Science.gov

Sample records for xvi calorimetric determination

  1. A calorimetric method to determine water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg-1 to 3 mol kg-1 and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities.

  2. Calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of formation for pyrophyllite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodova, L. P.; Kiseleva, I. A.; Mel'Chakova, L. V.; Vigasina, M. F.; Spiridonov, E. M.

    2011-09-01

    A calorimetric study of the natural pyrophyllite was performed by high-temperature melt calorimetry on a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. Based on experimentally determined in this work for pyrophyllite and gibbsite, as well as previously obtained for corundum and quartz, the total value of the enthalpy increment for the sample heated from room temperature to 973 K and the enthalpy of dissolution at 973 K by Hess's law, the enthalpy of formation of pyrophyllite of Al2[(OH)2/Si4O10] composed of elements was calculated at 298.15 K: ?f H {el/o}(298.15 K) = -5639.8 ± 5.7 kJ/mol.

  3. A method for determining crystallization kinetic parameters from one nonisothermal calorimetric experiment

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Brian S.

    A method for determining crystallization kinetic parameters from one nonisothermal calorimetric rate in an isothermal process can be translated into the nonisothermal transformation in an isokinetic crystallization is dominant in the bulk a-Se and LS2 samples, whereas surface crystallization is dominant

  4. Specific volume study of a bulk metallic glass far below its calorimetrically determined glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckabauer, M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Sprengel, W.

    2014-05-01

    High-precision LASER dilatometry with a unique measurement setup was applied to the bulk metallic glass alloy Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10 (Vit105) for specific volume studies. Employing small temperature steps of ?T =5 and 10 K and long measurement times effective heating rates of the order of 10-2 K/min were realized and changes of the specific volume were measured with a resolution of ?V /V=10-6 down to 573 K. The temperature regime of these experiments is far below a calorimetrically determined glass transition of Tgcalor=659 K (5 K/min). The experimental results strongly support theoretical predictions for the existence of an ideal glass transition that was observed in this study at Tg=628 K for this bulk metallic glass model alloy.

  5. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOEpatents

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  6. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 {+-} 1.1 and -16.8 {+-} 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  7. Calorimetric determination of the magnetic phase diagram of underdoped ortho II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Marcenat, C.; Demuer, A.; Beauvois, K.; Michon, B.; Grockowiak, A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W.; Bonn, D. A.; Klein, T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of a charge order in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy raised the question of the interplay between superconductivity and this competing phase. Understanding the normal state of high-temperature superconductors is now an essential step towards the description of the pairing mechanism in those materials and determining the upper critical field is therefore of fundamental importance. We present here a calorimetric determination of the field–temperature phase diagram in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals. We show that the specific heat saturates in high magnetic fields. This saturation is consistent with a normal state without any significant superconducting contribution and a total Sommerfeld coefficient ?N?6.5±1.5?mJ?mol?1?K?2 putting strong constraints on the theoretical models for the Fermi surface reconstruction. PMID:26294047

  8. Determination of the Temperature Change by Means of an Outcoming Signal of Electric Resistance in an Isoperibolic Calorimetric Cell. Obtainment of Heat Solution

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Gutierréz, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    An isoperibolic calorimetric cell is built with glass surrounded by plastic insulation. The cell has a lid on which a thermistor thermometer, an electric resistance to provide the cell with definite quantities of electric work and a container for a glass ampoule, are placed. For measuring the thermal changes, an NTC thermistor, which provides an electric resistance signal that varies with temperature, is used. Calibration curves of the thermistor and of the stabilization of the system signal in thermal equilibrium are shown, which enable the observation of a good insulation. The calorific capacity of the system with water, with a value of 206.7 ±0.7 J °C-1 is determined; the solution enthalpy for propanol-water and KCl-water systems is obtained, which shows the behavior of the cell before exothermic and endothermic effects, respectively.

  9. Refinement of non-calorimetric determination of the change in heat capacity, ?Cp, of protein unfolding and validation across a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepika Talla; Stites, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    The change in heat capacity, ?Cp, upon protein unfolding has been usually determined by calorimetry. A non-calorimetric method which employs the Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship to determine ?Cp has seen some use. Generally, the free energy change upon unfolding of the protein is determined at a variety of temperatures and the temperature at which ?G is zero, Tm, and change in enthalpy at Tm are determined by thermal denaturation and ?Cp is then calculated using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. We show here that an abbreviated method with stability determinations at just two temperatures gives values of ?Cp consistent with values from free energy change upon unfolding determination at a much wider range of temperatures. Further, even the free energy change upon unfolding from a single solvent denaturation at the proper temperature, when coupled with the melting temperature, Tm, and the van’t Hoff enthalpy, ?HvH, from a thermal denaturation, gives a reasonable estimate of ?Cp, albeit with greater uncertainty than solvent denaturations at two temperatures. We also find that non-linear regression of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation as a function of stability and temperature while simultaneously fitting ?Cp, Tm, and ?HvH gives values for the last two parameters that are in excellent agreement with experimental values. PMID:18384147

  10. CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE TUNICATA tunicates are crea,tures with a rather low and simple type of organization so that the older zoologists. Their sac- like body of ovaloI' more or less irregular shape is enclosed in a thick outer tunic called

  11. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Senturia, Stephen D. (Brookline, MA); Huber, Robert J. (Bountiful, UT)

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick.times.10 .mu.m wide.times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500.degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300.degree. C. (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H.sub.2 concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N.sub.2 /O.sub.2 mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used.

  12. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  13. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Moorman, J.O.

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus is described for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe). 18 figs.

  14. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Moorman, Jack O. (Boone, IA)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe).

  15. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  16. Automated analysis of calorimetric demicellization titrations.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Keller, Sandro

    2015-09-15

    Determination of the critical micellar concentration of surfactants and of the heat of demicellization by means of isothermal titration calorimetry usually involves either calculation of the first derivative of the heat of demicellization with respect to surfactant concentration or application of a generic sigmoidal fit to the demicellization isotherm. Here, we show that a combination of both approaches provides an unbiased and reproducible data analysis strategy without the need for user input other than the calorimetric data proper. The approach is explained and exemplified using demicellization isotherms of the fluorinated surfactant F6OPC (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluoro-n-octylphosphocholine) and the zwitterionic detergent CHAPSO (3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate). PMID:26079704

  17. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster-session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593-598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 - 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN-10: 0-8218-4355-9, ISBN-13: 978-0-8218-4355-0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically-weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing the Proceedings within a reasonable time. Dieter Schuch, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Mi

  18. San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report Brackish Groundwater Desalination Program for the Bureau of Reclamation May 2011 #12; Brackish Groundwater Desalination Program Title XVI ................................................................................................. 15 3.6 Source Water Facility Location

  19. Measurement of the calorimetric energy scale in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnell, Jeffrey J.

    2005-06-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A neutrino beam is created at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and fired down through the Earth. Measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the neutrino beam are made both at the source using the Near detector and 735 km away at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota using the Far detector. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the neutrino beam between the two detectors neutrino oscillations can be observed. Such a comparison depends on the accuracy of the relative calorimetric energy scale. This thesis details a precise measurement of the calorimetric energy scale of the MINOS Far detector and Calibration detector using stopping muons with a new ''track window'' technique. These measurements are used to perform the relative calibration between the two detectors. This calibration has been accomplished to 1.7% in data and to significantly better than 2% in the Monte Carlo simulation, thus achieving the MINOS relative calibration target of 2%. A number of cross-checks have been performed to ensure the robustness of the calorimetric energy scale measurements. At the Calibration detector the test-beam energy between run periods is found to be consistent with the detector response to better than 2% after the relative calibration is applied. The muon energy loss in the MINOS detectors determined from Bethe-Bloch predictions, data and Monte Carlo are compared and understood. To estimate the systematic error on the measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters caused by a relative miscalibration a study is performed. A 2% relative miscalibration is shown to cause a 0.6% bias in the values of {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}).

  20. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard XVI-Student activities. 36.43 Section 36.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional Support § 36.43 Standard XVI—Student activities....

  1. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard XVI-Student activities. 36.43 Section 36.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional Support § 36.43 Standard XVI—Student activities....

  2. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals increase, are of concern to air pollution photochemistry because NO2 leads directly, through solar

  3. 78 FR 11939 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p.; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...We are giving notice of SSR 13-2p, in which we explain our policies for how we consider whether ``drug addiction and alcoholism'' (DAA) is material to our determination of disability in disability claims and continuing disability reviews. This SSR rescinds and replaces SSR 82-60, Titles II and XVI: Evaluation of Drug Addiction and Alcoholism. This SSR obsoletes EM...

  4. Calorimetric thermobarometry of experimentally shocked quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocker, Katherine D.; Gooding, James L.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1994-01-01

    Structural damage in experimentally shock-metamorphosed, granular quartz is quantitatively measurable by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Shock-induced loss of crystallinity is witnessed by disappearance of the alpha/beta phase transformation and evolution of a broad endoenthalpic strain peak at 650-900 K. The strain-energy peak grows rapidly at less than 10 GPa but declines with increasing shock pressure; it approaches zero at 32 GPa where vitrification is extensive. Effects of grain size and post-shock thermal history must be better understood before calorimetric thermobarometry of naturally shocked samples becomes possible.

  5. Nanoclay modified polycarbonate blend nanocomposites: Calorimetric and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Kalnins, Martins; Maksimovs, Roberts

    2014-05-01

    The research is devoted to characterization of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS) blend nanocomposites in respects to it mechanical and calorimetric properties. It is shown that PC blend with 10wt% of ABS is more suitable for development of polymer-clay nanocomposites than PC blend with 40wt.% of ABS. It is revealed that the greatest modulus and strength increment is observed for PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites, containing aromatic organomodifier treated clay (Dellite 43B). It is also determined that optimal nanofiller content for the investigated PC/10%ABS blend is 1.5 wt.%. Increase of mechanical characteristics of PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites is accompanied with the rise of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric phases, particularly that of PC.

  6. New calorimetric all-particle energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both the maximum size N sub m and the sea level muon size N sub mu have been used separately to find the all-particle energy spectrum in the air shower domain. However the conversion required, whether from N sub m to E or from N sub mu to E, has customarily been carried out by means of calculations based on an assumed cascase model. It is shown here that by combining present data on N sub m and N sub mu spectra with data on: (1); the energy spectrum of air shower muons and (2) the average width of the electron profile, one can obtain empirical values of the N sub m to E and N sub mu to E conversion factors, and an empirical calorimetric all-particle spectrum, in the energy range 2 x 10 to the 6th power E 2 x 10 to the 9th power GeV.

  7. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-12-31

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-k{Omega} thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl.

  8. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankowski, A. M.; Benhar, O.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Jen, C.-M.; Mariani, C.; Meloni, D.; Vagnoni, E.

    2015-10-01

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ????? disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O (10 %) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. On the other hand, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  9. Application of Electrical and Calorimetric Methods to the A.C. Loss Characterization of Cable Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Coletta, C.; Gherardi, L.; Gomory, F.; Cereda, E.; Ottoboni, V.; Daney, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Zannella, S.

    1998-09-13

    Due to the higher currents (and therefore higher losses) compared to individual wires and tapes, the ac loss characterization of HTS cable conductors carrying transport current can be performed using calorimetric as well as electrical methods. We discuss the main features of two calorimetric methods, one based on temperature profile determination, and one, more recently developed, based on nitrogen boil-off rate, and of the electrical method, substantially derived from that already established for tapes, based on voltage measurement by a Lock-In amplifier. Advantages and limits of each approach are analyzed and compared. Tests have been carried out with the three methods on samples 1 to 1.5 m long cut from a Bi-2223 cable conductor prototype fabricated by Pirelli in a longer length. Results obtained from measurements covering a wide range of currents are compared and thoroughly discussed.

  10. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Coloma, Pilar; Huber, Patrick; Jen, Chun -Min; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide; Vagnoni, Erica

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ?? ? ?? disappearance experiments operating in different energymore »regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O(10%) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. Thus, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.« less

  11. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Coloma, Pilar; Huber, Patrick; Jen, Chun -Min; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide; Vagnoni, Erica

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ?? ? ?? disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O(10%) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. Thus, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  12. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    E-print Network

    Artur M. Ankowski; Omar Benhar; Pilar Coloma; Patrick Huber; Chun-Min Jen; Camillo Mariani; Davide Meloni; Erica Vagnoni

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two muon-neutrino disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with a ~10% accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. On the other hand, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  13. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  14. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  15. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of the current instrument to direct further work in this field. It has been found that for sources with powers above approximately 2 muW the instrument is able to determine the source power in agreement to within less than 7% of what is expected based upon the current source strength standard. For lower power sources, the agreement is still within the uncertainty of the power measurement, but the calorimeter noise dominates. Thus, to provide absolute calibration of lower power sources additional measures must be taken. The conclusion of this thesis describes these measures and how they will improve the factors that limit the current instrument. The results of the work presented in this thesis establish the methodology of active radiometric calorimetey for the absolute calibration of radioactive sources. The method is an improvement over previous techniques in that there is no reliance upon the thermal properties of the materials used or the heat flow pathways on the source measurements. The initial work presented here will help to shape future refinements of this technique to allow lower power sources to be calibrated with high precision and high accuracy.

  16. A calorimetric determination of the standard enthalpies of formation of huntite, CaMg3 (CO3)4 , and artinite, Mg2(OH)2 CO3 * 3H2O, and their standard Gibbs free energies of formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, Bruce S.; Robie, Richard A.

    1973-01-01

    The enthalpies of formation, ?H°f, of huntite, CaMg3(CO3)4 , and artinite, Mg2(OH)2CO3 * 3H2O, have been determined by HCl solution calorimetry using a constant-volume isoperibol reaction calorimeter. For the reaction CaO(c) + 3MgO(c) + 4CO2 (g) = CaMg3(CO3)4 (c), the enthalpy change at 298.15 K, ?H°298 , is -123,203±145 cal mol-1. For the reaction 2MgO(c) + 4H2O(l) + CO2(g)=Mg2(OH)2CO3 * 3H2O(c), we obtained -45,132±100 cal mol-1. These results combined with the standard enthalpies of formation of CaO, MgO, H2O, and CO2 lead to ?H°298 (huntite) = -1,082,600±375 cal mol-1 and ?H°298  (artinite) = -698,043±170 cal mol-1. Using recently determined values for the standard entropies of huntite, CaMg3(CO3)4, and artinite, Mg2(OH)2CO3 * 3H2O, and of Mg, Ca, C, O2 , and H2 , we calculate ?G°f,298 (huntite) = -1,004,707±390 cal mol-1 and ?G°f,298 (artinite) = -613,924±180 cal mol-1.

  17. A Calorimetric Method for Determination of Heat Capacity of Ceramics for Concentrated Solar Thermal Systems / Sken?još?s Kalorimetrijas Metode Siltumietilp?bas Noteikšanai Saules Kolektoru Keramik?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalna?s, J.; Grehovs, V.; Mežinskis, G.; Bidermanis, L.

    2013-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to determine the heat capacity (Cp) of the high temperature resistant ceramic materials to be used as protective coatings for stainless steel tubes of parabolic trough solar collectors in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. The ??(?) measurements and calculations were performed at continuous scanning in the temperature range 20-800 °?. In the work, calibration curves have been derived for conversion of measuring units from mcV into mW. To achieve a better repeatability of measurements, methods for stabilization of the thermal contact between the sample-containing vessel and the probe have been developed. The ??(?) dependence was obtained for different ceramic materials. Rakst? izkl?st?ta izstr?d?t? metodika keramikas un emalju siltumietilp?bas noteikšanai p?c diferenci?l?s sken?još?s kalorimetrijas m?r?jumiem. Par?d?ta virkne trauc?jošo faktoru kalibr?šanas l?knes un m?r?jumu veikšanai, pied?v?tas metodes to samazin?šanai vai nov?ršanai, prec?z?ku rezult?tu ieguvei. Noteikta siltumietilp?bas atkar?ba no temperat?ras virknei emalju, kas var tikt izmantotas saules siltuma kolektoros, k? aizsargp?rkl?jumi. Par?d?ta siltumietilp?bas noteikšanas atk?rtojam?bas atkar?ba no siltuma kontakta. Izstr?d?ta metode termisk? kontakta stabiliz?cijai. Virknei emalju noteikta siltumietilp?bas atkar?ba no temperat?ras diapazon? 20 - 800°?.

  18. Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation

    E-print Network

    Garrahan, Juan P.

    Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation Aaron S. Keysa Contributed by David Chandler, February 11, 2013 (sent for review November 15, 2012) The glass transition different on cooling than on heating, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling

  19. Thermodynamic properties of chlorite and berthierine derived from calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Philippe; Gailhanou, Hélène; Rogez, Jacques; Mikaelian, Georges; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Warmont, Fabienne; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Vieillard, Philippe; Fialips, Claire I.; Giffaut, Eric; Gaucher, Eric C.; Claret, F.

    2014-09-01

    In the context of the deep waste disposal, we have investigated the respective stabilities of two iron-bearing clay minerals: berthierine ISGS from Illinois [USA; (Al0.975FeIII0.182FeII1.422Mg0.157Li0.035Mn0.002)(Si1.332Al0.668)O5(OH)4] and chlorite CCa-2 from Flagstaff Hill, California [USA; (Si2.633Al1.367)(Al1.116FeIII0.215Mg2.952FeII1.712Mn0.012Ca0.011)O10(OH)8]. For berthierine, the complete thermodynamic dataset was determined at 1 bar and from 2 to 310 K, using calorimetric methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were obtained by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K, and the heat capacities were measured by heat-pulse calorimetry. For chlorite, the standard enthalpy of formation is measured by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. This is completing the entropy and heat capacity obtained previously by Gailhanou et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:4738-4749, 2009) between 2 and 520 K, by using low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. For both minerals, the standard entropies and the Gibbs free energies of formation at 298.15 K were then calculated. An assessment of the measured properties could be carried out with respect to literature data. Eventually, the thermodynamic dataset allowed realizing theoretical calculations concerning the berthierine to chlorite transition. The latter showed that, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, the main factor controlling this transition is probably the composition of the berthierine and chlorite minerals and the nature of the secondary minerals rather than temperature.

  20. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability...procedures for handling your request to file a disability claim when you have a pending...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for...

  1. Thermodynamic properties by non-calorimetric methods. Progress report, August 1, 1988--July 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Collier, W.B.; Strube, M.M. |

    1989-12-31

    This three year research program provides a valuable complement to the experimental programs currently in progress at NIPER for the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) and Advanced Exploration and Process Technology (AEPT) divisions of the Department of Energy. These experimental programs are focused on the calorimetric determination of thermodynamic properties of key polynuclear heteroatom-containing aromatic molecules. This project for the Office of Energy Research focuses on the non-calorimetric determination of thermodynamic properties through the extension of existing correlation methodologies and through molecular spectroscopy with statistical mechanics. The paper discusses progress in three areas: (1) Improvement of thermochemical and thermophysical property predictions via enhancement of group-contribution methods using two approaches, namely, development and improvement of group-contribution parameters via correlations involving the expanded modern thermodynamics data base and development of group-contribution parameters via molecular spectroscopy and statistical mechanics of key monocyclic organic compounds; (2) Molecular spectroscopy and statistical mechanics: equipment development and developments in interpretation and assignment of spectra; and (3) Thermophysical property correlations.

  2. Calorimetric measurement of absorption loss in orientation-patterned GaP and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyanova, Yelena; Moulton, Peter F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    Materials grown by vapor phase techniques such as chemical vapor deposition or hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) often exhibit very low losses which are difficult to quantify by simple transmission measurements. The measurement of extremely low absorption coefficients can be carried out by laser calorimetric or thermal rise techniques, which determine the absorption coefficients by measuring the temperature increase caused by the absorbed laser radiation. We report here on results of measuring absorption coefficients of bulk HVPE-grown orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) and GaP (OP-GaP) crystals using one of the methods of laser calorimetry, called transient calorimetry. In our setup, the sample under test is attached to a high-conductivity copper holder and placed in a vacuum chamber. A 2-micron cw laser beam is transmitted through the sample and the temperature rise in the sample is measured and, through the calorimeter calibration process, related to the power absorbed in the sample. The absorbed power, Pa, is a function of the total attenuation coefficient ?tot , the length of the sample, and the laser power Po, defined as Pa = Po exp (-?tot l), where total attenuation ?tot is the sum of absorption and scattering: ?tot = ?abs + ?scat. Since scattered light does not cause heating, the calorimetric technique is only applicable to determining ?abs. By this technique we have measured 2-micron absorption coefficients in OP-GaAs and OP-GaP as low as 0.007 cm-1.

  3. New calorimetric AC loss measurement technique involving superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Baudouy, B.J.P.; Bartholomew, K.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a new calorimetric AC loss measurement facility involving superfluid helium (He II). At present, the Test of AC Loss (TACL) facility performs AC loss measurements on Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) under development for the NHMFL 45 Tesla hybrid superconducting outsert magnet. TACL can handle large scale conductors up to one meter in length. Measurements utilize the exceptional high heat conductivity of He II, which provides an isothermal environment and is the dominant enthalpy in the system. The test conductors are placed in an independent cryostat containing He II which is inserted in a superconducting dipole magnet producing a transverse magnetic field up to 7 T. For a change of the magnetic field and associated AC loss, the temperature variation of the He II surrounding the conductor is measured and directly converted to enthalpy variation of the He II. This paper describes the measurement technique and compares its resolution to that of more conventional calorimetric AC loss measurements.

  4. Stabilization of Cu(I) for binding and calorimetric measurements in aqueous solution†

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Destinee K.; Stevenson, Michael J.; Almadidy, Zayed A.; Jenkins, Sharon E.; Wilcox, Dean. E.; Grossoehme, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the comproportionation reaction of Cu2+ and copper metal to prepare aqueous solutions of Cu+ that are stabilized from disproportionation by MeCN and other Cu+-stabilizing ligands. These solutions were then used in ITC measurements to quantify the thermodynamics of formation of a set of Cu+ complexes (CuI(MeCN)3+, CuIMe6Trien+, CuI(BCA)23?, CuI(BCS)23?), which have stabilities ranging over 15 orders of magnitude, for their use in binding and calorimetric measurements of Cu+ interaction with proteins and other biological macromolecules. These complexes were then used to determine the stability and thermodynamics of formation of a 1 : 1 complex of Cu+ with the biologically important tri-peptide glutathione, GSH. These results identify Me6Trien as an attractive Cu+-stabilizing ligand for calorimetric experiments, and suggest that caution should be used with MeCN to stabilize Cu+ due to its potential for participating in unquantifiable ternary interactions. PMID:26327397

  5. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

  6. Novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy for mine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. |; Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Datskou, I.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have developed a novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used in mine detection applications. In this technique target molecules are allowed to adsorb on the surface of sub-femtojoule sensitive micromechanical thermal detectors. The adsorption of molecules on the thermal detector surface causes a differential surface stress resulting in an initial trigger. By exposing each element in an array of thermal detectors to different photon wavelengths, an extremely sensitive and unique photothermal signature response can be obtained. The authors present their results on target chemicals adsorbed on the detector surface at sub-monolayer coverage levels. They will present infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns the photothermal spectra of DIMP and TNT exhibit a number of peaks and are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption spectra found in the literature. Chemical detectors based on micro-calorimetric spectroscopy can be used to sensitively sense small number of molecules adsorbed on a thermal detector surface. The photothermal signature resulting from photon irradiation can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  7. Calorimetric approach for 3D dosimetry of high intensity therapeutic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, E.; Fiorillo, A. S.; Vena, R.; Berdondini, A.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Bilokon, H.; Barca, G.; Castrovillari, F.; Siaka, Y. F. T.

    2009-12-01

    The technique of High Dose Rate Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (HDR-IORT) consists in the delivery of irradiation immediately after the removal of a cancerous mass, where the same incision is used to focalize the radiation to the tumour bed. Given its particular characteristics, IORT requires dose measurements that are different from those requested in external radiotherapy treatments. The main reason lies in the fact that in this case a single high dose must be delivered to a target volume whose extension and depth will be determined directly during the operation. Because of this peculiar characteristics, until now there is not a dosimetric system able to detect the electron beam giving at once a realtime response and an extensive spatial measure of the absorbed dose. Within the framework of a research project of the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), we proposed a new system to overcome the problems, Dosiort. The final set-up is a solid phantom having a density approximately 1 g/cm3 with sensitive layers of scintillating fibres at fixed positions in a calorimetric configuration for the containment of electrons of energy 4-12 MeV. The prototype will be able to define the physical and geometrical characteristics of the electron beam (energy, isotropy, homogeneity, etc) and to measure the parameters needed to select the energy, the intensity and the Monitor Units (MU) for the exposition: percentage Depth Dose; beam profiles; isodose curves; values of dose per MU. In this work we present the results obtained by using two orthogonal layers of the calorimetric phantom Dosiort, in particular we report the measurement of the dynamic range of the read-out system and the first qualitative study of the results which can be extracted from the measurements taken in a test beam.

  8. ac-Calorimetric Measurements of Transverse Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Brill, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We are developing an ac-calorimetric technique, heating one surface of a thin sample with oscillating power and measuring the temperature oscillations on the opposite surface, to measure the thermal conductivity of solids. While the temperature oscillations are inversely proportional to the heat capacity at low frequencies, at higher frequencies the response is limited by the transverse thermal diffusivity. Because of the response times of thermometers and the fact that the magnitude of the temperature oscillation varies inversely with frequency, this technique is most useful for materials with low thermal conductivities, such as the interlayer conductivity in layered materials. We will show results on ``standard'' materials (teflon, sapphire) as well as the layered organic semiconductors, rubrene and TIPS-pentacene. Research supported by NSF grants DMR-0800367 and EPS-0814194.

  9. Synthesis of nitrate sodalite: An in situ scanning calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyuan; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2007-04-01

    The formation of nitrate sodalite, an important constituent of the resilient heels at DOE nuclear waste storage sites, was closely followed by oven synthesis, in situ calorimetry as a function of heating rate from 0.01 to 0.1 °C/min and X-ray diffraction. A transition sequence of amorphous-zeolite A-sodalite-cancrinite was confirmed. For in situ synthesis calorimetry, the heat flow peaks related to zeolite A formation are shifted to higher temperatures as heating rate increases. Although the end products are mostly nitrate sodalite, no calorimetric signals associated with zeolite A to sodalite conversion are detected. This suggests that the enthalpy of formation of zeolite A and sodalite are very similar and the zeolite A to sodalite conversion enthalpy is small. This conclusion is in accord with previous measurements by oxide melt solution calorimetry.

  10. Fast electron thermometry towards ultra-sensitive calorimetric detection

    E-print Network

    S. Gasparinetti; K. L. Viisanen; O. -P. Saira; T. Faivre; M. Arzeo; M. Meschke; J. P. Pekola

    2014-11-04

    We demonstrate radiofrequency thermometry on a micrometer-sized metallic island below 100 mK. Our device is based on a normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction coupled to a resonator with transmission readout. In the first generation of the device, we achieve 90 {\\mu}K/Hz^1/2 noise-equivalent temperature with 10 MHz bandwidth. We measure the thermal relaxation time of the electron gas in the island, which we find to be of the order of 100 {\\mu}s. Such a calorimetric detector, upon optimization, can be seamlessly integrated into superconducting circuits, with immediate applications in quantum-thermodynamics experiments down to single quanta of energy.

  11. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (?20 ?m) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269

  12. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. (a) Under the provisions...title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...

  13. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. (a) Under the provisions...title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...

  14. New classes of public key cryptosystem K(XVI)SE(1)PKC constructed based on Reed-Solomon code over extension field of

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    New classes of public key cryptosystem K(XVI)SE(1)PKC constructed based on Reed-Solomon code over extension field of m=8 and K(XVI)SE(2)PKC, based on binary cyclic code. Masao KASAHARA Abstract code over extension field of less than m=9, referred to as K(XVI)SE(1)PKC. We then present a new class

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. XVI Appendix XVI to Part...

  16. Calorimetric AC loss measurement of MgB2 superconducting tape in an alternating transport current and direct magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2012-11-01

    Applications of MgB2 superconductors in electrical engineering have been widely reported, and various studies have been made to define their alternating current (AC) losses. However, studies on the transport losses with an applied transverse DC magnetic field have not been conducted, even though this is one of the favored conditions in applications of practical MgB2 tapes. Methods and techniques used to characterize and measure these losses have so far been grouped into ‘electrical’ and ‘calorimetric’ approaches with external conditions set to resemble the application conditions. In this paper, we present a new approach to mounting the sample and employ the calorimetric method to accurately determine the losses in the concurrent application of AC transport current and DC magnetic fields that are likely to be experienced in practical devices such as generators and motors. This technique provides great simplification compared to the pickup coil and lock-in amplifier methods and is applied to a long length (˜10 cm) superconducting tape. The AC loss data at 20 and 30 K will be presented in an applied transport current of 50 Hz under external DC magnetic fields. The results are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions because of the metallic fraction of the tape that contributes quite significantly to the total losses. The data, however, will allow minimization of losses in practical MgB2 coils and will be used in the verification of numerical coil models.

  17. Calorimetric measurements of the ''equivalent series resistance'' of low-loss, high repetition rate pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    McDuff, G.G.; Rust, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    In high repetition rate pulsed circuits, component losses are a major design consideration. Accurate means of calculating the dissipation loss is essential for determining efficiency and in designing cooling systems for removal of associated heat. In high voltage systems, dielectric loss can be a major contributor to power dissipation. Total energy dissipation in a capacitor is the sum of dielectric, tab, corona, lead connections, and skin effect losses. Dielectric loss is also dependent on temperature, voltage, and frequency which adds to the complexity of determining an accurate value. The total loss component can be described by the ''equivalent series resistance'' or ESR. In this paper we will review the most common electrical methods used to measure the ESR and particulars that must be considered with these techniques. Finally we will describe calorimetric methods of ESR determination that are accurate regardless of frequency and voltage and the ESR values of a variety of commercially available pulsed discharge capacitors.

  18. Energy calibration of Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Asaoka, Yoichi; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa

    2015-06-01

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States. CALET will measure the flux of cosmic ray electrons (including positrons) up to 20 TeV, gamma-rays up to 10 TeV and nuclei from Z = 1 up to 40 up to 1000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. The unique feature of CALET is its thick, fully active calorimeter that allows measurements well into the TeV energy region with excellent energy resolution (< 3 %), coupled with a fine imaging upper calorimeter to accurately identify the starting point of electromagnetic showers. For continuous high performance of the detector, it is required to calibrate each detector component on orbit. We use the measured response to minimum ionizing particles for the energy calibration, taking data in a dedicated trigger mode and selecting useful events in off-line analysis. In this paper, we present on-orbit and off-line data handling methods for the energy calibration developed through beam tests at CERN-SPS and Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  20. SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Tissue Interactions XVI, vol. 5695, BIOS 2005 Cellular tolerance to pulsed heating

    E-print Network

    Palanker, Daniel

    SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Tissue Interactions XVI, vol. 5695, BIOS 2005 1 Cellular tolerance University, Stanford, CA, USA 94305 ABSTRACT Many laser therapies involve significant heating of tissue of 0.3 ms to 5 seconds. Thin layer of cells cultured in a Petri dish was exposed to a pulsed CO2 laser

  1. Volume XVI, No. 3 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 3 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency May/June 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: The Environment #12;2 Public Works Digest · May/June 2004 Public Works Digest is an unofficial publication of the U.S. Army Installa- tion Management Agency

  2. Volume XVI, No. 2 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 2 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency March/April 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Housing #12;Public Works Digest is an unofficial publication of the U.S. Army Installa- tion Management Agency, under AR 360-1, The Army Public Affairs Pro

  3. Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency November/December 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Annual Report Summaries #12;3 Letter from Almquist 5 Joint Basing in DoD and the Army by Michael Ostrom 6-7 Installation Support Center of Expertise

  4. A Temporal Map in Geostationary Orbit: The Cover Etching on the EchoStar XVI Artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  5. Thermal explosion analysis of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide by non-isothermal and isothermal calorimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Hao; Wu, Sheng-Hung; Shu, Chi-Min

    2009-11-15

    In the past, process incidents attributed to organic peroxides (OPs) that involved near misses, over-pressures, runaway reactions, and thermal explosions occurred because of poor training, human error, incorrect kinetic assumptions, insufficient change management, and inadequate chemical knowledge in the manufacturing process. Calorimetric applications were employed broadly to test organic peroxides on a small-scale because of their thermal hazards, such as exothermic behavior and self-accelerating decomposition in the laboratory. In essence, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) is highly reactive and exothermically unstable. In recent years, it has undergone many thermal explosions and runaway reaction incidents in the manufacturing process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), and thermal activity monitor (TAM) were employed to analyze thermokinetic parameters and safety index. The intent of the analyses was to facilitate the use of various auto-alarm equipments to detect over-pressure, over-temperature, and hazardous materials leaks for a wide spectrum of operations. Results indicated that MEKPO decomposition is detected at low temperatures (30-40 degrees C), and the rate of decomposition was shown to exponentially increase with temperature and pressure. Determining time to maximum rate (TMR), self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT), maximum temperature (T(max)), exothermic onset temperature (T(0)), and heat of decomposition (DeltaH(d)) was essential for identifying early-stage runaway reactions effectively for industries. PMID:19619941

  6. Characterization of Mucor pusillus rennin expressed in Pichia pastoris: enzymic, spectroscopic and calorimetric studies.

    PubMed

    Beldarraín, A; Acosta, N; Montesinos, R; Mata, M; Cremata, J

    2000-04-01

    The aspartic proteinase gene of Mucor pusillus rennin expressed in Pichia pastoris was characterized in terms of structural and conformational stability induced by temperature. This enzyme is 12% glycosylated, with a similar specific activity to the native fungal enzyme. The secondary structure determined by CD is mainly due to beta-sheet structures with an important contribution of aromatic components. The calorimetric studies were carried out in the temperature range in which the enzyme is most stable. The enzyme undergoes an irreversible, highly scan-rate-dependent thermal denaturation under all the experimental conditions investigated. Between pH 3.0 and 7.0, only one endotherm characterized the thermal denaturation of enzyme. At pH 5.0, the most stable condition found, the denaturation can be fitted to the two-state irreversible model. Thus the kinetic constant and activation parameters of the denaturation process could be obtained. Upon reaching pH 7.5, the denaturation is characterized by two endotherms. This evidence indicates the complex tridimensional structure of this enzyme. Finally, taking into account the conservative tertiary structure of the aspartic proteinase family we comment on our results with reference to the crystallographic structure of M. pusillus pepsin [Newman, Watson, Roychowdhury, Badasso, Cleasby, Wood, Tickle and Blundell (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 221, 1295-1309]. PMID:10744950

  7. A calorimetric study of the hydrolysis and peroxide complex formation of the uranyl(VI) ion.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2014-02-14

    The enthalpies of reaction for the formation of uranyl(vi) hydroxide {[(UO2)2(OH)2](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)4](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)5](+), [(UO2)3(OH)6](aq), [(UO2)3(OH)7](-), [(UO2)3(OH)8](2-), [(UO2)(OH)3](-), [(UO2)(OH)4](2-)} and peroxide complexes {[UO2(O2)(OH)](-) and [(UO2)2(O2)2(OH)](-)} have been determined from calorimetric titrations at 25 °C in a 0.100 M tetramethyl ammonium nitrate ionic medium. The hydroxide data have been used to test the consistency of the extensive thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (I. Grenthe, J. Fuger, R. J. M. Konings, R. J. Lemire, A. B. Mueller, C. Nguyen-Trung and H. Wanner, Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992 and R. Guillaumont, T. Fanghänel, J. Fuger, I. Grenthe, V. Neck, D. J. Palmer and M. R. Rand, Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). A brief discussion is given about a possible structural relationship between the trinuclear complexes [(UO2)3(OH)n](6-n), n = 4-8. PMID:24301256

  8. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2014-12-11

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials. PMID:25503235

  9. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2014-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  10. Neutron detection by measuring capture gammas in a calorimetric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Guntram; Herbach, Claus-Michael; Kong, Yong; Lentering, Ralf; Plettner, Cristina; Roemer, Katja; Scherwinski, Falko; Stein, Juergen; Schotanus, Paul; Wilpert, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The neutron capture detector (NCD) is introduced as a novel detection scheme for thermal and epithermal neutrons that could provide large-area neutron counters by using common detector materials and proven technologies. The NCD is based on the fact that neutron captures are usually followed by prompt gamma cascades, where the sum energy of the gammas equals to the total excitation energy of typically 6-9 MeV. This large sum energy is measured in a calorimetric approach and taken as the signature of a neutron capture event. An NCD consists of a neutron converter, comprising of constituents with large elemental neutron capture cross-section like cadmium or gadolinium, which is embedded in common scintillator material. The scintillator must be large and dense enough to absorb with reasonable probability a portion of the sum energy that exceeds the energy of gammas emitted by common (natural, medical, industrial) radiation sources. An energy window, advantageously complemented with a multiplicity filter, then discriminates neutron capture signals against background. The paper presents experimental results obtained at the cold-neutron beam of the BER II research reactor, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, and at other neutron sources with a prototype NCD, consisting of four BGO crystals with embedded cadmium sheets, and with a benchmark configuration consisting of two separate NaI(Tl) detectors. The detector responses are in excellent agreement with predictions of a simulation model developed for optimizing NCD configurations. NCDs could be deployed as neutron detectors in radiation portal monitors (RPMs). Advanced modular scintillation detector systems could even combine neutron and gamma sensitivity with excellent background suppression at minimum overall expense.

  11. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Docket No. SSA-2012-0006] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (DAA); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  12. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...would receive. For title II benefits, it includes your monthly benefit and your past-due benefits after any reductions or deductions...this chapter. For title XVI benefits, it includes your monthly benefit and your past-due...

  13. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754-1793), king of France.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M; Chiang, Charleston W K; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  14. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), king of France

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754–1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fe XVI radiative rates (Diaz+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n<=5 states arising from the configuration 1s22sk2pm3lpnl'q, where k+m+p+q=9, l<=3 and p+q<=2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines. (2 data files).

  16. The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis of the Molecular of hydrogen-bondformation between guanine (G) and cytusine (C) in o-dichloro- benzene and in chloroformat 25°C forming hydrogen bonds. Consequently, hydrogen-bond formation in our system is primarily between the bases

  17. Heat capacty, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Haas, J.L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Through the evaluation of experimental calorimetric data and estimates of the molar isobaric heat capacities, relative enthalpies and entropies of constituent oxides, a procedure for predicting the thermodynamic properties of silicates is developed. Estimates of the accuracy and precision of the technique and examples of its application are also presented. -J.A.Z.

  18. THEORETICAL WAVELENGTHS OF Fe XVI L-SHELL TRANSITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF CAPELLA

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Diaz, F.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2012-02-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the energy levels of Fe XVI, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole state in the L shell. Comparison of the resulting L-shell transition wavelengths with those from recent laboratory measurements shows remarkable agreement, i.e., agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Our calculation allows us to predict the wavelength of the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not yet been directly observed in the laboratory, to be 15.266 A. This wavelength is within 0.0042 A of the strong Fe XVII line commonly labeled 3D. Relying on the high accuracy of our calculations, we have reassigned two previously identified lines and predict a different location than previously thought for the strongest Fe XVI magnetic quadrupole transition. Inspection of the spectra of Capella recorded with the transmission grating spectrometers on the Chandra X-ray Observatory yields features corresponding to the predicted location of the innershell excited Fe XVI lines. These features have not been identified before. Our analysis shows that these features are most likely from Fe XVI.

  19. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  20. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  1. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  2. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.145 Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X..., enacted July 30, 1965, no payment may be made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of...

  3. Thermodynamics of H in disordered Pd-Ag alloys from calorimetric and equilibrium pressure-composition-temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Ted B; Wang, Da; Luo, S

    2007-09-13

    In this research, the thermodynamics of H2 solution and hydride formation in a series of disordered Pd-Ag alloys has been determined using both reaction calorimetry and equilibrium PH2-composition-T data. Trends of DeltaHH and DeltaSH with both H and Ag concentration have been determined. For the Pd0.76Ag0.24 alloy, which does not form a hydride phase, DeltaHH and DeltaSH both exhibit minima with H/(Pd0.76Ag0.24) followed by a linear increase of the former. A linear increase of DeltaHH is found for all of the alloys in the high H content region beyond the two-phase region or, if, there is no two-phase region, in the high H content region. DeltaHH degrees at infinite dilution of H decreases with atom fraction Ag, XAg, up to about 0.40 and then increases. Enthalpies for hydride formation/decomposition, 1/2H2(g) + dilute <--> hydride, have been determined calorimetrically for alloys which form two phases (303 K). The enthalpies for hydride formation become more exothermic with XAg while the corresponding entropy magnitudes are nearly constant, 46 +/- 2 J/K mol H. PMID:17711332

  4. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio; McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Irwin, Mike; Martin, Nicolas F.; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio F.

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ? 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ?5 Gyr ago (z ? 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  5. Calorimetric evaluation of commercial Ni-MH cells and charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.; Hughes, Brent M.

    1995-01-01

    The test objectives are to evaluate the electrical and thermal performance of commercial Ni-MH cells and to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial charge control circuits. The ultimate design objectives are to determine which cell designs are most suitable for scale-up and to guide the design of future Shuttle and Station based battery chargers.

  6. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: Application to the characterization of gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Plantier, F. Missima, D.; Torré, J.-P.; Marlin, L.

    2013-12-15

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus.

  7. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: application to the characterization of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Plantier, F; Marlin, L; Missima, D; Torré, J-P

    2013-12-01

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus. PMID:24387468

  8. Paper to XVI IMEKO World Congress 2000, 25-28 Sept. 2000, Vienna REFRACTION INFLUENCE ANALYSIS AND

    E-print Network

    Paper to XVI IMEKO World Congress 2000, 25-28 Sept. 2000, Vienna REFRACTION INFLUENCE ANALYSIS of the earth to industrial parts. In this paper we focus on geodetic measurements for construction inhomogenities in the propagation medium will cause refraction effects as beam bending and time

  9. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability Benefits AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social...

  10. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... February 20, 2013. (78 FR 11939). On page 11940, in the first column, under the ``CITATIONS'' section... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

  11. An Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Method to Determine the Kinetic Parameters of Enzyme Catalytic Reaction

    E-print Network

    Luhua, Lai

    as chemical reaction (1­8). Since almost all chemical reactions involve heat change, ITC can be used to almost all chemical reaction systems, especially those that have no observable change by other probes during of Physical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Structural

  12. Calorimetric studies of freeze-induced dehydration of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Bronshteyn, V L; Steponkus, P L

    1993-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the amount of water that freezes in an aqueous suspension of multilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes. The studies were performed with dehydrated suspensions (12-20 wt% water) and suspensions containing an excess of water (30-70 wt% water). For suspensions that contained > or = 18 wt% water, two ice-formation events were observed during cooling. The first was attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of extraliposomal ice; the second was attributed to homogeneous nucleation of ice within the liposomes. In suspensions with an initial water concentration between 13 and 16 wt%, ice formation occurred only after homogeneous nucleation at temperatures below -40 degrees C. In suspensions containing < 13 wt% water, ice formation during cooling was undetectable by DSC, however, an endotherm resulting from ice melting during warming was observed in suspensions containing > or = 12 wt% water. In suspensions containing < 12 wt% water, an endotherm corresponding to the melting of ice was not observed during warming. The amount of ice that formed in the suspensions was determined by using an improved procedure to calculate the partial area of the endotherm resulting from the melting of ice during warming. The results show that a substantial proportion of water associated with the polar headgroup of phosphatidylcholine can be removed by freeze-induced dehydration, but the amount of ice depends on the thermal history of the samples. For example, after cooling to -100 degrees C at rates > or = 10 degrees C/min, a portion of water in the suspension remains supercooled because of a decrease in the diffusion rate of water with decreasing temperature. A portion of this supercooled water can be frozen during subsequent freeze-induced dehydration of the liposomes under isothermal conditions at subfreezing storage temperature Ts. During isothermal storage at Ts > or = -40 degrees C, the amount of unfrozen water decreased with decreasing Ts and increasing time of storage. After 30 min of storage at Ts = -40 degrees C and subsequent cooling to -100 degrees C, the amount of water associated with the polar headgroups was < 0.1 g/g of DPPC. At temperatures > -50 degrees C, the amount of unfrozen water associated with the polar headgroups of DPPC decreased with decreasing temperature in a manner predicted from the desorption isotherm of DPPC. However, at lower temperatures, the amount of unfrozen water remained constant, in large part, because the unfrozen water underwent a liquid-to-glass transformation at a temperature between -50 degrees and -140 degrees C. PMID:8298015

  13. Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation

    E-print Network

    Aaron S. Keys; Juan P. Garrahan; David Chandler

    2013-03-25

    The glass transition refers to the non-equilibrium process by which an equilibrium liquid is transformed to a non-equilibrium disordered solid, or vice versa. Associated response functions, such as heat capacities, are markedly different on cooling than on heating, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling protocol by which the glass was formed. This paper shows how this irreversible behavior can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of an East-model picture of localized excitations (or soft spots) in which molecules can move with a specific direction, and from which excitations with the same directionality of motion can appear or disappear in adjacent regions. As a result of this facilitated dynamics, excitations become correlated in a hierarchical fashion. These correlations are manifested in the dynamic heterogeneity of the supercooled liquid phase. While equilibrium thermodynamics is virtually featureless, a non-equilibrium glass phase emerges when the model is driven out of equilibrium with a finite cooling rate. The correlation length of this emergent phase is large and increases with decreasing cooling rate. A spatially and temporally resolved fictive temperature encodes memory of its preparation. Parameters characterizing the model can be determined from reversible transport data, and with these parameters, predictions of the model agree well with irreversible differential scanning calorimetry.

  14. Calorimetric and structural studies of tetrabutylammonium bromide ionic clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Rodionova, Tatyana V; Komarov, Vladislav Yu; Villevald, Galina V; Karpova, Tamara D; Kuratieva, Natalia V; Manakov, Andrey Yu

    2013-09-12

    In the present work, characteristic properties of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) ionic clathrate hydrates structures were studied by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The structures of three different tetragonal TBAB ionic clathrate hydrates that were formed in our experiments were based on the same water lattice of tetragonal structure I (TS-I) differing in the ways of including bromide anions and arranging tetrabutylammonium cations. We demonstrated that (1) Br(-) can be included into the water lattice, replacing two water molecules, (2) the butyl group of the cation can be inserted not only in large T and P cavities but also in small D cavities of the water lattice TS-I, and (3) one of the reasons for polytypism of ionic clathrate hydrates on the basis of TS-I is the occurrence of alternative modes of arrangements of four-compartment cavities in adjacent layers of the water framework. The compositions of three TBAB ionic clathrate hydrates TBAB·38.1H2O, TBAB·32.5H2O, and TBAB·26.4H2O were determined by chemical analysis, and their enthalpies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the obtained results, the enthalpies of the TBAB hydrate formation from TBAB and water were calculated thermodynamically. PMID:23947486

  15. Nanowell-patterned TiO{sub 2} microcantilevers for calorimetric chemical sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas; Kim, Seonghwan; Jeon, Sangmin

    2014-04-07

    A sensitive calorimetric sensor using a TiO{sub 2} microcantilever with nanowells patterned on one of its sides is described. This single material cantilever is sensitive to temperature change without relying on the metal deposition-based bimetallic effect. The thermomechanical sensitivity originates from the structure dependent variations in both the elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient due to the presence of ordered nanowells. These cantilever beams offer an alternate and efficient chemical sensing route for vapor phase analytes using photothermal spectroscopy. Selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorus compounds, as well as their photocatalytic decomposition under ultraviolet light exposure are demonstrated.

  16. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  17. PREFACE: XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Tagirov, M. S.; Dooglav, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    In 1997, A S Borovik-Romanov, the Academician of RAS, and A V Aganov, the head of the Physics Department of Kazan State University, suggested that the 'School of Magnetic Resonance', well known in the Soviet Union, should recommence and be regularly held in Kazan. This school was created in 1968 by G V Scrotskii, the prominent scientist in the field of magnetic resonance and the editor of many famous books on magnetic resonance (authored by A Abragam, B. Bleaney, C. Slichter, and many others) translated and edited in the Soviet Union. In 1991 the last, the 12th School, was held under the supervision of G V Scrotskii. Since 1997, more than 600 young scientists, 'schoolboys', have taken part in the School meetings, made their oral reports and participated in heated discussions. Every year a competition among the young scientist takes place and the Program Committee members name the best reports, the authors of which are invited to prepare full-scale scientific papers. The XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application' in its themes is slightly different from previous ones. A new section has been opened this year: Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on optical research, many of the reports are devoted to the implementation of nanotechnology in optical studies. The XVI International Youth Scientific School has been supported by the Program of development of Kazan Federal University. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors (BRUKER Ltd, Moscow, the Russian Academy of Science, the Dynasty foundation of Dmitrii Zimin, Russia, Russian Foundation for Basic Research) and all the participants and contributors for making the International School meeting possible and interesting. A V Dooglav, M Kh Salakhov and M S Tagirov The Editors

  18. Calorimetric Thermoelectric Gas Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen, Methane and Mixed Gases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam-Hee; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/?-Al2O3) and cold (Pt/?-Al2O3) ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS), combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100–400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%. PMID:24818660

  19. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines. PMID:20687748

  20. A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2 at the cathode

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    with decreasing cell potential. This effect was obtained independently of membrane thickness and current density and measure the thermal signature of the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell. This paper reports31.08.2009 1 A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2

  1. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: calorimetric studies on surfactant and drug loading effects.

    PubMed

    Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Accolla, Maria Lorena; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Montenegro, Lucia

    2014-08-25

    In this study we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, using cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and three different non-ionic emulsifiers of the polyoxyethylene ethers family (ceteth-20, isoceteth-20, oleth-20). These SLN were loaded with different amount of idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and skin oxidative damages. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the effects of the different emulsifiers and the different amounts of drug loaded on the thermotropic behavior of SLN and to investigate how the drug was arranged into these nanoparticles. The IDE seemed to be located into different regions of the SLN depending on its concentration and on the surfactant used. The results of this study suggest that the calorimetric studies performed on SLN could provide valuable information to optimize SLN design and drug release from these carriers. PMID:24845103

  2. A differential scanning calorimetric study of Newcastle disease virus: identification of proteins involved in thermal transitions.

    PubMed

    Shnyrov, V L; Zhadan, G G; Cobaleda, C; Sagrera, A; Muñoz-Barroso, I; Villar, E

    1997-05-01

    The irreversible thermal denaturation of Newcastle disease virus was investigated using different techniques including high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gel analysis intrinsic fluorescence, and neuraminidase activity assays. Application of a successive annealing procedure to the scanning calorimetric endotherm of Newcastle disease virus furnished four elementary thermal transitions below the overall endotherm; these were further identified as coming from the denaturation of each viral protein. The shape of these transitions, as well as their scanrate dependence, was explained by assuming that thermal denaturation takes place according to the kinetic scheme N-->(k)D, where k is a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, as given by the Arrhenius equation; N is the native state; and D is the denatured state. On the basis of this model, activation energy values were calculated. The data obtained with the other methods used in this work support the proposed two-state kinetic model. PMID:9143357

  3. Calorimetric quantification of linked equilibria in cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent mixtures for membrane-protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Reconstitution from detergent micelles into lipid bilayer membranes is a prerequisite for many in vitro studies on purified membrane proteins. Complexation by cyclodextrins offers an efficient and tightly controllable way of removing detergents for membrane-protein reconstitution, since cyclodextrins sequester detergents at defined stoichiometries and with tuneable affinities. To fully exploit the potential advantages of cyclodextrin for membrane-protein reconstitution, we establish a quantitative model for predicting the supramolecular transition from mixed micelles to vesicles during cyclodextrin-mediated detergent extraction. The model is based on a set of linked equilibria among all pseudophases present in the course of the reconstitution process. Various isothermal titration-calorimetric protocols are used for quantifying a detergent's self-association as well as its colloidal and stoichiometric interactions with lipid and cyclodextrin, respectively. The detergent's critical micellar concentration, the phase boundaries in the lipid/detergent phase diagram, and the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent complex thus obtained provide all thermodynamic parameters necessary for a quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during cyclodextrin-driven reconstitution. This is exemplified and validated by stepwise complexation of the detergent lauryldimethylamine N-oxide in mixtures with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon titration with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, both in the presence and in the absence of the membrane protein Mistic. The calorimetric approach presented herein quantitatively predicts the onset and completion of the reconstitution process, thus obviating cumbersome trial-and-error efforts and facilitating the rational optimisation of reconstitution protocols, and can be adapted to different cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent combinations. PMID:25583305

  4. XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture: Nutrition and environment, can MS be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Kelly Claire; Munger, Kassandra L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common debilitating neurologic disease that affects people in early adulthood. While the characteristic pathology of MS has been well described, the etiology of the disease is not well understood, despite decades of research and the identification of strong genetic and environmental candidates for susceptibility. A question central to all diseases, but posed specifically for MS at the XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture, was ‘Can MS be prevented?’ To address this question, we have evaluated the available data regarding nutritional and environmental factors that may be related to MS susceptibility and suggest the extent to which a potential intervention may reduce disease burden. It is our opinion that intervention, particularly supplementation with vitamin D, could have a dramatic impact on disease prevalence. Understanding that any intervention or behavioral modification will surely act in the context of genetic susceptibility and unidentified stochastic events, it is likely that not all MS is ‘preventable’. Epidemiologic observation has provided key insights into environmental and nutritional factors that may alter one’s susceptibility to MS, however, there are still many questions in unraveling the etiology of this complex disease. PMID:21975017

  5. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigations of some thermodynamic properties of EuCl 3 and EuCl 2 dissolved in alkali chloride melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Rycerz, L.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2005-09-01

    The electroreduction of EuCl 3 in alkali chloride melts (NaCl-KCl, KCl, CsCl) was studied in the temperature range 973-1123 K by different electrochemical methods. It was determined that electrochemical reduction of Eu(III) in alkali chloride molten salts occurs via two successive reversible stages involving transfer of one and two electrons. The formal standard potentials of EEu(II)/Eu?, EEu(III)/Eu? and formal redox potentials of EEu(III)/Eu(II)? were determined from open-circuit potentiometry and linear sweep voltammetry data. The thermodynamics of formation dilute solutions of europium di-and tri-chloride in alkali chloride melts was determined. The relative partial molar enthalpies of mixing EuCl 2 with alkali chloride melts when dilute solutions are formed have been measured previously by direct calorimetry in a Calvet type calorimeter using of ampoule break-off technique. It was shown that the values determined from electrochemical measurements are in a good agreement with those data obtained by calorimetric method.

  6. Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies of steady-state natural convection from miniaturized horizontal single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays

    E-print Network

    Harahap, Filino

    Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect that reduction of the base-plate dimensions has on the steady-state performance of the rate of natural convection heat ...

  7. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G. P.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2011-05-01

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 69 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3p4, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d, and 3s23p4f configurations of Cu XVI. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the computer code CIV3 of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of those from the National Institute for Standards and Technology. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetime for the high spin level 3s3p3(5S2) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Trabert et al (1988 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5 2173). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available. ).

  8. Optometrists as "acceptable medical sources" to establish a medically determinable impairment. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2007-03-01

    We are revising the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability regulations regarding sources of evidence for establishing a medically determinable impairment under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (the Act). The revised regulations expand the situations in which we consider licensed optometrists to be "acceptable medical sources." PMID:17447332

  9. Inverse Temperature Dependence in Static Quenching versus Calorimetric Exploration: Binding Interaction of Chloramphenicol to ?-Lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-07-28

    The binding interaction between the whey protein bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) with the well-known antibiotic chloramphenicol (Clp) is explored by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of ?LG. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectral data reveal that quenching of ?LG fluorescence proceeds through ground state complex formation, i.e., static quenching mechanism. However, the drug-protein binding constant is found to vary proportionately with temperature. This anomalous result is explained on the basis of the Arrhenius theory which states that the rate constant varies proportionally with temperature. Thermodynamic parameters like ?H, ?S, ?G, and the stoichiometry for the binding interaction have been estimated by isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) study. Thermodynamic data show that the binding phenomenon is mainly an entropy driven process suggesting the major role of hydrophobic interaction forces in the Clp-?LG binding. Constant pressure heat capacity change (?Cp) has been calculated from enthalpy of binding at different temperatures which reveals that hydrophobic interaction is the major operating force. The inverse temperature dependence in static quenching is however resolved from ITC data which show that the binding constant regularly decreases with increase in temperature. The modification of native protein conformation due to binding of drug has been monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The probable binding location of Clp inside ?LG is explored from AutoDock based blind docking simulation. PMID:26145148

  10. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  11. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-08-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  12. DNA energy landscapes via calorimetric detection of microstate ensembles of metastable macrostates and triplet repeat diseases

    PubMed Central

    Völker, Jens; Klump, Horst H.; Breslauer, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Biopolymers exhibit rough energy landscapes, thereby allowing biological processes to access a broad range of kinetic and thermodynamic states. In contrast to proteins, the energy landscapes of nucleic acids have been the subject of relatively few experimental investigations. In this study, we use calorimetric and spectroscopic observables to detect, resolve, and selectively enrich energetically discrete ensembles of microstates within metastable DNA structures. Our results are consistent with metastable, “native” DNA states being composed of an ensemble of discrete and kinetically stable microstates of differential stabilities, rather than exclusively being a single, discrete thermodynamic species. This conceptual construct is important for understanding the linkage between biopolymer conformational/configurational space and biological function, such as in protein folding, allosteric control of enzyme activity, RNA and DNA folding and function, DNA structure and biological regulation, etc. For the specific DNA sequences and structures studied here, the demonstration of discrete, kinetically stable microstates potentially has biological consequences for understanding the development and onset of DNA expansion and triplet repeat diseases. PMID:19015511

  13. Minor groove binding of the food colorant carmoisine to DNA: spectroscopic and calorimetric characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of the food additive carmoisine with herring testes DNA was studied by multifaceted biophysical techniques. Carmoisine exhibited hypochromic effects in absorbance, whereas in fluorescence the intensity enhanced upon complexation with DNA. Energy transfer from the DNA base pairs to carmoisine molecules occurred upon complexation. A groove binding model of interaction was envisaged for carmoisine-DNA complexation from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst displacement studies. The binding of carmoisine stabilized the DNA structure against thermal denaturation. The binding induced moderate conformational perturbations in the B-form structure of DNA. The binding affinity (10(4) M(-1)) values, calculated from absorbance and fluorescence data, and calorimetry titrations were in close agreement with each other. The binding was characterized to be exothermic and favored by small negative enthalpic and large positive entropic contributions. Salt-dependent calorimetric studies revealed that the binding reaction was dominated by nonpolyelectrolytic forces. The negative heat capacity value suggested the role of hydrophobic effect in the interaction. PMID:24328331

  14. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles interact with biomembrane models: calorimetric evidence.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Lucia; Ottimo, Sara; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2012-09-01

    The knowledge of the interactions between solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and cell membranes is important to develop effective carrier systems for drug delivery applications. Loading idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, into SLN improves IDE antioxidant activity in in vitro biological studies, but the mechanism by which IDE permeation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs are still unclear. Therefore, in this research, unloaded and IDE loaded SLN interaction with biomembrane models, consisting of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles (MLV), were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the experiments performed, unloaded and IDE loaded SLN where incubated with the biomembrane models and their interactions were evaluated through the variations in their calorimetric curves. The results of our DSC studies indicated that the SLN under investigation were able to go inside the phospholipid bilayers with a likely localization in the outer bilayers of the MLV from where they moved toward the inner layers by increasing the contact time between SLN and MLV. Furthermore, IDE loaded SLN were able to release IDE into the biomembrane model, thus facilitating IDE penetration into the bilayers while free IDE showed only a low ability to interact with this model of biomembranes. Our results suggest that these SLN could be regarded as a promising drug delivery system to improve IDE bioavailability and antioxidant activity. PMID:22894135

  15. Algorithms for Identification of Nearly-Coincident Events in Calorimetric Sensors

    E-print Network

    Alpert, B; Bennett, D; Faverzani, M; Fowler, J; Giachero, A; Hays-Wehle, J; Maino, M; Nucciotti, A; Puiu, A; Swetz, D; Ullom, J

    2015-01-01

    For experiments with high arrival rates, reliable identification of nearly-coincident events can be crucial. For calorimetric measurements to directly measure the neutrino mass such as HOLMES, unidentified pulse pile-ups are expected to be a leading source of experimental error. Although Wiener filtering can be used to recognize pile-up, it suffers errors due to pulse-shape variation from detector nonlinearity, readout dependence on sub-sample arrival times, and stability issues from the ill-posed deconvolution problem of recovering Dirac delta-functions from smooth data. Due to these factors, we have developed a processing method that exploits singular value decomposition to (1) separate single-pulse records from piled-up records in training data and (2) construct a model of single-pulse records that accounts for varying pulse shape with amplitude, arrival time, and baseline level, suitable for detecting nearly-coincident events. We show that the resulting processing advances can reduce the required performa...

  16. Calorimetric evidence for allosteric subunit interactions associated with inhibitor binding to band 3 transporter.

    PubMed

    Van Dort, H M; Low, P S; Cordes, K A; Schopfer, L M; Salhany, J M

    1994-01-01

    A calorimetric endotherm occurring at 68 degrees C (the C-transition) has been assigned previously to the integral domain of band 3 and was shown to be shifted to 78 degrees C after covalent binding of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS). In this study, we correlate the fractional appearance of the shifted C-transition with the fraction of DIDS bound to the band 3 monomer population. Our results show a distinctly nonlinear correlation plot with the appearance of the shifted C-transition lagging behind DIDS labeling of the band 3 monomer population. The lag suggests that both monomers of a band 3 dimer must be labeled by DIDS in order for the shifted C-transition to appear at 78 degrees C, implying that the thermal unfolding of the integral domain of band 3 is modulated by allosteric interactions between subunits. This is the first in situ structural evidence supporting ligand-mediated subunit interactions within a "carrier"-type transporter protein oligomer. PMID:8276856

  17. Optical and Calorimetric Studies of Cholesterol-Rich Filamentous, Helical Ribbon and Crystal Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnikova, Y. A.; Elsenbeck, M.; Zastavker, Y. V.; Kashuri, K; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2009-04-19

    Formation of biological self-assemblies at all scales is a focus of studies in fields ranging from biology to physics to biomimetics. Understanding the physico-chemical properties of these self-assemblies may lead to the design of bio-inspired structures and technological applications. Here we examine self-assembled filamentous, helical ribbon, and crystal microstructures formed in chemically defined lipid concentrate (CDLC), a model system for cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile. CDLC consists of cholesterol, bilayer-forming amphiphiles, micelle-forming amphiphiles, and water. Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy indicate the presence of three microstructure types in all samples studied, and allow for an investigation of the structures' unique geometries. Additionally, confocal microscopy is used for qualitative assessment of surface and internal composition. To complement optical observations, calorimetric (differential-scanning and modulation) experiments, provide the basis for an in-depth understanding of collective and individual thermal behavior. Observed ''transition'' features indicate clustering and ''straightening'' of helical ribbons into short, increasingly thickening, filaments that dissolve with increasing temperature. These results suggest that all microstructures formed in CDLC may coexist in a metastable chemical equilibrium. Further investigation of the CDLC thermal profile should uncover the process of cholesterol crystallization as well as the unique design and function of microstructures formed in this system.

  18. Status and performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Asano, K.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Cassese, A.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hasebe, N.; Hareyama, M.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Motz, H. M.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2014-11-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. These measurements are essential to search for dark matter signatures, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument will be launched to the ISS within 2014 Japanese Fiscal Year (by the end of March 2015) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). In this paper, we will review the status and main science goals of the mission and describe the instrument configuration and performance.

  19. Calorimetric measurement of electron energy deposition in extended media. Theory vs experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new calorimetric technique has been developed for measuring electron energy deposition profiles in one dimension. The experimental procedures and theoretical analyses required in the application of the new method are reviewed. Extensive results are presented for electron energy deposition profiles in semi-infinite homogeneous and multilayer configurations. These data cover a range of elements from beryllium through uranium at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV (selected data at 0.5 and 0.1 MeV) and at incident angles from 0/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/. In every case, the experimental profiles are compared with the predictions of a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code. Overall agreement between theory and experiment is very good. However, there appears to be a tendency for the theoretical profiles to be higher near the peaks and lower near the tails, especially in high-Z materials. There is also a discrepancy between theory and experiment in low-Z materials near high-Z/low-Z interfaces.

  20. A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the faint M31 satellites And XV and And XVI

    E-print Network

    Letarte, B; Collins, M; Ibata, R A; Irwin, M J; Ferguson, A M N; Lewis, G F; Martin, N; McConnachie, A; Tanvir, N

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey of the recently discovered M31 satellites And XV and And XVI, lying at projected distances from the centre of M31 of 93 and 130 kpc respectively. These satellites lie to the South of M31, in regions of the stellar halo which wide field imaging has revealed as relative voids (compared to the ~degree-scale coherent stream-like structures). Using the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope, we have defined probable members of these satellites, for which we derive radial velocities as precise as ~6 km/s down to i~21.5. While the distance to And XVI remains the same as previously reported (525pm50 kpc), we have demonstrated that the brightest three stars previously used to define the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in And XV are in fact Galactic, and And XV is actually likely to be much more distant at 770pm70 kpc (compared to the previous 630 kpc), increasing the luminosity from MV~-9.4 to MV~-9.8. The And XV velocity dispersion i...

  1. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: "US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the "Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate."…

  4. Ocean Optics XVI Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico, November 18-22, 2002 BIO-OPTICAL EVIDENCE OF LAND-SEA INTERACTIONS

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Ocean Optics XVI Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico, November 18-22, 2002 BIO-OPTICAL EVIDENCE Rico. However, the complexity of the bay's optical properties and certain limitations of the technology, allowing a better understanding of such bio-optical variability. A new sampling design with twenty

  5. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the monthly title II benefits payable for that month...the case of title XVI benefits, an amount no greater than the lesser of the benefit payable for that month...including such monthly benefit but excluding payments...also made from title II benefits and excluding...

  6. A high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor employing ion conduction in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A.; Lekholm, V.; Thornell, G.; Klintberg, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the use of the temperature-dependent ion conductivity of 8 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) in a miniature high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor. The sensor consists of 4 layers of high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) YSZ8 tape with a 400 ?m wide, 100 ?m deep, and 12 500 ?m long internal flow channel. Across the center of the channel, four platinum conductors, each 80 ?m wide with a spacing of 160 ?m, were printed. The two center conductors were used as heaters, and the outer, up- and downstream conductors were used to probe the resistance through the zirconia substrate around the heaters. The thermal profile surrounding the two heaters could be made symmetrical by powering them independently, and hence, the temperature sensing elements could be balanced at zero flow. With nitrogen flowing through the channel, forced convection shifted the thermal profile downstream, and the resistance of the temperature sensing elements diverged. The sensor was characterized at nitrogen flows from 0 to 40 sccm, and resistances at zero-flow from 10 to 50 M?. A peak sensitivity of 3.1 M?/sccm was obtained. Moreover, the sensor response was found to be linear over the whole flow range, with R2 of around 0.999, and easy to tune with the individual temperature control of the heaters. The ability of the sensor to operate in high temperatures makes it promising for use in different harsh environments, e.g., for close integration with microthrusters.

  7. Analbite - Sanidine Thermodynamic Mixing Properties: Highly Precise HF Solution Calorimetric Data Across A Twenty-Member Crystalline Solution Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Enthalpies of K-Na mixing for the analbite - sanidine feldspar series were investigated by Hovis (1988, J. Petrology) in the early 80's. That work was based on data at a limited number of compositions, owing to the large sample sizes required for HF solution calorimetric measurements at the time. Thermodynamic mixing properties for mineral series, especially those exhibiting compositionally asymmetric mixing quantities, are best defined when samples at a large number of compositions are utilized. Enabled by the small sample sizes now possible for HF solution calorimetric dissolutions (Hovis et al., 1998, Amer. Mineral.), we revisit feldspar thermodynamic properties, having synthesized an analbite - sanidine series consisting of samples at 20 compositions. Solution calorimetric experiments on these samples at 50 °C in 20.1 wt% HF under isoperibolic conditions have resulted in highly precise calorimetric data (standard deviation per sample averaging 0.06 % of the heat of solution). Although enthalpies of K-Na mixing based on the new data display some degree of compositional asymmetry, with a maximum value of 4.8 kJ/mol at a mole fraction potassium of 0.47, the distribution of enthalpy-of-mixing values remains nearly symmetric with respect to K content. This contrasts significantly with data for Al-Si ordered low albite - microcline crystalline solutions, reinvestigated via synthesis of a 21-member series, which show significantly higher mixing magnitudes and considerably greater asymmetry with respect to composition. The maximization of enthalpies of K-Na mixing at sodic compositions correlates well with the sodic critical compositions for both solvi. The lower mixing magnitudes for analbite - sanidine are consistent with the comparatively lower critical temperature of the analbite - sanidine solvus (e.g., Smith & Parsons, 1974, Mineral. Mag.) relative to that for low albite - microcline (Bachinski & Müller, 1971, J. Petrology). Entropies of K-Na mixing for analbite - sanidine have been calculated by combining present enthalpy data with Gibbs free energies of mixing derived from the earlier phase equilibrium study of Hovis et al. (1991, Amer. Mineral.). These may be compared with directly measured entropy data for analbite - sanidine based on the heat capacity measurements of Haselton et al. (1983, Amer. Mineral.). Thanks to the National Science Foundation for funding this research.

  8. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  9. Investigation of a zirconia co-fired ceramic calorimetric microsensor for high-temperature flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Klintberg, Lena; Thornell, Greger

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a flow sensor for high-temperature, or otherwise aggressive, environments, like, e.g. the propulsion system of a small spacecraft. The sensor was fabricated using 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) tape and screen printed platinum paste. A calorimetric flow sensor design was used, with five 80 µm wide conductors, separated by 160 µm, in a 0.4 mm wide, 0.1 mm deep and 12.5 mm long flow channel. The central conductor was used as a heater for the sensor, and the two adjacent conductors were used to resistively measure the heat transferred from the heater by forced convection. The two outermost conductors were used to study the influence of an auxiliary heat source on the sensor. The resistances of the sensor conductors were measured using four-point connections, as the gas flow rate was slowly increased from 0 to 40 sccm, with different power supplied through the central heater, as well as with an upstream or downstream heater powered. In this study, the thermal and electrical integrability of microcomponents on the YSZ8 substrate was of particular interest and, hence, the influence of thermal and ionic conduction in the substrate was studied in detail. The effect of the ion conductivity of YSZ8 was studied by measuring the resistance of a platinum conductor and the resistance between two adjacent conductors on YSZ8, in a furnace at temperatures from 20 to 930 °C and by measuring the resistance with increasing current through a conductor. With this design, the influence of ion conductivity through the substrate became apparent above 700 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor was up to 1 m? sccm-1 in a range of 0-10 sccm. The results show that the signal from the sensor is influenced by the integrated auxiliary heating conductors and that these auxiliary heaters provide a way to balance disturbing heat sources, e.g. thrusters or other electronics, in conjunction with the flow sensor.

  10. 70 FR 21833 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 05-03p.; Title XVI: Determining Continuing Disability at Step 2 of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-04-27

    ...Social Security gives notice of Social Security Ruling, SSR 05-03p...Office of Disability Programs, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  11. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric Re-187 and Ho-163 Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schafer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta (b) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 microsecond are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the beta-decay of Re-187 and the EC of Ho-163. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for Re-187 and for Ho-163 experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted Ho-163 ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  12. Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen*

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson is used to observe the glass transition in thin (1­400 nm) spin-cast films of polystyrene, poly (2-vinyl pyridine) and poly (methyl methacrylate) on a platinum surface. A pronounced glass transition is observed

  13. The thermodynamics of protein-protein recognition as characterized by a combination of volumetric and calorimetric techniques: the binding of turkey ovomucoid third domain to alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Filfil, Rana; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2003-02-28

    We have used ultrasonic velocimetry, high-precision densimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, in conjunction with isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry, to characterize the binding of turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) to alpha-chymotrypsin. We report the changes in volume and adiabatic compressibility that accompany the association of these proteins at 25 degrees C and pH 4.5. In addition, we report the changes in free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity upon the binding of OMTKY3 to alpha-chymotrypsin over a temperature range of 20-40 degrees C. Our volume and compressibility data, in conjunction with X-ray crytsallographic data on the OMTKY3-alpha-chymotrypsin complex, suggest that 454(+/-22) water molecules are released to the bulk state upon the binding of OMTKY3 to alpha-chymotrypsin. Furthermore, these volumetric data suggest that the intrinsic compressibility of the two proteins decreases by 7%. At each temperature studied, OMTKY3 association with alpha-chymotrypsin is entropy driven with a large, unfavorable enthalpy contribution. The observed entropy of the binding reflects interplay between two very large favorable and unfavorable terms. The favorable term reflects an increase in the hydrational entropy resulting from release to the bulk of 454 water molecules. The unfavorable term is related to a decrease in the configurational entropy and, consequently, a decrease in the conformational dynamics of the two proteins. In general, we discuss the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic properties, in particular, identifying and quantifying the role of hydration in determining the thermodynamics of protein recognition as reflected in volumetric and calorimetric parameters. PMID:12589768

  14. HIGH-ACCURACY MR-MP PERTURBATION THEORY ENERGY AND RADIATIVE RATES CALCULATIONS FOR CORE-EXCITED TRANSITIONS IN Fe XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n {<=} 5 states arising from the configuration 1s {sup 2}2s{sup k} 2p{sup m} 3l {sup p} nl' {sup q}, where k + m + p + q = 9, l {<=} 3 and p + q {<=} 2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines.

  15. High-accuracy MR-MP Perturbation Theory Energy and Radiative Rates Calculations for Core-excited Transitions in Fe XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n <= 5 states arising from the configuration 1s 22sk 2pm 3l p nl' q , where k + m + p + q = 9, l <= 3 and p + q <= 2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines.

  16. Calorimetric analysis of the two way memory effect in a NiTi alloy -- Experiments and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.P. da

    1999-04-23

    In addition to the well known one-way memory effect in heating, some shape memory alloys may also exhibit a shape recovery upon cooling, i.e. they show the two-way memory effect (TWME). This is not an inherent property of such alloys, and to obtain it, the alloy must be trained. Besides the two-way memory effect, the training processes can also cause changes such as a shift of the transformation temperatures. In this work a calorimetric investigation of a one-way and two-way NiTi memory alloy is presented. The heat flow was measured by use of a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The differences in the temperatures and enthalpy of transformations between one-way and two-way memory samples are presented, compared and discussed. A mathematical prediction of the heat and temperatures of transformation is presented.

  17. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  18. Non-exponential nature of calorimetric and other relaxations: Effects of 2 nm-size solutes, loss of translational diffusion, isomer specificity, and sample size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.; Khouri, J.

    2013-03-01

    Certain distributions of relaxation times can be described in terms of a non-exponential response parameter, ?, of value between 0 and 1. Both ? and the relaxation time, ?0, of a material depend upon the probe used for studying its dynamics and the value of ? is qualitatively related to the non-Arrhenius variation of viscosity and ?0. A solute adds to the diversity of an intermolecular environment and is therefore expected to reduce ?, i.e., to increase the distribution and to change ?0. We argue that the calorimetric value ?cal determined from the specific heat [Cp = T(dS/dT)p] data is a more appropriate measure of the distribution of relaxation times arising from configurational fluctuations than ? determined from other properties, and report a study of ?cal of two sets of binary mixtures, each containing a different molecule of ˜2 nm size. We find that ?cal changes monotonically with the composition, i.e., solute molecules modify the nano-scale composition and may increase or decrease ?0, but do not always decrease ?cal. (Plots of ?cal against the composition do not show a minimum.) We also analyze the data from the literature, and find that (i) ?cal of an orientationally disordered crystal is less than that of its liquid, (ii) ?cal varies with the isomer's nature, and chiral centers in a molecule decrease ?cal, and (iii) ?cal decreases when a sample's thickness is decreased to the nm-scale. After examining the difference between ?cal and ? determined from other properties we discuss the consequences of our findings for theories of non-exponential response, and suggest that studies of ?cal may be more revealing of structure-freezing than studies of the non-Arrhenius behavior. On the basis of previous reports that ? ? 1 for dielectric relaxation of liquids of centiPoise viscosity observed at GHz frequencies, we argue that its molecular mechanism is the same as that of the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Its spectrum becomes broader on cooling and its unimodal distribution reversibly changes to a bimodal distribution, each of ? < 1. Kinetic freezing of the slower modes of the bimodal distribution produces a glass. After this bifurcation, the faster, original relaxation persists as a weak JG relaxation at T ? Tg, and in the glassy state.

  19. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  20. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Criminal Justice Program. Volume XVI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, George; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of students who had completed several courses in the Criminal Justice Program to determine why students left the criminal justice field, examine Criminal Justice students' enrollment and course-taking patterns, and to analyze withdrawal and failure rates in the course,…

  1. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brochu, F M; Burnet, N G; Jena, R; Plaistow, R; Parker, M A; Thomas, S J

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk. PMID:25415354

  2. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, F. M.; Burnet, N. G.; Jena, R.; Plaistow, R.; Parker, M. A.; Thomas, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  3. Calorimetric Investigation of Olivine Carbonation as a mechanism of Carbon Sequestration

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    method due to the long-term stability of product minerals, magnesite and quartz. Examining reaction rate and thermodynamics of olivine-CO2-H2O reaction to form magnesite and quartz can provide data needed to determine

  4. Refractive-index-based calorimetric studies of RNAse T1 unfolding in small volumes using microinterferometric backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlne, Michael P.; Hubbard, Darren S.; Makhatadze, George I.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    1997-05-01

    Micro-interferometry, a novel technique developed by the authors, employs a linearly polarized laser, a fused silica capillary tube housing for the sample and a charged coupled device as a detector. A back scattered interference pattern, observed as a high contrast fringes, is produced when the laser is directed onto the capillary containing the sample. The positional change of the fringe pattern is a function of the refractive index of the media in the capillary. In the present work, the RNA enzyme RNase T1 is heated in the sample cell over a temperature range of 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Over this temperature range the molecule unfolds form the quaternary to the tertiary structure. This structure change is manifested as a refractive index change and is observed by monitoring the fringe position while ramping the cell temperature in a controlled fashion. From the refractive index response over the temperature range, the Gibbs free energy associated with unfolding is calculated. The authors show milli-degree temperature stability with a 0.1 micro-liter probe volume, thus demonstrating the application of this device in micro- calorimetric investigations.

  5. pH-tuneable binding of 2?-phospho-ADP-ribose to ketopantoate reductase: a structural and calorimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Ciulli, Alessio; Lobley, Carina M. C.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Smith, Alison G.; Blundell, Tom L.; Abell, Chris

    2007-02-01

    A combined crystallographic, calorimetric and mutagenic study has been used to show how changes in pH give rise to two distinct binding modes of 2?-phospho-ADP-ribose to ketopantoate reductase. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli ketopantoate reductase in complex with 2?-monophosphoadenosine 5?-diphosphoribose, a fragment of NADP{sup +} that lacks the nicotinamide ring, is reported. The ligand is bound at the enzyme active site in the opposite orientation to that observed for NADP{sup +}, with the adenine ring occupying the lipophilic nicotinamide pocket. Isothermal titration calorimetry with R31A and N98A mutants of the enzyme is used to show that the unusual ‘reversed binding mode’ observed in the crystal is triggered by changes in the protonation of binding groups at low pH. This research has important implications for fragment-based approaches to drug design, namely that the crystallization conditions and the chemical modification of ligands can have unexpected effects on the binding modes.

  6. Photophysical and calorimetric investigation on the structural reorganization of poly(A) by phenothiazinium dyes azure A and azure B.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-08-01

    Poly(A) has significant relevance to mRNA stability, protein synthesis and cancer biology. The ability of two phenothiazinium dyes azure A (AA) and azure B (AB) to bind single-stranded poly(A) was studied by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. Strong binding of the dyes and the higher affinity of AA over AB were ascertained from absorbance and fluorescence experiments. Significant perturbation of the circular dichroism spectrum of poly(A) in the presence of these molecules with formation of induced CD bands in the 300-700 nm region was observed. Strong emission polarization of the bound dyes and strong energy transfer from the adenine base pairs of poly(A) suggested intercalative binding to poly(A). Intercalative binding was confirmed from fluorescence quenching experiments and was predominantly entropy driven as evidenced from isothermal titration calorimetry data. The negative values of heat capacity indicated involvement of hydrophobic forces and enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested noncovalent interactions in the complexation for both the dyes. Poly(A) formed a self-assembled structure on the binding of both the dyes that was more favored under higher salt conditions. New insights in terms of spectroscopic and thermodynamic aspects into the self-structure formation of poly(A) by two new phenothiazinium dyes that may lead to structural and functional damage of mRNA are revealed from these studies. PMID:24953877

  7. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  8. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of Law of Dulong and Petit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Today's general chemistry students are introduced to many of the principles and concepts of thermodynamics. In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity are frequently discussed. Classical calorimetric methods of analysis and thermal equilibrium experiments are used to determine heat…

  9. Comparative dose evaluations between XVI and OBI cone beam CT systems using Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of energy (kVp) and filters (no filter, half Bowtie, and full Bowtie) on the dose response curves of the Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in CBCT dose fields. To measure surface and internal doses received during x-ray volume imager (XVI) (Version R4.5) and on board imager (OBI) (Version 1.5) CBCT imaging protocols using these two types of dosimeters. Methods: Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLD dose response curves were generated at different kV imaging settings used by XVI (software version R4.5) and OBI (software version 1.5) CBCT systems. The settings for the XVI system were: 100 kVp/F0 (no filter), 120 kVp/F0, and 120 kVp/F1 (Bowtie filter), and for the OBI system were: 100 kVp/full fan, 125 kVp/full fan, and 125 kVp/half fan. XRQA2 film was calibrated in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 11 cGy and scanned using reflection scanning mode with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. NanoDot OSLDs were calibrated on phantom to surface dose levels between 0 and 14 cGy and read using the inLight{sup TM} MicroStar reader. Both dosimeters were used to measure in field surface and internal doses in a male Alderson Rando Phantom. Results: Dose response curves of XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs at different XVI and OBI CBCT settings were reported. For XVI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in head region during fast head and neck scan and 4.99 cGy in the chest region during symmetry scan. On the other hand, the internal dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 3.17 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.05 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 2.41 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. For OBI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.19 cGy in head region during head scan and 4.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. However, the internal dose ranged between 0.47 cGy in the head region during head scan and 5.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.45 cGy in the head region during head scan and 3.59 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. Both Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs gave close estimation of dose (within uncertainties) in many cases. Though, discrepancies of up to 20%-30% were observed in some cases. Conclusions: Dose response curves of Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs indicated that the dose responses of these two dosimeters were different even at the same photon energy when different filters were used. Uncertainty levels of both dosimetry systems were below 6% at doses above 1 cGy. Both dosimetry systems gave almost similar estimation of doses (within uncertainties) in many cases, with exceptions of some cases when the discrepancy was around 20%-30%. New versions of the CBCT systems (investigated in this study) resulted in lower imaging doses compared with doses reported on earlier versions in previous studies.

  10. Degradation of selected (bio-)surfactants by bacterial cultures monitored by calorimetric methods.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicole; Lissner, Andreas; Winkelmann, Mario; Hüttl, Regina; Mertens, Florian O; Kaschabek, Stefan R; Schlömann, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The subjects of the article are investigations concerning the ability of both Rhodococcus opacus 1CP and mixed bacterial cultures to use selected surfactants as sole carbon and energy source. In a comparative manner the biosurfactants rhamnolipid, sophorolipid and trehalose tetraester, and the synthetic surfactant Tween 80 were examined. Particular emphasis was put on a combinatorial approach to determine quantitatively the degree of surfactant degradation by applying calorimetry, thermodynamic calculations and mass spectrometry, HPLC as well as determination of biomass. The pure bacterial strain R. opacus was only able to metabolize a part of the synthetic surfactant Tween 80, whereas the mixed bacterial cultures degraded all of the applied surfactants. Exclusive for the biosurfactant rhamnolipid a complete microbial degradation could be demonstrated. In the case of the other surfactants only primary degradation was observed. PMID:19714474

  11. The Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE): a next-generation calorimetric neutrino mass experiment

    E-print Network

    Monfardini, A; Brofferio, C; Capelli, S; Capozzi, F; Cremonesi, O; Enss, C; Fiorini, E; Fleischmann, A; Foggetta, L; Gallinaro, G; Gastaldo, L; Gatti, F; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C A; Margesin, B; McCammon, D; Nones, C; Nucciotti, A; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pergolesi, D; Pessina, G; Porter, F S; Prest, M; Previtali, E; Repetto, P; Ribeiro-Gomez, M; Sangiorgio, S; Sisti, M

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but can't determine their absolute mass scale. Therefore the neutrino mass is still an open question in elementary particle physics. An international collaboration is growing around the project of Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for directly measuring the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2eV/c2. Many groups are joining their experiences and technical expertise in a common effort towards this challenging experiment. We discuss the different scenarios and the impact of MARE as a complement of KATRIN.

  12. The Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE): a next-generation calorimetric neutrino mass experiment

    E-print Network

    A. Monfardini; C. Arnaboldi; C. Brofferio; S. Capelli; F. Capozzi; O. Cremonesi; C. Enss; E. Fiorini; A. Fleischmann; L. Foggetta; G. Gallinaro; L. Gastaldo; F. Gatti; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; R. Kelley; C. A. Kilbourne; B. Margesin; D. McCammon; C. Nones; A. Nucciotti; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; D. Pergolesi; G. Pessina; F. S. Porter; M. Prest; E. Previtali; P. Repetto; M. Ribeiro-Gomez; S. Sangiorgio; M. Sisti

    2005-09-26

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but can't determine their absolute mass scale. Therefore the neutrino mass is still an open question in elementary particle physics. An international collaboration is growing around the project of Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for directly measuring the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2eV/c2. Many groups are joining their experiences and technical expertise in a common effort towards this challenging experiment. We discuss the different scenarios and the impact of MARE as a complement of KATRIN.

  13. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  14. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of superficial digital flexor tendon degeneration in the horse.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Wardale, R J; Birch, H L; Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of equine superficial digital flexor tendons revealed the presence of a small exothermic peak at 23 degrees C of unknown origin, and a large endothermic peak at 70 degrees C due to denaturation of cross-linked collagen fibres. In the central degenerated core of damaged tendons the denaturation temperature remained at 70 degrees C but the enthalpy decreased in relation to the extent of degeneration of the tendon. We suggest that this reduction in enthalpy is due to depolymerisation and denaturation of the collagen fibres. This contention is supported by the observed increased activity of the degradative enzyme cathepsin B secreted by the fibroblasts. DSC analysis of cultured porcine tendon fibroblasts revealed a multicomponent endotherm, denaturation beginning at 46 degrees C, a temperature capable of being achieved within the tendon during intensive exercise. DSC clearly has considerable potential in complementing morphological and biochemical studies to determine the aetiology and progress of equine tendon degeneration. PMID:8575396

  15. Structure-energy relationship in barbituric acid: a calorimetric, computational, and crystallographic study.

    PubMed

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Notario, Rafael; Foces-Foces, Concepción; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2008-08-14

    This paper reports the value of the standard (p(o) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K for barbituric acid. The enthalpies of combustion and sublimation were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry and transference (transpiration) method in a saturated N2 stream and a gas-phase enthalpy of formation value of -(534.3 +/- 1.7) kJ x mol(-1) was determined at T = 298.15 K. G3-calculated enthalpies of formation are in very good agreement with the experimental value. The behavior of the sample as a function of the temperature was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, and a new polymorph of barbituric acid at high temperature was found. In the solid state, two anhydrous forms are known displaying two out of the six hydrogen-bonding patterns observed in the alkyl/alkenyl derivatives retrieved from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database. The stability of these motifs has been analyzed by theoretical calculations. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to establish to which polymorphic form corresponds to the commercial sample used in this study and to characterize the new form at high temperature. PMID:18646743

  16. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect

    Ktari, L.; Abdelhedi, M.; Bouhlel, N.; Dammak, M.; Cousson, A.

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of autunite, uranyl hydrogen phosphate, and uranyl orthophosphate from solubility and calorimetric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Shareva, Tatiana; kubatko, Karrie-Ann; burns, Peter; Wellman, Dawn M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; szymanowski, jennifer; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we use solubility and oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements to determine the thermodynamic properties of the uranyl phosphate phases autunite (abbreviated: CaUP), uranyl hydrogen phosphate (HUP), and uranyl orthophosphate (UP). Solubility measurements from both supersaturated and undersaturated conditions, as well as under different pH conditions, rigorously demonstrate attainment of equilibrium and yield well-constrained solubility product values of -48.36 (-0.03 /+ 0.03), -13.17 (-0.11 / +0.07), and -49.36 (-0.04 / +0.02) for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively. We use the solubility data to calculate standard state Gibbs free energies of formation for all phases (-7630.61 ± 9.69, -3072.27 ± 4.76, and -6138.95 ± 12.24 kJ mol-1 for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively), and calorimetry data to calculate standard state enthalpies of formation of -3223.22 ± 4.00 and -7001.01 ± 15.10 kJ mol-1 for HUP and UP, respectively. Combining these results allows us also to calculate the standard state entropies of formation of -506.54 ± 10.48 and -2893.12 ± 19.44 kJ mol-1 K-1 for HUP and UP phases, respectively. The results from this study are part of a combined effort to develop reliable and internally consistent thermodynamic data for environmentally relevant uranyl minerals. Data such as these are required in order to optimize and quantitatively assess the effect of phosphate amendment remediation technologies for uranium contaminated systems.

  18. CHAPTER XVI DESCRIPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    met Jones." I may say "I met a man, but it was not Jones"; in that case, though I lie, I do monsters. Thus it is only what we may call the concept that enters into the proposition. In the case at this point, is a very important one. Misled by grammar, the great major- ity of those logicians who have

  19. Energy technology XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the Sixteenth Energy Technology Conference. The broad topics covered in this volume are: cogeneration, utility management/marketing, energy management, and the environment.

  20. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  1. Sistemas de Informacin Geogrfica (SIG) y su aplicacin en Historia y Arqueologa Subacutica, siglos XVI-XVIII. Este curso pretende ofrecer al alumno una perspectiva sobre las nuevas tecnologas aplicadas a la Historia moderna y la

    E-print Network

    , siglos XVI-XVIII. Este curso pretende ofrecer al alumno una perspectiva sobre las nuevas tecnologías histórico y conceptual de los SIG Históricos (HGIS) y manejo de herramientas. En este curso se profundizará-temporal, network analysis, Cartografía) Título del curso Resumen del contenido y objeto del curso Áreas de interés

  2. Calorimetric Study of Phase Stability and Phase Transformation in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Subramanian, Raju; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rengachari, Mythili; Saibaba, Saroja

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive calorimetric study of high-temperature phase equilibria and phase transformation characteristics in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) alloys has been undertaken, as a function of heating and cooling rates. It is found that the following sequence of phase transformation takes place upon slow heating in annealed U-2 wt pct Zr alloy: ? + ?' + ?-UZr2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 1 ? ?. For alloys of 5 and 10 wt pct Zr, the additional presence of a miscibility gap ( ? 1 U-rich bcc + ? 2 Zr-rich bcc) in the high-temperature ?(bcc) phase region resulted in the following transformation sequence: ? + ?' + ?-UZr2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? 1 + ? 2 ? ?. Further, it has been demonstrated that depending on the nature of starting microstructure, namely whether it is ? eq + ?-UZr2, or a mix of ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2 phases, the relative extents of two possible co-occurring modes of the first on-heating phase transformation step differ. In case of starting microstructure having mixture of three phases ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2, it is found that ?'-martensite relaxation via ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2 ? ? eq + ?-UZr2 constitutes the first on-heating thermal response. The ?'-martensitic relaxation is very closely followed by the dissolution of ?-UZr2. The co-occurrence of these two events gives rise to a composite thermal arrest in a normal dynamic calorimetry profile. However, if the starting microstructure is the one having the equilibrium mix of ? eq and ?-UZr2, then only the peritectoidal dissolution of ?-UZr2 is found in the calorimetry profile. Unless, a very slow cooling rate of the order of 0.1 K min-1 is adopted from high-temperature ?(bcc) phase, it is not possible to obtain 100 pct of ? eq phase along with equilibrium amount of ?-UZr2. At normal and high cooling rates, it is possible to suppress the diffusional decomposition of ? to varying extents. The direct ? ? ?'-martensite transformation has been observed at sufficiently higher cooling rates. It has been also noticed that even after ? ? ?'-martensite transformation the precipitation of ?-UZr2 phase is possible at lower temperature during non-isothermal cooling. Further, the critical cooling rate required for ? ? ?' displacive transformation is found to decrease with increasing Zr content. For U-2, 5, and 10 wt pct Zr alloys, it is found to be of the order of, 60, 20, 10 K min-1, respectively. The cooling rate from high-temperature ?(bcc) is found have a strong influence on microstructure evolution as well. The kinetic aspects of ? ? ? diffusional transformation that occurs on heating have been modeled in terms of Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism, and it is found that the transformation is effectively controlled by the diffusion of Zr in ?'-orthorhombic phase. Continuous heating and cooling transformation diagrams have also been obtained for U-2 wt pct Zr alloy.

  3. Calorimetric Studies of the Energetics of Order-Disorder in the System Mg(1-x)Fe(x)Ca(CO(3))(2)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.; Dooley, D.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R.

    1999-02-10

    Calorimetric studies by Chai and Navrotsky (1996) on dolomite-ankerite energetic have been extended by including two additional types of samples: a very disordered stoichiometric MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} prepared from low temperature aqueous solution and three largely ordered natural samples of intermediate iron content. Combining these data with previous work, three distinct trends of energetic can be seen: those for samples with nearly complete order, nearly complete disorder, and intermediate order. From these trends, the enthalpy of complete disordering is estimated to be 33 {+-} 6 kJ/mol for MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 18 {+-} 5 kJ/mol for FeCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.

  4. Search for low-mass weakly interacting massive particles using voltage-assisted calorimetric ionization detection in the SuperCDMS experiment.

    PubMed

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-31

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170??eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6??GeV/c2. PMID:24580434

  5. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c^2.

  6. Label-Free Determination of the Dissociation Constant of Small Molecule-Aptamer Interaction by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful label-free technique to determine the binding constant as well as thermodynamic parameters of a binding reaction and is therefore well suited for the analysis of small molecule-RNA aptamer interaction. We will introduce you to the method and present a protocol for sample preparation and the calorimetric measurement. A detailed note section will point out useful tips and pitfalls. PMID:26552820

  7. Thermodynamic properties of illite, smectite and beidellite by calorimetric methods: Enthalpies of formation, heat capacities, entropies and Gibbs free energies of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailhanou, H.; Blanc, P.; Rogez, J.; Mikaelian, G.; Kawaji, H.; Olives, J.; Amouric, M.; Denoyel, R.; Bourrelly, S.; Montouillout, V.; Vieillard, P.; Fialips, C. I.; Michau, N.; Gaucher, E. C.

    2012-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of three aluminous 2:1 clay minerals were acquired at 1.013 bars and at temperatures between 5 and 500 K using various calorimetric methods. Calorimetric measurements were performed on hydrated and dehydrated <2 ?m clay fractions of smectite MX-80 (Wyoming), illite IMt-2 (Silver Hill) and beidellite SBId-1 (Black Jack Mine). After purification, the mineralogical analyses gave the following structural formulae: Na0.409K0.024Ca0.009 (Si3.738Al0.262) (Al1.598Mg0.214Fe 0.173 3 + Fe 0.035 2 +)O10(OH)2,K0.762Na0.044 (Si3.387Al0.613) (Al1.427Mg0.241Fe 0.292 3 + Fe 0.084 2 +)O10(OH)2 and Ca0.185K0.104 (Si3.574Al0.426) (Al1.812Mg0.09Fe 0.112 3 +)O10(OH)2 for smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and beidellite SBId-1, respectively. Heat capacities were measured by low temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, from 5 to 500 K. Standard enthalpies of formation were obtained from solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. The standard Gibbs free energies of formation of the clay minerals were also calculated, together with the equilibrium constants at 25 °C, for anhydrous and hydrated minerals. A comparison between these experimental data and estimated values obtained from prediction models available in the literature, enabled the calculation method that appears to be the most relevant to be selected, at least for aluminous 2:1 clay minerals.

  8. An active thermal control surfaces experiment. [spacecraft temperature determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Brown, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    An active flight experiment is described that has the objectives to determine the effects of the low earth natural environment and the Shuttle induced environment on selected thermal control and optical surfaces. The optical and thermal properties of test samples will be measured in-situ using an integrating sphere reflectrometer and using calorimetric methods. This experiment has been selected for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight which will be carried to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The LDEF will remain in orbit to be picked up by a later Shuttle mission and returned for postflight evaluation.

  9. Thermodynamic property determination in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margrave, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for determining heat capacities and other properties of molten metals were investigated and critically evaluated. Precisely determining heat capacities calorimetrically in space poses several problems. The weight of a drop calorimeter block along with the necessity of obtaining a large number of data points tend to make traditional approaches appear infeasible. However, for many substances exhibiting sufficiently high thermal conductivities and with known emissivities, it appears possible to investigate their properties by observing the rate of cooling of a levitated sphere which is initially at a uniform temperature above the melting point. A special advantage of the levitation method is that considerable supercooling is expected, making the study of the heat capacities of molten metals both above and below their melting points possible.

  10. Calorimetric determination of the enthalpies of formation of hydrotalcite-like solids and their use in the geochemical modeling of metals in natural waters

    E-print Network

    Allada, Rama kumar; Peltier, Edward; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Casey, William H.; Johnson, C. Annette; Berbeco, Hillary Thompson; Sparks, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in hydrotalcite-like compounds has grown due to their role in controlling the mobility of aqueous metals in the environment as well as their use as catalysts, catalyst precursors and specialty chemicals. Although these materials have been...

  11. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage— Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer Corporation

    2014-10-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage—Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate. An ongoing public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine US STEM education, diversity and workforce issues. The 16th in the series, the newest survey asks talent recruiters at some of the country's largest employers—those included in the Fortune 1000—to weigh in on current and future demand for new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees. As professionals responsible for scouting, recruiting and hiring talent at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike, these individuals are on the frontlines, tasked with assessing and filling their companies' workforce needs. The survey asks the recruiters whether new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees are as, more or less in demand than their peers without STEM degrees? Are more new STEM jobs being created at their companies than non-STEM jobs? Can they find adequate numbers of qualified candidates in a timely manner and how fierce is the competition for STEM degree holders? To answer these and other questions, the survey polled 150 talent recruiters at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike. The survey also asks the recruiters about diversion in STEM, workforce diversity in the pipeline, the role of community colleges in developing the STEM pipeline and the desired skills and competencies of new hires.

  12. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  13. Effects of methoxy and formyl substituents on the energetics and reactivity of ?-naphthalenes: a calorimetric and computational study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana L R; Freitas, Vera L S; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C

    2014-07-01

    A combined experimental and computational study was developed to evaluate and understand the energetics and reactivity of formyl and methoxy ?-naphthalene derivatives. Static bomb combustion calorimetry and the Calvet microcalorimetry were the experimental techniques used to determine the standard (p(o)=0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the liquid phase, ?fHm(o)(l), and of vaporization, ?l(g)Hm(o), at T=298.15K, respectively, of the two liquid naphthalene derivatives. Those experimental values were used to derive the values of the experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, ?fHm(o)(g), of 1-methoxynaphthalene, (-3.0 ± 3.1)kJmol(-1), and of 1-formylnaphthalene, (36.3 ± 4.1)kJ mol(-1). High-level quantum chemical calculations at the composite G3(MP2)//B3LYP level were performed to estimate the values of the ?fHm(o)(g) of the two compounds studied resulting in values in very good agreement with experimental ones. Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were also performed to determine more about the structure and reactivity of this class of compounds. PMID:24444416

  14. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  15. A practical method to determine the heating and cooling curves of x-ray tube assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bottaro, M.; Moralles, M.; Viana, V.; Donatiello, G. L.; Silva, E. P.

    2007-10-15

    A practical method to determine the heating and cooling curves of x-ray tube assemblies with rotating anode x-ray tube is proposed. Available procedures to obtain these curves as described in the literature are performed during operation of the equipment, and the precision of the method depends on the knowledge of the total energy applied in the system. In the present work we describe procedures which use a calorimetric system and do not require the operation of the x-ray equipment. The method was applied successfully to a x-ray tube assembly that was under test in our laboratory.

  16. Simultaneous calorimetric and polarization microscopy investigations of light induced changes over phase transitions in a liquid crystal-napthopyran mixture.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, S; Mercuri, F; Marinelli, M; Pizzoferrato, R; Zammit, U; Kosa, T; Sukhomlinova, L; Taheri, B

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the specific heat and the thermal conductivity in a 4-(n-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC)-photochromic molecules mixture, before, during, and after the photo-activation of the dispersed photochromic molecules, over both the smectic A-nematic and the nematic-isotropic phase transitions. The evaluation of the specific heat has enabled the determination of the changes of the phase transition characteristics induced by the photochromic molecules photoisomerization, while that of the thermal conductivity could be used to monitor the modifications induced in the average LC molecular orientation. The polarization microscopy imaging of the sample texture constituted a valuable support for the interpretation of the obtained thermal conductivity results. PMID:26450328

  17. Simultaneous calorimetric and polarization microscopy investigations of light induced changes over phase transitions in a liquid crystal-napthopyran mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, S.; Mercuri, F.; Marinelli, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Zammit, U.; Kosa, T.; Sukhomlinova, L.; Taheri, B.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the specific heat and the thermal conductivity in a 4-(n-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC)-photochromic molecules mixture, before, during, and after the photo-activation of the dispersed photochromic molecules, over both the smectic A-nematic and the nematic-isotropic phase transitions. The evaluation of the specific heat has enabled the determination of the changes of the phase transition characteristics induced by the photochromic molecules photoisomerization, while that of the thermal conductivity could be used to monitor the modifications induced in the average LC molecular orientation. The polarization microscopy imaging of the sample texture constituted a valuable support for the interpretation of the obtained thermal conductivity results.

  18. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Sulfate at 10-70oC

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2008-06-16

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/sulfate complex and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 10-70 C. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is weak but slightly enhanced by the increase in temperature. The complexation is endothermic and becomes more endothermic with the increase in temperature. The enhanced complexation at elevated temperatures is due to the increasingly larger entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase in enthalpy, suggesting that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is entropy-driven.

  19. Isothermal Calorimetric Observations of the Affect of Welding on Compatibility of Stainless Steels with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy C.

    2002-01-01

    Compatibility is determined by the surface area, the chemical constituency and the surface finish of a material. In this investigation exposed area is obviously not a factor as the welded samples had a slightly smaller surface than the unwelded, but were more reactive. The chemical makeup of welded CRES 316L and welded CRES 304L have been observed in the literature to change from the parent material as chromium and iron are segregated in zones. In particular, the ratio of chromium to iron in CRES 316L increased from 0.260 to 0.79 in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the weld and to 1.52 in the weld bead itself. In CRES 304L the ratio of chromium to iron increased from 0.280 to 0.44 in the HAZ and to 0.33 in the weld bead. It is possible that the increased reactivity of the welded samples and of those welded without purge gas is due to this segregation phenomenon. Likewise the reactivity increased in keeping with the greater roughness of the welded and welded without purge gas samples. Therefore enhanced roughness may also be responsible for the increased reactivity.

  20. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of U(VI) Complexation with Sulfate at 25-70oC

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2008-10-30

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the U(VI)/sulfate complexes and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 25-70 C. Results show that U(VI) forms moderately strong complexes with sulfate, i.e., UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) and UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2-}, in this temperature range and the complexes become stronger as the temperature is increased: 2-fold and 10-fold increases in the stability constants of UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) and UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}{sub 2}{sup 2-}), respectively, when the temperature is increased from 25 C to 70 C. The complexation is endothermic and entropy-driven, showing typical characteristics of inner-sphere complexation and 'hard acid'/'hard base' interactions. The thermodynamic trends are discussed in terms of dehydration of both the cation (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) and the anion (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as well as the effect of temperature on the structure of water.

  1. Entropy-driven folding of an RNA helical junction: an isothermal titration calorimetric analysis of the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Peter J; Takach, Jennifer C; Feig, Andrew L

    2004-05-18

    Helical junctions are extremely common motifs in naturally occurring RNAs, but little is known about the thermodynamics that drive their folding. Studies of junction folding face several challenges: non-two-state folding behavior, superposition of secondary and tertiary structural energetics, and drastically opposing enthalpic and entropic contributions to folding. Here we describe a thermodynamic dissection of the folding of the hammerhead ribozyme, a three-way RNA helical junction, by using isothermal titration calorimetry of bimolecular RNA constructs. By using this method, we show that tertiary folding of the hammerhead core occurs with a highly unfavorable enthalpy change, and is therefore entropically driven. Furthermore, the enthalpies and heat capacities of core folding are the same whether supported by monovalent or divalent ions. These properties appear to be general to the core sequence of bimolecular hammerhead constructs. We present a model for the ion-induced folding of the hammerhead core that is similar to those advanced for the folding of much larger RNAs, involving ion-induced collapse to a structured, non-native state accompanied by rearrangement of core residues to produce the native fold. In agreement with previous enzymological and structural studies, our thermodynamic data suggest that the hammerhead structure is stabilized in vitro predominantly by diffusely bound ions. Our approach addresses several significant challenges that accompany the study of junction folding, and should prove useful in defining the thermodynamic determinants of stability in these important RNA motifs. PMID:15134461

  2. Combined Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Studies to Reveal Absorption Mechanisms and Conformational Changes of Protein on Nanoporous Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Saharnaz; Farokhi, Maryam; Padidar, Parisa; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effect of surface modification of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) on its adsorption capacities and protein stability after immobilization of beta-lactoglobulin B (BLG-B) was investigated. For this purpose, non-functionalized (KIT-6) and aminopropyl-functionalized cubic Ia3d mesoporous silica ([n-PrNH2-KIT-6]) nanoparticles were used as nanoporous supports. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous nanoparticles exhibited more potential candidates for BLG-B adsorption and minimum BLG leaching than non-functionalized nanoparticles. It was observed that the amount of adsorbed BLG is dependent on the initial BLG concentration for both KIT-6 and [n-PrNH2-KIT-6] mesoporous nanoparticles. Also larger amounts of BLG-B on KIT-6 was immobilized upon raising the temperature of the medium from 4 to 55 °C while such increase was undetectable in the case of immobilization of BLG-B on the [n-PrNH2-KIT-6]. At temperatures above 55 °C the amounts of adsorbed BLG on both studied nanomaterials decreased significantly. By Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC analysis the heterogeneity of the protein solution and increase in Tm may indicate that immobilization of BLG-B onto the modified KIT-6 results in higher thermal stability compared to unmodified one. The obtained results provide several crucial factors in determining the mechanism(s) of protein adsorption and stability on the nanostructured solid supports and the development of engineered nano-biomaterials for controlled drug-delivery systems and biomimetic interfaces for the immobilization of living cells. PMID:26230687

  3. MEARA sequence repeat of human CstF-64 polyadenylation factor is helical in solution. A spectroscopic and calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J M; McMahon, K W; MacDonald, C C; Makhatadze, G I

    1999-09-28

    The primary structure of the human CstF-64 polyadenylation factor contains 12 nearly identical repeats of a consensus motif of five amino acid residues with the sequence MEAR(A/G). No known function has yet been ascribed to this motif; however, according to secondary structure prediction algorithms, it should form a helical structure in solution. To validate this theoretical prediction, we synthesized a 31 amino acid residue peptide (MEARA(6)) containing six repeats of the MEARA sequence and characterized its structure and stability by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). No effects of concentration on the CD or DSC properties of MEARA(6) were observed, indicating that the peptide is monomeric in solution at concentrations up to 2 mM. The far UV-CD spectra of MEARA(6) indicates that at a low temperature (1 degrees C) the MEARA(6) peptide has a relatively high helical content (76% at pH 2.0 and 65% at pH 7.0). The effects of pH and ionic strength on the CD spectrum of MEARA(6) suggest that a number of electrostatic interactions (e.g., i, i + 3 Arg/Glu ion pair, charge-dipole interactions) contribute to the stability of the helical structure in this peptide. DSC profiles show that the melting of MEARA(6) helix is accompanied by positive change in the enthalpy. To determine thermodynamic parameters of helix-coil transition from DSC profiles for this peptide, we developed a new, semiempirical procedure based on the calculated function for the heat capacity of the coiled state for a broad temperature range. The application of this approach to the partial molar heat capacity function for MEARA(6) provides the enthalpy change for helix formation calculated per amino acid residue as 3.5 kJ/mol. PMID:10504257

  4. PREFACE: Sensors & their Applications XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, Panicos; O'Riordan, Alan

    2011-08-01

    This volume records the Proceedings of the sixteenth conference in the biennial Sensors and Their Applications series which took place at the Clarion Hotel, Cork, Ireland between 12-14 September 2011. The conference is organized by the Instrument Science and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. On this occasion, the conference was hosted by Tyndall National Institute at University College Cork. This year the conference returns to Ireland, having last been held in Limerick in 2003. The conference proceedings record the continuing growth of the sensors community nationally and internationally. The conferences bring together contributions from scientists and engineers from academia, research institutes and industrial establishments, and therefore provide an excellent opportunity for these communities to present and discuss the latest results in the field of sensors, instrumentation and measurement. Amongst the more traditional themes, such as optical sensing, there is growth in new areas such as biomedical sensing and instrumentation, and nanosensing, which is reflected in this volume. Similarly the contribution of modelling and simulation techniques in sensor and instrumentation design and their applications is acknowledged by a session in this area. The sessions across the conference are supported by notable contributions from invited speakers. We would like to thank all of our colleagues in the sensor and instrumentation community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts. Our thanks also go to Tyndall National Institute for hosting this conference and all the sponsors who, with their generous financial and in-kind contributions, enabled the better organization of this conference. We would also like to thank all the members of the Instrument Science and Technology Group for their support, and in particular for refereeing the submitted manuscripts. We are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. Panicos KyriacouConference ChairmanAlan O'RiordanConference Local Chairman

  5. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Oden, Patrick I. (Plano, TX); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  6. Please cite this article in press as: Raviv, M., et al., Development of alternate cut-flower rose greenhouse temperature set-points based on calorimetric plant tissue evaluation. Sci. Hortic. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2010.08.011

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Raviv, M., et al., Development of alternate cut-flower rose.elsevier.com/locate/scihorti Development of alternate cut-flower rose greenhouse temperature set-points based on calorimetric plant tissue timing of harvest of greenhouse-grown crops. In general, winter greenhouse environments for most cut-flower

  7. 75 FR 9821 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404...State Agency Disability Examiners AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice...benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act) without the...

  8. 75 FR 62676 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404...State Agency Disability Examiners AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final...benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act) without the...

  9. Steps Toward Determination of the Size and Structure of the Broad-Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei XVI: A 13 Year Study of Spectral Variability in NGC 5548

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. M.; Berlind, P.; Bertram, R.; Bischoff, K.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Burenkov, A. N.; Calkins, M.; Carrasco, L.; Chavushyan, V. H.

    2002-01-01

    We present the final installment of an intensive 13 year study of variations of the optical continuum and broad H beta emission line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The database consists of 1530 optical continuum measurements and 1248 H beta measurements. The H beta variations follow the continuum variations closely, with a typical time delay of about 20 days. However, a year-by-year analysis shows that the magnitude of emission-line time delay is correlated with the mean continuum flux. We argue that the data are consistent with the simple model prediction between the size of the broad-line region and the ionizing luminosity, r is proportional to L(sup 1/2)(sub ion). Moreover, the apparently linear nature of the correlation between the H beta response time and the nonstellar optical continuum F(sub opt) arises as a consequence of the changing shape of the continuum as it varies, specifically F(sub opt) is proportional to F(sup 0.56)(sub UV).

  10. Lymphocyte transformation induced by autologous cells. XVI: Distinctive role of discrete regions of class I MHC antigens in the autologous mixed leucocyte reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Innes, J B; Garbrecht, F C; Weksler, M E; Russo, C

    1989-01-01

    The role of Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the autologous (AMLR) and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions was investigated by using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed to polymorphic MHC determinants. The AMLR from subjects with the HLA-A2 phenotype was consistently inhibited by the anti-HLA-A2 MoAb, CR11-351, and the inhibition was dose-dependent and complete even at low antibody concentrations. The allogeneic MLR was inhibited by CR11-351 less than 30% when HLA-A2-bearing cells were used either as stimulator or responder cells. Addition of interleukins 1 and/or 2 to the AMLR in the presence of the inhibiting MoAbs did not restore the proliferative response. These studies suggest that Class I MHC polymorphic determinants, or closely related structures, participate in the induction of the AMLR. PMID:2467773

  11. A calorimetric and spectroscopic comparison of the effects of cholesterol and its sulfur-containing analogs thiocholesterol and cholesterol sulfate on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2016-02-01

    We performed differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the effects of cholesterol (Chol), thiocholesterol (tChol) and cholesterol sulfate (CholS) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. Our DSC results indicate that Chol and tChol incorporation produce small temperature increases in the main phase transition broad component while CholS markedly decreases it, but Chol decreases cooperativity and enthalpy more strongly than CholS and especially tChol. Hence, Chol and tChol thermally stabilize fluid DPPC bilayer sterol-rich domains while CholS markedly destabilizes them, and CholS and particularly tChol are less miscible in such domains. Our FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that Chol incorporation increases the rotational conformational order of fluid DPPC bilayers to a slightly and somewhat greater degree than tChol and CholS, respectively, consistent with our DSC findings. Also, Chol and CholS produce comparable degrees of H-bonding (hydration) of the DPPC ester carbonyls in fluid bilayers, whereas tChol increases H-bonding. At low temperatures, Chol is fully soluble in gel-state DPPC bilayers, whereas tChol and CholS are not. Thus tChol and CholS incorporation can produce considerably different effects on DPPC bilayers. In particular, the tChol thiol group markedly reduces its lateral miscibility and increases DPPC carbonyl H-bonding without significantly affecting the other characteristic effects of Chol itself, while the CholS sulfate group significantly reduces its ability to thermally stabilize and order fluid DPPC membranes. This latter result suggests that the molecular basis for the purported ability of CholS to "stabilize" various biological membranes should be re-examined. PMID:26585353

  12. 72 FR 9239 - Optometrists as “Acceptable Medical Sources” To Establish a Medically Determinable Impairment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-03-01

    ...impairment under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (the Act). The revised...of Disability Evaluation Policy, Social Security Administration, 4465 Annex...1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online, at...

  13. First stars. XVI. HST/STIS abundances of heavy elements in the uranium-rich metal-poor star CS 31082-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The origin and site(s) of the r-process nucleosynthesis is(are) still not known with certainty, but complete, detailed r-element abundances offer our best clues. The few extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with large r-element excesses allow us to study the r-process signatures in great detail, with minimal interference from later stages of Galactic evolution. CS 31082-001 is an outstanding example of the information that can be gathered from these exceptional stars. Aims: Here we aim to complement our previous abundance determinations for third-peak r-process elements with new and improved results for elements of the first and second r-process peaks from near-UV HST/STIS and optical UVES spectra. These results should provide new insight into the nucleosynthesis of the elements beyond iron. Methods: The spectra were analyzed by a consistent approach based on an OSMARCS LTE model atmosphere and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code to derive abundances of heavy elements in CS 31082-001, and using updated oscillator strengths from the recent literature. Synthetic spectra were computed for all lines of the elements of interest to check for proper line intensities and possible blends in these crowded spectra. Our new abundances were combined with the best previous results to provide reliable mean abundances for the first and second-peak r-process elements. Results: We present new abundances for 23 neutron-capture elements, 6 of which - Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, and Re - have not been reported before. This makes CS 31082-001 the most completely studied r-II star, with abundances for a total of 37 neutron-capture elements. We also present the first NLTE+3D abundance of lead in this star, further constraining the nature of the r-process. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; and with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile; Progr. ID 165.N-0276.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation by Calorimetric Detection of Energetic Materials Using Thermal Bimorph Microcantilever Array: A Case Study on Sensing Vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Won; Fragala, Joe; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Bi-layer (Au-Si?N?) microcantilevers fabricated in an array were used to detect vapors of energetic materials such as explosives under ambient conditions. The changes in the bending response of each thermal bimorph (i.e., microcantilever) with changes in actuation currents were experimentally monitored by measuring the angle of the reflected ray from a laser source used to illuminate the gold nanocoating on the surface of silicon nitride microcantilevers in the absence and presence of a designated combustible species. Experiments were performed to determine the signature response of this nano-calorimeter platform for each explosive material considered for this study. Numerical modeling was performed to predict the bending response of the microcantilevers for various explosive materials, species concentrations, and actuation currents. The experimental validation of the numerical predictions demonstrated that in the presence of different explosive or combustible materials, the microcantilevers exhibited unique trends in their bending responses with increasing values of the actuation current. PMID:26334276

  15. Use of flow calorimetry for determining enthalpies of absorption and the solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous monoethanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonat, C.; Majer, V.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1998-10-01

    A flow mixing unit adapted to a Setaram C-80 calorimeter was used for measuring enthalpies of absorption of carbon dioxide in a 30 wt% aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) at three temperatures (313.15, 353.15, and 393.15 K) and three pressures (2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 MPa). Determinations were performed both in the region where the gas is fully absorbed in the solvent and also in the region of concentrations above the saturation. Experimental data served to obtain the integral enthalpies of absorption and for indirect determination of solubility limits. Where comparison was possible, the presented results derived from calorimetric determinations were in reasonable agreement with those obtained from phase equilibria measurements.

  16. Effect of temperature on the protonation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid in aqueous solutions: Potentiometric and calorimetric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Zhicheng; Endrizzi, Francesco; Martin, Leigh R.; Luo, Shunzhong; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-06-01

    The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) has been demonstrated in several pilot-scale operations to be effective at separating trivalent actinides (An3+) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). However, fundamental studies have revealed undesired aspects of TALSPEAK, such as the significant partitioning of Na+, lactic acid, and water into the organic phase, thermodynamically unpredictable pH dependence, and the slow extraction kinetics. In the modified TALSPEAK process, the combination of the aqueous holdback complexant HEDTA (N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid) with the extractant HEH[EHP] (2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester) in the organic phase has been found to exhibit a nearly flat pH dependence between 2.5 and 4.5 and more rapid phase transfer kinetics for the heavier lanthanides. To help understand the speciation of Ln3+ and An3+ in the modified TALSPEAK, systematic studies are underway on the thermodynamics of major reactions in the HEDTA system under conditions relevant to the process (e.g., higher temperatures). Thermodynamics of the protonation and complexation of HEDTA with Ln3+ were studied at variable temperatures. Equilibrium constants and enthalpies were determined by a combination of techniques including potentiometry and calorimetry. This paper presents the protonation constants of HEDTA at T = (25 to 70) °C. The potentiometric titrations have demonstrated that, stepwise, the first two protonation constants decrease and the third one slightly increases with the increase of temperature. This trend is in good agreement with the enthalpy of protonation directly determined by calorimetry. The results of NMR analysis further confirm that the first two protonation reactions occur on the diamine nitrogen atoms, while the third protonation reaction occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group. These data, in conjunction with the thermodynamic parameters of Ln3+/An3+ complexes with HEDTA at different temperatures, will help to predict the speciation and temperature-dependent behavior of Ln3+/An3+ in the modified TALSPEAK process.

  17. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, J.

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  18. Biophysical studies on the interactions of a classic mitochondrial uncoupler with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic, isothermal titration calorimetric and molecular modeling methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jia-Han; Ge, Yu-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

    2011-03-01

    The interaction between a classic uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy under the physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching constants were calculated by the Stern-Volmer equation, and based upon the temperature dependence of quenching constants, it was proved that DNP caused a static quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. Owing to the static quenching mechanism, different associative binding constants at various temperatures were determined and thus the thermodynamic parameters, namely enthalpy (?H=-21.12 kJ mol(-1)) and entropy changes (?S=23.51 J mol(-1) K(-1)) could be calculated based on the binding constants. Moreover, the enthalpy and entropy changes are consistent with the "Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation" equation obtained from our previous work. The negative enthalpy and positive entropy indicated that the electrostatic interactions played a major role in DNP-BSA binding process. Site marker competitive displacement experiments were carried out by using fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods. These results showed that DNP bound with high affinity to Sudlow's site I (subdomain IIA) of BSA. The distance (r=3.78 nm) between donor (BSA) and acceptor (DNP) was obtained according to the mechanism of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Furthermore, the results of synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies indicated that the microenvironment and the secondary conformation of BSA were altered. The above results were supported by theoretical molecular modeling methods. PMID:20936333

  19. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation by Calorimetric Detection of Energetic Materials Using Thermal Bimorph Microcantilever Array: A Case Study on Sensing Vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Won; Fragala, Joe; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Bi-layer (Au-Si3N4) microcantilevers fabricated in an array were used to detect vapors of energetic materials such as explosives under ambient conditions. The changes in the bending response of each thermal bimorph (i.e., microcantilever) with changes in actuation currents were experimentally monitored by measuring the angle of the reflected ray from a laser source used to illuminate the gold nanocoating on the surface of silicon nitride microcantilevers in the absence and presence of a designated combustible species. Experiments were performed to determine the signature response of this nano-calorimeter platform for each explosive material considered for this study. Numerical modeling was performed to predict the bending response of the microcantilevers for various explosive materials, species concentrations, and actuation currents. The experimental validation of the numerical predictions demonstrated that in the presence of different explosive or combustible materials, the microcantilevers exhibited unique trends in their bending responses with increasing values of the actuation current. PMID:26334276

  20. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination. PMID:26274302

  1. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations—matrices—acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.

  2. The Energetics of Hematite Dissolution in Iron Ore Melts for Assimilation in Commercial Sintering Processes: In Situ High Temperature Calorimetric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A. A.; Morcos, R.; Ellis, B.

    2006-12-01

    Melting and crystallization of iron ores in mining applications are determined by the thermodynamic properties of the crystals and liquids in equilibrium. Iron ores are widely used for sinter production in Japan, Korea Russia, and Australia. In these sinter production plants, multiple ores can be blended together. Sintering is the second stage of a two step process in which iron ores fines, together with coke and flux material are converted into porous blocks of sinter that are suitable for direct feed into the blast furnace. The chemical and physical changes that occur during sintering are formation of granules, melt formation, assimilation and lastly crystallization. The initial stage involves the formation of granules in which small and intermediate sized particles adhere to larger nuclei via water bridging between adjacent particles. The second stage is known as assimilation; which involves the reaction between melt and un-melted iron ore particles during the sintering step. These ores are typically multi-component systems with numerous phases whose variability complicates industrial processing applications. High temperature calorimetry using molten iron-calcium-silicate solvents has been used to better understand and improve the industrial processing of iron ores, and evaluate the dissolution properties of Fe2O3 in a series of iron-oxide based melts at 1626 K. In the SFCA (silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminium) oxide mixture, the heat of solution of Fe2O3 for the first set of experiments is 52.5 b 10 kJ/mol as Fe2O3 concentration is increased from 59 to 64 mol%. The heat of solution was found to be strongly endothermic and independent of the liquid composition.

  3. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes linear operations - matrices - acting on the data are often not accessible directly, but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. Meanwhile efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, a stochastic estimate for its determinant is still lacking. In this work a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator is introduced. This method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bay...

  4. CHAPTER XVI LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND METAMORPHOSIS

    E-print Network

    size as the egg. The two polar bodies may still be attached to some of the embryos and a tuft of robust from the Greek "trochos," 8. wheel: and "phero," to bear. The formation of the trochophore results from

  5. xvi Preface to the second edition Acknowledgments

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    , William Talbot, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, Fritz Warfield and Paul Weirich. In addition, I have continued to benefit from regular exchanges of ideas or papers (usually both) with many philosophers, including William Alston, Laurence Bonjour, Panayot Butchvarov, Elizabeth Fricker, Alvin Goldman, John Greco, Gilbert

  6. ROCLING XVI sbbjun@gmail.com

    E-print Network

    iji..jij CHEN CH isen CH #sen CH , jisen ( )ENCH #1..,..#1 sensenDP 279 #12; DP jiDP jq ip sensen sensen jqip jqip jqip,1 evaleval_length, eval_punc penalty ( )ENCH #,# sentencesentenceDP 2.5.3 DP DP DP DPDP Iterative

  7. A calorimetric and spectroscopic comparison of the effects of cholesterol and its immediate biosynthetic precursors 7-dehydrocholesterol and desmosterol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2015-10-01

    We performed differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the effects of cholesterol (CHOL), 7-dehydrocholeterol (7DHC) and desmosterol (DES) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. 7DHC and DES are the immediate biosynthetic precursors of CHOL in the Kandutch-Russell and Bloch pathways and 7DHC and DES differ in structure from CHOL only by the presence of an additional double bond at C7 of ring B or C24 of the alkyl side chain, respectively. Our DSC results indicate that the incorporation of all three sterols produces comparable decreases in the temperature of the pretransition of DPPC, but CHOL decreases its cooperativity and enthalpy more strongly than 7DHC and especially DES. These findings indicate that all three sterols decrease the thermal stability of gel phase DPPC bilayers but that 7DHC and especially DES are less miscible in them. However, the incorporation of CHOL and DES produce comparable increases in the temperature of the broad component of the main phase transition of DPPC while 7DHC decreases it, but again CHOL produces greater decreases in its cooperativity and enthalpy then 7DHC and especially DES. These results indicate that CHOL and DES stabilize the sterol-rich domains of fluid DPPC bilayers, but that 7DHC and especially DES are less miscible in them. Our FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that CHOL increases the rotational conformational order of fluid DPPC bilayers to a somewhat and markedly greater degree than DES and 7DHC, respectively, consistent with our DSC findings. Our spectroscopic results also indicate that although all three sterols produce comparable degrees of H-bonding (hydration) of the DPPC ester carbonyl groups in fluid bilayers, CHOL is again found to be fully soluble in gel state DPPC bilayers at low temperatures, whereas 7DHC and especially DES are not. In general, we find that 7DHC and DES incorporation produce considerably different effects on DPPC bilayer membranes. In particular, the presence of an additional double bond at C7 or C24 produces a marked reduction in the ability of 7DHC to order fluid DPPC bilayers and in the miscibility of DES in such bilayers, respectively. These different effects may be the biophysical basis for the reduction of these double bonds in the last steps of CHOL biosynthesis, and for the deleterious biological effects of the accumulation of these sterols in vivo. PMID:26368000

  8. Virulence Determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the in vitro and in vivo assays that are available for determination of pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, highlighting the value of using multiplex PCR for rapid and accurate assessment of listerial virulence....

  9. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  10. Nanobridge SQUIDs as calorimetric inductive particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallop, John; Cox, David; Hao, Ling

    2015-08-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) have made dramatic progress since their invention some 65 years ago (Andrews et al 1949 Phys. Rev. 76 154-155 Irwin and Hilton 2005 Topics Appl. Phys. 99 63-149) until now there are major imaging arrays of TESs with as many as 7588 separate sensors. These are extensively used by astronomers for some ground-breaking observations (Hattori et al 2013 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 732 299-302). The great success of TES systems has tended to overshadow other superconducting sensor developments. However there are other types (Sobolewski et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13 1151-7 Hadfield 2009 Nat. Photonics 3 696-705) which are discussed in papers within this special edition of the journal. Here we describe a quite different type of detector, also applicable to single photon detection but possessing possible advantages (higher sensitivity, higher operating temperature) over the conventional TES, at least for single detectors.

  11. Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Determination of test methods for the prediction of the behavior of mass concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Christopher C.

    Hydration at early ages results from chemical and physical processes that take place between Portland cement and water, and is an exothermic process. The resultant heat evolution and temperature rise for massive concrete placements can be so great that the temperature differentials between the internal concrete core and outer concrete stratum can cause cracking due to thermal gradients. Accurate prediction of temperature distribution and stresses in mass concrete is needed to determine if a given concrete mixture design may have problems in the field, so that adjustments to the design can be made prior to its use. This research examines calorimetric, strength, and physical testing methods in an effort to predict the thermal and physical behavior of mass concrete. Four groups of concrete mixture types containing different cementitious materials are examined. One group contains Portland cement, while the other three groups incorporate large replacements of supplementary cementitious materials: granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and a ternary blend (combining Portland cement, fly ash, and slag).

  13. Determination of the relaxation characteristics of sugar glasses embedded in microfiber substrates.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

    2014-11-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in developing sugar glasses that enable storage of biologics without refrigeration. Microfiber filter papers are good substrates for drying biologics in the presence of sugar glass-formers, providing for an even distribution of samples and an enhanced surface area for drying, but the opaqueness prevents macroscopic observation of the sample and can introduce complexities that impede physical characterization. Because drying kinetics and processing conditions can impact the relaxation dynamics (e.g., ?- and ?-relaxation), which can influence the efficacy of the glass as a stabilizer, methods are needed that can enable a determination of relaxation phenomena of sugar glasses in such complex environments. In this study we present a method which provides verification of the absence of crystallinity following drying on glass fiber filter paper and also enables the determination of relaxation characteristics of amorphous sugar compositions embedded within these filter substrates. Using material pockets to contain the sugar glass-embedded microfiber paper, the ?-relaxation temperature, T?, was determined as a function of the water content in trehalose and sucrose samples using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results were verified by comparison with previous calorimetric and spectroscopic studies. The data also demonstrated the plasticizing effects of water, as T? was shown to correlate with water content via a Gordon-Taylor-like relationship. Our findings validate a new approach for determining the relaxation characteristics of microfiber embedded sugar glasses, and offer new insights into the relaxation characteristics of glasses prepared by microwave-assisted drying on filter papers. PMID:25280724

  14. Determination of the relaxation characteristics of sugar glasses embedded in microfiber substrates

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in developing sugar glasses that enable storage of biologics without refrigeration. Microfiber filter papers are good substrates for drying biologics in the presence of sugar glass-formers, providing for an even distribution of samples and an enhanced surface area for drying, but the opaqueness prevents macroscopic observation of the sample and can introduce complexities that impede physical characterization. Because drying kinetics and processing conditions can impact the relaxation dynamics (e.g., ?- and ?-relaxation), which can influence the efficacy of the glass as a stabilizer, methods are needed that can enable a determination of relaxation phenomena of sugar glasses in such complex environments. In this study we present a method which provides verification of the absence of crystallinity following drying on glass fiber filter paper and also enables the determination of relaxation characteristics of amorphous sugar compositions embedded within these filter substrates. Using material pockets to contain the sugar glass-embedded microfiber paper, the ?-relaxation temperature, T?, was determined as a function of the water content in trehalose and sucrose samples using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results were verified by comparison with previous calorimetric and spectroscopic studies. The data also demonstrated the plasticizing effects of water, as T? was shown to correlate with water content via a Gordon-Taylor-like relationship. Our findings validate a new approach for determining the relaxation characteristics of microfiber embedded sugar glasses, and offer new insights into the relaxation characteristics of glasses prepared by microwave-assisted drying on filter papers. PMID:25280724

  15. Calorimetric study of the crystallization kinetics of Cu{sub 47}Ti{sub 33}Zr{sub 11}Ni{sub 8}Si{sub 1} metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.; Hermann, H.; Mickel, C.; Schultz, L.; Eckert, J.; Sordelet, D. J.

    2007-03-01

    The isochronal and isothermal activation energies for the primary crystallization process of Cu{sub 47}Ti{sub 33}Zr{sub 11}Ni{sub 8}Si{sub 1} metallic glass powders subjected to varying thermal treatments have been evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and determined using the Kissinger approach and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) analysis, respectively. The values of the differential Avrami exponent are also determined from the isothermal data. Assuming diffusion-controlled growth, it is shown that thermal treatment of the samples in the supercooled liquid region considerably influences the behavior of the nucleation rate during the crystallization process. Microstructural investigations indicate that the thermal treatment is accompanied by precipitation of fine nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. The values for the activation energies determined by both the Kissinger approach and the JMA analysis are similar for the as-prepared powder, but a significant difference is found for the thermally treated powders. This discrepancy is explained on the basis of the fundamental assumptions made in the models. It will be shown that the Kissinger method fails if the differential Avrami exponent changes significantly during the transformation process.

  16. Optimized structure and thermochemical properties of flavonoids determined by the CHIH(medium) DFT model chemistry versus experimental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María.; Lardizabal-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Balandrán-Quintana, René R.; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the CHIH(medium)-DFT model chemistry (PBEg/CBSB2 ??//PBEg/CBSB4) in the determination of the optimized structure and thermochemical properties of heterocyclic systems of medium size such as flavonoids, wherefore were selected three of the most abundant flavonoids in vegetable tissues, and which posses the higher antioxidant activity: quercetin, (+)-catechin and cyanidin. As reference systems were employed three cyclic compounds: phenol, catechol and resorcinol. The thermochemical properties evaluated were enthalpy of formation, bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP), following the scheme of isodesmic reactions. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data generated by X-ray diffraction and calorimetric techniques realized in part by us, whereas other data were taken from the literature. The results obtained in this work reveal that the CHIH(medium)-DFT model chemistry represents an accurate computational tool to calculate structural and thermochemical properties in the studied flavonoid and reference compounds. The average absolute deviation of enthalpy of formation for reference compounds was 3.0 kcal/mol, 2.64 kcal/mol for BDE, and 2.97 kcal/mol for IP.

  17. Synthesis, Calorimetric and X ray diffraction studies in the solid solution Tl2(SO4)1-X(SeO4)X.Te(OH)6 0?X?1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ktari, L.; Dammak, M.; Mhiri, T.; Kolsi, A. W.

    2009-11-01

    The crystal structures of the thallium tellurate solid solutions Tl2(SO4)1-x(SeO4)x.Te(OH)6 were determined by X-ray diffraction method. The Tl2SeO4.Te(OH)6 (TlSeTe) and Tl2(SO4)0.6(SeO4)0.4.Te(OH)6 (TlSSeTe) compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with P21/c space group. Whereas the Tl2SO4.Te(OH)6 (TlSTe) compound crystallizes in the P21/a one. The following parameters of TlSeTe structure are: a=12.358(3)Å; b=7.231(1)Å; c=11.986(2)Å; ?=111.092(2)?; Z=4. The TlSeTe structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO6 octahedra and SeO4 tetrahedra. The Tl+ cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO42- and TeO66-) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable thanks to O-H…O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl2SeO4.Te(OH)6 undergo two endothermal peaks at 373 K and 437 K. These transitions detected by DSC and analysed by dielectric measurements. However, the evolution of the conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to structural phase transition.

  18. Short arcs at low current determination of the power lost by conduction into anode

    SciTech Connect

    Abbaoui, M.; Salihou, H.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanisms occurring at the anode of an electric arc are less important compared to that at the cathode, Many studies have been carried out to get a better understanding of anode phenomena in welding, but few of them have been reported on sham am in gases then last years. In general, for short arcs, the major problem encouraged in experiment was the instability of the arc voltage. This instability depends on the phenomena associated with the existence of the arc, the erosion, the nature and surface state of the electrode materials mainly for low currents arcs. Thus, for short arcs operating in gases at low current, experimental investigations are complicated because of their inherent instability and the metal gas interaction. Moreover, because of this instability, there are less data available. In this paper, we are concerned with low arc current (2-5A) and small electrode separation (0.4-1mm). For short arcs in gases at low-current, it is known from literature that one of the important tool is the energy balance which enables to deal with the power lost by conduction into electrodes and the current density. Calorimetric observations show that about 80% of the electrical power input is lost into both electrodes mainly by conduction. In the following analysis, a simple method of determining the power lost by conduction into different anode materials using a wall stabilised arc is presented. The experimental method consists in measuring the temperature reached in steady state at different points distributed along the electrode axis, fitting the values obtained and calculating the power supplied P{sub cd} to the anode surface facing the column.

  19. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  20. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  1. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  2. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  3. 64 Bryonora 38 (2006) NOV BRYOLOGICK LITERATURA XVI.

    E-print Network

    Kucera, Jan

    2006-01-01

    with terrestrial moss communities (Bryophyta: Bryopsida) in a northeastern US forest. ­ Journal of Eukaryotic. (2006): Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses. ­ Biology Letters 2: 286­288. Banu-Fattah K. & Hadiuzzaman S. (2006): Acrocarpous mosses of Bangladesh. XI. Family: Bartramiaceae ­ 1. ­ Bangladesh Journal

  4. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...in setting up a schedule of sports and games. Schools that participate...interscholastic competition in noncontact sports except on the basis of individual...a variety of scholastic and sport activities. (f) Students...student activity will be given orientation and training covering the...

  5. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of both student and program needs. Each activity program shall help develop leadership...student participation but not be limited to activities that include special interest clubs, physical activities, student government, and cultural...

  6. Planck intermediate results. XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski?, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-06-01

    We explore the 2013 Planck likelihood function with a high-precision multi-dimensional minimizer (Minuit). This allows a refinement of the ?CDM best-fit solution with respect to previously-released results, and the construction of frequentist confidence intervals using profile likelihoods. The agreement with the cosmological results from the Bayesian framework is excellent, demonstrating the robustness of the Planck results to the statistical methodology. We investigate the inclusion of neutrino masses, where more significant differences may appear due to the non-Gaussian nature of the posterior mass distribution. By applying the Feldman-Cousins prescription, we again obtain results very similar to those of the Bayesian methodology. However, the profile-likelihood analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) combination (Planck+WP+highL) reveals a minimum well within the unphysical negative-mass region. We show that inclusion of the Planck CMB-lensing information regularizes this issue, and provide a robust frequentist upper limit ? m? ? 0.26 eV (95% confidence) from the CMB+lensing+BAO data combination.

  7. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 31.7. All student activity accounts shall be audited annually. (h) The school shall provide for... competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred...

  8. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR 31.7. All student activity accounts shall be audited annually. (h) The school shall provide for... competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred...

  9. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR 31.7. All student activity accounts shall be audited annually. (h) The school shall provide for... competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred...

  10. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, Volume XVI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C., Ed.

    This volume contains essays related to various aspects of higher education, focusing on both educational theory and research. The chapters are: (1) "Apologia pro Vita Mia" (Robert Berdahl); (2) "Varieties of Validity: Quality in Qualitative Research" (Yvonna S. Lincoln); (3) "Academic Freedom and Federal Courts in the 1990s: The Legitimation of…

  11. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-05-15

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''15 to 16.''94, with a median separation of 3.''03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  12. Notation xvi Part I: Gravitational-wave theory 1

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    1.5 Propagation in curved space-time 40 1.5.1 Geometric optics in curved space 42 1.5.2 Absorption from the background 27 1.4.2 How GWs curve the background 29 1.4.3 The energy­momentum tensor of GWs 35 and scattering of GWs 46 1.6 Solved problems 48 1.1. Linearization of the Riemann tensor in curved space 48 1

  13. List of Tables xiv List of Figures xvi

    E-print Network

    Russo, Bernard

    . . . . . . 99 5.2 Industrial Agriculture Logic vs. the Logic of Life . . . . . . . 103 5.3 Fast Foods, Few Foods: Food, Soil, Water, Air, Free Speech 99 5.1 The "Hour Glass" Industrial Agriculture Machine and Distributions of Food . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 5.9 My Definition of Food

  14. Follow-Up of "Harbinger" Readership. Volume XVI, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    In spring 1987, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to assess students' perceptions of the campus newspaper, "The Harbinger," in order to assist "Harbinger" staff in meeting student needs. A random sample of 240 degree credit students and 160 non-degree credit students enrolled in fall 1986 were surveyed by mail to…

  15. Nephelometric determination of fluorine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, R.E.

    1936-01-01

    Fluorine in minerals may be determined with the nephelometer to about 1 per cent of the fluorine. The determination is made on an aliquot of the sodium chloride solution of the fluorine, obtained by the Berzelius method of extraction. The fluorine is precipitated as colloidal calcium fluoride in alcoholic solution, gelatin serving as a protective colloid. Arsenates, sulfates, and phosphates, which interfere with the determination, must be removed.

  16. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Klots, T. D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built. Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl-substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  17. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Klots, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl- substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental- frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  18. Calorimetric study of carbon partitioning from martensite into austenite steel

    SciTech Connect

    De Moor, Emmanuel; Foejer, Cecilia; Penning, Jan; Clarke, Amy J.; Speer, John G.

    2010-09-01

    Quenching and partitioning (Q and P) has been developed as a novel steel heat treatment to produce advanced high-strength microstructures consisting of a martensitic matrix containing significant amounts of retained austenite. Austenite stabilization is hypothesized to result from decarburization of the martensite and transport into the austenite. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to study Q and P microstructures. Two exothermic events were observed when heating a Q and P sample from room temperature to 600 deg. C. An activation energy suggesting a mechanism controlled by carbon diffusion in bcc iron is obtained for the first peak which is believed to be associated with carbon partitioning. The second peak is believed to be associated with austenite decomposition.

  19. A calorimetric study of precipitation in aluminum alloy 2219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazian, John M.

    1981-02-01

    Precipitate microstructures in aluminum alloy 2219 were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC signatures of individual precipitate phases were established by comparing the DSC and TEM results from samples that had been aged such that only one precipitate phase was present. These signatures were then used to analyze the commercial tempers. It was found that DSC could readily distinguish between the T3, T4, T6, T8 and O tempers but could not distinguish amongst T81, T851 and T87. Small amounts of plastic deformation between solution treatment and aging had a significant effect on the thermograms. Aging experiments at 130 and 190 °C showed that the aging sequence and DSC response of this alloy were similar to those of pure Al-Cu when the increased copper content is taken into account. Further aging experiments at temperatures between room temperature and 130 °C showed pronounced changes of the GP zone dissolution peak as a function of aging conditions. These changes were found to be related to the effect of GP zone size on the metastable phase boundary and on the GP zone dissolution kinetics.

  20. A calorimetric study of human CuZn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Biliaderis, C G; Weselake, R J; Petkau, A; Friesen, A D

    1987-01-01

    Structural alterations, as manifested by thermal transitions, caused by removal or binding of metal ions to human and bovine CuZn superoxide dismutases (SODs) were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Although holo forms of the two mammalian enzymes exhibited irreversible thermal transitions (delta Hcal. = 27.7 J/g and Td = 104 degrees C for bovine SOD; delta Hcal. = 23.6 J/g and Td = 101 degrees C for human SOD), only the bovine apoenzyme showed the presence of a less thermostable form (delta Hcal. = 10.7 J/g and Td = 63 degrees C). These observations suggested that human apo-SOD had considerably less conformational order than bovine apo-SOD. Reconstitution of human and bovine apoenzymes with Cu2+ and Zn2+ resulted in recovery of thermodynamic parameters and specific activity. Binding of Zn2+ alone to human apo-SOD resulted in the formation of two distinct structural units, detectable by differential scanning calorimetry, which underwent conformational disorder at 82 and 101 degrees C respectively. Saturation of binding sites with both Zn2+ and Cu2+ appeared to stabilize the enzyme structure further as shown by elimination of the low-temperature transition and the appearance of another thermal transition at a higher temperature. PMID:3435496

  1. A calorimetric study of human CuZn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Biliaderis, C G; Weselake, R J; Petkau, A; Friesen, A D

    1987-12-15

    Structural alterations, as manifested by thermal transitions, caused by removal or binding of metal ions to human and bovine CuZn superoxide dismutases (SODs) were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Although holo forms of the two mammalian enzymes exhibited irreversible thermal transitions (delta Hcal. = 27.7 J/g and Td = 104 degrees C for bovine SOD; delta Hcal. = 23.6 J/g and Td = 101 degrees C for human SOD), only the bovine apoenzyme showed the presence of a less thermostable form (delta Hcal. = 10.7 J/g and Td = 63 degrees C). These observations suggested that human apo-SOD had considerably less conformational order than bovine apo-SOD. Reconstitution of human and bovine apoenzymes with Cu2+ and Zn2+ resulted in recovery of thermodynamic parameters and specific activity. Binding of Zn2+ alone to human apo-SOD resulted in the formation of two distinct structural units, detectable by differential scanning calorimetry, which underwent conformational disorder at 82 and 101 degrees C respectively. Saturation of binding sites with both Zn2+ and Cu2+ appeared to stabilize the enzyme structure further as shown by elimination of the low-temperature transition and the appearance of another thermal transition at a higher temperature. PMID:3435496

  2. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    2000-05-31

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

  3. Calorimetric thermometry of meteoritic troilite: Preliminary thermometer relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the alpha/beta phase transformation in terrestrial troilite (FeS), as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vary systematically with prior thermal history of the troilite, as imposed under laboratory conditions. Both the transition temperature and enthalpy change for the alpha/beta transformation decrease with increasing maximum temperature of prior heat treatment. DSC measurements on troilite from various meteorites indicate clear differences in the alpha/beta thermodynamic properties that are consistent with differences in the natural thermal histories of the meteorites.

  4. Calorimetric measurements of a Yang-Koldamasov device

    E-print Network

    Novosad, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Due to the finite supply of oil, energy availability and price are issues facing the world. Among the possible approaches to this problem is research of new physical effects which may produce energy in novel ways. The ...

  5. Calorimetric studies of small-molecule adsorption to carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Glab, Kristin Lena

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was developed as a technique for qualitatively comparing the heat of absorption of small molecules to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In agreement with other studies, it was ...

  6. Calorimetric and photoacoustic investigation of KNO3 phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, M. J.; Wood, J. W.; Redin, R. D.; Ashworth, T.

    1993-06-01

    Results of a thermodynamic study of the phase transitions of powdered KNO3 at two impurity concentrations (99.999% pure and 99.9% pure) are reported. Transition onset and peak temperatures have been measured between 350 and 420 K using both heat flow and photoacoustic calorimetry. The transition temperatures and characteristics observed with both techniques show excellent agreement. Specific-heat values calculated from scanning and stepped temperature heat-flow data, utilizing both positive and negative temperature increments, compare well with previously reported values. Enthalpies for the II-I, I-III, and III-II phase transitions were measured as 5.065, 2.603, and 2.084 kJ/mol, respectively, for 99.999% pure KNO3 powder using heat-flow calorimetry. The transition enthalpies and temperatures measured for 99.9% pure powder were slightly lower for all three transitions. Entropy changes for the II-I, I-III, and III-II transitions were 12.53, 6.61, and 5.30 J/mol K, respectively. Enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free-energy curves are presented with emphasis on the temperature range over which the ferroelectric phase transition occurs. The experimental data and calculated thermodynamic functions indicate that the ferroelectric phase III in bulk KNO3 is a metastable state at atmospheric pressure, which was not observed to exist below 350 K contrary to previous reports.

  7. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  8. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  9. Determining Pregnancy in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Beverly, John R.; Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2008-12-16

    The process of palpating to determine pregnancy in cattle and the equipment used during palpation are described and illustrated in this bulletin. The female reproductive system is discussed, along with the developmental stages of the embryo/fetus....

  10. Protein Nitrogen Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The protein content of foods can be determined by numerous methods. The Kjeldahl method and the nitrogen combustion (Dumas) method for protein analysis are based on nitrogen determination. Both methods are official for the purposes of nutrition labeling of foods. While the Kjeldahl method has been used widely for over a hundred years, the recent availability of automated instrumentation for the Dumas method in many cases is replacing use of the Kjeldahl method.

  11. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  12. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  13. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  14. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  15. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  16. Determining TOC in Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental method for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water samples is detailed. The method's limitations are discussed and certain precautions that must be taken are emphasized. The subject of TOC versus COD and BOD is investigated and TOC is determined to be a valid indication of biological demand. (BT)

  17. Pitch Determination Considering Laryngealization

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    . The main acoustic evidence is conveyed by the fundamental frequency or F0--contour. Many algorithms for F0 determination of fundamental frequency. First, an improved version of our neural network algorithm for reconstruction of the voice source signal (glottis signal) is presented. Second, the reconstructed voice source

  18. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  19. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  20. Determinants of project success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. C.; Baker, B. N.; Fisher, D.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of numerous project characteristics, with particular reference to project performance, were studied. Determinants of success are identified along with the accompanying implications for client organization, parent organization, project organization, and future research. Variables are selected which are found to have the greatest impact on project outcome, and the methodology and analytic techniques to be employed in identification of those variables are discussed.

  1. Determining Haugh Units

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, it is almost impossible for multiple p...

  2. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  3. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T.

    2011-06-01

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapy—either in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubes—has induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  4. The Determination of Downwash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1921-01-01

    It is obvious that, in accordance with Newton's second law, the lift on an aerofoil must be equal to the vertical momentum communicated per second to the air mass affected. Consequently a lifting aerofoil in flight is trailed by a wash which has a definite inclination corresponding to the factors producing the lift. It is thought that sufficient data, theoretical and experimental, are now available for a complete determination of this wash with respect to the variation of its angle of inclination to the originating aerofoil and with respect to the law which governs its decay in space.

  5. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties will be discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite, from the longer range viewpoint afforded by the Geopause concept. Data are focused on methods for short-arc tracking which are essentially geometric in nature. One uses combinations of lasers and collocated cameras. The other method relies only on lasers, using three or more to obtain the position fix. Two typical locales are looked at, the Caribbean area, and a region associated with tracking sites at Goddard, Bermuda and Canada which encompasses a portion of the Gulf Stream in which meanders develop.

  6. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1994-12-31

    A criteria that a sample of highly enriched uranium (HEU) had come from a weapons stockpile and not newly produced in an enrichment plant is to show that the HEU had been produced a significant time in the past. The time since the HEU has produced in an enrichment plant is defined as the age of the HEU in this paper. The HEU age is determined by measuring quantitatively the daughter products {sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa of {sup 234}U and {sup 235}U, respectively, by first chemical separation of the thorium and protactinium and then conducting alpha spectrometry of the daughter products.

  7. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  8. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  9. Determination of epsomite-hexahydrite equilibria by the humidity-buffer technique at 0.1 MPa with implications for phase equilibria in the system MgSO4-H2O.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R., 2nd.

    2003-01-01

    Epsomite (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) and hexahydrite (MgSO(4).6H(2)O) are common minerals found in marine evaporite deposits, in saline lakes as precipitates, in weathering zones of coal and metallic deposits, in some soils and their efflorescences, and possibly on the surface of Europa as evaporite deposits. Thermodynamic properties of these two minerals reported in the literature are in poor agreement. In this study, epsomite-hexahydrite equilibria were determined along four humidity-buffer curves at 0.1 MPa and between 25 and 45 degrees C. Results obtained for the reaction epsomite = hexahydrite + H(2)O, as demonstrated by very tight reversals along each humidity buffer, can be represented by ln K(+/- 0.012) = 20.001 - 7182.07/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in Kelvin. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 10.13 +/- 0.07 kJ/mol, which is essentially the same value as that calculated from vapor pressure measurements reported in the literature. However, this value is at least 0.8 kJ/mol lower than those calculated from the data derived mostly from calorimetric measurements.

  10. Dietary determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; Feskens, Edith

    2010-08-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss. PMID:20821929

  11. Tracer for circulation determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

    1985-03-19

    An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

  12. Complexometric Determination of Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) complexes with numerous mineral ions, including calcium and magnesium. This reaction can be used to determine the amount of these minerals in a sample by a complexometric titration. Endpoints in the titration are detected using indicators that change color when they complex with mineral ions. Calmagite and eriochrome black T (EBT) are such indicators that change from blue to pink when they complex with calcium and magnesium. In the titration of a mineral-containing solution with EDTA, the solution turns from pink to blue at the endpoint with either indicator. The pH affects a complexometric EDTA titration in several ways, and must be carefully controlled. A major application of EDTA titration is testing the hardness of water, for which the method described is an official one (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 2340C; AOAC Method 920.196).

  13. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties are discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite. GEOS-C will be tracked by a number of the conventional satellite tracking systems, as well as by two advanced systems; a satellite-to-satellite tracking system and lasers capable of decimeter accuracies which are being developed in connection with the Goddard Earth and Ocean Dynamics Applications program. The discussion is organized in terms of a specific type of GEOS-C orbit which would satisfy a number of scientific objectives including the study of the gravitational field by means of both the altimeter and the satellite-to-satellite tracking system, studies of tides, and the Gulf Stream meanders.

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  15. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  16. Nanolabel for TNF-? determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, R?dvan; Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Çelik, Suzan; Ersöz, Arzu

    2013-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), also known as cachectin, is one of the most important regulatory cytokines and mediates a variety of cell functions, including the stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production which has been related to oxidative stress and diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, stroke, and chronic inflammation. Determination of TNF-? concentration in human serum might be helpful in the staging and prognosis of diseases. And it is also very important for the understanding of tumor biological processes, inherent mechanisms, and discovering drugs as well as having a therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases. So, in this study, sensor systems based on Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) have been prepared for selectively recognition and binding of TNF-? biomolecules. For this purpose, photosensitive nano structured TNF-? has been synthesized applying AmiNoAcid (monomer) Decorated and Light Underpining Conjugation Approach (ANADOLUCA) method using bis (2-2'-bipyridyl) MATyr-MATyr-ruthenium(II) (MATyr-Ru-MATyr) as a photosensitive monomer. Then, these photosensitive nano structured TNF-? have been used for TNF-? recognition as an alternative and unique sensor method. Also, the affinity constant of RIfS sensor has been calculated. The method has been showed high sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and suited for the detection of TNF-? from aqueous solution.

  17. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  18. Determining activated carbon performance

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, W.F.; Rester, D.O.

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the key elements involved in evaluating a system`s performance. Empty bed contact time (EBCT) is a term used to describe the length of time a liquid stream being treated is in contact with a granular activated carbon bed. The EBCT is the time required for a fluid to pass through the volume equivalent of the media bed, without the media being present. In a bed of granular activated carbon, the void volume or space between particles is usually about 45 percent. Therefore, the EBCT is about twice the true or actual time of contact between the fluid being treated and the GAC particles. The EBCT plays an important role in determining the effectiveness and longevity of granular activated carbon (GAC) used to treat liquids in a fixed-bed adsorber. Factors that influence and are influenced by EBCT, and their relationship to GAC performance in a treatment scheme include: adsorption, mass transfer zone, impurity concentration, adsorption affinity, flow rate and system design considerations.

  19. Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Paul, H K; Zakaria, S M; Islam, M M; Shafiquzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 102 cases having clinical manifestation of psoriasis with a view to evaluate the epidemiological determinants of psoriasis. Psoriasis constituted 1.49% of the total dermatological disorder. Seventy patients (68.6%) were males and thirty two (31.4%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.18:1. The mean age was 30.76±13.17 years in male and 26.94±14.94 years in female. Sixteen (15.7%) patients had one or more family member having psoriasis with male and female in equal frequency. Regarding precipitating factors, psoriasis was developed after trauma in 4.9%, infection 3.9%, stressful life events 6.9% and drugs 2.9%; and was exacerbated after trauma in 5.9%, infection 5.9%, stressful life events 35.3% and drugs 12.7%. The disease showed improvement in summer (27.5%) and found deteriorated in winter (47.1%). Sunlight had beneficial effect in 33.3% of cases. During pregnancy improvement was observed in 50% but flare up in 22.2% of cases. Fifty percent of patients were smokers, 41.2% were non-smokers and 13.7% were ex-smokers. Forty percent had Body Mass Index (BMI) between 22 to 26 Kg/m², 40.2% had less than 22 Kg/m² and 15.7% had above 26 Kg/m². It was concluded that the prevalence of psoriasis among dermatological patients was similar to results reported in Turkey and in Northern India. The precipitating factors, such as smoking, stressful life events, infection, trauma, sunlight, pregnancy, drugs, and seasonal variations could influence the development of psoriasis and affect its clinical expression. PMID:21240156

  20. DETERMINATION OF CALORIES BY NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine energy content of feeds, little is known about the capability of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the determination of available energy in foods for human consumption. Recent studies have been conducted to determine the utilizable energy in p...

  1. Ab initio nanostructure determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarathi, Saurabh

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. This problem is cast as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. A method, called Tribond, for the reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network is presented. The timing results indicate that the algorithm is a low order polynomial in the number of nodes in the network in two dimensions. Reconstruction of Euclidean networks in two dimensions of about one thousand nodes in approximately twenty four hours on a desktop computer using this implementation is done. In three dimensions, the computational cost for the reconstruction is a higher order polynomial in the number of nodes and reconstruction of small Euclidean networks in three dimensions is shown. If a starting network of size five is assumed to be given, then for a network of size 100, the remaining reconstruction can be done in about two hours on a desktop computer. In situations when we have less precise data, modifications of the method may be necessary and are discussed. A related problem in one dimension known as the Optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) is also studied. A statistical physics Hamiltonian to describe the OGR problem is introduced and the first order phase transition from a symmetric low constraint phase to a complex symmetry broken phase at high constraint is studied. Despite the fact that the Hamiltonian is not disordered, the asymmetric phase is highly irregular with geometric frustration. The phase diagram is obtained and it is seen that even at a very low temperature T there is a phase transition at finite and non-zero value of the constraint parameter gamma/mu. Analytic calculations for the scaling of the density and free energy of the ruler are done and they are compared with those from the mean field approach. A scaling law is also derived for the length of OGR, which is consistent with Erdos conjecture and with numerical results.

  2. Determination of the cis-trans isomerization barriers of L-alanyl-L-proline in aqueous solutions and at water/hydrophobic interfaces by on-line temperature-jump relaxation HPLC and dynamic on-column reaction HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Masami; Miyake, Ayaka; Eda, Sayaka; Saito, Shingo

    2015-09-15

    Proline cis-trans isomerization is known to play a key role in the rate-determining steps of protein folding. It is thus very important to understand the influence of environments, not only bulk solutions but also microenvironments such as interfaces, on the isomerization reaction of proline peptides. Here we present two HPLC methods for measurements of kinetic and equilibrium parameters for the isomerization reactions in bulk solutions and at liquid/solid interfaces. On-line temperature-jump relaxation HPLC (T-jump HPLC) allows the determination of forward and reverse rate constants of the isomerization in a bulk solution by monitoring the whole time course of conversion of pure isomers from both sides of the reaction, in contrast to other HPLC and capillary zone electrophoresis as well as spectrometric and calorimetric methods, which use a mixture of the isomers. We can then determine cis-trans isomerization barriers of the peptide at liquid/solid interfaces from the kinetic data obtained by dynamic on-column reaction HPLC and T-jump HPLC. We observed that the interconversion around the peptide bond for l-alanyl-l-proline (Ala-Pro) in water is accelerated at the surfaces of an alkyl-bonded silica and a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) copolymer resin, and this is caused by a remarkable decrease in the enthalpy of activation. The molecular structures of the cis and trans forms of Ala-Pro estimated by quantum mechanics calculation reveal that an equilibrium shift toward the cis form as well as the rapid isomerization of Ala-Pro at the water/hydrophobic interfaces can be attributed to the lower polarity of the interfacial water at the surfaces of the hydrophobic materials compared to that of bulk water. PMID:26320351

  3. Cryogenic Laser Calorimetry for Impurity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swimm, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a one-year effort to determine the applicability of laser-calorimetric spectroscopy to the study of deep-level impurities in silicon are presented. Critical considerations for impurity analysis by laser-calorimetric spectroscopy are discussed, the design and performance of a cryogenic laser calorimeter is described, and measurements of background absorption in high-purity silicon are presented.

  4. 29 CFR 2590.606-1 - General notice of continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...administrator of a determination by the Social Security Administration, under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq...relating to the use of electronic media. (g) Model...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1575 - Evaluation guides if you are self-employed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1575 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1575 - Evaluation guides if you are self-employed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1575 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1574 - Evaluation guides if you are an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1574 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1574 - Evaluation guides if you are an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1574 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1575 - Evaluation guides if you are self-employed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1575 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1574 - Evaluation guides if you are an employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 404.1574 Evaluation...supplemental security income payments based on disability or blindness under title XVI of the Social Security Act, months for...

  11. Teff and log g Determinations

    E-print Network

    Barry Smalley

    2005-09-19

    A discussion on the determination of effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) is presented. The observational requirements for model-independent fundamental parameters are summarized, including an assessment of the accuracy of these values for the Sun and Vega. The use of various model-dependent techniques for determining Teff and log g are outlined, including photometry, flux fitting, and spectral line ratios. A combination of several of these techniques allows for the assessment of the quality of our parameter determinations. While some techniques can give precise parameter determinations, the overall accuracy of the values is significantly less and sometimes difficult to quantify.

  12. The Resurgence of Biological Determinism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Elizabeth A.; Kilty, Keith M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses two areas where science has been and still is used to justify policies and attitudes that are discriminatory and oppressive: homosexuality and alcoholism. This article analyzes the debate over whether these correlations are biologically or socially determined. Of particular concern is the potential impact of biological determinism on the…

  13. Determination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Steinbock, Oliver

    can be derived. This interesting chapter starts with the analysis of simple unbranched chain reactionsDetermination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms Analysis of Chemi- cal, Biological, and Genetic in the field of chemical kinetics. The book Determination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms, by Ross, Schreiber

  14. DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal objective of this research was the development of a sensitive, standardized method of determining whether or not Giardia cysts are viable. The availability of such a method is necessary to determine the effect of chemical and physical agents on the viability of thes...

  15. [Method for determining peroxidase activity].

    PubMed

    Levitski?, A P; Gukevich, E K; Barabash, R D

    1979-01-01

    The spectrophotometric method is described for the peroxidase activity determination which is based on the oxidation of guaicol and potassium iodide. Optimal conditions were elaborated for these two most sensitive substrates. The method may be applied for the quantitative peroxidase determination in different human biological fluids, in particular saliva and blood serum. PMID:37624

  16. Determining laboratory value: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Stein, P

    1996-03-01

    This article will describe how to determine a fair market value for a dental laboratory. Part one addresses how to define fair market value, how value is perceived and how to prepare for laboratory evaluation. Part two, to be printed in April, will address how to apply an appropriate valuation methodology to determine worth. PMID:9516267

  17. Determining laboratory value: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Stein, P

    1996-04-01

    This article describes how to determine a fair market value for a dental laboratory. Part one defined fair market value, addressed how value is perceived and how to prepare for laboratory evaluation. Part two addresses how to apply an appropriate valuation methodology to determine worth. PMID:9516270

  18. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  19. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  20. Evans function and Fredholm determinants

    PubMed Central

    Karambal, Issa; Malham, Simon J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the Evans function, transmission coefficient and Fredholm determinant for systems of first-order linear differential operators on the real line. The applications we have in mind include linear stability problems associated with travelling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, for example reaction–diffusion or solitary wave equations. The Evans function and transmission coefficient, which are both finite determinants, are natural tools for both analytic and numerical determination of eigenvalues of such linear operators. However, inverting the eigenvalue problem by the free-state operator generates a natural linear integral eigenvalue problem whose solvability is determined through the corresponding infinite Fredholm determinant. The relationship between all three determinants has received a lot of recent attention. We focus on the case when the underlying Fredholm operator is a trace class perturbation of the identity. Our new results include (i) clarification of the sense in which the Evans function and transmission coefficient are equivalent and (ii) proof of the equivalence of the transmission coefficient and Fredholm determinant, in particular in the case of distinct far fields. PMID:25663806

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Thompson, Paul F.; Jefferson, David C.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Pelletier, Frederic J.; Ryne, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the orbit determination process, results and filter strategies used by the Mars Science Laboratory Navigation Team during cruise from Earth to Mars. The new atmospheric entry guidance system resulted in an orbit determination paradigm shift during final approach when compared to previous Mars lander missions. The evolving orbit determination filter strategies during cruise are presented. Furthermore, results of calibration activities of dynamical models are presented. The atmospheric entry interface trajectory knowledge was significantly better than the original requirements, which enabled the very precise landing in Gale Crater.

  2. Spin Determination for Fermiophobic Bosons

    E-print Network

    Jason Kumar; Arvind Rajaraman; David Yaylali

    2012-09-24

    We discuss the prospects for production and detection of fermiophobic bosons (exotic bosons decaying only to standard model gauge bosons) at the LHC, and describe simple methods for determining spin. We consider two complementary approaches to spin determination: the search for decays in the diphoton channel, and the comparison of events with no extra spectator jets to those with one extra jet. We show that these approaches can together allow the fermiophobic bosons spin to be determined over a wide range of parameter space. We study both even and odd parity states.

  3. Determination of plutonium metal origins

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or material smuggled from existing stockpiles. A list of signature elements and what can be determined from them have been developed. Work needs to be done in converting concentrations of signature species into a quantitative forensic analysis, particularly in regard to reactor performance, but this should require only a small effort. A radiochemical analysis scheme has been developed for measuring these nuclides; more work is needed, particularly for determining fission product concentrations. A sample of Pu metal has been analyzed and several parameters determined that are strong indicators of its point of origin.

  4. Orbit determination in satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, G.; Schildknecht, T.; Hugentobler, U.; Gurtner, W.

    2003-04-01

    For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of six so-called Keplerian elements of the orbit of a minor planet or a comet based on a short series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth's surface. With the advent of the space age the problem changed considerably in several respects: (1) orbits have to be determined for a new class of celestial objects, namely for artificial Earth satellites; (2) new observation types, in particular topocentric distances and radial velocities, are available for the establishment of highly accurate satellite orbits; (3) even for comparatively short arcs (up to a few revolutions) the orbit model that has to be used is much more complicated than for comparable problems in the planetary system: in addition to the gravitational perturbations due to Moon and planets higher-order terms in the Earth's gravity field have to be taken into account as well as non-gravitational effects like atmospheric drag and/or radiation pressure; (4) the parameter space is often of higher than the sixth dimension, because not only the six osculating elements referring to the initial epoch of an arc, but dynamical parameters defining the (a priori imperfectly known) force field have to be determined, as well. It may even be necessary to account for stochastic velocity changes. Orbit determination is not a well-known task in satellit geodesy. This is mainly due to the fact that orbit determination is often imbedded in a much more general parameter estimation problem, where other parameter types (referred to station positions, Earth rotation, atmosphere, etc.) have to be determined, as well. Three examples of "pure" orbit determination problems will be discussed subsequently: ? The first problem intends to optimize the observation process of one Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observatory. It is a filter problem, where the orbit is improved in real time with the goal to narrow down the so-called range-gate, defining the time interval when the echo of the LASER pulse is expected. ? Secondly we highlight orbit determination procedures (in particular advanced orbit parametrization techniques) related to the determination of the orbits of GPS satellites and of Low Earth Orbiters (LEOS) equipped with GPS receivers. ? We conclude by discussing the problem of determining the orbits of passive artificial satellites or of space debris using high-precision astrometric CCD-observations of these object.

  5. Mass Determinations of Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    Georges Meylan

    2001-07-03

    Mass determinations are difficult to obtain and still frequently characterised by deceptively large uncertainties. We review below the various mass estimators used for star clusters of all ages and luminosities. We highlight a few recent results related to (i) very massive old star clusters, (ii) the differences and similarities between star clusters and cores of dwarf elliptical galaxies, and (iii) the possible strong biases on mass determination induced by tidal effects.

  6. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  7. Determining a healthcare organization's value.

    PubMed

    Hahn, W

    1994-08-01

    As the consolidation activity among healthcare providers increases, it becomes more important than ever for healthcare financial managers to understand how to determine a healthcare organization's fair market value. There are many methods of determining an organization's value, but three general methods are the foundation of all others: the market comparable method, the underlying assets method, and the income, or cash flow, method. PMID:10146044

  8. Sex determination in flowering plants.

    PubMed Central

    Dellaporta, S L; Calderon-Urrea, A

    1993-01-01

    In many ways, plants offer unique systems through which to study sex determination. Because the production of unisexual flowers has evolved independently in many plant species, different and novel mechanisms may be operational. Hence, there is probably not one unifying mechanism that explains sex determination in plants. Advances in our understanding of sex determination will come from the analysis of the genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry of genes controlling sexual determination in plants. Several excellent model systems for bisexual floral development (Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum), monoecy (maize), and dioecy (Silene, asparagus, and mercury) are available for such analyses. The important questions that remain concern the mechanism of action of sex determination genes and their interrelationship, if any, with homeotic genes that determine the sexual identity of floral organ primordia. At the physiological level, the connection between hormone signaling and sexuality is not well understood, although significant correlations have been discovered. Finally, once the genes that regulate these processes are identified, cloned, and studied, new strategies for the manipulation of sexuality in plants should be forthcoming. PMID:8281039

  9. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Concha, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory correction maneuvers during the translunar cruise followed by three lunar orbit insertion burns. This paper will detail the cislunar orbit determination accuracy and the real-time assessment of the cislunar trajectory correction and lunar orbit insertion maneuvers. The non-spherical gravity model of the Moon is the primary influence on the mapping orbit determination accuracy. During the first two months of the mission, the GLGM-2 lunar potential model was used. After one month in the mapping orbit, a new potential model was developed that incorporated LP Doppler data. This paper will compare and contrast the mapping orbit determination accuracy using these two models. LP orbit support also includes a new enhancement - a web page to disseminate all definitive and predictive trajectory and mission planning information. The web site provides definitive mapping orbit ephemerides including moon latitude and longitude, and four week predictive products including: ephemeris, moon latitude/longitude, earth shadow, moon shadow, and ground station view periods. This paper will discuss the specifics of this web site.

  10. A Predictive Framework for Determining How Journalists Determine News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudino, James L.

    To determine how to articulate a concrete definition of the substance of the journalist's occupation, this paper offers a propositional framework of news value based on Kurt Lewin's gatekeeper model. First, the paper follows the established suggestion that news decisions are best studied from a gatekeeping perspective or that "news is whatever…

  11. Determination of radium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Franklin Butt; Johnson, J.O.

    1964-01-01

    Radium isotopes are common radioactive constituents of natural waters. The concentration of radium-226 in potable water is of particular significance because this isotope is generally considered the most hazardous of all radionuclides with respect to ingestion. The approximate concentration of radium-226 is determined after coprecipitating radium with barium sulfate. The short-lived daughters of radium are allowed to grow for 10-12 days, then the alpha activity of the precipitate is measured and compared with that of a precipitate containing a known amount of radium-226. Concentrations of the individual alpha-emitting isotopes of radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226, are determined by coprecipitating radium first with lead sulfate, then with barium chloride, and finally with barium sulfate. This final precipitate is initially free of other alpha-emitting nuclides, thus permitting the isotopic composition to be determined by measuring the growth and decay of the alpha activity of the precipitate.

  12. A process for determining radiohalogens

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, W.J.; Hohorst, F.A.

    1993-12-01

    Techniques for the separation and potential determination of chlorine-36 and iodine-129 were examined. Separation was based upon addition to the carbon-carbon double bond in 1-hexene. These specific organic halides formed an acceptable liquid scintillation counting cocktail with chlorine but not with iodine. The miscibility of 1,2-dichlorohexane should allow a larger mass of sample in a scintillation cocktail, lowering the detection limit of the determination of chlorine-36. Organic halides are also expected to be more receptive to waste treatment than metals such as silver. These techniques offer the potential for determination of chlorine-36 in groundwater samples while producing less mixed waste than current analytical techniques.

  13. Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, H. P.

    1994-11-01

    We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L. H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes' contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.

  14. Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-11-15

    We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L.H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes` contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.

  15. Experimental Determination of Dawsonite Stability and Reactivity: Implications for Geological CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, Pascale; Palmer, Donald; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Horita, Juske

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, a significant research effort has focused on determining the feasibility of sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2} in deep, permeable geologic formations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Most models indicate that injection of CO{sub 2} into deep sedimentary formations will lead to the formation of various carbonate minerals, including the common phases calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}), magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), as well as the far less common mineral, dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}). Nevertheless, the equilibrium and kinetics that control the precipitation of stable carbonate minerals are poorly understood and few experiments have been performed to validate computer codes that model CO{sub 2} sequestration. In order to reduce this uncertainty we measured the solubility of synthetic dawsonite according to the equilibrium: NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2(cr)} + 2H{sub 2}O{sub 1} {r_equilibrium}Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -} + HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Na{sup +} + H{sup +}, from under- and oversaturated solutions at 50-200 C in basic media at 1.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} NaCl. The solubility products (Q{sub s}) obtained were extrapolated to infinite dilution to obtain the solubility constants (K{sub s}{sup o}). Combining the fit of these logK{sub s}{sup o} values and fixing {Delta}C{sub pJ}{sup o} at -185.5J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 25 C, which was derived from the calorimetric data of Ferrante et al. [Ferrante, M.J., Stuve, J.M., and Richardson, D.W., 1976. Thermodynamic data for synthetic dawsonite. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report Investigation, 8129, Washington, D.C., 13p.], the following thermodynamic parameters for the dissolution of dawsonite were calculated at 25 C: {Delta}G{sub r}{sup o} = 102.1 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}H{sub r}{sup o} = 97.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Delta}s{sub r}{sup o} = -17.1 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}. Subsequently, we were able to derive values for the Gibbs energy of formation {Delta}{sub {line_integral}}G{sup 0}{sub 298.15} = -1782 {+-} 2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}), enthalpy of formation ({Delta}{sub {line_integral}}H{sup o}{sub 298.15} = -1960 {+-} 7 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}) and entropy (S{sup o}{sub 298.15} = 121 {+-} 2 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}) of dawsonite. These results are within the combined experimental uncertainties of the values reported by Ferrante et al. (1976). Predominance diagrams are presented for the dawsonite/boehmite and dawsonite/bayerite equilibria at 100 C in the presence of a saline solution with and without silica-containing minerals.

  16. Processing Determinants of Reading Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mark D.; McClelland, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of undergraduates differing in reading ability were tested on a number of reaction-time tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several different levels, tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text.…

  17. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  18. Public Comment: Principles for Determining

    E-print Network

    Public Comment: Principles for Determining Species At-Risk of IUU Fishing and Seafood Fraud May 7, May 12, and June 4, 2015 #12;IUU fishing and seafood fraud are complex and global issues requiring and Seafood Fraud #12;· Established June 2014 · Departments of Commerce & State · Public engagement: Federal

  19. Self-Determination and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Abery, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting self-determination and choice opportunities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities has become best practice in the field. This article reviews the research and development activities conducted by the authors over the past several decades and provides a synthesis of the knowledge in the field pertaining to efforts to…

  20. National Mining Association Experimental Determination

    E-print Network

    Charcoal Canisters (LAACCs) Concluded that radon fluxes obeyed the Stagnant Film Model (SFM) and that flux with the dissolved Radium-226. A picture of the floating Large Area Activated Charcoal Canister (LAACC) used of determining Radon ­ 222 flux, specifically using Large Area Activated Charcoal Canisters (LAACCs) as described

  1. Videos Determine the Moon's "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, J. R.; Hagen, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the acceleration of a free-falling object due to gravity is a standard experiment in physics. Different methods to do this have been developed over the years. This article discusses the use of video-analysis tools as another method. If there is a video available and a known scale it is possible to analyse the motion. The use of video…

  2. CHAPTER THREE Determining the Specificities

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    , transcription activator-like effectornucleases, and CRISPR-associated Cas9 endonucleases in a site activator-like effectornucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR- associated Cas9 nucleases can be designed to targetCHAPTER THREE Determining the Specificities of TALENs, Cas9, and Other Genome-Editing Enzymes

  3. Self-Determination and Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Rodrigue; Allard, Real; Deveau, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on additive bilingualism for minority group children, more specifically the development of strong literacy skills in English and in the children's language. The personal autonomization language learning (PALL) model is presented. It specifies eight testable hypotheses. Self-determination theory (SDT) is central in the PALL…

  4. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  6. Supplementary Information Unconscious determinants of

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    information was found in more high-level brain regions, the frontopolar cortex (both lateral and medialSupplementary Information Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain Chun Siong for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1A, 04103 Leipzig, Germany 2 Charité

  7. Developmental Cell Determining Physical Principles

    E-print Network

    Needleman, Daniel

    -throughput genetic manipulation, it is becoming feasible to systematically determine the molecular components to be developed. There have been astonishing advances in cell biology over the last sixty years. For young, the amount of money spent on drug research and development has skyrocketed while the success rates

  8. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costas D. (Port Matilda, PA); Burgard, Anthony R. (State College, PA); Pharkya, Priti (State College, PA)

    2011-09-27

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  9. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

    2013-06-04

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  10. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOEpatents

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa (Albuquerque, NM); Sackos, John Theodore (Albuquerque, NM); Bradley, Bart Davis (Albuquerque, NM); Nellums, Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  11. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus acid

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, A.V.; Domina, N.G.; Zakharov, Yu.A.; Shechkov, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    A number of procedures have been proposed to determine phosphorus acid and its salts, the phosphites, in the presence of hypophosphorus acid and its salts, the hypophosphites. Among these procedures, iodometric back-titration has produced the most reliable results. In this paper, the authors propose an improved iodometric determination of phosphorus acid that enables the sensitivity to be increased by at least two orders of magnitude. The essence of this improvement is that excess iodine that did not react with phosphite ion is determined not volumetrically but spectrophotometrically. To eliminate the effect of iodine ion that is liberated when iodine reacts with phosphite ion on the optical density of the solution, a 200-fold excess of potassium iodide is added before the photometric measurement. The working iodine solution is prepared by diluting 10 m of 0.025 N iodine titrant and 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.7-7.2, to 1 liter with distilled water in a coulometric flask. To construct the calibration curve, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml, respectively of working iodine solution, and 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide are placed into five 100-ml volumetric flasks, and the solutions are made up to volume with water. After 10 min the photometric measurements are carried out at 380 nm using curvets and the reference solution is obtained by diluting 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide to 100 ml with distilled water.

  13. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  14. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOEpatents

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  15. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-02-20

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  16. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  17. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  18. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  19. Determining Cropland Share Rental Arrangements 

    E-print Network

    Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Kastens, Terry L.; Outlaw, Joe

    1999-06-23

    ) equals the marginal input cost (MIC). Table 1 shows optimal fertilizer application rates for alternative cost/income sharing arrangements. In this example, VMP is greater than MIC at 60 units of fertilizer but less than at 80 units, so total returns... to fertilizer are maximized at 60 units. To determine the optimal amount of fertilizer a tenant would apply, VMP and MIC need to be adjusted to reflect the appropriate percentages. When the cost of the yield-increasing input is not shared by the landowner ( 2 /3...

  20. Determining gas-meter accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes how engineers at the Metering Research Facility are helping natural-gas companies improve pipeline efficiency by evaluating and refining the instruments used for measuring and setting prices. Accurate metering of natural gas is more important than ever as deregulation subjects pipeline companies to competition. To help improve that accuracy, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago has sponsored the Metering Research Facility (MRF) at the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Tex. The MRF evaluates and improves the performance of orifice, turbine, diaphragm, and ultrasonic meters as well as the gas-sampling methods that pipeline companies use to measure the flow of gas and determine its price.

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOEpatents

    Fortier, Nancy E. (Fairfield, OH); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  2. COBE ground segment attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

  3. Determination of fumonisins in milk.

    PubMed

    Scott, P M; Delgado, T; Prelusky, D B; Trenholm, H L; Miller, J D

    1994-09-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) were determined in milk by liquid chromatography (LC) following immunoaffinity column cleanup. Recoveries from milk spiked with 5-50 ng each fumonisin/ml averaged 79-109%. The aminopentol hydrolysis product of FB1 (AP1) was determined by LC after cleanup on a C18 solid phase phase extraction column; mean recoveries were 69-83% at spiking levels of 50-100 ng AP1/ml milk. Detection limits were of the order 3-7 ng/ml for FB1 and FB2, and 20-25 ng/ml for AP1. A stability study showed no losses of FB1 and FB2 in milk under conditions of freezing, refrigeration and boiling. A transmission study using four cows dosed with pure FB1 either orally (1.0 and 5.0 mg FB1/kg b.w.) or by i.v. injection (0.05 and 0.20 mg FB1/kg b.w.) showed no detectable residues of FB1 or AP1 in the milk, with or without hydrolytic treatment with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase to liberate any conjugates. PMID:8089434

  4. Determination of Silicon in Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Mast, Dion; Greene, Ben; Maes, Miguel J.

    2006-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a highly sensitive technique sometimes used for the trace determination of silicon at a mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of 28, the most abundant natural isotope of silicon. Unfortunately, ICP-MS is unable to differentiate between other sources of m/z 28 and false positive results for silicon will result when other sources of m/z 28 are present. Nitrogen was a major source of m/z 28 and contributes to the m/z 28 signal when hydrazine sample or nitric acid preservative is introduced into the plasma. Accordingly, this work was performed to develop a sample preparation step coupled with an ICP-MS analysis that minimized non-silicon sources of m/z 28. In the preparatory step of this method, the hydrazine sample was first decomposed predominately to nitrogen gas and water with copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In the analysis step, ICP-MS was used without nitric acid preservative in samples or standards. Glass, a potential source of silicon contamination, was also avoided where possible. The method was sensitive, accurate, and reliable for the determination of silicon in monopropellant grade hydrazine (MPH) in AF-E-332 elastomer leaching tests. Results for silicon in MPH were comparable to those reported in the literature for other studies.

  5. The determinants of hospital profitability.

    PubMed

    Gapenski, L C; Vogel, W B; Langland-Orban, B

    1993-01-01

    Although numerous studies related to hospital costs and financial condition have been conducted, no studies have specifically attempted to identify the underlying determinants of hospital profitability. If these factors are identified, hospital executives can focus their efforts on those aspects of operations that most affect profitability, and public policymakers can gain insights into the potential effects of alternative policy decisions on hospital financial viability. Our study uses multiple regression analysis with 22 hypothesized profitability determinants as independent variables and five profitability measures as dependent variables. The data set consists of 1989 data from 169 investor-owned and private not-for-profit general acute care hospitals in the state of Florida. The results provide evidence that selected managerial and patient-mix variables are predictors of profitability. Structural factors that are beyond the control of managers (organizational and community characteristics) appear to be less important in influencing profitability. These findings may be viewed positively by hospital executives since it appears profitability is not dictated by organizational or market factors but more strongly influenced by factors that, to some extent, can be influenced by hospital policies and practices. PMID:10127295

  6. [Determination of uranium in spinach].

    PubMed

    Kishi, Eri; Yutani, Aiko; Ozaki, Asako; Shinya, Masanao; Katahira, Kenshi; Ooshima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    After the severe accident at the Fukushima-1 Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, radioactive contamination of food has become a matter of serious concern in Japan. There is considerable information about radioactive iodine and cesium, but little is known about uranium contamination. We determined uranium content in spinach by the Japanese official method (Manual on Radiation Measurement of Food in Emergency Situations). In the preliminary study, we confirmed that the use of a microwave digestion system for preparing the test solution of spinach could shorten the testing time and give acceptable results. The manual recommends the use of two elements (Tl and Bi) as internal standards for measurement of uranium by ICP-MS. We found that Tl was more suitable than Bi to quantify trace amounts of uranium in spinach. However, it was necessary to determine Tl or Bi concentrations in the sample before analysis, since some samples of spinach contained significant amounts of these elements. The uranium contents of 9 spinach samples bought in April and May 2011 were less than 10 ?g/kg, which are very low compared to the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. PMID:23676689

  7. Emergent evolutionism, determinism and unpredictability.

    PubMed

    Sartenaer, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The fact that there exist in nature thoroughly deterministic systems whose future behavior cannot be predicted, no matter how advanced or fined-tune our cognitive and technical abilities turn out to be, has been well established over the last decades or so, essentially in the light of two different theoretical frameworks, namely chaos theory and (some deterministic interpretation of) quantum mechanics. The prime objective of this paper is to show that there actually exists an alternative strategy to ground the divorce between determinism and predictability, a way that is older than-and conceptually independent from-chaos theory and quantum mechanics, and which has not received much attention in the recent philosophical literature about determinism. This forgotten strategy-embedded in the doctrine called "emergent evolutionism"-is nonetheless far from being a mere historical curiosity that should only draw the attention of philosophers out of their concern for comprehensiveness. It has been indeed recently revived in the works of respected scientists. PMID:26227232

  8. Determination of a mutational spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Thilly, William G.; Keohavong, Phouthone

    1991-01-01

    A method of resolving (physically separating) mutant DNA from nonmutant DNA and a method of defining or establishing a mutational spectrum or profile of alterations present in nucleic acid sequences from a sample to be analyzed, such as a tissue or body fluid. The present method is based on the fact that it is possible, through the use of DGGE, to separate nucleic acid sequences which differ by only a single base change and on the ability to detect the separate mutant molecules. The present invention, in another aspect, relates to a method for determining a mutational spectrum in a DNA sequence of interest present in a population of cells. The method of the present invention is useful as a diagnostic or analytical tool in forensic science in assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to potentially genetically toxic materials (also referred to as potential mutagens); in biotechnology, particularly in the study of the relationship between the amino acid sequence of enzymes and other biologically-active proteins or protein-containing substances and their respective functions; and in determining the effects of drugs, cosmetics and other chemicals for which toxicity data must be obtained.

  9. Determination of a mutational spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Thilly, W.G.; Keohavong, P.

    1991-09-03

    A method is disclosed of resolving (physically separating) mutant DNA from nonmutant DNA. A method is also described of defining or establishing a mutational spectrum or profile of alterations present in nucleic acid sequences from a sample to be analyzed, such as a tissue or body fluid. The present method is based on the fact that it is possible, through the use of DGGE, to separate nucleic acid sequences which differ by only a single base change and on the ability to detect the separate mutant molecules. The present invention, in another aspect, relates to a method for determining a mutational spectrum in a DNA sequence of interest present in a population of cells. The method of the present invention is useful as a diagnostic or analytical tool in forensic science in assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to potentially genetically toxic materials (also referred to as potential mutagens); in biotechnology, particularly in the study of the relationship between the amino acid sequence of enzymes and other biologically-active proteins or protein-containing substances and their respective functions; and in determining the effects of drugs, cosmetics and other chemicals for which toxicity data must be obtained. 3 figures.

  10. The Heat of Protonation of Pyridine and Chloro Substituted Pyridines: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the concepts of inductive and resonance effects by the calorimetric determination of the heats of protonation of pyridine, 2-chloropyridine, and 3-chloropyridine. (CS)

  11. Self-Determination and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Fredda; Cohen, Shirley

    1996-01-01

    This discussion of self-determination in young children with severe disabilities first offers a definition of self-determination and then looks at the early roots of self-determination from a developmental perspective. The article explores the relationship of (1) skills associated with self-determination and (2) practices, curriculum, and…

  12. 40 CFR 1066.635 - NMOG determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and carbonyls as described in 40 CFR 1065.805 and 1065.845. Use good engineering judgment to determine... determined in 40 CFR 1065.845. (b) The following example shows how to determine NMOG as described in... good engineering judgment to determine this value either as specified in 40 CFR 1065.710 or based...

  13. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestople, P.; Ndili, A.; Hanuschak, G.; Parkinson, B. W.; Small, H.

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s?1. Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements.

  14. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers

    E-print Network

    Zhengbing Bian; Fabian Chudak; William G. Macready; Lane Clark; Frank Gaitan

    2013-08-14

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and $R(m,2)$ for $4\\leq m\\leq 8$. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  15. Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treder, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

  16. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777?g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible. PMID:26193973

  17. GRO attitude control and determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerkovsky, W.; Keranen, L.; Koehler, F.; Tung, F.; Ward, B.

    1986-01-01

    Design features of the attitude control and determination (ACAD) system for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) that will eventually be launched on the Shuttle are described. A tabulation of the ACAD system components is provided and the various standby and normal pointing operational modes of the system are summarized. The system software and sensors will maintain a quaternion model of the GRO attitude on the bases of kinematic equations and inertial data. The software is standardized and has previously been used on the Solar Maximum Mission and Landsat-D. Details of the processing components, redundant electronics for sensor processing, data handling and actuator control are outlined and illustrated with block diagrams. Tests applied to validate the ACAD design are outlined, as are ground support which will be implemented once the GRO is launched.

  18. Novel gene complex structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Gatewood, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LORD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. `Operative` chromatin containing exclusively the minor hasten variants was successfully isolated. Linker hasten H1 is quantitatively missing from operative chromatin. One of the aims of this proposal was to determine the proteins responsible for stabilizing operative chromatin. This chromatin is stabilized by microtubule proteins tar and tubulin. Another goal of this project was the structural characterization of operate chromatin nucleosomes. Using solution scattering, nucleosomes containing the minor variants were shown to be structurally distinct from major variant containing nucleosomes. The unusual structure and stabilization of operative chromatin by microtubule proteins provides a possible mechanism for direct interaction of transcription machinery with specific chromatin domains.

  19. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, Donald O. (Goleta, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  20. Perception determinants in learning mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Siti Fairus; Ali, Noor Rasidah; Rashid, Nurazlina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    This article described a statistical study of students' perception in mathematics. The objective of this study is to identify factors related to perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student. This study also determined the relationship between of these factors among non mathematics' student. 43 items questionnaires were distributed to one hundred students in UiTM Kedah who enrolled in the Business Mathematics course. These items were measured by using a semantic scale with the following anchors: 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. A factor analysis of respondents were identified into five factors that influencing the students' perception in mathematics. In my study, factors identified were attitude, interest, role of the teacher, role of peers and usefulness of mathematics that may relate to the perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student.

  1. Attitude Determination Improvements for GOES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Kyle, Arthur M.; Kull, Kathie

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a summary of the basic simulation parameters and results of a new study for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is shown. The study for GOES involves the simulation of minor modifications to the current spacecraft, so that the relative performance of these modifications can be analyzed. The first modification studies requires the placement of a baseline inertial reference unit, such as the Dry Rotor Inertial Reference Unit or the Hemispherical Resonator Gyro onto the spacecraft. The imager/sounder assembly is currently used to obtain landmark and/or star observations in order to compensate for spacecraft motion and external disturbances through ground processing. The study uses the imager/sounder assembly as another attitude sensor for on-board attitude determination. Also the addition of star trackers is used to provide precise attitude knowledge.

  2. Structure determination of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, C R; Kharf, R S

    1978-01-01

    A method of determining the phases of X-ray reflections from oriented model membrane systems at low resolution is described. The method involves deconvolution and requires that d less than or equal to 2v where v is the width of the head group region within the bilayer and d is the thickness of the bilayer. The method can be used with a single set of X-ray data and applies to lipid bilayers which have a relatively constant density in the hydrocarbon region. Phases for the first five or six orders of phosphatidylethanolamine and lecithin are derived. A refined analysis based upon deconvolution but using information inherent in the Fourier profile is also described. PMID:698345

  3. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  4. Genetic determinants of voluntary exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Variation in voluntary exercise behavior is an important determinant of long-term human health. Increased physical activity is used as a preventative measure or therapeutic intervention for disease, and a sedentary lifestyle has generally been viewed as unhealthy. Predisposition to engage in voluntary activity is heritable and induces protective metabolic changes, but its complex genetic/genomic architecture has only recently begun to emerge. We first present a brief historical perspective and summary of the known benefits of voluntary exercise. Second, we describe human and mouse model studies using genomic and transcriptomic approaches to reveal the genetic architecture of exercise. Third, we discuss the merging of genomic information and physiological observations, revealing systems and networks that lead to a more complete mechanistic understanding of how exercise protects against disease pathogenesis. Finally, we explore potential regulation of physical activity through epigenetic mechanisms, including those that persist across multiple generations. PMID:23351966

  5. Toeplitz determinants with merging singularities

    E-print Network

    T. Claeys; I. Krasovsky

    2015-12-14

    We study asymptotic behavior for determinants of $n\\times n$ Toeplitz matrices corresponding to symbols with two Fisher-Hartwig singularities at the distance $2t\\ge0$ from each other on the unit circle. We obtain large $n$ asymptotics which are uniform for $0

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard; Gustafson, Eric; Jefferson, David; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Mottinger, Neil; Pelletier, Fred; Ryne, Mark; Thompson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Orbit Determination (OD) met all requirements with considerable margin, MSL OD team developed spin signature removal tool and successfully used the tool during cruise, A novel approach was used for the MSL solar radiation pressure model and resulted in a very accurate model during the approach phase, The change in velocity for Attitude Control System (ACS) turns was successfully calibrated and with appropriate scale factor resulted in improved change in velocity prediction for future turns, All Trajectory Correction Maneuvers were successfully reconstructed and execution errors were well below the assumed pre-fight execution errors, The official OD solutions were statistically consistent throughout cruise and for OD solutions with different arc lengths as well, Only EPU-1 was sent to MSL. All other Entry Parameter Updates were waived, EPU-1 solution was only 200 m separated from final trajectory reconstruction in the B-plane

  7. Detecting determinism from point processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Mormann, Florian; Kreuz, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The detection of a nonrandom structure from experimental data can be crucial for the classification, understanding, and interpretation of the generating process. We here introduce a rank-based nonlinear predictability score to detect determinism from point process data. Thanks to its modular nature, this approach can be adapted to whatever signature in the data one considers indicative of deterministic structure. After validating our approach using point process signals from deterministic and stochastic model dynamics, we show an application to neuronal spike trains recorded in the brain of an epilepsy patient. While we illustrate our approach in the context of temporal point processes, it can be readily applied to spatial point processes as well.

  8. Determinants of muscle carnosine content.

    PubMed

    Harris, R C; Wise, J A; Price, K A; Kim, H J; Kim, C K; Sale, C

    2012-07-01

    The main determinant of muscle carnosine (M-Carn) content is undoubtedly species, with, for example, aerobically trained female vegetarian athletes [with circa 13 mmol/kg dry muscle (dm)] having just 1/10th of that found in trained thoroughbred horses. Muscle fibre type is another key determinant, as type II fibres have a higher M-Carn or muscle histidine containing dipeptide (M-HCD) content than type I fibres. In vegetarians, M-Carn is limited by hepatic synthesis of ?-alanine, whereas in omnivores this is augmented by the hydrolysis of dietary supplied HCD's resulting in muscle levels two or more times higher. ?-alanine supplementation will increase M-Carn. The same increase in M-Carn occurs with administration of an equal molar quantity of carnosine as an alternative source of ?-alanine. Following the cessation of supplementation, M-Carn returns to pre-supplementation levels, with an estimated t1/2 of 5-9 weeks. Higher than normal M-Carn contents have been noted in some chronically weight-trained subjects, but it is unclear if this is due to the training per se, or secondary to changes in muscle fibre composition, an increase in ?-alanine intake or even anabolic steroid use. There is no measureable loss of M-Carn with acute exercise, although exercise-induced muscle damage may result in raised plasma concentrations in equines. Animal studies indicate effects of gender and age, but human studies lack sufficient control of the effects of diet and changes in muscle fibre composition. PMID:22327512

  9. Structure Determination of Nanocrystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, F. M.

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline materials play an important role in pristine and contaminated geochemical systems. In particular, the reactive surfaces of nanosized ferric and aluminum hydroxides are effective scavengers and transporters of metals and metalloids under aqueous conditions. Establishing the atomic arrangements of these nanocrystalline phases is an essential step towards understanding their structure-property relationships and their roles in geochemical environments. Solving the structures of nanosized materials, often forming with finite particle sizes less than 10 nm, is extremely challenging and often not feasible using conventional structure determination methods. Nanocrystalline ferrihydrite is one example of a material often referred to as being X-ray amorphous because it exhibits poorly defined diffraction maxima in conventional powder patterns. Such features primarily result from the effects caused by disorder and extremely small particle sizes and inhibits quantitative structure determination. This can be avoided by evaluating the atomic arrangement in real-space using total scattering methods combined with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. PDF analysis is proving to be an essential tool in the study of nanocrystalline materials because it enables the incorporation of both the Bragg and diffuse scattering components and therefore information regarding the short-, intermediate-, and long-range ordering is attainable. We recently used this method to investigate the atomic structures of a number of important nanosized transition metal phases, including ferrihydrite. The initial study of synthetically-derived ferrihydrite resulted in the development of a new structure model for this phase. We are now expanding this investigation by evaluating samples of ferrihydrite occurring in natural settings which are inherently more complex formation environments due to the presence of organics and other metal and metalloid species. The total X-ray scattering method and PDF analysis will be introduced and experimental high-energy scattering data collected at a synchrotron facility will be presented.

  10. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-05-20

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile. 8 figs.

  11. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile.

  12. Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Christopher T.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ?10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies. PMID:21041806

  13. Oxisterol determination in selected coffees.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, E; Lercker, G; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of green-coffee processing techniques, such as decaffeination and roasting, is always to maintain a very high level of quality in taste and flavor, the beverage's most important characteristics to consumers. Oxidative alterations of coffee lipids, which can occur in roasting, exert a very marked influence on these quality traits. Determining the extent of oxidation thus can provide an indication of the product's potential shelf-life and reveal traces of any newly-formed oxidative products that might prove nutritionally unsafe. Yet, while much attention has recently been focused on certain by-products induced by cholesterol oxidation and their proven toxicity as risk factors in atherosclerosis and cancer, oxidated phytosterols have largely gone unnoticed, being considered along with beta-sitosterol as not very dangerous in that neither is absorbed by the intestinal tract. The present study investigates the substances derived from phytosterol oxidation (oxisterols) in samples of regular and decaffeinated commercial coffees. The findings show that oxisterols were absent in some samples and that the traces of oxidate phytosterols detected in others were well below the threshold considered as toxicologically active. PMID:8367891

  14. Southern Hemisphere meteor stream determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, G.; Elford, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Meteor orbits have been deduced from radio observations of meteor trails carried out at Adelaide, Australia, using a combined multistation CW and pulse radar system operating at 27 MHz. The orbits of 1667 meteors have been determined down to a limiting radio magnitude of +8. The data have been systematically searched for stream meteors, and the significance of minor associations has been appraised. Altogether, 40.4% of the orbits were found to be associated with at least one other orbit, and 29.8% with two or more. Numerous minor streams with high inclination and low eccentricity have been found at deep southern declinations from December to March, with little activity in this quarter during June and October. In addition to confirming several previously established cometary associations, a comprehensive search has indicated that 34 of the meteor associations may be related to 17 comets. Associations between several long-period comets and low-eccentricity high-inclination streams appear to be indisputable, and they confirm the origin of at least some of the 'toroidal group' meteors.

  15. Nutritional determinants of plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Blazicek, P; Mislanova, C; Valachovicova, M; Paukova, V; Spustova, V

    2007-01-01

    The total Hcy, methionine, vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin B6 blood concentrations were measured in apparently healthy adult subjects aged 20-30 years with three types of nutrition - 52 normal weight subjects of general population on traditional mixed diet (non-vegetarians), 52 normal weight vegetarians and 24 overweight and obese non-vegetarians. In the groups with lower methionine intake (vegetarians, normal weight non-vegetarians; methionine intake 0.45-2.12 g/day), Hcy values are dependent on vitamin B12 and folic acid. Vegetarian Hcy concentration is significantly increased and hyperhomocysteinemia was found in 35% of vegetarians vs 10% of non-vegetarians. Elevated Hcy values in vegetarians are the consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency - 31% of vegetarians with deficient serum values vs 2% of non-vegetarians (vitamin is not contained in plant food). Non-vegetarians are more deficient in folic acid (8% vs 0% in vegetarians) due to of lower consumption of food rich in folic acid (vegetables, whole grain products, pulses, seeds). The results suggest that in healthy population, a correct nutritional regime with an optimal intake of nutritional Hcy determinants is crucial for the maintenance of Hcy concentration in normal range and for the prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 27). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18309641

  16. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity-factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner. PMID:26598734

  17. Higgs mass determination in supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Javier Pardo; Villadoro, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the effective field theory computation of the MSSM Higgs mass, improving the existing ones by including extra threshold corrections. We show that, with this approach, the theoretical uncertainty is within 1 GeV in most of the relevant parameter space. We confirm the smaller value of the Higgs mass found in the EFT computations, which implies a slightly heavier SUSY scale. We study the large tan ? region, finding that sbottom thresholds might relax the upper bound on the scale of SUSY. We present SusyHD, a fast computer code that computes the Higgs mass and its uncertainty for any SUSY scale, from the TeV to the Planck scale, even in Split SUSY, both in the and in the on-shell schemes. Finally, we apply our results to derive bounds on some well motivated SUSY models, in particular we show how the value of the Higgs mass allows to determine the complete spectrum in minimal gauge mediation.

  18. On Determining Extinction from Reddening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Marshall L.

    2004-11-01

    The influence of shifts in effective wavelengths on ratios of total to selective extinction is examined, primarily to determine how to evaluate the Galactic extinction of extragalactic bodies in a way that minimizes systematic errors. In the process, a new procedure is developed for evaluating the Galactic or extragalactic extinction of any source in any filter from any index of reddening. The amount of dust along a sightline is quantified by the optical depth at 1 ?m, which has the advantage of being roughly equal numerically to E(B-V). The optical depth can be derived iteratively from a color excess using an appropriate spectral energy distribution (SED) for the reddening probe, and a monochromatic law of reddening which delivers a value of AV/E(B-V) characteristic of the obscuring medium when applied to the spectrum of a reference source for which this ratio is known. Knowledge of the optical depth then facilitates the determination of the extinction of any source in any filter without concern as to the shape of the spectrum of the probe. The ratio of total to selective extinction for stars and galaxies is synthesized for a variety of filter combinations in order to examine variations with type, tilt, optical depth, and redshift. For this purpose, representative integrated SEDs spanning the space ultraviolet to the near-infrared are constructed for galaxy types E, Sab, Sbc, Scd, and Im, all at well-defined inclinations. In addition, an algorithm to adjust the shapes of the SEDs for tilt is developed. Along the main sequence, the classical ratio of total to selective extinction, AV/E(B-V), increases by 23% from O5 to M6. At late types, there are differences as high as 17% between evolved and unevolved stars. Along the Hubble sequence, AV/E(B-V) decreases by 5% from E to Im. The value for elliptical galaxies falls near the locus for the main sequence, not the giant branch. Correlated against B-I, AV/E(B-V) for star-forming galaxies is systematically lower than for stars of the same color by up to 5%. It increases much more rapidly with tilt than with the optical depth of Galactic dust, although neither dependence is strong. For both stars and galaxies, AV/E(B-V) varies dramatically with the redshift. Changes of 16% for a Type Ia supernovae and 22% for a Cepheid are seen out to z=0.4. For elliptical galaxies, a variation of 30% can be expected out to z=1, the precise form of which being dependent upon the ultraviolet excess. Even infrared ratios of total to selective extinction, such as AH/E(B-V), change significantly with color and redshift because of differential shifts in the effective wavelengths of B and V. As a gauge of reddening, E(V-I) is greatly preferable to E(B-V), because it is much less sensitive to color and redshift, yet more sensitive to the optical depth of dust. A demonstration is given on how to quantify upper limits to Galactic extinction which should be placed on studies of high-redshift supernovae, to reduce the redshift dependence of extinction corrections to a range that is insignificant compared with residuals supporting accelerated universal expansion. When the new technique for evaluating extinction corrections is applied to Cepheids in M31, distances for fields at different radii become less dispersed, confirming that the period-luminosity relation is not very sensitive to metallicity. However, the discrepancy between the Cepheid and maser distances to NGC 4258 cannot be attributed to the method of handling the extinction. Submission of the final version of this paper was held off until the techniques described herein could be made available through the World Wide Web. The York Extinction Solver (YES) can be accessed at http://cadcwww.hia.nrc.ca/yes.

  19. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  20. Genetic determinants of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Dietrich A

    2012-12-01

    An extraordinary revolution in medical research has taken place over the past decade, enabled by the completion of the first human genome sequence in 2001. The Human Genome Project (HGP) has resulted in the 6 billion letter reference human genome sequence and the ultra-high throughput technologies used by medical researchers to identify correlations between positions within the human genome (genotypes) and diseases or traits (phenotypes). Just as every human disease has a genetic component, so too does every human trait. The vast majority of these diseases and traits also have an environmental component that works in conjunction with the body's hardwiring to produce the resultant phenotype- termed "complex genetic traits". A derivative of the HGP has been a deeper understanding not only of diseases but of normal human variability across the population, including aspects of athleticism. The technologies also now exist for consumers to cheaply gain access to variations in the genetic code that are correlated to traits that confer aspects of longevity, memory performance, athleticism and a multitude of others there-through gaining insight into propensities. Communication of propensity to a phenotype such as athletic performance is fraught with technical, legal (e.g., patents), social and ethical issues. That being said, the information is available, has benefit in some cases, and will be utilized in the future. Given that the "genie is out of the bottle" with respect to our ability to deliver this genetic information to individuals, over the past decade our team has worked diligently to craft the appropriate testing and communication paradigms for complex traits. Here we discuss several of the major risks and benefits of this type of testing for athletic performance. It is important to understand the limitations of genetic information in determining the vast majority of traits. PMID:22827596

  1. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    SciTech Connect

    O'connor, J.

    1980-07-22

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle.

  2. Determination and control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, F S

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the building of shared knowledge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8531650

  3. 43 CFR 11.63 - Injury determination phase-pathway determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Injury determination phase-pathway determination. 11.63 Section 11.63 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type B Procedures § 11.63 Injury determination phase—pathway determination. (a) General. (1) To determine the...

  4. 43 CFR 11.63 - Injury determination phase-pathway determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Injury determination phase-pathway determination. 11.63 Section 11.63 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type B Procedures § 11.63 Injury determination phase—pathway determination. (a) General. (1) To determine the...

  5. 78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...FEMA proposes to make flood hazard determinations...with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...a). These proposed flood hazard determinations...Posey County Area Plan Commission, 2nd...

  6. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...FEMA proposes to make flood hazard determinations...with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973...a). These proposed flood hazard determinations...County Courthouse, Area Plan Commission, Room...

  7. 76 FR 24081 - Notice of Commission Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Commission Determination AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of commission determination. SUMMARY: Pursuant to authority set forth in the Susquehanna River Basin...

  8. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  9. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. DETERMINING THE STABILITY OF TREATED MUNICIPAL SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential for further biological degradation biologically of municipal sludges which have undergone either little or major treatment. A literature survey was conducted to determine the most fruitful approaches, followed by labora...

  9. 14 CFR 314.16 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.16 Final determination. The Department will publish in the Federal Register a summary of an order...

  10. 14 CFR 314.21 - Advance determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...person may consolidate an application under this section with an application under § 314.11 for determination of a qualifying dislocation. (c) The Department will terminate an advance determination of major contraction whenever it finds that the...

  11. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... purpose of meeting any requirement in 38 U.S.C. 1724 and 1732, and 38 CFR 17.36 through 17.37 for service... MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations...

  12. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purpose of meeting any requirement in 38 U.S.C. 1724 and 1732, and 38 CFR 17.36 through 17.37 for service... MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations...

  13. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purpose of meeting any requirement in 38 U.S.C. 1724 and 1732, and 38 CFR 17.36 through 17.37 for service... MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations...

  14. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purpose of meeting any requirement in 38 U.S.C. 1724 and 1732, and 38 CFR 17.36 through 17.37 for service... MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations...

  15. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose of meeting any requirement in 38 U.S.C. 1724 and 1732, and 38 CFR 17.36 through 17.37 for service... MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations...

  16. 30 CFR 57.5061 - Compliance determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Compliance determinations. 57.5061 Section 57.5061...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...Only § 57.5061 Compliance determinations. (a) MSHA will use a...

  17. 30 CFR 57.5061 - Compliance determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Compliance determinations. 57.5061 Section 57.5061...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...Only § 57.5061 Compliance determinations. (a) MSHA will use a...

  18. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1256] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1258] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1351] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 78 FR 36220 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1322] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1301] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 38 CFR 17.364 - Eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...364 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants to the Republic of the Philippines § 17.364 Eligibility determinations. Determinations of legal eligibility and medical need for...

  19. 42 CFR 417.838 - Organization determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.838 Organization determinations...through 417.840, an organization determination is a refusal to furnish or arrange for services, or...

  20. 42 CFR 417.838 - Organization determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.838 Organization determinations...through 417.840, an organization determination is a refusal to furnish or arrange for services, or...

  1. Raman spectra of gases. XVI - Torsional transitions in ethanol and ethanethiol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Bucy, W. E.; Wurrey, C. J.; Carreira, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Raman spectra of gaseous ethanol and ethanethiol have been investigated. Thiol torsional fundamentals for the gauche conformer of EtSH and EtSD have been observed and the asymmetric potential function for this vibration has been calculated. Methyl torsional transitions and overtones have also been observed for both of these molecules. Barriers to internal rotation for the methyl top are calculated to be 3.77 and 3.84 kcal/mol for the EtSH and EtSD compounds, respectively. Hydroxyl torsional fundamentals were observed at 207 and 170 per cm in the EtOH and EtOD spectra, respectively. Overtones of the methyl torsion in both molecules yield a barrier to internal rotation of 3.62 kcal/mol for the gauche conformer.

  2. EL MUNDO / AO XVI / LUNES 9 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 2009 INNOVADORES 1 COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA

    E-print Network

    que cualquiera puede hacer en su casa con una conexión ADSL a in- ternet y un router WIFI. Pero en muy... ¡sorpresa! Si tene- mos una red WIFI estaremos per- diendo dos megas, porque esta tecnología ya supone un estándar que va a relevar al difunto WIFI pero capaz, además, de dar cober- tura en movimiento. Se trata de

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVI, LEARNING ABOUT AC GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) PRINCIPLES (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE REVIEWING ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS, AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "AC GENERATORS…

  4. American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges Quarterly; Vol. XVI, Nos. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAWCJC Quarterly, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The American Association of Women in Community and Junior Colleges (AAWCJC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC), produces the "Quarterly" to disseminate information pertinent to the AAWCJC membership and to provide a forum for the discussion of current issues and events. Each issue of the…

  5. 69 FR 60224 - Representative Payment Under Titles II, VIII and XVI of the Social Security Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-07

    ...Register document--Robert Augustine, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security...1-800-325-0778 or visit our Internet Web site, Social Security Online at...

  6. 68 FR 55323 - Representative Payment Under Titles II, VIII and XVI of the Social Security Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-25

    ...Register document--Robert Augustine, Social Insurance Specialist, Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security...1-800-325-0778 or visit our internet web site, Social Security Online at...

  7. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Data Processing Program. Volume XVI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…

  8. Follow-Up Study of 1986 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVI, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Flaherty, A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine employment patterns, further education plans, and graduates' evaluation of particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 112 nursing students who graduated with an associate degree in 1986.…

  9. Volume XVI, No. 5 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ................................................................................................................................................................ 19 Sky blue water towers and nutmeg brown fire hydrants by Larry H. Black and L. Baxter Lawrence 19

  10. The Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. XVI. Cepheid Variables in an Inner Field of M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, P. B.; Saha, A.; Ferrarese, L.; Rawson, D. M.; Ford, H. C.; Freedman, W. L.; Graham, J. A.; Harding, P.; Han, M.; Hill, R. J.; Hoessel, J. G.; Huchra, J. P.; Hughes, S. M.; Illingworth, G. D.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Madore, B. F.; Mould, J. R.; Phelps, R. L.; Sakai, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Turner, A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the identification of 255 candidate variable stars in a field located some 1.7 from the center of the late-type spiral galaxy M101 = NGC 5457, based on observations made with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. Festival Report: Exito para el XVI Festival Internacional de Teatro Hispano del Teatro Avante

    E-print Network

    Marrero, Marí a Teresa

    2002-04-01

    público (predominantemente de origen cubano) juzgando por los comentarios compartidos durante el foro. La ciudad sitiada (estreno en Madrid, 2000) del grupo español Micomicón (elenco de Manuel Agredo, Yiyo Alonso, Encarna de las Heras, Nuria Meneia... breves para el Festival. La primera fue Suandende, basada en un cuento Yoruba recopilado por la reconococida etnóloga cubana Lydia Cabrera en su libro Cuentos negros de Cuba, (París 1924, Madrid, 1972); la segunda, el tercer acto de una obra dramática...

  12. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults AGENCY: Social Security Administration...documenting and evaluating disability in young adults. DATES: Effective Date: September...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults Purpose: This SSR...

  13. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ..., and 416.969a. See also SSR 96-8p, 61 FR 34474 (1996), available at: http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OP..., 71 FR 45593 (2006), available at: http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OP_Home/rulings/di/01/SSR2006-03-di... discussion of IEPs in SSR 09-2p, 74 FR 7625 (2009), available at:...

  14. Student Characteristics as Compared to the Community Profile, Fall, 1986. Volume XVI, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    In fall 1986, a study was conducted at Illinois' William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to provide a student profile for general information purposes, to gather data not available on the college's automated student data file, and to analyze WRHC's market outreach. Surveys were mailed to random samples of 500 credit degree students and 300 continuing…

  15. Study of Students Who Withdrew from Courses, 1982-1986. Volume XVI, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    A study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to develop a profile of students who withdrew from courses between 1982 and 1986 and to compare this profile with the results of a 1979-82 withdrawal study. For the past 4 years, each degree credit student who has officially withdrawn from a course has been asked to complete a survey…

  16. Student Characteristics as Compared to the Community Profile, Fall 1987. Volume XVI, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    In fall 1987, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to develop a profile of WRHC students and assess the college's market outreach. Surveys were mailed to random samples of 500 degree credit students and 300 non-degree credit students. Response rates of 80% for the degree credit students and 78% for the non-degree credit…

  17. Determining elasticity from single polymer Folarin Latinwoa

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles

    Determining elasticity from single polymer dynamics Folarin Latinwoa and Charles M. Schroeder*abc The ability to determine polymer elasticity and force­extension relations from polymer dynamics in flow has to far-from-equilibrium processes. In this work, we determine polymer elasticity from the dynamic

  18. 7 CFR 51.1416 - Optional determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Optional Determinations § 51.1416... determination. Samples of pecans for these determinations shall be taken at random from a composite sample drawn throughout the lot. (a) Edible kernel content. A minimum sample of at least 500 grams of in-shell...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1416 - Optional determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Optional Determinations § 51.1416... determination. Samples of pecans for these determinations shall be taken at random from a composite sample drawn throughout the lot. (a) Edible kernel content. A minimum sample of at least 500 grams of in-shell...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1416 - Optional determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Optional Determinations § 51.1416... determination. Samples of pecans for these determinations shall be taken at random from a composite sample drawn throughout the lot. (a) Edible kernel content. A minimum sample of at least 500 grams of in-shell...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1416 - Optional determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1... or as a separate determination. Samples of pecans for these determinations shall be taken at random... least 500 grams of in-shell pecans shall be used for determination of edible kernel content. After...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1416 - Optional determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1... or as a separate determination. Samples of pecans for these determinations shall be taken at random... least 500 grams of in-shell pecans shall be used for determination of edible kernel content. After...

  3. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  4. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  5. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  6. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  7. 10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...

  8. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table... FR 36220. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities... . In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 78 FR 36220 in the June 17,...

  9. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... instituted this review on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39257) and determined on October 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 65204, October 25, 2012). The Commission transmitted its determination in... COMMISSION Honey From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  10. Social Determinants of Health and Disease?

    E-print Network

    Ruvinsky, Ilya

    Are There Social Determinants of Health and Disease? S65 ABSTRACT The concept of a determinant for the existence of social determinants of health is a challenge, in part because of the difficulties of bridging the social and biological realms.While social contexts are measured using aggregates of individuals, disease

  11. Distribution of canonical determinants in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Gattringer, C.; Schadler, H.-P.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of canonical determinants in QCD is determined by means of chiral perturbation theory. For a nonzero quark charge the canonical determinants take complex values. In the dilute pion gas approximation, we compute all moments of the magnitude of the canonical determinants, as well as the first nonvanishing moments of the real and imaginary parts. The nontrivial cancellation between the real and the imaginary parts of the canonical determinants is derived and the signal to noise ratio is discussed. The analytical distributions are compared to lattice data. The average density of the magnitude of the canonical determinants is determined as well and is shown to be given by a variant of the log-normal distribution.

  12. Interactions of structurally modified surfactants with reservoir minerals: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and electrokinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Xu, Q.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate mechanisms of adsorption of structurally modified surfactants on reservoir minerals and to develop a full understanding of the effect of the surfactant structure on the nature of the adsorbed layers at the molecular level. An additional aim is to study the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on simple well-characterized minerals and on complex minerals representing real conditions. The practical goal of these studies is the identification of the optimum surfactant structures and their combinations for micellar flooding. In this work, the experiments on adsorption were focussed on the position of sulfonate and methyl groups on the aromatic ring of alkyl xylene sulfonates. A multi-pronged approach consisting of calorimetry, electrokinetics, wettability and spectroscopy is planned to elucidate the adsorption mechanism of surfactants and their mixtures on minerals such as alumina and kaolinite. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. A scanning calorimetric study of unfolding equilibria in homodimeric chicken gizzard tropomyosins.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, R; Sturtevant, J M; Wrabl, J; Holtzer, M E; Holtzer, A

    1996-01-01

    Using both circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), several laboratories find that the thermal unfolding transitions of alpha alpha and beta beta homodimeric coiled coils of rabbit tropomyosin are multistate and display an overall unfolding enthalpy of near 300 kcal (mol dimer)(-1). In contrast, an extant CD study of beta beta and gamma gamma species of chicken gizzard tropomyosin concludes that their unfolding transitions are simple two-state transitions, with much smaller overall enthalpies (98 kcal mol(-1) for beta beta and 162 kcal mol(-1) for gamma gamma). However, these smaller enthalpies have been questioned, because they imply a concentration dependence of the melting temperatures that is far larger than observed by CD. We report here DSC studies of the unfolding of both beta beta and gamma gamma chicken gizzard homodimers. The results show that these transitions are very similar to those in rabbit tropomyosins in that 1) the overall unfolding enthalpy is near 300 kcal mol(-1); 2) the overall delta C(rho) values are significantly positive; 3) the various transitions are multistate, requiring at least two and as many as four domains to fit the DSC data. DSC studies are also reported on these homodimeric species of chicken gizzard tropomyosin with a single interchain disulfide cross-link. These results are also generally similar to those for the correspondingly cross-linked rabbit tropomyosins. PMID:9172766

  14. Trehalose Bioprotective Effects in Lysozyme Aqueous Solution Studied by Brillouin Scattering and Calorimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasanuma, Keita; Seshimo, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Eiji; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The bioprotective effect of trehalose in lysozyme aqueous solutions has been investigated by Brillouin scattering and modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). MDSC experiments show that the isothermal kinetics of thermally irreversible denaturation can be described by the Arrhenius equation. By the addition of trehalose, the irreversible denaturation of lysozyme is suppressed, and its activation energy is half that of the denaturation without trehalose. The sound velocity of lysozyme-trehalose-water ternary solutions obviously depends on the trehalose concentration. With increasing trehalose concentration, the sound velocity becomes higher because the hydration of trehalose reduces the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Moreover, hydration around lysozyme molecules increases the sound velocity further. Trehalose molecules tend to aggregate with lysozyme molecules at high trehalose concentrations. The bioprotective effect of trehalose probably originates from the mechanical suppression of conformational fluctuations of lysozyme molecules.

  15. Estimation of protein folding free energy barriers from calorimetric data by multi-model Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Athi N; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Muñoz, Victor; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2011-10-14

    The realization that folding free energy barriers can be small enough to result in significant population of the species at the barrier top has sprouted in several methods to estimate folding barriers from equilibrium experiments. Some of these approaches are based on fitting the experimental thermogram measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to a one-dimensional representation of the folding free-energy surface (FES). Different physical models have been used to represent the FES: (1) a Landau quartic polynomial as a function of the total enthalpy, which acts as an order parameter; (2) the projection onto a structural order parameter (i.e. number of native residues or native contacts) of the free energy of all the conformations generated by Ising-like statistical mechanical models; and (3) mean-field models that define conformational entropy and stabilization energy as functions of a continuous local order parameter. The fundamental question that emerges is how can we obtain robust, model-independent estimates of the thermodynamic folding barrier from the analysis of DSC experiments. Here we address this issue by comparing the performance of various FES models in interpreting the thermogram of a protein with a marginal folding barrier. We chose the small ?-helical protein PDD, which folds-unfolds in microseconds crossing a free energy barrier previously estimated as ~1 RT. The fits of the PDD thermogram to the various models and assumptions produce FES with a consistently small free energy barrier separating the folded and unfolded ensembles. However, the fits vary in quality as well as in the estimated barrier. Applying Bayesian probabilistic analysis we rank the fit performance using a statistically rigorous criterion that leads to a global estimate of the folding barrier and its precision, which for PDD is 1.3 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1). This result confirms that PDD folds over a minor barrier consistent with the downhill folding regime. We have further validated the multi-model Bayesian approach through the analysis of two additional protein systems: gpW, a midsize single-domain with ? + ? topology that also folds in microseconds and has been previously catalogued as a downhill folder, and ?-spectrin SH3, a domain of similar size but with a ?-barrel fold, slow-folding kinetics and two-state-like thermodynamics. From a general viewpoint, the Bayesian analysis developed here results in a statistically robust, virtually model-independent, method to estimate the thermodynamic free-energy barriers to protein folding from DSC thermograms. Our method appears to be sufficiently accurate to consistently detect small differences in the barrier height, and thus opens up the possibility of characterizing experimentally the changes in thermodynamic folding barriers induced by single-point mutations on proteins within the downhill regime. PMID:21769353

  16. Mechanisms of Organic-inorganic Interactions in Soils and Aqueous Environments Elucidated using Calorimetric Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Omar R.

    2011-08-08

    -derived biochars reacts with cations in aqueous environments. Natural organic matter influenced strength development in lime-stabilized soils through the direct inhibition of the formation of pozzolanic reaction products. The degree of inhibition was dependent...

  17. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  18. High-precision, automated integration of multiple isothermal titration calorimetric thermograms: new features of NITPIC.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Thomas H; Brautigam, Chad A

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has become a standard and widely available tool to measure the thermodynamic parameters of macromolecular associations. Modern applications of the method, including global analysis and drug screening, require the acquisition of multiple sets of data; sometimes these data sets number in the hundreds. Therefore, there is a need for quick, precise, and automated means to process the data, particularly at the first step of data analysis, which is commonly the integration of the raw data to yield an interpretable isotherm. Herein, we describe enhancements to an algorithm that previously has been shown to provide an automated, unbiased, and high-precision means to integrate ITC data. These improvements allow for the speedy and precise serial integration of an unlimited number of ITC data sets, and they have been implemented in the freeware program NITPIC, version 1.1.0. We present a comprehensive comparison of the performance of this software against an older version of NITPIC and a current version of Origin, which is commonly used for integration. The new methods recapitulate the excellent performance of the previous versions of NITPIC while speeding it up substantially, and their precision is significantly better than that of Origin. This new version of NITPIC is therefore well suited to the serial integration of many ITC data sets. PMID:25524420

  19. Effect of high-pressure on calorimetric, rheological and dielectric properties of selected starch dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, H S; Pandey, Pramod K; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-03-15

    Effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the rheological, thermal and dielectric properties of the four selected starch dispersions (two modified starches, one native and one resistant) were evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry were employed to assess the extent of starch gelatinization and the developed gel rigidity (G') of starch gels after HP treatment. It was observed that starch dispersions gelatinized completely at 500 MPa with a 30-min holding time. The HP-treated starch samples exhibited predominantly solid-like (G'>G") behavior except for the resistant starch. Pressure-induced gel rigidity differed significantly among starch samples. The G' of starch gels increased with the pressure (400-600 MPa) in the studied frequency range (0.1-10 Hz) except for the native starch where a marginal decrease was recorded at similar condition. The holding time (15-30 min) and concentration (20-25% w/w) significantly attributed towards gel rigidity of starch samples. Measurement of dielectric properties of HP-treated samples over the frequency range 450-4450 MHz indicated differences in the dielectric constant (?'), loss factor (?") and penetration depth among starch gels. Pressure did not show any effect on dielectric property of the resistant starch sample. Power penetration depth decreased significantly with frequency and with the pressure. PMID:24528695

  20. Calorimetric evidence for a mobile surface layer in ultrathin polymeric films: poly(2-vinyl pyridine).

    PubMed

    Madkour, Sherif; Yin, Huajie; Füllbrandt, Marieke; Schönhals, Andreas

    2015-10-28

    Specific heat spectroscopy was used to study the dynamic glass transition of ultrathin poly(2-vinyl pyridine) films (thicknesses: 405-10 nm). The amplitude and the phase angle of the differential voltage were obtained as a measure of the complex heat capacity. In a traditional data analysis, the dynamic glass transition temperature Tg is estimated from the phase angle. These data showed no thickness dependency on Tg down to 22 nm (error of the measurement of ±3 K). A derivative-based method was established, evidencing a decrease in Tg with decreasing thickness up to 7 K, which can be explained by a surface layer. For ultrathin films, data showed broadening at the lower temperature side of the spectra, supporting the existence of a surface layer. Finally, temperature dependence of the heat capacity in the glassy and liquid states changes with film thickness, which can be considered as a confinement effect. PMID:26324951

  1. Calorimetric study on mechanically milled aluminum and multiwall carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nayan, Niraj Murty, S.V.S.N.; Sharma, S.C.; Kumar, K. Sree; Sinha, P.P.

    2011-11-15

    Pure aluminum reinforced with carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been prepared by high energy attritor milling up to 48 hrs. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been carried out to investigate apparent activation energy and order of the reaction between carbon nanotubes and aluminum by Kissinger equation and Crane equation under non-isothermal conditions. The DSC results clearly reveal that an exothermic reaction occurs before the melting of aluminum. The effect of milling time on the initiation of this exothermic reaction has been studied. The peak temperature of the reaction of carbon nanotubes and aluminum is found to depend on the heating rate during the continuous heating. Apparent activation energy was found to get doubled after milling for 36 hrs compared to 24 hrs milled samples. The mechanism of the reaction kinetics which depends on reaction order is instantaneous nucleation and one dimensional growth for both samples. Formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of as-milled powders and after performing DSC of the milled powders. Highlights: {yields} Attritor milling used for processing Al-CNT composites. {yields} Powder morphology as a function of time studied. {yields} Apparent activation energy and order of the reaction calculated for Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} formation. {yields} Apparent activation energy increases two fold with increase in milling time from 24 to 36 hours.

  2. Calorimetric measurements on Li4C60 and Na4C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Akira; Miyazaki, Yuji; Micha?owski, Pawe? P.; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Sundqvist, Bertil; Wâgberg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We show specific heat data for Na4C60 and Li4C60 in the range 0.4-350 K for samples characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. At high temperatures, the two different polymer structures have very similar specific heats both in absolute values and in general trend. The specific heat data are compared with data for undoped polymeric and pristine C60. At high temperatures, a difference in specific heat between the intercalated and undoped C60 polymers of 100 J K-1 mol-1 is observed, in agreement with the Dulong-Petit law. At low temperatures, the specific heat data for Li4C60 and Na4C60 are modified by the stiffening of vibrational and librational molecular motion induced by the polymer bonds. The covalent twin bonds in Li4C60 affect these motions to a somewhat higher degree than the single intermolecular bonds in Na4C60. Below 1 K, the specific heats of both materials become linear in temperature, as expected from the effective dimensionality of the structure. The contribution to the total specific heat from the inserted metal ions can be well described by Einstein functions with TE = 386 K for Li4C60 and TE = 120 K for Na4C60, but for both materials we also observe a Schottky-type contribution corresponding to a first approximation to a two-level system with ?E = 9.3 meV for Li4C60 and 3.1 meV for Na4C60, probably associated with jumps between closely spaced energy levels inside "octahedral-type" ionic sites. Static magnetic fields up to 9 T had very small effects on the specific heat below 10 K.

  3. Non-Isothermal Calorimetric Studies of the Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.; Huang, W.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi; Cull, T. S.; Kelton, K. F.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of preannealing treatments on the polymorphic crystallization of lithium disilicate glasses is examined. As expected, glasses heated at different rates through the temperature range where there is significant nucleation develop widely different numbers of nuclei. This can dramatically influence the stability and transformation characteristics of the annealed glass. Non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements are demonstrated to be useful to probe the nucleation behavior. The first systematic investigations of particle size effects on the non-isothermal transformation behavior are presented and discussed. Based on DTA and microscopy experiments, we show that small particles of lithium disilicate glasses crystallize primarily by surface crystallization. The relative importance of surface versus volume crystallization is examined by varying particle size, by introducing nucleating agents and by exposing glasses to atmospheres of different water content. These data are analyzed quantitatively using a numerical model developed in a second paper following in this volume.

  4. CALORIMETRIC PROPERTIES OF WATER AND TRIACYLGLYCEROLS IN FERN SPORES RELATING TO STORAGE AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing spores is a promising method to conserve genetic diversity of ferns ex situ. Inappropriate water contents or damaging effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) crystallization may cause initial damage and deterioration with time in spores placed at -15 degrees C or liquid nitrogen temperatures. We us...

  5. Thermodynamic properties of anthophyllite and talc: corrections and discussion of calorimetric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemingway, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Arithmetic errors in calculating heat capacity values (Krupka, 1984; Krupka et al, 1985a) for anthophyllite and several errors in the Hess cycles utilized to derive enthalpies of formation of anthophyllite and talc are identified, and revised values are reported. -from Author

  6. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  7. Calorimetric and Resistive Measurements of Amorphous Splat Cooled La1-Xgax Foils 

    E-print Network

    SHULL, WH; Naugle, Donald G.; POON, SJ; JOHNSON, WL.

    1978-01-01

    , the more reliable relaxation method was used. These techniques are now well known so only details peculiar to this particular calorimeter will be described. The sample is mounted onto a 0.5-in. diameter, 0.008-in. thick sapphire substrate, with between... 200 and 500 p,g of UHU-Plus epoxy. ' The working ther- mometer is a graphite film of DAG154" painted over the 0.007 x 0.1-in. gap between two silver contact pads evaporated onto the sapphire. This thermometer was calibrated each run against a...

  8. Calorimetric testing of improved Glauber's salt phase change thermal energy storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.B.

    1980-12-01

    New data have been presented which show the improvement in thermal energy storage capacity with more than 1,000 freeze-thaw cycles of a Glauber's salt based phase change material. It has been discovered that the thermal energy storage capacity of the material is greatly improved by controlling the size of the crystals in the phase change material. This is done in one of two ways: (1) use of a crystal habit modifier and (2) use of a new thickener which forms a strong gel matrix. Data in which the new thickener has been combined with the crystal habit modifier show a small but significant improvement in thermal energy storage capacity for the phase change material.

  9. Second vital coefficients of aqueous alcohols at elevated temperatures: A calorimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, D.G. )

    1989-06-29

    Enthalpies of dilution of cyclohexanol (aq) to 448 K and of myo-inositol (aq) and of cyclohexanol + myo-inositol (aq) to 398 K are reported. These results, along with enthalpies of dilution for 1-butanol (aq) to 448 K and for 2-methyl-2-propanol (aq) to 423 K, were combined with freezing point depression measurements and ambient-temperature enthalpy of dilution and heat capacity measurements in order to provide the excess Gibbs energy for the aqueous solutes from 273 to 523 K. These excess Gibbs energies were then used to provide parameters for an additivity scheme that permits an approximation of the excess Gibbs energy, and thus the solute and solvent activity coefficients, for dilute aqueous alcohols for which high-temperature data do not exist. These excess Gibbs energies were also used to estimate the aqueous-solution second virial coefficients of the alcohols and of cyclohexane (aq), 1-butane (aq), and 2-methylpropane (aq) in the McMillan-Mayer convention. These virial coefficients for the aqueous hydrocarbons, when compared to gas-phase virial coefficients for the hydrocarbons, suggest that the effect of low-temperature (298 K) water is to lessen the pairwise attraction of aqueous hydrocarbon over that found in the gas phase at the same temperature and that this lessening of the pairwise attraction diminishes at higher temperatures.

  10. Exploring the antioxidant property of bioflavonoid quercetin in preventing DNA glycation: A calorimetric and spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Bidisa . E-mail: bidisa@fy.chalmers.se; Uematsu, Takashi; Jacobsson, Per; Swenson, Jan

    2006-01-06

    Reducing sugars for example glucose, fructose, etc., and their phosphate derivatives non-enzymatically glycate biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, DNA and lipids) and is related to the production of free radicals. Here we present a novel study, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) along with UV/Vis absorption and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), on normal and glycated human placenta DNA and have explored the antioxidant property of the naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavone quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in preventing the glycation. The decrease in the absorption intensity of DNA in presence of sugars clearly indicates the existence of sugar molecules between the two bases of a base pair in the duplex DNA molecule. Variations were perceptible in the PCS relaxation profiles of normal and glycated DNA. The melting temperature of placenta DNA was decreased when glycated suggesting a decrease in the structural stability of the double-stranded glycated DNA. Our DSC and PCS data showed, for the first time, that the dramatic changes in the structural properties of glycated DNA can be prevented to a significant extent by adding quercetin. This study provides valuable insights regarding the structure, function, and dynamics of normal and glycated DNA molecules, underlying the manifestation of free radical mediated diseases, and their prevention using therapeutically active naturally occurring flavonoid quercetin.

  11. Calorimetric evaluation of phase change materials for use as thermal interface materials

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    . Keywords: Phase change; Calorimetry; Wax; Sodium sulfate; Calcium chloride; Aluminum oxide; Boron nitride-Al2O3. The addition of BN has little effect on the phase change behavior of paraf®n wax. The inorganic by electronic components during use to reduce the adverse effects of heat on the performance of the electronics

  12. Revisiting the glass transition and dynamics of supercooled benzene by calorimetric studies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenkang; Chen, Zeming; Li, Xiangqian; Gao, Yanqin; Liu, Riping; Wang, Li-Min

    2015-10-28

    The glass transition and dynamics of benzene are studied in binary mixtures of benzene with five glass forming liquids, which can be divided into three groups: (a) o-terphenyl and m-xylene, (b) N-butyl methacrylate, and (c) N,N-dimethylpropionamide and N,N-diethylformamide to represent the weak, moderate, and strong interactions with benzene. The enthalpies of mixing, ?Hmix, for the benzene mixtures are measured to show positive or negative signs, with which the validity of the extrapolations of the glass transition temperature Tg to the benzene-rich regions is examined. The extrapolations for the Tg data in the mixtures are found to converge around the point of 142 K, producing Tg of pure benzene. The fragility m of benzene is also evaluated by extrapolating the results of the mixtures, and a fragility m ? 80 is yielded. The obtained Tg and m values for benzene allow for the construction of the activation plot in the deeply supercooled region. The poor glass formability of benzene is found to result from the high melting point, which in turn leads to low viscosity in the supercooled liquid. PMID:26520521

  13. Characterisation of the thermal properties of ethylcellulose using differential scanning and quasi-isothermal calorimetric approaches.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui Ling; Pitt, Kendal; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2010-02-15

    The thermal behaviour of the ethylcellulose (EC), a polymer that is widely used in pharmaceutical dosage forms, has been investigated with a view to study the glass transition and higher temperature thermal events as well as to develop new approaches to characterise this complex polymer system. Samples of EC powder were studied using conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), quasi-isothermal (Qi-)MTDSC and hot stage microscopy (HSM) with simultaneous transmitted light intensity measurements. The T(g) was noted at circa 128-130 degrees C, with an accompanying baseline drift associated with a temperature dependent heat capacity change. A higher temperature combined endo/exothermic event was noted at 170-190 degrees C. TGA studies indicated that the exotherm was associated with oxidative degradation, with the accompanying DSC data being highly dependent on the sample encapsulation method used. The endotherm was found to be kinetically hindered, as demonstrated using Qi-MTDSC; the technique also indicated that there was little evidence for reversing processes through this transition. HSM studies indicated birefringence for the sample at low temperatures which disappeared as the material temperature approached T(g) but reappeared on further heating, again disappearing at circa 180 degrees C. Light intensity scans produced a profile similar to that seen for the DSC studies. It is proposed that the sample contains microcrystals composed of unsubstituted segments of the cellulose backbone. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the pharmaceutical behaviour and thermal characterisation of ethylcellulose are discussed. PMID:19932159

  14. Characterization of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by calorimetric analysis of blood serum proteome.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Francisca; Cerdà, Joan J; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Durán, M Antonia; Novo, Andrés; Ros, Teresa; Sampol, Antonia; Portugal, José

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant proliferative disorder that may progress to multiple myeloma, a malignant plasma cell neoplasia. We evaluated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as an experimental tool for differentiating serum samples of MGUS patients from healthy individuals. DSC thermograms can be used for monitoring changes in the serum proteome associated with MGUS. MGUS patients showed great variability in serum thermogram characteristics, which depended on the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes and/or the ? or ? light chains. Thermogram feature parameters distinguished patients with MGUS from healthy people. Serum samples, named as non-MGUS, were also collected from patients with subjacent immunological pathologies who were discarded of having MGUS through serum immunofixation. They were used to verify the sensitivity of DSC for discriminating MGUS from related blood dyscrasias. Only some DSC thermogram feature parameters differentiated, to a lesser extent, between MGUS and non-MGUS individuals. We contemplate DSC as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of MGUS. PMID:25794164

  15. Calorimetric and spectroscopic characterization of zone refined and regrown lead iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.T.; Burger, A.; Chen, H.

    1998-12-31

    Lead iodide starting materials have been purified by vertical zone refining process. The purest materials of the zone-refined ingot, middle zone, were used for single crystal growth by Bridgman method. Differential scanning calorimetry, current-voltage and low temperature photoluminescence measurements were employed to investigate the effectiveness of zone refining process and as-grown crystal. The results showed that the materials from the middle section of zone-refined ingot is the purest, followed by first-to-freeze and last-to-freeze materials. No second phase and deviation from stoichiometry have been observed after zone refining process and Bridgman crystal growth method. The resistivities increase as the purity and crystallinity of materials increases. Cleavage of as-grown crystal did damage the surface and caused additional emission at 2.0 eV. This emission band was not observed after a 10% NaI solution etching.

  16. Calorimetric studies of amphiphile/oil/water systems for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, R.O.; Das, K.; Covatch, G.; Smith, D.H.

    1988-05-01

    Better experimental methods and new types of data are needed for the measurement and prediction of the phase behavior of amphiphile/oil/water systems used in various types of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), including both dispersion-based mobility control for ''gas'' flooding (emulsions and foams), and high-capillary number EOR. This paper reports progress in the use of titration calorimetry (both isoperibolic and isothermal) for the measurement of phase diagrams of cosurfactant/n-alkane/water systems. The cosurfactants studied included alcohols and low molecular weight ethoxylated alcohols. Compositions of triconjugate (lower-, middle-, upper-phase systems) were obtained without conventional compositional analyses by thermal detection of compositions at which the number of phases changed from two to three, linear regressions to get the limiting tielines, and calculation of the tietriangle corners from the interceptions of the equations for the limiting tielines. The first measurements of the heats of formation of triconjugate phases in these types of systems are also reported.

  17. Surfactants as Microbicidal Contraceptives: A Calorimetric Study of Partitioning and Translocation in Model Membrane Systems

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, T. Kyle

    the sperm plasma membrane. The partitioning of N-9 into the membranes was found to be endothermic scales. The results of these studies shed light on the process of surfactant-induced membrane permeabilization. Introduction The amphiphilicity of surfactants leads not only to self- assembly in solution (such

  18. Final Preparation of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for Launch to the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Brian; Calet Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    CALET has been delivered to the JAXA Tsukuba Space Center and is undergoing final preflight testing for launch to the ISS on HTV5 for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) with a target date in 2015. This Japanese-Italian-US astroparticle observatory consists of a main calorimeter (CAL) and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) subsystem. The CAL is comprised from top to bottom of a charge detector (CHD) with two crossed layers of scintillator paddles, an imaging calorimeter (IMC) with planes of scintillating fibers interleaved with a total of 3 radiation lengths (X0) of tungsten, and a 27 X0 deep total absorption calorimeter (TASC) made of lead tungstate logs, which has the excellent energy resolution and imaging capabilities to resolve electrons, hadrons and photons. In a planned 5 year mission CALET will measure the combined cosmic ray electron and positron spectrum to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV, nuclei 1 <= Z <= 40 to 1,000 TeV, and gamma-ray bursts between 7 keV and 20 MeV. CALET will look for signs of possible local astrophysical sources of cosmic ray electrons, search for dark matter signatures and probe the environment through which cosmic rays propagate from their source(s) to Earth. This research is supported by JAXA in Japan, ASI in Italy, and by NASA under Grant Number NNX11AE02G.

  19. Revisiting the glass transition and dynamics of supercooled benzene by calorimetric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wenkang; Chen, Zeming; Li, Xiangqian; Gao, Yanqin; Liu, Riping; Wang, Li-Min

    2015-10-01

    The glass transition and dynamics of benzene are studied in binary mixtures of benzene with five glass forming liquids, which can be divided into three groups: (a) o-terphenyl and m-xylene, (b) N-butyl methacrylate, and (c) N,N-dimethylpropionamide and N,N-diethylformamide to represent the weak, moderate, and strong interactions with benzene. The enthalpies of mixing, ?Hmix, for the benzene mixtures are measured to show positive or negative signs, with which the validity of the extrapolations of the glass transition temperature Tg to the benzene-rich regions is examined. The extrapolations for the Tg data in the mixtures are found to converge around the point of 142 K, producing Tg of pure benzene. The fragility m of benzene is also evaluated by extrapolating the results of the mixtures, and a fragility m ˜ 80 is yielded. The obtained Tg and m values for benzene allow for the construction of the activation plot in the deeply supercooled region. The poor glass formability of benzene is found to result from the high melting point, which in turn leads to low viscosity in the supercooled liquid.

  20. A calorimetric study of high temperature phase stability in Fe-U alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Raju, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    A differential scanning calorimetry study of high temperature phase equilibria and phase transformation kinetics in Fe100-xUx binary alloys, with x varying from 0 to 95 mass% U is undertaken. Accurate measurement of transformation temperatures pertaining to: (i) ?-Fe ? ?-Fe ? ?-Fe polymorphic phase change, (ii) UFe2 + ?-Fe ? L and U6Fe + UFe2 ? L transformations and (iii) melting has been made as a function of uranium concentration. The measured transformation temperatures are used to construct the binary Fe-U phase diagram, which showed general agreement with the latest assessment. The L ? UFe2 + ?-Fe eutectic reaction is found to occur at 1357 ± 5 K, with the eutectic composition of 47 mass%. The heat of transformation associated with this invariant reaction is estimated to be 19,969 ± 1736 J mol of atoms-1. The L ? U6Fe + UFe2 reaction occurs at 89 mass%, and at 1001 ± 5 K, with a heat of transformation 20,250 ± 2113 J mol of atoms-1. The heat of melting of stoichiometric UFe2 is estimated to be 20,983 ± 2098 J mol of atoms-1, which is higher than the currently assessed value by 30%. A non-faceted microstructural morphology is found to accompany the eutectic solidification process of all the alloy compositions.