-EOS) ? 1.12 V(m,scaled), R(2) = 0.980). Finally, the usability of V(m,scaled) was justified in terms of the Cohen-Turnbull (CT) free volume theory. Empirical CT type plots of viscosity and electrical conductivity showed a systematic increase in the critical free volume with molecular size. Such correlations allow descriptions of IL properties with the easily accessible quantity V(m,scaled) within the context of the free volume. PMID:23640471

  9. Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

    2013-01-28

    We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca2+-Cl- CIP’s, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIP’s separated by about 4.99 Å. In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 Å. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

  10. Magnetic Suction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-11-13

    In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners discover how a doorbell works. A coil of wire with current flowing through it forms an electromagnet that acts similar to a bar magnet. The coil will magnetize an iron nail and attract it in a remarkably vigorous way.

  11. Preparation of magnetically responsive albumin nanospheres and in vitro drug release studies.

    PubMed

    Ak, Güliz; Y?lmaz, Habibe; Sanl?er, Senay Hamarat

    2014-02-01

    In this work, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded magnetic albumin nanospheres were prepared using desolvation method in order to develop magnetically responsive nanocarrier system. Nanoparticles were characterized with zetasizer, SEM, AFM, XRD and magnetometer. In vitro DOX release was also investigated. It was found that nanoparticles had spherical shape with narrow size distributions and had magnetic responsiveness. In addition, slower drug release was observed with nanoparticulate system compared with free DOX. Moreover, the release rate should accelerate at target sites (cancer cells or tissue) where proteolytic enzymes are more abundant as known; therefore, magnetic albumin nanospheres can be effective potential DOX carrier with targeting ability. PMID:23419121

  12. Preparation of magnetic composite microspheres by surfactant free controlled radical polymerization: Preparation and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hepeng; Zhang, Qiuyu; Zhang, Baoliang; Guo, Feige

    2009-12-01

    Submicron magnetic composite microspheres have been prepared by a new surfactant free controlled radical polymerization. This new approach is based on the use of diphenylethene (DPE) as radical controlling agent and no emulsifier is required. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), etc. were conducted to characterize the magnetite particles and magnetic composite microspheres. The average size of the magnetic composite microspheres prepared by this new approach is 265 nm and the magnetite content of the composite microspheres is around 20%. Furthermore, the magnetic composite microspheres which surfaces have epoxy groups were also prepared.

  13. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores and their performance as separable bilirubin adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Cui, Xiangzhi; Li, Yongsheng; He, Qianjun; Zhang, Lingxia; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2009-09-01

    Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores are directly replicated from hollow mesoporous aluminosilicate spheres with hematite cores by a simple incipient-wetness impregnation technique. The amount of magnetic cores and the saturation magnetization value can be easily tuned by changing the concentration of iron nitrate solution used in the synthesis procedure. As-prepared hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores are used as separable bilirubin adsorbents and show very good adsorptive properties. The characteristics of as-prepared composites are examined by XRD, N(2) sorption, TEM, vibrating-sample magnetometry, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:19582733

  14. Effect of Gd substitution on structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2015-02-01

    Multiferroic ceramic samples of GdxB1-xFeO3 (x = 0 – 0.35) have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The results of XRD show a transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic structure with increase in composition. Ferromagnetic order is observed with an enhanced magnetization (M) and coercivity (Hc) for all the doped samples. Maximum magnetization is observed at the field of 5T for x = 0.3. The temperature dependant magnetization shows the anomalous magnetic behaviour in this system. A minimum in the M-T curve and double hysteresis loop behaviour were observed for the samples with x=0.1 and 0.2

  15. Electroplating hard magnetic SmCo for magnetic microactuator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jue; Rissing, Lutz

    2011-04-01

    Patterned SmCo thin films were electroplated from an aqueous solute containing glycine by using dc and pulse dc current on the beaker level. Micromolds prepared by photolithography allow an accurate pattern transfer for patterned deposition of the material. A flux guide of a magnetic microactuator was chosen as a pattern, and Al2O3 was used as the substrate. Au and Cr were investigated as seed layer materials. The content of Sm in the SmCo films is strongly dependent on the applied cathodic current density. A relative Sm content of up to 13.8 at. % could be determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The SmCo thin films were annealed at 560 °C in a vacuum oven. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements were applied to characterize the magnetic properties. This film features hard magnetic properties with an intrinsic coercivity Hci of up to 44 kA/m. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurements showed that up to 40 at. % of O may be integrated in these films. The phases in the deposited films were determined by applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. These films consist of a mixture of SmCo alloy, Sm oxide, and Co.

  16. One step synthesis of quantum dot-magnetic nanoparticle heterodimers for dual modal imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Hwang, Gyoyeon; Hong, Yeon Sun; Sim, Taebo

    2015-03-30

    Dual modal nanoprobes are promising tools for accurately detecting target molecules as part of the diagnosis of diseases including cancers. We have explored a new dual modal bioimaging probe that is comprised of a quantum dot (QD)-magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hybrid. The MNP-QD heterodimers explored are fabricated by using a platinum-guanine coordination bonding guided self-assembly process, employing the metal-DNA conjugation method. Investigations utilizing energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) equipped high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrate that the heterodimer contains an iron (Fe) dominant MNP and a cadmium (Cd) dominant QD. Finally, the results of cell studies show that the MNP-QD conjugates display good HeLa cell uptake in the absence of non-specific binding to the cell membrane and, as such, they can be used to label cells in vitro and in vivo as part of a new cell imaging technique. PMID:25742182

  17. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, T.; Shick, A. B.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Falmbigl, M.; Wastin, F.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of {Np,Pu}BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below TN = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below TC = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  18. Electrical and magnetic properties of nano-sized magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Smitha; X, Sheena; J, Binu P.; Mohammed, E. M.

    2015-02-01

    Nano-sized magnesium ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel techniques. Structural characterization was done using X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Vibration Sample Magnetometer was used to record the magnetic measurements. XRD analysis reveals the prepared sample is single phasic without any impurity. Particle size calculation shows the average crystallite size of the sample is 19nm. FTIR analysis confirmed spinel structure of the prepared samples. Magnetic measurement study shows that the sample is ferromagnetic with high degree of isotropy. Hysterisis loop was traced at temperatures 100K and 300K. DC electrical resistivity measurements show semiconducting nature of the sample.

  19. Effects of coating on magnetic properties in iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittova, B.; Poltierova-Vejpravova, J.; Roca, A. G.; Morales, M. P.; Tyrpekl, V.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied influence of surface modification on physical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. We compared samples prepared by thermal decomposition of organic precursor in the presence of oleic acid, and the particles prepared by coprecipitation and partially coated by SiO2 or modified by citric acid and subsequently covered by photoactive TiO2 layer, respectively. Samples were characterised using TEM and XRD, further magnetic studies such as temperature dependence of magnetization and a.c. susceptibility show superparamagnetic behavior for all samples at room temperature. The effects of coating on dipolar inter particle interactions are discussed.

  20. Magnetic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bath, G.D.; Jahren, C.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Baldwin, M.J. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (USA)

    1983-12-31

    Air and ground magnetic anomalies in the Climax stock area of the NTS help define the gross configuration of the stock and detailed configuration of magnetized rocks at the Boundary and Tippinip faults that border the stock. Magnetizations of geologic units were evaluated by measurements of magnetic properties of drill core, minimum estimates of magnetizations from ground magnetic anomalies for near surface rocks, and comparisons of measured anomalies with anomalies computed by a three-dimensional forward program. Alluvial deposits and most sedimentary rocks are nonmagnetic, but drill core measurements reveal large and irregular changes in magnetization for some quartzites and marbles. The magnetizations of quartz monzonite and granodiorite near the stock surface are weak, about 0.15 A/m, and increase at a rate of 0.00196 A/m/m to 1.55 A/m, at depths greater than 700 m (2300 ft). The volcanic rocks of the area are weakly magnetized. Aeromagnetic anomalies 850 m (2800 ft) above the stock are explained by a model consisting of five vertical prisms. Prisms 1, 2, and 3 represent the near surface outline of the stock, prism 4 is one of the models developed by Whitehill (1973), and prism 5 is modified from the model developed by Allingham and Zietz (1962). Most of the anomaly comes from unsampled and strongly-magnetized deep sources that could be either granite or metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. 48 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Part I. Synthesis and applications of molecular sieves. Part II. The effect of temperature and support in reduction of cobalt oxide: An in situ XRD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces Trujillo, Luis Javier

    Part I. Alkylation of aniline (PhNH2) with methanol (MeOH) over co-crystallized zeolite RHO-Zeolite X (FAU) and over zeolite Linde Type L (Sr,K-LTL) as catalysts has been studied. Co-crystallized zeolite RHO-Zeolite X (FAU) favors the formation of N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA), with high selectivity >90%, having an advantage over pure zeolite X(FAU) of staying active even after 10 h of reaction. Activity of co-crystallized RHO-Zeolite X (FAU) is higher than that for Sr,K-LTL in terms of production of NNDMA. Octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) have been reported as catalysts for oxidation reactions. Effects of using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in the synthesis of OMS-2 have been studied. Structure of OMS-2 was kept when PVA or PVP were used as indicated by XRD and FTIR data. PVA and PVP were useful to improve the film hardness of OMS-2 applied on glass surfaces as measured by the pencil hardness test, and Knoop microhardness test. By using PVA or PVP as non-chelating agents, an increase in surface area from 59 (m2/g) to 114 (m2/g), a decrease in particle size, from 29.8 nm to 12.1 nm, and a hardness value of 4H using the pencil hardness test, and 17.73 HK by Knoops micro hardness tests for OMS-2 prepared with PVA were observed. ZK-5 (KFI) molecular sieve was synthesized in the K2O: SrO: Al2O3: SiO2: 160 H2O: THF system using conventional hydrothermal heating. Products were characterized by XRD, TGA, FESEM, EDX and TPD-MS. Molar ratios of THF/Al2O3 from 0.4 to 1.0 gives best results in terms of crystallinity and purity for the prepared ZK-5. Part II. Reduction of cobalt oxide (Co 3O4) at different temperatures and in combination with different modifiers and supported on gamma-Al2O3 was monitored by in situ X-ray diffraction. Complete reduction of cobalt oxide to the (hcp) phase is observed at 250°C. Different reduction sequence can give different results in terms of crystalline phase obtained for cobalt even if the same maximum reduction temperature is reached. Supported Co 3O4 was reduced at 350°C to CoO and Co metal (hcp). Addition of modifiers increases the ratio of cobalt metal obtained as calculated by X-ray intensity ratios.

  2. Uranium speciation as a function of depth in contaminated hanford sediments--a micro-XRF, micro-XRD, and micro- and bulk-XAFS study.

    PubMed

    Singer, David M; Zachara, John M; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution and speciation of U and Cu in contaminated vadose zone and aquifer sediments from the U.S. DOE Hanford site (300 Area) were determined using a combination of synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (microXRF) imaging, micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (microXANES) spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (microXRD) techniques combined with bulk U LIII-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from within the inactive North Process Pond (NPP2) at 8 ft (2.4 m, NPP2-8) depth and 12 ft (3.7 m, NPP2-12) depth in the vadose zone, and fines were isolated from turbid groundwater just below the water Table (12-14 ft, approximately 4 m, NPP2-GW). microXRF imaging, microXRD, and microXANES spectroscopy revealed two major U occurrences within the vadose and groundwater zones: (1) low to moderate concentrations of U(VI) associated with fine-textured grain coatings that were consistently found to contain clinochlore (referred to here as chlorite) observed in all three samples, and (2) U(VI)-Cu(II) hotspots consisting of micrometer-sized particles associated with surface coatings on grains of muscovite and chlorite observed in samples NPP2-8' and NPP2-GW. In the aquifer fines (NPP2-GW), these particles were identified as cuprosklodowskite (cps: Cu[(UO2)(SiO2OH)]2 x 6H2O) and metatorbernite (mtb: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 x 8H2O). In contrast, the U-Cu-containing particles in the vadose zone were X-ray amorphous. Analyses of U LIII-edge XAFS spectra by linear-combination fitting indicated that U speciation consisted of (1) approximately 75% uranyl sorbed to chlorite and approximately 25% mtb-like X-ray amorphous U-Cu-phosphates (8 ft depth), (2) nearly 100% sorbed uranyl (12 ft depth), and (3) approximately 70% uranyl sorbed to chlorite and approximately 30% cps/mtb (groundwater zone). These findings suggest that dissolution of U(VI)-Cu(II)-bearing solids as well as desorption of U(VI), mainly from phyllosilicates, are important persistent sources of U(VI) to the associated uranium groundwater plume in Hanford Area 300. PMID:19244994

  3. Following the movement of Cu ions in a SSZ-13 zeolite during dehydration, reduction and adsorption: a combined in situ TP-XRD, XANES/DRIFTS study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Varga, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Gao, Feng; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Szanyi, Janos

    2014-05-05

    Cu-SSZ-13 has been shown to possess high activity and superior N2 formation selectivity in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx under oxygen rich conditions. Here, a combination of synchrotron-based (XRD and XANES) and vibrational (DRIFTS) spectroscopy tools have been used to follow the changes in the location and coordination environment of copper ions in a Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite during calcinations, reduction with CO, and adsorption of CO and H2O. XANES spectra collected during these procedures provides critical information not only on the variation in the oxidation state of the copper species in the zeolite structure, but also on the changes in the coordination environment around these ions as they interact with the framework, and with different adsorbates (H2O and CO). Time-resolved XRD data indicate the movement of copper ions and the consequent variation of the unit cell parameters during dehydration. DRIFT spectra provide information about the adsorbed species present in the zeolite, as well as the oxidation states of and coordination environment around the copper ions. A careful analysis of the asymmetric T-O-T vibrations of the CHA framework perturbed by copper ions in different coordination environments proved to be especially informative. The results of this study will aid the identification of the location, coordination and oxidation states of copper ions obtained during in operando catalytic studies. Financial support was provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Part of this work (sample preparation) was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The EMSL is a national scientific user facility supported by the US DOE, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for the US DOE by Battelle. All of the spectroscopy work reported here was carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). NSLS is a national scientific user facility supported by the US DOE.

  4. Structural changes and thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO? cathode materials studied by combined in situ time-resolved XRD and mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bak, Seong-Min; Hu, Enyuan; Zhou, Yongning; Yu, Xiqian; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Cho, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan

    2014-12-24

    Thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC, with x + y + z = 1, x:y:z = 4:3:3 (NMC433), 5:3:2 (NMC532), 6:2:2 (NMC622), and 8:1:1 (NMC811)) cathode materials is systematically studied using combined in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy (TR-XRD/MS) techniques upon heating up to 600 °C. The TR-XRD/MS results indicate that the content of Ni, Co, and Mn significantly affects both the structural changes and the oxygen release features during heating: the more Ni and less Co and Mn, the lower the onset temperature of the phase transition (i.e., thermal decomposition) and the larger amount of oxygen release. Interestingly, the NMC532 seems to be the optimized composition to maintain a reasonably good thermal stability, comparable to the low-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC333 and NMC433), while having a high capacity close to the high-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC811 and NMC622). The origin of the thermal decomposition of NMC cathode materials was elucidated by the changes in the oxidation states of each transition metal (TM) cations (i.e., Ni, Co, and Mn) and their site preferences during thermal decomposition. It is revealed that Mn ions mainly occupy the 3a octahedral sites of a layered structure (R3?m) but Co ions prefer to migrate to the 8a tetrahedral sites of a spinel structure (Fd3?m) during the thermal decomposition. Such element-dependent cation migration plays a very important role in the thermal stability of NMC cathode materials. The reasonably good thermal stability and high capacity characteristics of the NMC532 composition is originated from the well-balanced ratio of nickel content to manganese and cobalt contents. This systematic study provides insight into the rational design of NMC-based cathode materials with a desired balance between thermal stability and high energy density. PMID:25420188

  5. Magnetic properties of substituted strontium ferrite nanoparticles and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali

    2012-04-01

    SrFe12-x(Zr0.5Mg0.5)xO19 nanoparticles and thin films with x=0-2.5 were synthesized by a sol-gel method on thermally oxidized silicon wafer (Si/SiO2). Structural and magnetic characteristics of synthesized samples were studied employing x-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptometer, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). TEM micrographs display that the narrow size distribution of ferrite nanoparticles with average particle size of 50 nm were fabricated. Fitting obtained data of effective magnetic susceptibility by Vogel-Fulcher law confirms the existence of strong magnetic interaction among fine particles. XRD patterns and FE-SEM micrographs demonstrated that single phase c-axis hexagonal ferrite films with rather narrow grain size distribution were obtained. AFM micrographs exhibited that the surface roughness increases with an increase in Zr-Mg content. It was found from the VSM graphs that with an increase in substitution contents the coercivity decreases, while the saturation of magnetization increases. The Henkle plots confirms the existence of exchange coupling among nano-grain in ferrite thin films.

  6. Deposition and interface structures of YBCO thin films via a non-fluorine sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Donglu; Xu, Yongli; Wang, S. X.; Lian, J.; Wang, L. M.; McClellan, Shaun M.; Buchanan, Relva; Goretta, K. C.

    2002-06-01

    Previous work on YBa 2Cu 3O x (YBCO) thin films deposited by fluorine-based sol-gel synthesis has been extensively reported. To further develop grain-textured YBCO thin films for conductor development, we deposited, via a fluorine-free sol-gel synthesis, YBCO thin films on single crystal substrates of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and LaAlO 3 (LAO). Sol-gel-derived films on the YSZ and LAO substrates exhibited epitaxial growth. This result was confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A transport Jc above 10 5 A/cm 2 has been reached at 77 K and zero magnetic field. Experimental details are reported on the sol-gel synthesis, XRD and HRTEM characterization of the YBCO thin films. Also discussed is the underlying crystallization mechanism of the YBCO phase on these substrates.

  7. Magnetic Field Distribution of Permanent Magnet Magnetized by Static Magnetic Field Generated by HTS Bulk Magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Oka; Nobutaka Kawasaki; Satoshi Fukui; Jun Ogawa; Takao Sato; Toshihisa Terasawa; Yoshitaka Itoh; Ryohei Yabuno

    2012-01-01

    Demagnetized rare earth magnets (Nd-Fe-B) can be fully magnetized by scanning them in the intense static fields over 3 T of a HTS bulk magnet which was cooled to the temperature range lower than 77K with use of cryo-coolers and activated by the field of 5 T. We precisely examined the magnetic field distributions of magnetized permanent magnets. The magnetic

  8. Magnetic mineralogy of heavy metals-contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenggao, L.

    2012-04-01

    Soils around mine and in urban areas are often contaminated by heavy metals derived from industrial and human activities [1, 2]. These contaminated soils are often characterized by a magnetic enhancement on topsoils. Many studies demonstrated that there are significant correlations between heavy metals and various magnetic parameters in contaminated soils, indicating a strong affinity of heavy metals to magnetic minerals. The magnetic particles in contaminated soils were separated by a magnetic separation technique. The rock magnetism, XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy equiped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (FESEM/EDX) were used to characterize their magnetic mineralogy. Results of XRD analysis indicated that the magnetic particles separated from heavy metal-contaminated soils are composed of quartz, magnetite, and hematite. Based on the X-ray diffraction peak intensity, the Fe3O4 was identified as the predominant magnetic mineral phase. The high-temperature magnetization (Ms-T) curves of magnetic particles extracted from contaminated soils show a sharp Ms decrease at about 580C (the Curie temperature of magnetite), suggesting that magnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier. The hysteresis loops of contaminated soils are closed at about 100-200 mT which is consistent with the presence of a dominant ferrimagnetic mineral phase. The FESEM analysis showed a great variety of shapes of magnetic particles in contaminated soils. The most common morphology are observed in the form of spherules, with the sizes ranging from 20 to 100 um. The chemical composition of magnetic particles consist mainly of Fe, Si, Al, and Ca with minor heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr). The semi-quantitative Fe content identified by FESEM/EDX ranged from 40 to 90%. Combined studies of rock magnetism, XRD, and FESEM/EDX indicated that magnetic mineral phases responsible for the magnetic enhancement of contaminated soils are anthropogenic origin which are coarse-grained multi-domain (MD) ferrimagnetic minerals. These spherical magnetic particles in contaminated soils are most likely related to airborne particles from coal combusition and industrial activities. Coal burning, metallurgical and industrial dusts contain a significant fraction of ferrimagnetic minerals. The magnetic particles in fly ash from coal-burning power plant have a typical spherical morphology, ranging from 10 to 100 ?m. Vehicle emissions have been suggested to be another source of magnetic particles. These anthropogenic ferrimagnetic mineral phases are directly responsible for the magnetic enhancement in the contaminated soils. Therefore, the strong magnetic signature in contaminated soils can be used as an effective tool for identifying pollution sources and quantifying pollution level of heavy metals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 41171182 and 40971131) and the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (20090101110088). [1] Lu, S.G. & Bai, S.Q. (2006) J. Appl. Geophys., 60, 1-12. [2] Lu, S.G., Bai, S.Q. & Xue, Q.F. (2007) Geophys. J. Inter., 171, 568-580.

  9. Magnetic shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Roger R. (Walnut Creek, CA); Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  10. Magnetic Fluids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this fun, engaging activity, students are introduced to a unique type of fluid—ferrofluids—whose shape can be influenced by magnetic fields! Students act as materials engineers and create their own ferrofluids. They are challenged to make magnetic ink out of ferrofluids and test their creations to see if they work. Concurrently, they learn more about magnetism, surfactants and nanotechnology. As they observe fluid properties as a standalone-fluid and under an imposed magnetic field, they come to understand the components of ferrofluids and their functionality.

  11. Animal Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

  12. Strange Magnetism

    E-print Network

    Thomas R. Hemmert; Ulf-G. Meissner; Sven Steininger

    1998-11-09

    We present an analytic and parameter-free expression for the momentum dependence of the strange magnetic form factor of the nucleon and its corresponding radius which has been derived in Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory. We also discuss a model-independent relation between the isoscalar magnetic and the strange magnetic form factors of the nucleon based on chiral symmetry and SU(3) only. These limites are used to derive bounds on the strange magnetic moment of the proton from the recent measurement by the SAMPLE collaboration.

  13. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  14. Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain medical conditions such as pacemakers, magnetic implants, or embedded shrapnel. In addition, high magnetic

  15. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals by magnetic nanoadsorbent: an equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsath, D. S.; Shirivastava, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and new magnetic nanoadsorbent photocatalyst was fabricated by co-precipitation technique. This research focuses on understanding metal removal process and developing a cost-effective technology for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated industrial wastewater. In this investigation, magnetic nanoadsorbent has been employed for the removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions by a batch adsorption technique. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The thermodynamics of Zn(II) ions adsorption onto the magnetic nanoadsorbents indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. Surface morphology of magnetic nanoadsorbent by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis by EDX technique. The structural and photocatalytic properties of magnetic nanoadsorbent were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR techniques. Also, the magnetic properties of synthesized magnetic nanoadsorbent were determined by vibrating spinning magnetometer (VSM).

  16. Investigation of irradiation effects induced by self-ion in 6H-SiC combining RBS/C, Raman and XRD

    SciTech Connect

    Chaabane, Nihed [CEA, Saclay, France; Debelle, Aurelien [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Sattonnay, Gael [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Trocellier, Patrick [CEA, Saclay, France; Serruys, Yves [CEA, Saclay, France; Thome, Lionel [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL; Meis, Constantin [CEA, Saclay, France; Gosmain, Lionel [CEA, Saclay, France; Boulle, Alexandre [SPCTS, Limoges Cedex, France

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of 6H-SiC were irradiated at room temperature and 670 K with 4 MeV C ions at two fluences: 1015 and 1016 cm2 (0.16 and 1.6 dpa at the damage peak). Damage accumulation was studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling geometry (RBS/C) along the [0001] direction. The irradiated layer is found to be composed of a low damage region up to 1.5 lm followed by a region where the disorder level is higher, consistent with SRIM predictions. At room temperature and low fluence, typically 1015 cm2, the strain depth profile follows the dpa depth distribution (with a maximum value of 2%). The disorder is most likely due to small defect clusters. When increasing the fluence up to 1016 cm2, a buried amorphous layer forms, as indicated by e.g. Raman results where the Si C bands become broader or even disappear. At a higher irradiation temperature of 670 K, amorphization is not observed at the same fluence, revealing a dynamic annealing process. However, results tend to suggest that the irradiated layer is highly heterogeneous and composed of different types of defects.

  17. Low-temperature synthesis of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by a modified sol-gel route: XRD and Raman characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Purificacion [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica. Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Marchal, Monica [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica. Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Luisa Sanjuan, Maria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Alonso-Gutierrez, Pablo [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Julian, Beatriz [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica. Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Cordoncillo, Eloisa [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica. Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)]. E-mail: cordonci@qio.uji.es

    2005-06-15

    Among other alkaline-earth aluminates, the monoclinic (M) polymorph of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be used as host material for Eu{sup 2+} luminescence based phosphors. With the aim of reducing the synthesis temperature of this polymorph, we have produced and characterized by XRD and Raman scattering solid solutions of the SrAl{sub 2-x}B{sub x}O{sub 4} system (x=<0.3) obtained by two different methods, a ceramic route and a modified sol-gel synthesis. Though the addition of boron lowers the temperature of obtention of the M polymorph in both type of samples, lower B contents are needed to stabilize the M form as single phase for samples prepared by the sol-gel method than through the ceramic route. In the sol-gel method, the M polymorph can be obtained at temperatures as low as 1200 deg. C, with a Boron content of just 1%. Rietveld profile analysis allows us to conclude that coexistence of the monoclinic and hexagonal polymorphs of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} occurs for samples synthesized below an onset temperature of about 1000-1100 deg. C, that depends on the sample composition. Above those temperatures, only the monoclinic phase is formed.

  18. Composition-dependent structure of polycrystalline magnetron-sputtered V–Al–C–N hard coatings studied by XRD, XPS, XANES and EXAFS

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Bärbel; Darma, Susan; Kaufholz, Marthe; Mangold, Stefan; Doyle, Stephen; Ulrich, Sven; Leiste, Harald; Stüber, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    V–Al–C–N hard coatings with high carbon content were deposited by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using an experimental combinatorial approach, deposition from a segmented sputter target. The composition-dependent coexisting phases within the coating were analysed using the complementary methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). For the analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, a new approach for evaluation of the pre-edge peak was developed, taking into account the self-absorption effects in thin films. Within the studied composition range, a mixed face-centred cubic (V,Al)(C,N) phase coexisting with a C–C-containing phase was observed. No indication of hexagonal (V,Al)(N,C) was found. The example of V–Al–C–N demonstrates how important a combination of complementary methods is for the detection of coexisting phases in complex multi-element coatings. PMID:24046506

  19. XPS, XRD and SEM characterization of a thin ceria layer deposited onto graphite electrode for application in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wiatowska, Jolanta; Lair, Virginie; Pereira-Nabais, Catarina; Cote, Gérard; Marcus, Philippe; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2011-08-01

    Thin ceria layer deposited by electro-precipitation onto graphite was synthesised and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electro-precipitated ceria has a cubic structure with nanocrystallites of about 6 nm. The SEM analyses shows that the ceria layer reflects the morphology of the graphite electrode, exhibits small cracks usually found on the electro-precipitated films but covers almost completely the surface of the graphite. The ceria layer is composed of 75% Ce(IV) and 25% Ce(III) oxides as indicated by the XPS analyses. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (1/1) (wt/wt) in the presence of 1 M LiPF 6 show that reversible lithium insertion and deinsertion occurs in the graphite/ceria electrode and that the ceria layer on the graphite electrode prevents from the loss of capacity during the first four cycles. The reduction of the electrolyte occurs at about 0.7 V vs Li/Li + on both electrodes but XPS and SEM analyses show that the SEI layer is thin and not as homogenous on the graphite as on the graphite/ceria electrode. The composition of the SEI layer on the graphite/ceria electrode, mainly composed of Li 2CO 3, ROCO 2Li, R-CH 2OLi and LiF, is different than those obtained on the graphite.

  20. Characterisation of mineralogical forms of barium and trace heavy metal impurities in commercial barytes by EPMA, XRD and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ansari, T M; Marr, I L; Coats, A M

    2001-02-01

    This study was carried out to characterise the mineralogical forms of barium and the trace heavy metal impurities in commercial barytes of different origins using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Qualitative EPMA results show the presence of typically eight different minerals in commercial barytes including barite (BaSO4), barium feldspar, galena (PbS), pyrite (FeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), quartz (SiO2), and silicates, etc. Quantitative EPMA confirms that the barite crystals in the barytes contain some strontium and a little calcium, whereas trace heavy metals occur in the associated minerals. Analysis of aqua regia extracts of barytes samples by ICP-MS has shown the presence of a large number of elements in the associated minerals. Arsenic, copper and zinc concentrations correlate closely in all 10 samples. The findings suggest that barytes is not, as traditionally thought, an inert mineral, but is a potentially toxic substance due to its associated heavy metal impurities, which can be determined by an aqua regia digest without the need for complete dissolution of the barite itself. X-ray powder diffraction was not informative as the complex barite pattern masks the very weak lines from the small amounts of associated minerals. PMID:11253006

  1. Composition-dependent structure of polycrystalline magnetron-sputtered V-Al-C-N hard coatings studied by XRD, XPS, XANES and EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Krause, Bärbel; Darma, Susan; Kaufholz, Marthe; Mangold, Stefan; Doyle, Stephen; Ulrich, Sven; Leiste, Harald; Stüber, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2013-08-01

    V-Al-C-N hard coatings with high carbon content were deposited by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using an experimental combinatorial approach, deposition from a segmented sputter target. The composition-dependent coexisting phases within the coating were analysed using the complementary methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). For the analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, a new approach for evaluation of the pre-edge peak was developed, taking into account the self-absorption effects in thin films. Within the studied composition range, a mixed face-centred cubic (V,Al)(C,N) phase coexisting with a C-C-containing phase was observed. No indication of hexagonal (V,Al)(N,C) was found. The example of V-Al-C-N demonstrates how important a combination of complementary methods is for the detection of coexisting phases in complex multi-element coatings. PMID:24046506

  2. Changes in the surfaces of adsorbed p-nitrophenol on methyltrioctadecylammonium bromide organoclay--an XRD, TG, and infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Frost, Ray L; He, Hongping; Xi, Yunfei

    2007-10-15

    Water purification is of extreme importance worldwide. p-Nitrophenol was used as a test chemical to design and test an organoclay for the removal of p-nitrophenol from an aqueous solution. Synthesis of the organoclay with methyltrioctadecylammonium bromide [CH(3)(CH(2))(17)](3)NBr(CH(3)) labeled as MTOAB results in multiple expansions of the montmorillonite clay from 1.24 nm to a maximum of 5.20 nm as is evidenced by the XRD patterns. Thermal analysis shows strong bonding of the surfactant to the clay siloxane layers and the interaction of the p-nitrophenol with the clay surfaces. It is proposed that the p-nitrophenol penetrates the siloxane layer of the clay and bonds through the ditrigonal space of the siloxane hexagonal units to the inner OH units. Such a concept is supported by the observation of an additional infrared band at 3652 cm(-1) for the organoclay. Shifts in the p-nitrophenol OH stretching vibrations mean a strong interaction of the p-nitrophenol molecule. Significant changes in the siloxane stretching bands are also observed. PMID:17673226

  3. The Mineralogy of Martian Dust: Design and Analysis Considerations for an X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluorescence (XRD/XRF) Instrument for Exobiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Bish, David; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A principal objective of Mars exploration is the search for evidence of past life which may have existed during an earlier clement period of Mars history. We would like to investigate the history of surface water activity (which is a requirement for all known forms of life) by identifying and documenting the distribution of minerals which require water for their formation or distribution. A knowledge of the mineralogy of the present Martian surface would help to identify areas which, due to the early activity of water, might have harbored ancient life. It would be desirable to establish the presence and characterize the distribution of hydrated minerals such as clays, and of minerals which are primarily of sedimentary origin such as carbonates, silica and evaporites. Mineralogy, which is more critical to exobiological exploration than is simple chemical analysis (absent the detection of organics), will remain unknown or will at best be imprecisely constrained unless a technique sensitive to mineral structure such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is employed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Synthesis, spectral, stereochemical, single crystal XRD and biological studies of 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-one picrate derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savithiri, S.; Arockia doss, M.; Rajarajan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.

    2014-10-01

    Various substituted 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one picrates (1-7) were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectral studies. NMR spectral assignments were made unambiguously by their one dimensional (1H NMR and 13C NMR) and two dimensional (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, DEPT) NMR spectra. Single crystal XRD analysis of the compound (1) has confirmed that the complex crystallized in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The difference in the chemical shifts between equatorial methylene proton and axial proton at C(5) [? = ?eq - ?ax] is highly negative in compounds 1-7 in contrast to the value observed for the corresponding parent piperidine-4-one and is indicative of the 1,3-diaxial interaction between the axial NH bond and axial hydrogen at C(5). The chemical shifts of the heterocyclic ring protons are influenced by the picrate anion. All the synthesised compounds exhibited good activity against S. aureus-Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and C. albicans fungal strains.

  5. Relationship between the structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped SnO? nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Jason S.; Punnoose, Alex; Baldner, R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peloquin, J.; Reddy, K. M.

    2005-08-05

    In this paper, we present the results of a detailed investigation of the structural, optical and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized pure and Co doped SnO? powders using x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magnetometry. For low doping concentrations of Co (? 1%), the SnO? lattice contracts and a ferromagnetic behavior is developed. Increasing the Co doping concentration to > 1% leads to a rapid expansion of the lattice and significant structural disorder evidenced by changes in the XRD and Raman spectra presumably due to additional interstitial incorporation of Co. This higher Co doping completely destroys the ferromagnetism. The striking similarity between the changes in the lattice parameters and the magnetic properties of Sn?-xCoxO? indicates a structure-magnetic property relationship.

  6. Preparation, structure and magnetic characterization of Ni doped ZnO nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do?an, N.; Bingölbali, A.; Arda, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of magnetism in Ni-doped ZnO magnetic nano-particles (x=0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30) are synthesized by the sol-gel technique using solutions of Ni and Zn based alkoxide which are dissolved into a solvent and a chelating agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were employed to understand how the Ni-doped influenced the structural and magnetic properties of the nano-crystalline ZnO particles. The grain sizes of the ZnNiO nano-particles were measured to be approximately 90 nm by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. XRD measurements and SEM studies show that Ni-doped ZnO has wurtzite structures with NiO secondary phases. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed for highly Ni-doped ZnO nano-particles.

  7. Organized Silica Microspheres Carrying Ferromagnetic Cobalt Nanoparticles as a Basis for Tip Arrays in Magnetic Force Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Prozorov, Ruslan

    Organized Silica Microspheres Carrying Ferromagnetic Cobalt Nanoparticles as a Basis for Tip Arrays cobalt nanoparticles of size 10 nm well adhered to hard silica microspheres (225-250 nm) were synthesized to the microspherical silica were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM/EDAX, TGA, DSC, EPR and magnetic susceptibility methods

  8. Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

  9. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Lanthanum Based CMR Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Javier; Bleiweiss, Michael; Saygi, Salih; Datta, Timir; Yin, Ming; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce; Iqbal, Zafar

    2001-03-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of bulk polycrystalline samples of Ca doped manganite perovskites have been studied. The material properties were characterized using SEM, EDX and XRD. Magnetization measurements were performed using a SQUID magnetometer in order to determine Curie temperature and moment per Mn ion. The temperature and field (H) dependence of the electrical resistance, R(T,H) and Hall effect were measured by standard ac four and six probe techniques in magnetic fields up to 17 T*. Typical zero field I-M transition peaks near 275 K in R(T) and negative dR/dH at high fields were observed. However, for H < 0.2 T, positive MR is seen. The results of these measurements, including low field positive magnetoresistance, will be reported. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL

  10. Structural and magnetic characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline CoxFe3-xO4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, Adel Maher; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Structural and magnetic properties have been investigated for CoxFe3-xO4 nanoferrites (x=0.5-1.2, with a step increment of 0.1) prepared by a citrate-precursor autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra prove the formation of a cubic spinel phase of CoFe2O4, besides x-dependent FeCo2O4 spinel for samples with x?0.7. Size of the formed nano-crystals ranges from 34 to 45 nm, which is further confirmed with a TEM micrograph. Investigating magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, and remanence field, through vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) data, revealed a strong dependence of the magnetic properties of each sample on its own cation distribution being suggested according to the experimental results of XRD, VSM, and IR data.

  11. Magnetic Materials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students begin working on the grand challenge of the unit by thinking about the nature of metals and quick, cost-effective means of separating different metals, especially steel. They arrive at the idea, with the help of input from relevant sources, to use magnets, but first they must determine if the magnets can indeed isolate only the steel.

  12. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Matsui, Hiroshi (Glen Rock, NJ); Matsunaga, Tadashi (Tokyo, JP)

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  13. Influence of rare-earth ions on structural and magnetic properties of CdFe 2 O 4 ferrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Gadkari; Tukaram Shinde; Pramod Vasambekar

    2010-01-01

    Nano-sized powders of rare-earth ions added CdFe2O4 ferrites were synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method. The influence of R ions (R = Sm3+, Y3+, and La3+) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CdFe2O4 ferrites was studied. XRD, SEM, FTIR, and magnetic hysteresis loops were used for analyzing the samples. The addition of\\u000a R ions alters the structure of the powders

  14. Growth and characterization of Al 1? X Mn X as ( X?4%) magnetic semiconductor: thin film and superlattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyu Liu; J. De Boeck; V. V. Moshchalkov; G. Borghs

    2002-01-01

    A new diluted magnetic semiconductor, AlMnAs, was grown using stoichiometric low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, with Mn composition up to 4%. In situ (RHEED) and ex situ (XRD, SIMS) characterization of uniform thin films and a GaAs\\/AlMnAs superlattice revealed good crystal quality and a very high Mn incorporation. Magnetic and electrical characterization showed the samples to be semi-insulating and hence paramagnetic,

  15. Magnetic properties of iron\\/graphite core–shell nanoparticles prepared by annealing of Fe–C–N-based nanocomposite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. David; N. Pizúrová; O. Schneeweiss; R. Alexandrescu; I. Morjan; A. Crunteanu; I. Voicu

    2005-01-01

    We are reporting the phase composition and magnetic properties of the core–shell structured iron\\/graphite nanoparticles formed during annealing of a nanopowder prepared by laser pyrolysis of gas phase reactants. The originally synthesized Fe–C–N-based nanocomposite powder was characterized by TEM, XRD and magnetic measurements. The nanopowder was heated up to 800°C in vacuum. The presence of iron nanoparticles with a mean

  16. Effect of adding MgO to bulk Bi2212 melt textured in a high magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pavard; C. Villard; D. Bourgault; R. Tournier

    1998-01-01

    Bulk samples of Bi2212 pure and doped with MgO or 0953-2048\\/11\\/12\\/002\\/img7 were prepared by melt processing in a high magnetic field. The structure of the samples was analysed using XRD and SEM and their transport properties were studied. The results show that when a magnetic field is applied during melt processing the bulk Bi2212 is textured with the c-axis parallel

  17. Analysis of "Meridiani Planum"-like evaporites using CheMin, an XRD/XRF instrument proposed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.

    2004-12-01

    The discovery of up to 30-40 wt% sulfate salts in sediments at Meridiani Planum [1-2] indicates that evaporite sediments have played an important role in the hydrogeologic history of Mars. Data available to date support the presence of the mineral jarosite (a hydrous Fe-sulfate), Mg-sulfate, and lesser amounts of salts containing Cl and Br. One of the most exciting features of the Meridiani sediments is the possibility that the salts may be hydrated. Water storage in minerals may be a significant source of the elevated hydrogen abundances seen in some equatorial regions by the Odyssey spacecraft, with abundances up to 8-9 wt% water-equivalent present in areas where water ice should not be stable [3]. Is it possible that salt hydrates in evaporite sediments can account for some of this equatorial water? The ability to quantify mixed-salt mineralogies will be important for determining brine history on Mars. Definitive mineralogy, a key requirement of MSL, can be accomplished by the CheMin X-ray Diffraction / X-ray Fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument [4]. The MSL approach to investigating this kind of deposit can be based on the capabilities demonstrated by MER-B (visual petrography, Mossbauer, APXS, and Mini-TES). The enhanced drilling capability of MSL can be used to collect and transfer cores to the rock crusher for pulverizing and ultimate delivery of crushed material to CheMin. If MSL is able to traverse kilometers or tens of kilometers, CheMin characterization of changes in evaporite mineralogy, zonation in evaporite facies or the mineralogical identity of detrital grains could be used to conduct an analysis of the evaporative basin - lateral extent, water depth, salinity, facies changes, etc. The ability to quantify hydrated mineral assemblages will be important for reconstructing brine evolution and for determining the nature of interactions between brine minerals and detrital mineralogy. The important contribution of CheMin to a site like Meridiani will be to provide accurate and definitive mineralogical data of complex multi-mineral mixtures. Definitive mineralogical data will be highly useful in interpreting brine chemistry and the nature and extent of the ancient habitable zone that existed there. [1]. MER Rover web site (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/mer2004/rover-images/mar-02-2004/images-3-2-04.html [2]. Kerr, R. A. (2004), "A wet early Mars seen in salty deposits," Science 303, 1450. [3]. Feldman, W. C., et al. (2003), "The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars," In: Sixth Int. Conf. on Mars, abstract #3218, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM). [4]. Blake, D.F., P. Sarrazin, D.L. Bish, S. Feldman, S.J. Chipera, D.T. Vaniman, and S.A. Collins (2004), "Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analogs Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument," Lunar and Planetary Science Conf XXXV, abstr. #1373 (CD-ROM).

  18. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized Metal–Organic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  19. Adsorption and separation of light gases on an amino-functionalized metal-organic framework: an adsorption and in situ XRD study.

    PubMed

    Couck, Sarah; Gobechiya, Elena; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Juan-Alcañiz, Jana; Martinez Joaristi, Alberto; Stavitski, Eli; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2012-04-01

    The NH(2)-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO(2) from CH(4), H(2), N(2)C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8) mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO(2) were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO(2), all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO(2) interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO(2) from other gases. The separation of CO(2) from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH(2)-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO(2) was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH(2)-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years. PMID:22378615

  20. Synthesis and detection the oxidization of Co cores of Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles by in situ XRD and EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunhao; Zhao, Ziyan; Wu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. The oxidization of Co core nanoparticles was studied by the synchrotron radiation-based techniques including in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) up to 800°C in air and N2 protection conditions, respectively. It was found that the oxidization of Co cores is undergoing three steps regardless of being in air or in N2 protection condition. In the first step ranging from room temperature to 200°C, the Co cores were dominated by Co(0) state as well as small amount of Co(2+) ions. When temperature was above 300°C, the interface between Co cores and SiO2 shells was gradually oxidized into Co(2+), and the CoO layer was observed. As the temperature increasing to 800°C, the Co cores were oxidized to Co3O4 or Co3O4/CoO. Nevertheless, the oxidization kinetics of Co cores is different for the Co@SiO2 in air and N2 gas conditions. Generally, the O2 in the air could get through the SiO2 shells easily onto the Co core surface and induce the oxidization of the Co cores due to the mesoporous nature of the SiO2 shells. However, in N2 gas condition, the O atoms can only be from the SiO2 shells, so the diffusion effect of O atoms in the interface between Co core and SiO2 shell plays a key role. PMID:25852334

  1. Synthesis and detection the oxidization of Co cores of Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles by in situ XRD and EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kunhao; Zhao, Ziyan; Wu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. The oxidization of Co core nanoparticles was studied by the synchrotron radiation-based techniques including in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) up to 800°C in air and N2 protection conditions, respectively. It was found that the oxidization of Co cores is undergoing three steps regardless of being in air or in N2 protection condition. In the first step ranging from room temperature to 200°C, the Co cores were dominated by Co0 state as well as small amount of Co2+ ions. When temperature was above 300°C, the interface between Co cores and SiO2 shells was gradually oxidized into Co2+, and the CoO layer was observed. As the temperature increasing to 800°C, the Co cores were oxidized to Co3O4 or Co3O4/CoO. Nevertheless, the oxidization kinetics of Co cores is different for the Co@SiO2 in air and N2 gas conditions. Generally, the O2 in the air could get through the SiO2 shells easily onto the Co core surface and induce the oxidization of the Co cores due to the mesoporous nature of the SiO2 shells. However, in N2 gas condition, the O atoms can only be from the SiO2 shells, so the diffusion effect of O atoms in the interface between Co core and SiO2 shell plays a key role.

  2. Two modifications formed by "sulflower" C16S8 molecules, their study by XRD and optical spectroscopy (Raman, IR, UV-Vis) methods.

    PubMed

    Bukalov, Sergey S; Leites, Larissa A; Lyssenko, Konstantin A; Aysin, Rinat R; Korlyukov, Alexander A; Zubavichus, Jan V; Chernichenko, Konstantin Yu; Balenkova, Elizabeth S; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2008-10-30

    Sublimation of sulflower, octathio[8]circulene C 16S 8 ( 1), on heating under high vacuum ( approximately 10 (-5) Torr) leads to successive formation of two modifications: a white film ( 1W) and a red polycrystalline solid ( 1R). When kept at room temperature for several weeks, 1W spontaneously turns pink, reflecting the monotropic phase transition 1W --> 1R. The accurate molecular and crystal structure of 1R has been studied using low-temperature (100 K) high-resolution single crystal X-ray analysis. The C 16S 8 molecule in crystal is strictly planar with nearly equalized bonds of each type (C-C, C-S, and CC). The point symmetry group of the free molecule is D 8 h , and the crystal space group is P2 1/ n. These data allowed group-theoretical analysis of vibrational normal modes to be accomplished. Investigation of the charge density distribution of 1R including Bader's AIM approach has revealed rather strong intermolecular S...S, S...C, and C...C interactions of charge transfer and pi-stacking types with overall lattice energy of 28.5 kcal/mol. The charge transfer due to the S...S interactions is the reason for the red coloration of 1R. The latter is reflected by its UV-vis spectrum exhibiting absorption bands in the visible region which are absent from that of 1W. Both modifications were studied comparatively by vibrational (Raman, IR) and electronic spectroscopies as well as XRD powder diffraction. All the results obtained are fully consistent and show that 1W is much less ordered than 1R with significantly weakened intermolecular interactions. Rationalizing of these results has led to an idea that 1W could be soluble, in contrast to 1R. Indeed, 1W appeared soluble in common solvents; this finding opens the way to the study of the chemistry of 1 and investigation of its electrooptical properties. PMID:18837489

  3. Influence of Au addition on magnetic properties of iron oxide in a silica-phosphate glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.; Prajapat, C. L.; Meena, Sher Singh; Singh, M. R.; Yusuf, S. M.; Montagne, L.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2013-11-01

    The influence of gold particle addition on structural and magnetic ordering of iron oxide in a glass matrix was studied. The silica-phosphate glasses containing iron oxide and Au were prepared by the melt quench technique. Evolution of crystalline phases was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic properties were investigated by means of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer and room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy. The microstructure exhibited the formation of 30-40 nm size particles. The samples showed the formation of magnetite and hematite as major crystalline phases. Magnetic studies revealed the relaxation of magnetic particles. Blocking temperature of investigated sample increased with an increase of Au content implying an increase in the strength of magnetic interactions. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown the presence of both doublets and magnetic sextets. The magnetization value increased as Au content was increased, which is attributed to the increase in magnetic and structural ordering.

  4. Synthesis of high magnetization Fe and FeCo nanoparticles by high temperature chemical reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandapallil, Binil; Colborn, Robert E.; Bonitatibus, Peter J.; Johnson, Francis

    2015-03-01

    Fe and FeCo ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the 5-10 nm size regimes featuring high magnetization were synthesized using a modified chemical reduction method. The structure and morphology of these nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD and TEM analysis. These small, monodisperse and phase pure nanoparticles exhibited magnetic saturation of 210 emu/g (Fe) and 220 emu/g (Fe+Co) for Fe and FeCo nanoparticles respectively. The magnetization was found to be dependent on the temperature at which the reducing agent was introduced.

  5. Magnetic comparison of abiogenic and biogenic alteration products of lepidocrocite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Guyodo, Y.; Lagroix, F.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Brest, J.

    2014-06-01

    Lepidocrocite is a potentially important Fe-bearing precursor phase for the production of nanoscale Fe-oxide particles in the environment. We present a detailed magnetic characterization of various alteration products of lepidocrocite resulting from thermal dehydroxylation reactions and bacterially induced bioreduction and remineralization, accompanied by characterization with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Dehydroxylation during annealing at moderate temperatures produces a topotactic transformation from lepidocrocite to maghemite when heated in an oxidizing atmosphere, or to magnetite when heated in a reducing atmosphere. The abiotic Fe-oxide products form an oriented framework of strongly interacting superparamagnetic crystallites and are characterized by a distinctive porous nanostructure observed by electron microscopy. Lepidocrocite bioreduction by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071 produces nanoscale particles of a strongly magnetic phase. This Fe(II)-bearing mineral produced by bioreduction is highly crystalline and euhedral in shape, with a broad grain size distribution and is indicated by magnetic and XRD measurements to be a cation-excess magnetite. We highlight the distinguishing microscopic characteristics of magnetite from both abiotic and bacterially induced mineralization that should allow them to be identified in natural settings. Moreover, both mechanisms of alteration represent potential pathways for the direct formation of strongly magnetic fine-grained Fe-oxide particles in sedimentary environments.

  6. Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  7. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  8. HRTEM study comparing naturally and experimentally weathered pyroxenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, J.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ferruzzi, G.G.; Casey, W.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Westrich, H.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The mineralogy and chemistry of both naturally and experimentally weathered MnSiO{sub 3} chain silicate minerals (rhodonite and pyroxmangite) were compared. In natural MnSiO{sub 3}, high-resolution transmission-electron microscope observations reveal that alteration begins at grain boundaries and planar defects parallel to the silicate chains that represent junctions between regions with different chain periodicities. Dissolution along these defects results in elongate etch pits that may be partly filled by smectite. Smectite (Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 2}Zn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.1}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}) also develops in larger etches at grain boundaries. The Zn apparently released by weathering of coexisting sphalerite, may facilitate crystallization of manganese-smectite; rhodochrosite is also an initial product. X-ray diffraction patterns from highly altered materials reveal only rhodochrosite and quartz. Simplified reactions are H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(aq) + 4 MnSiO{sub 3}(s) = Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}(s) + MnCO{sub 3}(s) accompanied by 3H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(aq) + Mn{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}(s) = 3 MnCO{sub 3}(s) + 4SiO{sub 2}(s) + 4H{sub 2}O. Pyroxenoid dissolution is incongruent under experimental conditions. A 3-7 nm-thick layer of amorphous silica is present at the mineral surface after {approximately}2000 h of reaction in acidic and near-neutral pH solutions that were undersaturated with respect to bulk amorphous silica. This thin layer of polymeric silica, which is absent on unreacted grains, is interpreted to have formed largely by incongruent dissolution at the mineral surface as protons in solution rapidly exchange for near-surface Mn. The layer may also contain silica readsorbed back onto the surface from solution. The net result is that silica from the pyroxenoid is redistributed directly into reaction products. Upon aging in air for a year, leached layers partially recrystallize.

  9. Electron diffraction and HRTEM imaging of beam-sensitive materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather F. Greer; Wuzong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopic investigation of electron beam-sensitive materials is a challenging research field. Applying a low-temperature specimen holder can reduce the sample damage rate. However, both the specimen holder and the running costs are expensive. Alternatively, it has been found that some treatments are helpful to overcome the beam damage problem of operating transmission electron microscope at room

  10. HRTEM Imaging of Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.

    2005-04-06

    John Cowley and his group at Arizona State University pioneered the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Images were achieved three decades ago showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4 Angstrom resolution. This achievement enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the unit cell. Lighter atoms appear as resolution is improved to sub-Angstrom levels. Currently, advanced microscopes can image the columns of the light atoms (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures, and even the lithium atoms present in some battery materials. Sub-Angstrom imaging, initially achieved by focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave, will become common place for next-generation electron microscopes with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams. Resolution can be quantified in terms of peak separation and inter-peak minimum, but the limits imposed on the attainable resolution by the properties of the micro-scope specimen need to be considered. At extreme resolution the ''size'' of atoms can mean that they will not be resolved even when spaced farther apart than the resolution of the microscope.

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Effect of Temperature on Structural and Magnetic Properties of Laser Ablated Iron Oxide Deposited on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Ramay M.; Saadat, Siddiqi A.; M. Sabieh, Anwar; Shin C., S.

    2009-11-01

    We fabricate Fe3O4 thin films on Si(100) substrates at different temperatures using pulsed laser deposition, and study the effect of annealing and deposition temperature on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 thin films. Subsequently, the films are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM). The XRD results of these films confirm the presence of the Fe3O4 phase and show room-temperature ferromagnetism, as observed with VSM. We demonstrate the optimized deposition and annealing conditions for an enhanced magnetization of 854 emu/cm3 that is very high when compared to the bulk sample.

  12. Magnetic Resonance

    Cancer.gov

    Focus Group on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in Clinical Oncology(April 1999) To explore the technical requirements for MRS and the application of hydrogen and multinuclear spectroscopy for tumor response to therapy.

  13. Magnetic monopoles

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references.

  14. Swallowed magnets.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Heaton, Paul Anthony; Cannon, Anna

    2015-04-01

    INGESTION OF foreign bodies is a common presentation at emergency departments (EDs). Traditionally, the most common items swallowed by children have been coins but more hazardous items, such as button batteries and magnets, are increasingly being ingested. PMID:25854735

  15. Magnetic Superatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulises Reveles, J.; Medel, Victor M.; Reber, A. C.; Khanna, S. N.; Chauhan, V.; Sen, P.

    2011-03-01

    The electronic states in metal clusters are grouped in shells much in the same way as in atoms. Filling of the electronic shells leads to stable species called magic numbers. This has led to the preposition that selected stable metal clusters can mimic chemical properties of atoms on the periodic table and can be classified as superatoms. Here, we propose an extension of the superatom concept to magnetic species by invoking systems that hybridize localized and delocalized electronic states. Through first principles studies focusing on the electronic structure and magnetic moment, we show that TMMgn (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) clusters exhibit a new class of magnetic superatoms stabilized by magnetic supershells. The talk will include possible applications of the new building blocks.

  16. Superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.; Dahl, P.; Herrera, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a self-consistent description of a magnetic field in the aperture of a superconducting magnet and details how this field can be calculated in a magnet with cos theta current distribution in the coils. A description of an apparatus that can be used to measure the field uniformity in the aperture has been given. Finally, a detailed description of the magnet being developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider is given. When this machine is built, it will be by far the largest application of superconductivity to date and promises to make possible the experimental discoveries needed to understand the basic laws of nature governing the world in which we live.

  17. Synthesis of magnetic nanofibers using femtosecond laser material processing in air

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report formation of weblike fibrous nanostructure and nanoparticles of magnetic neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) via femtosecond laser radiation at MHz pulse repetition frequency in air at atmospheric pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the nanostructure is formed due to aggregation of polycrystalline nanoparticles of the respective constituent materials. The nanofibers diameter varies between 30 and 70 nm and they are mixed with nanoparticles. The effect of pulse to pulse separation rate on the size of the magnetic fibrous structure and the magnetic strength was reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed metallic and oxide phases in the nanostructure. The growth of magnetic nanostructure is highly recommended for the applications of magnetic devices like biosensors and the results suggest that the pulsed-laser method is a promising technique for growing nanocrystalline magnetic nanofibers and nanoparticles for biomedical applications. PMID:21711890

  18. Solar Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sun appears to shine at a constant rate. However, its magnetic field is actually constantly changing, and this affects energy output. These variations cause effects that extend throughout the solar system. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, introduces viewers to some of the effects of the sun's magnetic field, such as sunspots, auroras, and variations in the sunspot cycle which may affect Earth's climate. The segment is two minutes fifty seconds in length.

  19. Structural, magnetic and microstructural studies of composition-modified Sm-Co ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiujuan

    There is an increasing interest in developing desirable microstructures in hard magnetic materials. Sm-Co-based magnets, bearing superior intrinsic magnetic properties, are good candidates for further development. Two Sm-Co-based alloys, (Sm12Co88)100-x-yCr yCx (taking SmCo7 phase) and SmCo4-xFe xB (a derivative of SmCo5 phase), were produced using melt-spinning technique. The magnetic properties are correlated to the structural and microstructural properties. Within the SmCo7 stoichiometry, cumulative effects of Cr and C additions on the structural and magnetic properties have been investigated. Experimental results have shown that these additions along with nanostructuring stabilized the 1:7 phase, refined the grain size and triggered promising modifications in the magnetic properties. Annealing was also performed to further optimize the magnetic properties. For both the as-spun and as-annealed samples, structural, magnetic and microstructural results will be shown and correlated among each other to explain observed behavior. Specifically, the maximum coercivity obtained was 10.1 kOe at 3 at.% C and 4.5 at.% Cr conditions annealed at 600 °C. Within the SmCo4B stoichiometry, efforts were made to explore the possibility of a potential exchange coupled nanocomposite based on Fe additions into 1:4:1 structure. As-spun Fe-containing samples were amorphous. For the crystallized samples, different Fe content brought in significant changes in the phase evolution and magnetic behavior. A secondary phase Sm 2(Co,Fe)17By was also observed at higher Fe content. We find that Fe additions increase the coercivity for up to x = 1 (SmCo 4-xFexB) and increase magnetization for up to x = 2, the latter of which is highly desired for permanent magnet applications. In order to further optimize the magnetic properties of the composition with both high coercivity and magnetization (SmCo2Fe2B), secondary annealing at a lower temperature was performed. Pronounced enhancement in both magnetization and coercivity was observed. Microstructural analysis and microchemistry information obtained from TEM/HRTEM and 3D atom probe revealed the possible reasons behind the improvement.

  20. Superconducting magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  1. Magnetic properties of Ce,Gd-substituted yttrium iron garnet ferrite powders fabricated using a sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitao Xu; Hua Yang; Wei Xu; Shouhua Feng

    2008-01-01

    Y3?x?yCexGdyFe5O12 (x=0–0.1, y=0–1.0) nanoparticles were fabricated by a sol–gel method. The crystalline structures and magnetic properties of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns of Y3?x?yCexGdyFe5O12 have only peaks of the garnet structure and the mean size range from 42 to 65nm. The particle's

  2. [Preparation and characterization of magnetic nano-particles with radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia for cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangshan; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Jie; Gu, Ning; Ding, Anwei; Jia, Xiupeng; Qing, Hongyun; Jin, Liqiang; Wan, Meiling; Li, Qunhui

    2006-08-01

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano-particles were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation, their characteristics were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and thermal analysis system, and etc. The temperature changes of the nano-particles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and its magnetic fluid explored in radiofrequency(RF,200 KHz, 4 KW) were measured. The proliferation ratio of L929 cells cultured in soak of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano-particles were observed. The experiment indicates that the magnetic particles were about 40 nm diameter in average, round, had strong magnetism, and were proved to be consistent with the standard data of chart of XRD. Its magnetic fluid exposed to RF could be heated up to temperature range from 40 degrees C to 51 degrees C due to the amount of the magnetic nano-particles and intensity of the alternating magnetic field. Magnetic nano-particles were found to have no obvious cytotoxicity to L929 cells. PMID:17002113

  3. Magnetic detection of magnetic monopoles

    SciTech Connect

    Trower, P.W.

    1983-09-01

    The idea of magnetic monopoles has a long history, but it wasn't until Dirac's demonstration that monopoles could explain charge quantization that the modern era began. Unfortunately, experiment did not oblige by finding any monopoles so for the next fifty years monopoles were only an interesting curiosity. When 't Hooft and Polyakov demonstrated that monopoles are an inevitable consequence of gauge theories currently being used to unify the electroweak (photon-lepton) and nuclear (quark) interactions, interest was quickened. Then a solitary, uncorroborated candidate event was found last spring at Stanford which indicated that magnetic monopoles might exist. However, the monopole abundance implied by the Stanford event is in clear contradiction to bounds on their number from astronomical data. Chief among the arsenal of detection techniques have been those that are uniquely magnetic. The authors review the monopole idea with emphasis on its magnetic detection.

  4. Covalent magnetism and magnetic impurities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, C; Bedolla, P O; Mohn, P

    2013-05-01

    We use the model of covalent magnetism and its application to magnetic insulators applied to the case of insulating carbon doped BaTiO3. Since the usual Stoner mechanism is not applicable we study the possibility of the formation of magnetic order based on a mechanism favoring singly occupied orbitals. On the basis of our model parameters we formulate a criterion similar to the Stoner criterion but also valid for insulators. We describe the model of covalent magnetism using a molecular orbital picture and determine the occupation numbers for spin-up and spin-down states. Our model allows a simulation of the results of our ab initio calculations for E(?) which are found to be in very good agreement. PMID:23587739

  5. Magnets & Magnet Condensed Matter Science

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Polarization Energies: Evidence for Particle-hole Asymmetry 25 Charged Vortices & Vortex Structure Instability in Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 31 YBCO Pancake Wound Test Coil for 32-T Magnet Development 32 Strong Vortex Pinning

  6. Magnets 1: Magnetic Pick-ups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson provides students with an understanding that certain materials are attracted to magnets while others are not. It is the first in a two-lesson series on magnets. In Magnets 1: Magnetic Pick-ups, students will look at various objects, make predictions about whether they are magnetic, and then test their predictions. This exploration is an introductory activity to magnets and magnetism.

  7. Neutrino magnetic moment in a magnetized plasma

    E-print Network

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2010-11-08

    The contribution of a magnetized plasma to the neutrino magnetic moment is calculated. It is shown that only part of the additional neutrino energy in magnetized plasma connecting with its spin and magnetic field strength defines the neutrino magnetic moment. It is found that the presence of magnetized plasma does not lead to the considerable increase of the neutrino magnetic moment in contrast to the results presented in literature previously.

  8. Neutrino magnetic moment in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N. V., E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru; Narynskaya, E. N., E-mail: elenan@uniyar.ac.r [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    The magnetized-plasma contribution to the neutrino anomalous magnetic moment is calculated. It is shown that, in a magnetized plasma, only part of the neutrino additional energy associated with the neutrino spin and with the magnetic-field strength contributes to the neutrino magnetic moment. It is found that, in contrast to results presented previously in the literature, the presence of a magnetized plasma does not lead to a substantial enhancement of the neutrino magnetic moment.

  9. Magnetic separation using superconducting magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Ohara; Hiroaki Kumakura; Hitoshi Wada

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970s, magnetic separation has been increasingly used for purification of liquids, such as heavy-metal ion removal from laboratory waste water, purification of kaolin clay in the paper-coating industry, waste water recycling in the steel industry, and recycling of glass grinding sludge in cathode-ray tube polishing factories. In the 1980s, large superconducting magnets were adopted for the field coils

  10. Doxorubicin-loaded magnetic gold nanoshells for a combination therapy of hyperthermia and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Faruq; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, nanohybrid of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox) loaded gold-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs@Au) were prepared for a combination therapy of cancer by means of both hyperthermia and drug delivery. The Dox molecules were conjugated to SPIONs@Au nanoparticles with the help of cysteamine (Cyst) as a non-covalent space linker and the Dox loading efficiency was investigated to be as high as 0.32 mg/mg. Thus synthesized particles were characterized by HRTEM, UV-Vis, FT-IR, SQUID magnetic studies and further tested for heat and drug release at low frequency oscillatory magnetic fields. The hyperthermia studies investigated to be strongly influenced by the applied frequency and the solvents used. The Dox delivery studies indicated that the drug release efficacy is strongly improved by maintaining the acidic pH conditions and the oscillatory magnetic fields, i.e. an enhancement in the Dox release was observed from the oscillation of particles due to the applied frequency, and is not effected by heating of the solution. Finally, the in vitro cell viability and proliferation studies were conducted using two different immortalized cell lines containing a cancerous (MCF-7 breast cancer) and non-cancerous H9c2 cardiac cell type. PMID:25170601

  11. Magnetic liposomes for colorectal cancer cells therapy by high-frequency magnetic field treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed the cancer treatment through the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy using doxorubicin-loaded magnetic liposomes. The citric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CAMNP, ca. 10 nm) and doxorubicin were encapsulated into the liposome (HSPC/DSPE/cholesterol?=?12.5:1:8.25) by rotary evaporation and ultrasonication process. The resultant magnetic liposomes (ca. 90 to 130 nm) were subject to characterization including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence microscope. In vitro cytotoxicity of the drug carrier platform was investigated through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using L-929 cells, as the mammalian cell model. In vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia (inductive heating) studies were evaluated against colorectal cancer (CT-26 cells) with high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF) exposure. MTT assay revealed that these drug carriers exhibited no cytotoxicity against L-929 cells, suggesting excellent biocompatibility. When the magnetic liposomes with 1 ?M doxorubicin was used to treat CT-26 cells in combination with HFMF exposure, approximately 56% cells were killed and found to be more effective than either hyperthermia or chemotherapy treatment individually. Therefore, these results show that the synergistic effects between chemotherapy (drug-controlled release) and hyperthermia increase the capability to kill cancer cells. PMID:25246875

  12. Permanent Bar Magnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the basic properties of magnets and magnetism. Learners explore concepts such as magnetic fields and polarity, which form the basic ingredients of a study of Earth's magnetic field and the technology of magnetometers. Materials needed include bar magnets and paper clips. This is Activity 1 of Exploring Magnetism: A Teacher's Magnetism Activity Guide.

  13. Magnets Enter the Picture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    This book began with the basics of electricity, and now it's time to introduce the basics of magnetism. What better way to do that than to play around with magnets? In this chapter, by playing with magnets, you'll learn about the types of magnets, magnetic materials, the properties of magnets, and how the Earth creates its own magnetic field.

  14. Mapping Magnetic Influence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educator’s guide details activities that allow students to explore magnets and the region of influence around a magnet called a magnetic field. Students learn that magnets exert a force on a magnetically-sensitive object without coming into direct contact with it. Students then create a map of the magnetic influence around the magnet.

  15. Permanent magnet applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. D. Coey

    2002-01-01

    Rare-earth permanent magnets are ideally suited to generate magnetic fields comparable to their spontaneous polarization JS. Near-square hysteresis loops and large values of the coercivity and anisotropy fields greatly simplify magnet design, as each magnet block is effectively transparent to the magnetic fields produced elsewhere in the magnet assembly. The fields generated by compact and efficient magnet structures requiring no

  16. Magnetic carbon.

    PubMed

    Makarova, T L; Sundqvist, B; Höhne, R; Esquinazi, P; Kopelevich, Y; Scharff, P; Davydov, V A; Kashevarova, L S; Rakhmanina, A V

    2001-10-18

    The discovery of nanostructured forms of molecular carbon has led to renewed interest in the varied properties of this element. Both graphite and C60 can be electron-doped by alkali metals to become superconducting; transition temperatures of up to 52 K have been attained by field-induced hole-doping of C60 (ref. 2). Recent experiments and theoretical studies have suggested that electronic instabilities in pure graphite may give rise to superconducting and ferromagnetic properties, even at room temperature. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of strong magnetic signals in rhombohedral C60. Our intention was to search for superconductivity in polymerized C60; however, it appears that our high-pressure, high-temperature polymerization process results in a magnetically ordered state. The material exhibits features typical of ferromagnets: saturation magnetization, large hysteresis and attachment to a magnet at room temperature. The temperature dependences of the saturation and remanent magnetization indicate a Curie temperature near 500 K. PMID:11607027

  17. Magnetic neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Howard, M A; Grady, M S; Ritter, R C; Gillies, G T; Broaddus, W C; Dacey, R G

    1996-01-01

    Because of the complex shape of many brain structures, the ideal brain probe would be highly flexible and give the neurosurgeon the ability to independently and precisely control movement of the probe tip. A magnetic surgery system has been developed that implements this concept. Flexible brain probes with small permanent magnetic tips are placed on the brain surface through a small burr hole and then magnetically manipulated within the brain. Drive forces are produced by an array of six superconducting magnets suspended within a cryostatic helmet. They produce a maximum force of 3 times the threshold needed to move the probe through the parenchymal tissues at its normal speed of 1 mm/s. Computer-controlled magnetic impulses precisely direct the probe movement in any direction desired with movement accuracy of 0.47 mm in phantom gels. Probe position is monitored 3 times per second with orthogonally oriented microchannel plate X-ray systems, X-ray dose from a 3-hour simulated procedure is comparable to that of a chest X-ray. In vivo and in vitro feasibility studies have been carried out in dog and pig brains. Preclinical trials are planned for clinical applications including implantation of flexible brachytherapy threads. PMID:8938941

  18. Synthesis and properties of magnetic iron oxide/platinum nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serga, V.; Maiorov, M.; Kulikova, L.; Krumina, A.; Karashanova, D.

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide/platinum nanocomposites have been synthesized by the extractive-pyrolytic method (EPM) involving gradual decomposition of iron capronate and n-trioctylammonium hexachloroplatinate initially produced by solvent extraction. The content of platinum in the composites was 1.2 wt%, 2.4 wt% and 4.8 wt%. Phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the produced materials were investigated. XRD analysis and magnetic measurements show that the magnetic phase (magnetite Fe3O4) dominates in a carrier sample produced by the pyrolysis of iron carboxylate, but hematite ?-Fe2O3 exists there as an admixture. Referring to the TEM results, the produced composites contain ultra-disperse platinum particles on the carrier, and the mean size of these varies from 3 nm to 9 nm.

  19. Gas-phase synthesis of magnetic metal/polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starsich, Fabian H. L.; Hirt, Ann M.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2014-12-01

    Highly magnetic metal Co nanoparticles were produced via reducing flame spray pyrolysis, and directly coated with an epoxy polymer in flight. The polymer content in the samples varied between 14 and 56 wt% of nominal content. A homogenous dispersion of Co nanoparticles in the resulting nanocomposites was visualized by electron microscopy. The size and crystallinity of the metallic fillers was not affected by the polymer, as shown by XRD and magnetic hysteresis measurements. The good control of the polymer content in the product nanocomposite was shown by elemental analysis. Further, the successful polymerization in the gas phase was demonstrated by electron microscopy and size measurements. The presented effective, dry and scalable one-step synthesis method for highly magnetic metal nanoparticle/polymer composites presented here may drastically decrease production costs and increase industrial yields.

  20. Controllable synthesis of nickel dendritic crystals induced by magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xia [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Liu Weimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: wmliu@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-08-04

    We demonstrated in this paper a simple and easy method for the preparation of dendritic nickel crystals in an external magnetic field in boiling ethylene glycol (EG) solution. The structural features and morphology of the sample were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The values of saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the dendritic crystals characterized by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are 170.3 emu g{sup -1} and 50.7 Oe, respectively. It was clear that the external magnetic field was the most important factor for controlling the morphology of the product.

  1. Sources of Magnetic Field Magnetic Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    push on currents Moving charges can make and feel magnetic forces. We don't understand how permanent will consider the last piece of the puzzle in electromagnetic - changing magnetic fields can make induction. 15Lecture 9 Sources of Magnetic Field 1 Magnetic Phenomena 1. Magnets can push on each other (and

  2. Magnetic light

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Zhang, JingBo; Luk’yanchuk, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Spherical silicon nanoparticles with sizes of a few hundreds of nanometers represent a unique optical system. According to theoretical predictions based on Mie theory they can exhibit strong magnetic resonances in the visible spectral range. The basic mechanism of excitation of such modes inside the nanoparticles is very similar to that of split-ring resonators, but with one important difference that silicon nanoparticles have much smaller losses and are able to shift the magnetic resonance wavelength down to visible frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time that these nanoparticles have strong magnetic dipole resonance, which can be continuously tuned throughout the whole visible spectrum varying particle size and visually observed by means of dark-field optical microscopy. These optical systems open up new perspectives for fabrication of low-loss optical metamaterials and nanophotonic devices. PMID:22768382

  3. Planetary Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Stern

    Until the middle of the 20th century, the Earth's magnetism seemed to be a happy accident of nature. Too many factors had to fit just right, the fluid core of the Earth, its electrical conductivity and its motions, all had to satisfy the strict requirements of dynamo theory. That was before other planets in the solar system were visited and examined. Now we know that among those planets, only Venus lacks any magnetism. The planets differ greatly in size and properties, and their fields differ, too. Yet they all seem to have dynamo fields, or (in the case of Mars and the Moon) have had them in the past. This site reviews the discovery of the magnetism of other planets and discusses their eccentricities.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-NiFe2O4 prepared using green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia, M.; Labib, Sh.; Ismail, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 powders were synthesized by a novel green nanotechnology derivative of sol-gel method. The effect of preparation conditions on the particle size (D) and accordingly magnetic properties was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer effect spectrometer (ME) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The obtained results were compared to samples prepared using a standard ceramic method and a sol-gel technique using a citric acid route. XRD measurements reflected the spinel structure of prepared samples. The results confirmed the critical dependence of the particle size on the preparation method and heat treatment. Mössbauer effect spectroscopy measurements indicated a strong impact of the particle size on the measured spectra. A gradual decrease of the hyperfine field with decreasing D was observed. Both the saturation magnetization MS and the coercivity Hc are found to be influenced by the decrease of the particle size.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 48, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2012 2749 An X-Ray Diffraction-Based Method for Evaluating Inhomogeneous

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    be carried out by using nano-beam electron diffraction techniques [9]­[11]. However, this requires intensiveIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 48, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2012 2749 An X-Ray Diffraction based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) is introduced to understand the variation of the grain

  6. Topotactic synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new hexagonal polytype of silver cobaltate(III) AgCoO2+

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) and no important modifications of the structure or of the physical properties are observed; the diffraction pattern- - 1 - Topotactic synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new hexagonal polytype in molten AgNO3-NH4NO3 at 175°C. Its structure was determined by Rietveld refinement from XRD data

  7. Magnetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  8. Magnetic Variations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sten Odenwald

    In this activity students analyze tabulated data and convert it into a graph, search for patterns and trends, and make a prediction about future events. They discover that a graphical display of numbers may help to show patterns such as trends or varying rates of change and that such patterns sometimes can be used to make predictions about the phenomenon being graphed. This activity places the changes in Earth's magnetic field in an historical context that attemps to correct many misconceptions about Earth's magnetic field and debunk a 2003 movie that depicted dire consequences due to pole reversal.

  9. Evaluation the Impact of Annealing on Phase Evolution, Microstructure, and Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Ball-Milled LiSm Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, M.; Kavanlouei, M.; Maleki-Ghaleh, H.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of milling and subsequent annealing on the phase evolution, microstructure and magnetic properties of Li0.5Sm x Fe2.5- x O4 ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) ferrite prepared by mechanical alloying was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry were employed to characterize the prepared LiSm compound. The structure was evaluated by XRD, confirmed the formation of its single-phase spinel structure. The magnetic properties of the milled nanostructured powder were extensively affected by the annealing temperature. The substitution of samarium significantly influences the magnetic characteristics, proved by magnetization measurements at room temperature.

  10. Nanocrystallization behavior and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe 78Si 9B 13 ribbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangcheng Sun; A. Cabral-Prieto; M Jose Yacaman; J. Reyes-Gasga; R. Hernandez-Reyes; A. Morales; Wensheng Sun

    2000-01-01

    The amorphous state of ferromagnetic Fe78Si9B13 ribbons and its nanocrystallization were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) and magnetic moment measurements. The Mössbauer spectrum exhibited an essentially symmetric hyperfine field pattern of 259kOe in as-quenched amorphous state at room temperature. The Curie and crystallization temperature were determined to

  11. Ni doped ZnO thin films for diluted magnetic semiconductor materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Liu; P. Xiao; J. S. Chen; B. C. Lim; L. Li

    2008-01-01

    Ni doped ZnO (Zn1?xNixO) thin films were grown on quartz substrates via magnetron sputtering deposition process with the Ni concentrations of 5, 10 and 20at.% in the films. The effects of Ni doping level and post annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of Zn1?xNixO films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) and photoluminescence

  12. A comparative study of the magnetic properties of bulk and nanocrystalline Co3O4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dutta; M. S. Seehra; S. Thota; J. Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters of bulk and Co3O4 nanoparticles (NP), synthesized by a sol-gel process, is presented. Both samples possess the cubic phase with a slightly lower (by 0.34%) lattice parameter for the Co3O4 NP. The average crystallite size D = 17 nm determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the Co3O4 NP

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of ball-milled iron nitride powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Paseka; Petr Bezdi?ka; Adriana Kláriková; Karel Záv?ta

    1998-01-01

    In the present work we studied the influence of ball milling of iron nitrides–?? martensite+? austenite in the NH3 atmosphere on the content of nitrogen, the phase composition, and the magnetic moment of nitrides. Only a small increase in the nitrogen content (from 6.5 to 7.0 at.% N) was found after milling. XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses of milled samples

  14. Effect of doping MnO 2 on magnetic properties for M-type barium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Zhang; Yuping Duan; Hongtao Guan; Shunhua Liu; Bin Wen

    2007-01-01

    The crystalline structure and magnetic properties of M-type barium ferrite doped with small amounts of MnO2 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0wt%, respectively) have been investigated by means of XRD, SEM and VSM. The results show that the crystalline structures of barium ferrite are still M-type hexagonal structure and Mn ions are distributed homogeneously in both the grains

  15. Preparation and magnetic properties of hexagonal barium ferrite films using BaM nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Ghasemi; Reza Shams Alam; Akimitsu Morisako

    2008-01-01

    Barium ferrite (BaFe12O19—BaM) thick films have been synthesized using a spinning coating sol–gel process. The coating sol was formed from BaM powders dispersed in the BaM raw sol. XRD, SEM, EDX, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and ac susceptometer, were employed to evaluate the structure, composition and magnetic properties of BaM thick films. The results indicated that a uniform and crack-free

  16. Magnetic and dielectric properties of barium titanate-coated barium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Wang; Xijiang Han; Ping Xu; Xiaohong Wang; Xueai Li; Hongtao Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Flaky barium ferrite with hexagonal molecular structure was successfully prepared by reverse microemulsion method, and was coated with barium titanate through a coordination–precipitation technique. The prepared composite particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer. Barium ferrite nanoparticles are proved to be single magnetic

  17. Preparation and magnetic properties of composite powders of hollow microspheres coated with barium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohong Mu; Xifeng Pan; Haigen Shen; Mingyuan Gu

    2007-01-01

    The composites of barium ferrite coated on hollow ceramic microspheres are successfully prepared using sol–gel combustion method. The crystal structure and magnetic properties with different weight ratio of hollow microspheres in the composite are studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)\\/DTA and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that the composites are composed of barium ferrite and

  18. Raman spectroscopy of Cu doping in Zn1? x Co x O diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Huy Hoang; Nguyen Thi; Minh Hien; Nguyen Hoang Hai; Pham Van Hai; In-Sang Yangb

    2009-01-01

    The room-temperature ferromagnetism and the Raman spectroscopy of the Cu-doped Zn1?xCox O powders prepared by the sol - gel method are reported. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that the wurtzite structure of ZnO is maintained for ZnO doped with Co below 10 at%. The magnetization - field curves measured at room temperature demonstrated that all Co-doped ZnO powders were

  19. STRUCTURAL AND MAGNETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF NICKEL CLUSTERS IN C60 MATRICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Teodorescu; D. Macovei; A. Lungu

    Nanostructured Ni\\/C60 thin films, produced by co-evaporation of Ni and fullerene, have been investigated by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). X-ray diffraction has shown the co-existence of diffraction specific peaks for the fullerene face-centered cubic crystal structure and diffraction peaks of Ni nanoparticles in the face-centered cubic structure, which are broadened by nanoparticule finite dimensions.

  20. Permanent magnet array for the magnetic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Kenkel, J. M.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Jiles, D. C.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research into the development of magnetic refrigeration (MR) operating at room temperature has shown that it can provide a reliable, energy-efficient cooling system. To enhance the cooling power of the magnetic refrigerator, it is required to use a magnetic refrigerant material with large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) at the appropriate temperature. Most advanced magnetic refrigerant materials show largest MCE at high applied magnetic fields generated by a superconducting magnet. For application of MCE to air conditioners or household refrigerators, it is essential to develop a permanent magnet array to form a compact, strong, and energy-efficient magnetic field generator. Generating a magnetic field well above the remanence of a permanent magnet material is hard to achieve through conventional designs. A permanent magnet array based on a hollow cylindrical flux source is found to provide an appropriate geometry and magnetic field strength for MR applications.

  1. Exploring Magnetism: Investigating the forces of magnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a classroom and lab investigation of magnetism. Students gather results of experiments involving the forces of magnets. They use this data to develop their own experiments to test properties of magnets.

  2. Magnetic Catalysis vs Magnetic Inhibition

    E-print Network

    Kenji Fukushima; Yoshimasa Hidaka

    2012-09-06

    We discuss the fate of chiral symmetry in an extremely strong magnetic field B. We investigate not only quark fluctuations but also neutral meson effects. The former would enhance the chiral-symmetry breaking at finite B according to the Magnetic Catalysis, while the latter would suppress the chiral condensate once B exceeds the scale of the hadron structure. Using a chiral model we demonstrate how neutral mesons are subject to the dimensional reduction and the low dimensionality favors the chiral-symmetric phase. We point out that this effect, the Magnetic Inhibition, can be a feasible explanation for recent lattice-QCD data indicating the decreasing behavior of the chiral-restoration temperature with increasing B.

  3. Magnetic Stereoscopy

    E-print Network

    Thomas Wiegelmann; Bernd Inhester

    2006-12-21

    The space mission STEREO will provide images from two viewpoints. An important aim of the STEREO mission is to get a 3D view of the solar corona. We develop a program for the stereoscopic reconstruction of 3D coronal loops from images taken with the two STEREO spacecraft. A pure geometric triangulation of coronal features leads to ambiguities because the dilute plasma emissions complicates the association of features in image 1 with features in image 2. As a consequence of these problems the stereoscopic reconstruction is not unique and multiple solutions occur. We demonstrate how these ambiguities can be resolved with the help of different coronal magnetic field models (potential, linear and non-linear force-free fields). The idea is that, due to the high conductivity in the coronal plasma, the emitting plasma outlines the magnetic field lines. Consequently the 3D coronal magnetic field provides a proxy for the stereoscopy which allows to eliminate inconsistent configurations. The combination of stereoscopy and magnetic modelling is more powerful than one of these tools alone. We test our method with the help of a model active region and plan to apply it to the solar case as soon as STEREO data become available.

  4. Magnetic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ferrofluidics Corporation's recent innovation is a spindle for rotating computer discs that supports the disc's rotating shaft on a film of magnetic fluid instead of conventional ball bearings. According to its developers, the spindle offers greatly increased rotational stability, meaning substantially reduced vibration and mechanical noise, and non- repeatable runout. This allows disc drives to store two to 10 times more information.

  5. Cereal Magnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Student groups compete to design a process that removes the most iron from fortified cereal. Students experiment with different materials using what they know about iron, magnets and forces to design the best process for removing iron from the cereal samples.

  6. Magnets 2: How Strong is Your Magnet?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will experimentally measure the strength of a magnet and graph how the strength changes as the distance from the magnet increases, and as the barrier (masking tape) is built between the magnet and an iron object. This lesson is the second in a two-lesson series on magnets. The main concept to convey in Magnets 2: How Strong is Your Magnet? is that forces can act from a distance.

  7. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Feinberg; G. U. Behrsing; K. Halbach; J. S. Marks; M. E. Morrison; D. H. Nelson

    1988-01-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in

  8. Studies on the self-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation, characterization, DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and molecular properties of 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones using single crystal XRD and DFT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Antony Muthu Prabhu, A.; Bhuvanesh, N.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the self-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation, spectral characterization, DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity, and molecular properties of 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones using single crystal XRD and DFT techniques. In the absence of any catalyst, a series of novel 5-arylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones were synthesized using Meldrum’s acid and formylphenoxyaliphatic acid(s) in water. These molecules are arranged in the dimer form through intermolecular H-bonding in the single crystal XRD structure. Compounds have better DPPH radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity against A431 cancer cell line. The optimized molecular structure, natural bond orbital analysis, electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular properties, and atomic charges of these molecules have been studied by performing DFT/B3LYP/3-21G(*) level of theory in gas phase.

  9. Domain size correlated magnetic properties and electrical impedance of size dependent nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Ramesh B.; Varade, Vaibhav; Ramesh, K. P.; Prasad, V.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the investigations on the size dependent variation of magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles of different sizes (14 to 22 nm) were prepared by the sol-gel route at different annealing temperatures. They are characterized by TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy techniques for the confirmation of the temperature of phase formation, thermal stability, crystallinity, morphology and structural status of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles. The magnetization studies revealed that the saturation magnetization (Ms), retentivity (Mr) increase, while coercivity (Hc) and anisotropy (Keff) decrease as the particle size increases. The observed value of Ms is found to be relatively higher for a particle size of 22 nm. In addition, we have estimated the magnetic domain size using magnetic data and correlated to the average particle size. The calculated magnetic domain size is closely matching with the particle size estimated from XRD. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the samples in an equivalent circuit to understand their transport phenomena. It shows that nickel ferrite nanoparticles exhibit a non-Debye behavior with increasing particle size due to the influence of increasing disorders, surface effects, grain size and grain boundaries, etc.

  10. A furnace design for use in combined X-ray absorption and diffraction up to a temperature of 1200°C: Study of cordierite ceramic formation using fluorescence QEXAFS\\/XRD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Dent; M. Oversluizen; G. N. Greaves; M. A. Roberts; G. Sankar; C. R. A. Catlow; J. M. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    We present a new furnace design which is based on a tube furnace: primarily for ceramics or catalysis research where the sample is heated in air, but at temperatures of up to 1200°C. The design and specifications of this furnace are presented.High temperature in situ studies of glass-ceramic systems would greatly benefit from combined QEXAFS\\/XRD studies, where it is possible

  11. Investigation of hydrogen discharging and recharging processes of Ti-doped NaAlH 4 by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bogdanovi?; M Felderhoff; M Germann; M Härtel; A Pommerin; F Schüth; C Weidenthaler; B Zibrowius

    2003-01-01

    The processes occurring in the course of two sequential hydrogen discharging and recharging cycles of Ti-doped sodium alanate were investigated in parallel using XRD analysis and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Both methods demonstrate that in hydrogen storage cycles (Eq. (1)) the majority phases involved are NaAlH4, Na3AlH6, Al and NaH. Only traces of other, as yet unidentified phases are observed, one

  12. Structural and magnetic characterization of electrodeposited Ni-Cu/Cu and Fe-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati, Kambiz

    2015-03-01

    In this research, Ni-Cu/Cu and Fe-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers were electrodeposited on Au/Cr/glass substrate. The XRD pattern of Ni-Cu/Cu multilayer indicates satellite peaks of Ni-Cu and Cu bilayers. The EDX results had shown that the Ni content increased with increasing magnetic layers in both Ni-Cu/Cu and Fe-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers. The AFM images had shown that increasing the magnetic and nonmagnetic layers leads to increasing surface roughness. The VSM of samples obtained the coercivity by increasing magnetic layer thickness and by decreasing the addition of Fe to Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers.

  13. Magnetic Fields and Forces in Permanent Magnet Levitated Bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin D. Bachovchin; James F. Hoburg; Richard F. Post

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields and magnetic forces from magnetic bearings made of circular Halbach permanent-magnet arrays are computed and analyzed. The magnetic fields are calculated using superposition of fields due to patches of magnetization charge at surfaces where the magnetization is discontinuous. The magnetic force from the magnetic bearing is computed using superposition of forces on each patch of magnetization charge. The

  14. True North, Magnetic North

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

  15. Magnetic bearing. [for supplying magnetic fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A magnetic bearing is described which includes a pair of coaxial, toroidal, and permanent magnets having axially directed poles. Like poles of the permanent magnets are adjacent to each other, whereby the permanent magnets have a tendency to be urged apart along the common axis. An electromagnet is wound coaxially with the permanent magnets in such a manner that the poles are axially directed. Between the poles of each permanent magnet there is a low magnetic reluctance circuit including two series air gaps. Between the poles of the electromagnet a low reluctance path including only one air gap of each of the low magnetic reluctance circuits is provided. The low reluctance path for the electromagnet includes a ring axially translatable relative to the permanent magnets. The ring forms opposite faces of the air gaps in the magnetic circuits for each permanent magnet.

  16. Effects of boron composition on tunneling magnetoresistance ratio and microstructure of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB pseudo-spin-valve magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kodzuka, M. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ohkubo, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hono, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ikeda, S.; Ohno, H. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Gan, H. D. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    The effect of B concentration on the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of (Co{sub 25}Fe{sub 75}){sub 100-x}B{sub x}/MgO/(Co{sub 25}Fe{sub 75}){sub 100-x}B{sub x} (x = 22 and 33) pseudo-spin-valve (P-SV) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) was investigated. The TMR ratios for optimally annealed MTJs with x = 22 and 33 were 340% and 170%, respectively, at room temperature. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation showed a weaker (001) texture in the MgO barrier in the MTJ with x = 33. The bottom electrode was not fully crystallized even with a considerable amount of B in the (Co{sub 25}Fe{sub 75}){sub 67}B{sub 33}, while good epitaxy was observed between (001) textured MgO and (Co{sub 25}Fe{sub 75}){sub 78}B{sub 22} electrodes.

  17. Magnetic Alloys in Nanoscale Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Leventouri, T. H. [Florida Atlantic University; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Sorge, Korey D. [Florida Atlantic University; Klein, Kate L [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Anderson, Ian M [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Fe-Co composition gradient and Fe-Pt multilayer alloy films were tested as catalysts for growing vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The Fe-Co film yielded nanofibers with alloy tips in a wide compositional range varying from 8.15 pct Fe at the Co-rich end to 46.29 pct Fe in the middle of the wafer as determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Two Fe-Co cubic phases (SG Pm3m, Pm{bar 3}m) were identified by preliminary X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Magnetic measurements showed a substantially greater hysteresis loop area and coercivity in Fe-Co catalyst nanoparticles as compared to the as deposited Fe-Co film. The Fe-Pt film did not break into FePt alloy nanoparticles under the applied processing parameters and thus the utility of FePt as a VACNF catalyst has been inconclusive.

  18. Effect of CoSi2 buffer layer on structure and magnetic properties of Co films grown on Si (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Tang, Jin; Syed Sheraz, Ahmad; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Buffer layer provides an opportunity to enhance the quality of ultrathin magnetic films. In this paper, Co films with different thickness of CoSi2 buffer layers were grown on Si (001) substrates. In order to investigate morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of films, scanning tunneling microscope (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE) were used. The results show that the crystal quality and magnetic anisotropies of the Co films are strongly affected by the thickness of CoSi2 buffer layers. Few CoSi2 monolayers can prevent the interdiffusion of Si substrate and Co film and enhance the Co film quality. Furthermore, the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of Co film with optimal buffer layer shows four-fold symmetry and exhibits the two-jumps of magnetization reversal process, which is the typical phenomenon in cubic (001) films. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921801 and 2012CB933102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374350, 11034004, 11274361, and 11274033), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20131102130005).

  19. Magnetic CoFe2O4/carbon nanotubes composites: fabrication, microstructure and magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Panfeng; Xu, Jingcai; Han, Yanbing; Hong, Bo; Jin, Hongxiao; Jin, Dingfeng; Peng, Xiaoling; Li, Jing; Ge, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqing

    2014-05-01

    By combining the unique microstructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the good magnetism of CoFe2O4 ferrites, CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites were prepared by the solvothermal method for the application of targeting therapy and tumor hyperthermia. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were introduced to study the influence of the solvothermal temperature, time and the CNTs content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites. The diameter of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coating on the surface of CNTs and the saturation magnetization (Ms) increased with the solvothermal temperature. CoFe2O4/CNTs nanocomposites prepared at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C exhibited superparamagnetism at room temperature, while the samples prepared at 240°C and 260°C presented ferromagnetism. And the solvothermal time and CNTs content slightly affected the microstructure and magnetic properties, Ms and coercivity (Hc) increased slightly with the increasing solvothermal time and the decreasing CNTs content.

  20. ?-Sheet Nanocrystalline Domains Formed from Phosphorylated Serine-Rich Motifs in Caddisfly Larval Silk: A Solid State NMR and XRD Study

    PubMed Central

    Addison, J. Bennett; Ashton, Nicholas N.; Weber, Warner S.; Stewart, Russell J.; Holland, Gregory P.; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive silks spun by aquatic caddisfly (order Trichoptera) larvae are used to build both intricate protective shelters and food harvesting nets underwater. In this study, we use 13C and 31P solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) as tools to elucidate molecular protein structure of caddisfly larval silk from the species Hesperophylax consimilis. Caddisfly larval silk is a fibroin protein based biopolymer containing mostly repetitive amino acid motifs. NMR and X-ray results provide strong supporting evidence for a structural model in which phosphorylated serine repeats (pSX)4 complex with divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ to form rigid nanocrystalline ?-sheet structures in caddisfly silk. 13C NMR data suggests that both phosphorylated serine and neighboring valine residues exist in a ?-sheet secondary structure conformation while glycine and leucine residues common in GGX repeats likely reside in random coil conformations. Additionally, 31P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) analysis indicates that the phosphates on phosphoserine residues are doubly ionized, and are charge-stabilized by divalent cations. Positively charged arginine side chains also likely play a role in charge stabilization. Finally, WAXD results finds that the silk is at least 7–8% crystalline, with ?-sheet inter-plane spacings of 3.7 and 4.5 Å. PMID:23452243

  1. Magnetic domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland, Derek; Palmer, Sam; Sämann, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Recently a Nahm transform has been discovered for magnetic bags, which are conjectured to arise in the large n limit of magnetic monopoles of charge n. We interpret these ideas using string theory and present evidence for this conjecture. Our main result concerns the extension of the notion of bags and their Nahm transform to higher gauge theories and arbitrary domains. Bags in four dimensions conjecturally describe the large n limit of n self-dual strings. We show that the corresponding Basu-Harvey equation is the large n limit of an equation describing n M2-branes, and that it has a natural interpretation in loop space. We also formulate our Nahm equations using strong homotopy Lie algebras.

  2. Polymer nanocomposites exhibiting magnetically tunable microwave properties.

    PubMed

    Stojak, K; Pal, S; Srikanth, H; Morales, C; Dewdney, J; Weller, T; Wang, J

    2011-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been synthesized using Rogers polymer and CoFe?O? nanoparticles (CFO NPs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the inverse spinel crystal structure of CFO NPs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles (10 nm ± 1) into the polymer matrix. Magnetic measurements indicate superparamagnetic response near room temperature for all PNCs. A blocking temperature T(B)~298 K was observed and does not vary for different loading fractions of CFO NPs for the PNCs. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) was found to be 11 emu g?¹ for 30 wt% CFO, increasing to 32 emu g?¹ for the 80 wt% CFO loaded PNC. A large value of coercivity (H(c) = 19 kOe) is also observed at 10 K and is not affected by varying CFO loading. Microwave measurements show significant absorption in the 80 wt% CFO loading PNC and the quality factor shows a strong enhancement with applied magnetic field. PMID:21343635

  3. Magnetic Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a booklet containing 37 space science mathematical problems, several of which use authentic science data. The problems involve math skills such as unit conversions, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, graph analysis, vectors, scientific notation, and many others. Learners will use mathematics to explore science topics related to Earth's magnetic field, space weather, the Sun, and other related concepts. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

  4. Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  5. Permanent magnet motor magnetizing and calibrating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Aydelotte

    1993-01-01

    The types of magnetizing equipment that are available include capacitive discharge, half-cycle and electromagnet units. The applications for, and limitations of, each type of unit are briefly reviewed. The range of permanent magnet materials commercially available. In designing an effective magnetizing and calibrating system, consideration must be given not only to the magnetizer to be used, but also to the

  6. Evaluation of Magnetic Forces in Permanent Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Sanz; Luis Garcia-Tabares; Iván Moya; Diego Obradors; Fernando Toral

    2010-01-01

    The numerical evaluation of magnetic forces exerted by permanent magnets is usually performed by two methods, the integration of the Maxwell stress tensor or by means of virtual displacements and energy balance. In this paper, we will review previous works on this subject, where controversy exists due to the sign of the magnetic energy stored in the magnet itself. We

  7. Structural refinement and observation of enhanced magnetic properties of La doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2013-02-01

    We report a thorough analysis of the structural, magnetic properties of LaxBi1-xFeO3 (x = 0.0-0.4) bulk polycrystalline samples. XRD reveals that the orthorhombic phase becomes more prominent and Rhombohedral phase decreases from 92.4% to 58.39% as `x' increases from 0.05 to 0.4. La doping significantly affects the magnetic ordering in this system by destructing the spin cycloid in BFO. A huge enhancement in Mr and HC even for x = 0.05 observed at 300 K indicates the presence of a strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy.

  8. Folate-conjugated luminescent Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barick, K. C.; Rana, Suman; Hassan, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate a facile approach for the synthesis of folate-conjugated luminescent iron oxide nanoparticles (FLIONs). XRD and TEM analyses reveal the formation of highly crystalline single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size about 10 nm. The conjugation of folate receptor (folic acid, FA) and luminescent molecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC) onto the surface of nanoparticles was evident from FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. These FLIONs show good colloidal stability, high magnetic field responsivity and excellent self-heating efficacy. Specifically, a new class of magnetic nanoparticles has been fabricated, which can be used as an effective heating source for hyperthermia.

  9. Study of structure and magnetic properties of rare earth doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2014-09-01

    RExBi1-xFeO3 (RE=La, Gd and Ho) samples were synthesized by a solid state reaction method and investigated for structure and magnetic properties. XRD shows that La and Ho dopings at A-site effectively reduce the secondary phase formation. A structural phase transition is observed to orthorhombic phase with all RE elements above certain concentration limit. La doping results in the observation of huge coercivity of 10 kOe and Ho doping results in high magnetic moment among all the RE elements. Gd and Ho doped samples show a pinching in the M-H loops with minimum HC.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite incorporated in amorphous matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petru Pascuta; Adrian Vladescu; Gheorghe Borodi; Eugen Culea; Romulus Tetean

    2011-01-01

    Glass ceramics in the (Fe2O3)x·(B2O3)(60?x)·(ZnO)40 (x=17.5 and 20mol%) system were prepared by the melt-quench method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and magnetization measurements. The samples contain a unique magnetic crystalline phase, the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), embedded in an amorphous matrix. The ZnFe2O4 crystals precipitate during cooling from melting temperature. From the

  11. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Nanoparticle-Filled CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, K.; Chandra, S.; Khurshid, H.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    2013-03-01

    There has been much interest in magnetic polymer nanocomposites (MPNCs) recently due to potential applications for EMI shielding, tunable EM devices and flexible electronics. In past studies, using ferrite fillers, we have shown MPNCs to be magnetically tunable when passing a microwave signal through films under the influence of an external magnetic field. We extend this study to include nanoparticle-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by CVD. These high-aspect ratio magnetic nanostructures, with tunable anisotropy, are of particular interest in enhancing magnetic and microwave responses in existing MPNCs. CNTs have an average diameter and length of 300nm and 6 ?m, respectively and are partially filled with CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (˜ 7nm). When comparing NPs to NP-filled CNTs, TB increases by ˜ 40K and relaxation time, ?0, increases several orders of magnitude, indicating that enclosing NPs in CNTs enhances interparticle interactions. Structural and magnetic characterization were completed using XRD, TEM and Quantum Design PPMS, using VSM and ACMS options.

  12. Magnetic properties of nanoscale crystalline maghemite obtained by a new synthetic route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercante, L. A.; Melo, W. W. M.; Granada, M.; Troiani, H. E.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Ardison, J. D.; Vaz, M. G. F.; Novak, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    In this work we describe the synthesis and characterization of maghemite nanoparticles obtained by a new synthetic route. The material was synthesized using triethylamine as a coprecipitation agent in the presence of the organic ligand N,N?-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-catechol)-2,4-diaminotoluene (LCH3). Mössbauer spectrum at 4 K shows typical hyperfine parameters of maghemite and Transmission Electron Microscopy images reveal that the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 3.9 nm and a narrow size distribution. AC magnetic susceptibility in zero field presents an Arrhenius behavior with unreasonable relaxation parameters due to the strong influence of dipolar interaction. In contrast when the measurements are performed in a 1 kOe field, the effect of dipolar interactions becomes negligible and the obtained parameters are in good agreement with the static magnetic properties. The dynamic energy barrier obtained from the AC susceptibility results is larger than the expected from the average size observed by HRTEM results, evidencing the strong influence of the surface contribution to the anisotropy.

  13. Water-soluble superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with biocompatible coating for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lisong; Li, Jiangtian; Brougham, Dermot F; Fox, Eoin K; Feliu, Neus; Bushmelev, Alexey; Schmidt, Annette; Mertens, Natascha; Kiessling, Fabian; Valldor, Martin; Fadeel, Bengt; Mathur, Sanjay

    2011-08-23

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (USIRONs) were synthesized by a novel, easily scalable chemical reduction of colloidal iron hydroxide under hydrothermal conditions. The average crystallite size (5.1 ± 0.5 nm) and good crystallinity of the samples were supported by HR-TEM analysis and the saturation magnetization value (47 emu g(-1)). Vitamin C, used as a chemical reducing agent, also served as a capping agent in the oxidized form (dehydroascorbic acid, DHAA) to impart nanoparticles with exceptional solubility and stability in water, PBS buffer, and cell culture medium. Detailed physicochemical analysis of the USIRON suspensions provided insight into the magnetic ordering phenomena within the colloid, arising from the formation of uniform clusters displaying a hydrodynamic size of 41 nm. Phantom experiments on the contrast agent (clinical 3 T MRI scanner) revealed an enhanced r(2)/r(1) ratio of 36.4 (r(1)= 5 s(-1) mM(-1) and r(2)= 182 s(-1) mM(-1)) when compared to the clinically approved agents. The potential of the DHAA-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles as negative contrast agents for MRI with optimal hydrodynamic size for extended blood circulation times was confirmed by strong contrast observed in T(2)- and T(2)*-weighted images. The cell tests performed with primary human immune-competent cells confirmed the excellent biocompatibility of USIRONs. PMID:21790153

  14. Mössbauer and D.C. magnetization studies of (CuFe2O4)1-x (SnO2) x (x = 0 and 5 wt.%) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvan, R. Kalai; Augustin, C. O.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2005-09-01

    CuFe2O4 nanoparticles and (CuFe2O4)0.95(SnO2)0.05 nanocomposites were studied by XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The XRD pattern shows the well-defined sharp peaks characterized tetragonal structure of CuFe2O4. The Mössbauer spectrum of CuFe2O4 showed ferrimagnetic structure while spectrum of (CuFe2O4)0.95(SnO2)0.05 composite demonstrated a mixture of ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic components. The D.C. magnetization revealed that SnO2 addition leads to overcoming the “superparamagnetic limit.”

  15. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    E-print Network

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Christensen, D V; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  16. Structure and magnetic properties of highly textured nanocrystalline Mn-Zn ferrite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Jaison; Tangsali, R. B.; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Ganeshan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Mn0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 were chemically synthesized by co-precipitating the metal ions in aqueous solutions in a suitable alkaline medium. The identified XRD peaks confirm single phase spinal formation. The nanoparticle size authentication is carried out from XRD data using Debye Scherrer equation. Thin film fabricated from this nanomaterial by pulse laser deposition technique on quartz substrate was characterized using XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques. XRD results revealed the formation of high degree of texture in the film. AFM analysis confirms nanogranular morphology and preferred directional growth. A high deposition pressure and the use of a laser plume confined to a small area for transportation of the target species created certain level of porosity in the deposited thin film. Magnetic property measurement of this highly textured nanocrystalline Mn-Zn ferrite thin film revealed enhancement in properties, which are explained on the basis of texture and surface features originated from film growth mechanism.

  17. Tunable magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, M. H.; Kameli, P.; Ghazi, M. E.; Razavi, F. S.; Taheri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 with different particle sizes are synthesized by the nitrate-complex auto-ignition method. The structural and magnetic properties of the samples are investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and DC magnetization measurements. The XRD study coupled with the Rietveld refinement shows that all samples crystallize in a rhombohedral structure with the space group of R-3 C. The FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM images indicate formation of the perovskite structure with the average sizes of 20, 40, and 100 nm for the samples sintered at 700, 800, and 1100 °C, respectively. The DC magnetization measurements confirm tuning of the magnetic properties due to the particle size effects, e.g., reduction in the ferromagnetic moment and increase in the surface spin disorder by decreasing the particle size. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) study based on isothermal magnetization vs. filed measurements in all samples reveals a relatively large MCE around the Curie temperature of the samples. The peak around the Curie temperature gradually broadens with reduction of the particle size. The data obtained show that although variations in the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature decrease by lowering the particle size, variation in the relative cooling power values are the same for all samples. These results make this material a proper candidate in the magnetic refrigerator application above room temperature at moderate fields.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic multicomponent nanoparticles CuxNi1-xFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingölbali, A.; Do?an, N.; Ye?il, Z.; Asiltürk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great importance in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement. To build the most effective magnetic nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications, characteristics of particle, including size, surface chemistry, magnetic properties, and toxicity have to be fully investigated. In this work, the effects of some production methods of the magnetic nanoparticles for the bio-medical applications are discussed. In this study, multicomponents of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (where x=0, 0.6, and 1) were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method. In addition, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured by Malvern Instruments Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS instrument. The data were recorded under magnetic fields for different ratios of CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles. The temperature dependence of field cooled (FC) magnetization of the CuxNi1-xFe2O4 samples has been shown in this work. Magnetizations change with decreasing the dopant value of Cu. The magnetic phase transition was observed for CuxNi1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  19. Magnetic properties of hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Panjan, Matjaz; Damnjanovic, Vesna; Milosevic, Irena

    2014-11-01

    Hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal synthesis method. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) of the sample shows formation of the nanocrystalline ?-Fe2O3 phase. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show spherical morphology of the hematite nanoparticles and narrow size distribution. An average hematite nanoparticle size is estimated to be about 8 nm by TEM and XRD. Magnetic properties were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Investigation of the magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles showed a divergence between field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves below Tirr = 103 K (irreversibility temperature). The ZFC magnetization curve showed maximum at TB = 52 K (blocking temperature). The sample did not exhibit the Morin transition. The M(H) (magnetization versus magnetic field) dependence at 300 K showed properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The M(H) data were successfully fitted by the Langevin function and magnetic moment ?p = 657 ?B and diameter d = 8.1 nm were determined. Furthermore, magnetic measurements showed high magnetization at room temperature (MS = 3.98 emu/g), which is desirable for application in spintronics and biomedicine. Core-shell structure of the nanoparticles was used to describe high magnetization of the hematite nanoparticles.

  20. Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysical and

    E-print Network

    Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas Ellen G. Zweibel1 and Masaaki Yamada2 astrophysics, magnetic fields, magnetic reconnection Abstract Magnetic reconnection is a topological rearrangement of magnetic field that converts magnetic energy to plasma energy. Astrophysical flares, from

  1. Crystal structure, microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles elaborated by hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouremana, A.; Guittoum, A.; Hemmous, M.; Rahal, B.; Sunol, J. J.; Martínez-Blanco, D.; Blanco, J. A.; Gorria, Pedro; Benrekaa, N.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the crystal structure, microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (NPs), with an average diameter of around 40 nm, produced by hydrothermal method. A series of Ni powders was synthesized at relatively low temperature (140 °C) by varying the NaOH concentration. The crystal structure, microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated by means of XRD, MEB coupled to EDX and VSM magnetometry. The XRD patterns show Bragg reflections corresponding to Ni with face centred cubic (fcc) crystal structure. EDX spectra confirm the purity of Ni powders. Moreover, the SEM micrographs show that the Ni-NPs are agglomerated forming entities of 1-5 ?m in average size with different morphologies that change as the NaOH concentration increases. While those entities exhibit a flower-like form at the lowest concentration, a dendritic shape appears for the highest one. The room temperature values for the coercive field (<200 Oe) and saturation magnetization (?52 Am2/kg) were obtained from the magnetic hysteresis loops. We discuss about the influence of the particle morphology on the magnetic behaviour.

  2. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Mn doped TiO 2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Gautam, S.; Kim, G. W.; Ahmed, Faheem; Anwar, M. S.; Chae, K. H.; Choi, H. K.; Chung, H.; Koo, B. H.

    2011-10-01

    We report structural, magnetic and electronic structure study of Mn doped TiO 2 thin films grown using pulsed laser deposition method. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), dc magnetization, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements. XRD results indicate that films exhibit single phase nature with rutile structure and exclude the secondary phase related to Mn metal cluster or any oxide phase of Mn. Magnetization studies reveal that both the films (3% and 5% Mn doped TiO 2) exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism and saturation magnetization increases with increase in concentration of Mn doping. The spectral features of XMCD at Mn L3,2 edge show that Mn 2+ ions contribute to the ferromagnetism. NEXAFS spectra measured at O K edge show a strong hybridization between Mn, Ti 3d and O 2p orbitals. NEXAFS spectra measured at Mn and Ti L3,2 edge show that Mn exist in +2 valence state, whereas, Ti is in +4 state in Mn doped TiO 2 films.

  3. Magnetic Launcher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students explore electromagnetism and engineering concepts using optimization techniques to design an efficient magnetic launcher. Groups start by algebraically solving the equations of motion for the velocity at the time when a projectile leaves a launcher. Then they test three different launchers, in which the number of coils used is different, measuring the range and comparing the three designs. Based on these observations, students record similarities and differences and hypothesize on the underling physics. They are introduced to Faraday's law and Lenz's law to explain the physics behind the launcher. Students brainstorm how these principals might be applied to real-world engineering problems.

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Isaac; Josephson, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Many types of biosensors employ magnetic nanoparticles (diameter = 5–300 nm) or magnetic particles (diameter = 300–5,000 nm) which have been surface functionalized to recognize specific molecular targets. Here we cover three types of biosensors that employ different biosensing principles, magnetic materials, and instrumentation. The first type consists of magnetic relaxation switch assay-sensors, which are based on the effects magnetic particles exert on water proton relaxation rates. The second type consists of magnetic particle relaxation sensors, which determine the relaxation of the magnetic moment within the magnetic particle. The third type is magnetoresistive sensors, which detect the presence of magnetic particles on the surface of electronic devices that are sensitive to changes in magnetic fields on their surface. Recent improvements in the design of magnetic nanoparticles (and magnetic particles), together with improvements in instrumentation, suggest that magnetic material-based biosensors may become widely used in the future. PMID:22408498

  5. Biomimetic magnetic silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Declercq, Heidi A; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Dubruel, Peter; Cornelissen, Maria; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rivas, Jose; Padeletti, Giuseppina; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L; Dediu, V Alek

    2015-03-25

    Magnetic silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds integrating magnetic materials and featuring magnetic gradients were prepared for potential utility in magnetic-field assisted tissue engineering. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were introduced into SFP scaffolds via dip-coating methods, resulting in magnetic SFP scaffolds with different strengths of magnetization. Magnetic SFP scaffolds showed excellent hyperthermia properties achieving temperature increases up to 8 °C in about 100 s. The scaffolds were not toxic to osteogenic cells and improved cell adhesion and proliferation. These findings suggest that tailored magnetized silk-based biomaterials can be engineered with interesting features for biomaterials and tissue-engineering applications. PMID:25734962

  6. Magnets: Design Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the magnet manufacturer Total Magnet Solutions, which offers engineering assistance, stock and custom magnets, and complete magnetic sub-assemblies in prototype to production quantities, the Magnets Design Guide Web page contains a wealth of physical information. Users can read about general categories of permanent magnet functions, magnet materials and their comparisons, units of measure for magnets and their conversion factors, design considerations, finite element analysis, the B-H curve, magnet calculations, and more. A well-designed and attractive site, it provides researchers easy access to practical and informative facts and, at the very least, interesting reading.

  7. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhukova, Valentina; Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukov, Arcady

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 ?m in diameter) have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m) with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR) and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications. PMID:22291562

  8. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Mn{sub 4}N films on MgO(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yasutomi, Yoko; Ito, Keita; Sanai, Tatsunori; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi, E-mail: suemasu@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We grew Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin films capped with Au layers on MgO(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was confirmed in all the samples at room temperature from the magnetization versus magnetic field curves using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. From the ?-2? x-ray diffraction (XRD) and ?-2?{sub ?} XRD patterns, the ratios of perpendicular lattice constant c to in-plane lattice constant a, c/a, were found to be about 0.99 for all the samples. These results imply that PMA is attributed to the in-plane tensile strain in the Mn{sub 4}N films.

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of La substituted ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Derakhshani, M.; Mirkazemi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    ZnFe2-xLaxO4 (0magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer methods. The XRD results showed that the single phase La3+ substituted zinc ferrite nanoparticles exhibit partially inverse spinel structure with the crystallite size of 10-20 nm, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic measurements show that the saturation magnetization (Ms) increases till x=0.05, due to the increase of inversity, and then decreases from x=0.05 to x=0.2, because of the decrease in the total moments with the La3+ substitution.

  10. The cation inversion and magnetization in nanopowder zinc ferrite obtained by soft mechanochemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Milutinovi?, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Lazarevi?, Z., E-mail: lzorica@yahoo.com [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Jovaleki?, ?. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Kuryliszyn-Kudelska, I. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Rom?evi?, M.; Kosti?, S.; Rom?evi?, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano powder of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by a soft mechanochemical route after 18 h milling. • Phase formation controlled by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. • Size, strain and cation inversion degree determined by Rietveld refinement. • We were able to estimate the degree of inversion at most 0.348 and 0.4. • Obtained extremely high values of saturation magnetizations at T = 4.5 K. - Abstract: Two zinc ferrite nanoparticle materials were prepared by the same method – soft mechanochemical synthesis, but starting from different powder mixtures: (1) Zn(OH){sub 2}/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (2) Zn(OH){sub 2}/Fe(OH){sub 3}. In both cases a single phase system was obtained after 18 h of milling. The progress of the synthesis was controlled by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, TEM and magnetic measurements. Analysis of the XRD patterns by Rietveld refinement allowed determination of the cation inversion degree for both obtained single phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples. The sample obtained from mixture (1) has the cation inversion degree 0.3482 and the sample obtained from mixture (2) 0.400. Magnetization measurements were confirmed that the degrees of the inversion were well estimated. Comparison with published data shows that used method of synthesis gives nano powder samples with extremely high values of saturation magnetizations: sample (1) 78.3 emu g{sup ?1} and sample (2) 91.5 emu g{sup ?1} at T = 4.5 K.

  11. Magnetic fields in astrophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ia. B. Zeldovich; A. A. Ruzmaikin; D. D. Sokolov

    1983-01-01

    The evidence of cosmic magnetism is examined, taking into account the Zeeman effect, beats in atomic transitions, the Hanle effect, Faraday rotation, gyro-lines, and the strength and scale of magnetic fields in astrophysics. The origin of magnetic fields is considered along with dynamos, the conditions for magnetic field generation, the topology of flows, magnetic fields in stationary flows, kinematic turbulent

  12. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  13. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  14. Magnetic multilayer physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Pechan

    1994-01-01

    Microscopic magnetic systems, and especially multilayer structures, are providing a wealth of novel phenomena in condensed matter magnetism. Of particular significance are interfacial and interlayer effects. The interface between two magnetically dissimilar materials can significantly alter the bulk magnetic properties of either constituent material; and coupling of magnetic layers across relatively thick nonmagnetic interlayers are observed to have unexpectedly large

  15. Playing with Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about magnetism and magnetic forces. Learners will explore objects to which a magnet is attracted or repelled, and investigate the attractive and repulsive forces of two like and two unlike magnetic poles. This is the first activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.

  16. A Magnetic Personality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about magnets and how they are formed. They investigate the properties of magnets and how engineers use magnets in technology. Specifically, students learn about magnetic memory storage, which is the reading and writing of data information using magnets, such as in computer hard drives, zip disks and flash drives.

  17. Exploring Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

  18. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, Le Thi Mai; Thi Dung, Tran; Mau Danh, Tran; Duc, Nguyen Huu; Mau Chien, Dang

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4 were prepared in air environment by the coprecipitation method using molar ratios of Fe2+: Fe3+ = 1: 2. The surface of magnetic nanoparticles was coated with sodium oleate as the primary layer and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) as the second layer. The morphology of the particles was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the sole existence of inverse cubic spinel phase of Fe3O4 and an average size of about 25 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated existence of two distinct surfactants on the particle surface. In addition, the results of FT-IR indicated that the coated Fe3O4 particles improved the thermal stability due to the interaction between the Fe3O4 particles and protective layers.

  19. Preparation and magnetic properties of spindle porous iron nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lv Baoliang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Number 27, Tao Yuan South Road, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xu Yao [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Number 27, Tao Yuan South Road, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)], E-mail: xuyao@sxicc.ac.cn; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Number 27, Tao Yuan South Road, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)

    2009-05-06

    Spindle porous iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized by reducing the pre-synthesized hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spindle particles with hydrogen gas. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). A lattice shrinkage mechanism was employed to explain the formation process of the porous structure, and the adsorbed phosphate was proposed as a protective shell in the reduction process. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption result showed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 29.7 m{sup 2}/g and a continuous pore size distribution from 2 nm to 100 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loop of the synthesized iron particles showed a saturation magnetization of 84.65 emu/g and a coercivity of 442.36 Oe at room temperature.

  20. Superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Satti, John A. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting magnet designed to produce magnetic flux densities of the order of 4 to 5 Webers per square meter is constructed by first forming a cable of a plurality of matrixed superconductor wires with each wire of the plurality insulated from each other one. The cable is shaped into a rectangular cross-section and is wound with tape in an open spiral to create cooling channels. Coils are wound in a calculated pattern in saddle shapes to produce desired fields, such as dipoles, quadrupoles, and the like. Wedges are inserted between adjacent cables as needed to maintain substantially radial placement of the long dimensions of cross sections of the cables. After winding, individual strands in each of the cables are brought out to terminals and are interconnected to place all of the strands in series and to maximize the propagation of a quench by alternating conduction from an inner layer to an outer layer and from top half to bottom half as often as possible. Individual layers are separated from others by spiraled aluminum spacers to facilitate cooling. The wound coil is wrapped with an epoxy tape that is cured by heat and then machined to an interference fit with an outer aluminum pipe which is then affixed securely to the assembled coil by heating it to make a shrink fit. In an alternate embodiment, one wire of the cable is made of copper or the like to be heated externally to propagate a quench.

  1. Electric and magnetic properties of Cr-doped SiC films grown by dual ion beam sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C. G.; Wu, X. M.; Zhuge, L. J.; Sha, Z. D.; Hong, B.

    2008-02-01

    Cr-doped SiC thin films have been fabricated on Al2O3 and Si substrates by using dual ion beam sputtering deposition at room temperature. The films have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and TEM results show that the films are amorphous. The XPS studies confirm that the Cr3+ ion occupies the Si site in amorphous SiC (a-SiC). The temperature dependence of resistivity measurements reveals that Cr doping does not change the semiconducting property of the a-SiC films. The magnetic measurements reveal that the Cr-doped a-SiC thin films are ferromagnetic with Curie temperature Tc above room temperature. The carriers mediate the interaction of the magnetic ions, resulting in this ferromagnetic behaviour.

  2. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C. H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2014-09-01

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe3O4 spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  3. A facile method to syntheses monodisperse ?-Fe2O3 nanocubes with high magnetic anisotropy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Waleed E.; Al-Hazmi, Faten; Al-Noaiser, Fowzia; Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Bronstein, Lyudmila M.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of iron oxides, as a clinical tool for hyperthermia application, is strongly depending on their size and structural morphology. The precise control of the iron oxide shape and morphology offers a unique strategy to modify the strength of the dipolar interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles through the engineering of the magnetic surface anisotropy density. This article presents a novel recipe to synthesize ?-Fe2O3 nanocrystals with cubic morphology. The ?-Fe2O3 nanocubes were prepared through microwave assisted solvothermal technique. The use of 2,3-oxidosqualene results in iron oxide with cubic shape. The ?-Fe2O3 nanocubes were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (SAED). The magnetic analysis revealed that the ?-Fe2O3 nanocubes have a saturation magnetization of 62 emu/g and magnetic surface anisotropy density Keff = 2 × 105 erg/cm3 compared to bulk iron oxide.

  4. Preparation and characterization of supported magnetic nanoparticles prepared by reverse micelles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Luyang; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary Monatomic (Fe, Co) and bimetallic (FePt and CoPt) nanoparticles were prepared by exploiting the self-organization of precursor loaded reverse micelles. Achievements and limitations of the preparation approach are critically discussed. We show that self-assembled metallic nanoparticles can be prepared with diameters d = 2–12 nm and interparticle distances D = 20–140 nm on various substrates. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the particle arrays were characterized by several techniques to give a comprehensive view of the high quality of the method. For Co nanoparticles, it is demonstrated that magnetostatic interactions can be neglected for distances which are at least 6 times larger than the particle diameter. Focus is placed on FePt alloy nanoparticles which show a huge magnetic anisotropy in the L10 phase, however, this is still less by a factor of 3–4 when compared to the anisotropy of the bulk counterpart. A similar observation was also found for CoPt nanoparticles (NPs). These results are related to imperfect crystal structures as revealed by HRTEM as well as to compositional distributions of the prepared particles. Interestingly, the results demonstrate that the averaged effective magnetic anisotropy of FePt nanoparticles does not strongly depend on size. Consequently, magnetization stability should scale linearly with the volume of the NPs and give rise to a critical value for stability at ambient temperature. Indeed, for diameters above 6 nm such stability is observed for the current FePt and CoPt NPs. Finally, the long-term conservation of nanoparticles by Au photoseeding is presented. PMID:21977392

  5. Correlation of the structural properties of a Pt seed layer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features of full Heusler-based Co2FeAl/MgO/Co2Fe6B2 junctions via a 12-inch scale Si wafer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kyo-Suk; Lee, Du-Yeong; Shim, Tae-Hun; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-10-01

    We elucidated the interfacial-perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (i-PMA) features of full Heusler-based Co2FeAl/MgO/Co2Fe6B2 magnetic-tunnel-junctions as functions of the structural properties of the Pt seed layer including its thickness and ex situ annealing temperature. All of the samples were prepared in a 12-inch silicon wafer process for real industry applications. The observations of the M-H loops emphasize that a thinner Pt seed layer and a high ex situ annealing temperature enhance the surface roughness of the seed layer, providing better i-PMA characteristics. HR-TEM images of the samples were evaluated to understand the structural effects of thin and thick Pt seed layers.

  6. Encapsulation of Fe 3O 4 magnetic nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface functionalized thiol-lactam initiated radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Kim, Jong Tae; Seo, SungYong; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2012-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was grafted onto Fe 3O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by using a thiol-lactam initiated radical polymerization (TLIRP) via grafting from approach. The surface of the MNPs was treated with the (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane coupling agent to give thiol functionalized MNPs (MNPs-SH). Subsequently, the polymerization of MMA performed in the presence of the MNPs-SH and butyrolactam efficiently afforded PMMA- g-MNPs. The grafting of PMMA on the surface of the MNPs was investigated by FT-IR, 1H NMR, TGA, XPS, and EDX analyses. The morphology of the core/shell type PMMA- g-MNPs was confirmed by HR-TEM. GPC analysis showed that the molecular weight of PMMA and monomer conversion increased with the reaction time. The amount of the grafted polymer on the surface of the MNPs was found to be ca. 82.5% as estimated from TGA analysis. The MNPs and PMMA- g-MNPs were subjected to magnetic property investigation by SQUID, and the PMMA- g-MNPs showed relatively high saturated magnetization (53.3 emu/g) without any remanence or coercivity, which made the nanocomposites easily separable from solid-liquid phases suggesting their superparamagnetic character. The magnetic nanocomposites had an exceptionally good dispersibility in organic solvents as demonstrated by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as time-dependent digital photographic monitoring.

  7. The effect of substrate temperature on the etching properties and the etched surfaces of magnetic tunnel junction materials in a CH3OH inductively coupled plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minsuk; Lee, Won-Jong

    2012-08-01

    The etching characteristics of the magnetic films (PtMn, CoFe) and hard mask materials (W, Ta) forming a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stack in a CH3OH inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system were investigated. We examined the etch rates of the metal films as a function of substrate temperature, and assessed the microstructures of the etched surfaces using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). We also analyzed the surface states using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and TEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). The PtMn and CoFe etch rates increased as the temperature increased, whereas the etch rates of W and Ta decreased slightly. Therefore the etch selectivity increased linearly with increasing substrate temperature. The CH3OH plasma formed nonvolatile etching byproducts with the magnetic films and hard mask metals. In the case of PtMn and CoFe, the surface composition of the etching byproducts changed with increasing temperature; the relative concentration of pure metal compared with metal oxide or carbide increased as the substrate temperature rose. The etch rate was determined by the sputtering yield of the materials formed on the etched surface; accordingly the etch rates of those magnetic films would increase due to the higher sputtering yield of pure metal.

  8. Equivalent magnetic charge in helicoidal magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscia, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that magnetostatic models of permanent magnets, based on distributions of magnetic charge and shaped by a helicoidal geometry of cylindrical type, have the volume charge density ?M equal to zero. This result is valid when (i) the modulus of the vector physical magnetization density M has a constant value in all the points of the helicoidal magnet and (ii) M has the same direction of an oriented straight line having a constant angle with respect to the normal line of a cylindrical helix. Another case study concerns the permanent magnets with conchospiral geometry and magnetization M. For this kind of magnet we show that, in general, ?M?0. Furthermore, in relation to the nonobvious result ?M=0 obtained for the cylindrical helicoidal permanent magnets, some geometrical physical considerations are illustrated. With reference to these observations, in order to understand if ?M is equal to zero or not without considering divergence computation, the possibility of defining a criterion based only on the geometry and magnetization of the magnet is discussed. Finally, an application of the results obtained from the previous analysis is shown. After drawing an analytical formulation of the surface charge density ?M relative to a cylindrical helicoidal magnet, a complete evaluation of the field distribution around this magnet is performed. The results are presented by using cylindrical polar graphics of the magnetic flux B.

  9. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  10. Magnetism of Carbonados

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Taylor, P. T.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Origin of Carbonado is not clear. Magnetism of Carbonado comes from the surface, indicating contemporary formation of both the surface and magnetic carriers. The interior of carbonado is relatively free of magnetic phases.

  11. ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films by RF magnetron sputtering for spin photonic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elanchezhiyan; K. P. Bhuvana; N. Gopalakrishnan; T. Balasubramanian

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal (TM) doped ZnO is a promising diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material for the fabrication of spintronics devices. In this paper, we have investigated Mn and Cr doped ZnO thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering. The films grown on Si(100) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) to know its

  12. Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) nanoparticles prepared by wet chemical route

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Maaz; Arif Mumtaz; S. K. Hasanain; Abdullah Ceylan

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite have been synthesized by wet chemical method using stable ferric and cobalt salts with oleic acid as the surfactant. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) confirmed the formation of single-phase cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the range 15–48nm depending on the annealing temperature and time. The size of the particles increases with annealing temperature

  13. Magnetic Properties of Iron\\/Graphite Core-shell Structured Nanoparticles Prepared by Annealing of Fe-C-N Nanocomposite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. David; N. Pizúrová; O. Schneeweiss; P. Bezdi?ka; R. Alexandrescu; I. Morjan; A. Crunteanu; I. Voicu

    2004-01-01

    We are reporting the core-shell structured iron\\/graphite nanoparticles formed during annealing of a nanopowder prepared by laser pyrolysis of gas phase reactants. The originally synthesized Fe-C-N nanocomposite powder has been characterized by TEM, XRD and magnetic measurements. Nanopowder was heated up to 800 °C at ~ 1 Pa vacuum. Presence of iron nanoparticles with mean diameter 40 nm in the annealed state

  14. Fe\\/Ba Ratio Effect on Magnetic Properties of Barium Ferrite Powders Prepared by Microwave-Induced Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Pei Fu; Cheng-Hsiung Lin; Ko-Ying Pan

    2003-01-01

    Barium ferrite powders were successfully synthesized by microwave-induced combustion. The magnetic properties of barium ferrite powders with various Fe\\/Ba ratios varying from 11 to 12 annealed at various temperatures in the range of 850-1050°C were determined. The resultant powders were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), differential thermal analyzer\\/thermogravimeter (DTA\\/TG), and surface area

  15. Magnetic, luminescent and core–shell structured Fe 3O 4@YF 3:Ce 3+,Tb 3+ bifunctional nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongxia Peng; Guixia Liu; Xiangting Dong; Jinxian Wang; Wensheng Yu; Jia Xu

    Bifunctional magnetic–luminescent nanocomposites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the cores and YF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ as the shells were synthesized by a facile direct precipitation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the obtained bifunctional nanocomposites had a core–shell structure, in a spherical shape with a size ranging from 160 to 220nm, and the shell thickness of about 25nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  16. Model a Magnet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a summative activity about magnets. Learners will observe a demonstration of the action of a magnet on a test tube of iron filings, answer questions, and, using the concepts learned in previous activities, write an essay about their understanding of the demonstration. This is the fourth activity in the Mapping Magnetic Influence educators guide. Learners should complete the other three activities in that guide (Seeing Magnetism, What Do You Know about Magnets, and Magnet Map) prior to beginning this activity.

  17. Playing with Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    In this activity students will discover that magnetism is the force produced by magnets which does all of the "holding" and that it is also a very important force in nature. This activity introduces the student to simple toy magnets to explore magnetic attraction to items which contain metal by using paper clips. Students will experience that a magnetic force is invisible and explore the magnets attracting and repelling properties.

  18. Visualizing Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    In this activity, students take the age old concept of etch-a-sketch a step further. Using iron filings, students begin visualizing magnetic field lines. To do so, students use a compass to read the direction of the magnet's magnetic field. Then, students observe the behavior of iron filings near that magnet as they rotate the filings about the magnet. Finally, students study the behavior of iron filings suspended in mineral oil which displays the magnetic field in three dimensions.

  19. What are Magnetic Fields?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Magnetic Math booklet; this booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website.

  20. Exploring Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about magnetic fields. Using iron filings, learners will observe magnets in various arrangements to investigate the magnetic field lines of force. This information is then related to magnetic loops on the Sun's surface and the magnetic field of the Earth. This is the second activity in the Exploring the Earth's Magnetic Field: An IMAGE Satellite Guide to the Magnetosphere educators guide.