Sample records for xvi calorimetric determination

  1. A calorimetric method to determine water activity.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg(-1) to 3 mol kg(-1) and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl(2), NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4)) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities. PMID:22129000

  2. Calorimetric determinations and theoretical calculations of polymorphs of thalidomide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Ochoa, F.; Pérez, G. Espinosa; Mijangos-Santiago, F.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of the thermograms of thalidomide obtained for the two reported polymorphs ? and ? by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows some inconsistencies that are discussed in the present work. The conception of a new polymorph form, named ? ?, allowed us to explain the observed thermal behavior more satisfactorily. This new polymorph shows enantiotropy with both ? and ? polymorphs, reflected in the unique endotherm obtained in the DSC-thermograms, when a heating rate of 10 °C/min is applied. Several additional experiments, such as re-melting of both polymorph forms, showed that there is indeed a new polymorph with an endotherm located between the endotherms of ? and ?. IR, Raman, and powder X-ray permit us to characterize the isolated compound, resulting from the re-melting of both polymorph forms. Mechanical calculations were performed to elucidate the conformations of each polymorph, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed to determine the energy of the more stable conformers and the spatial cell energy for both polymorphs ? and ?. These results suggested a possible conformation for the newly discovered polymorph ? ?.

  3. Importance of 241 Am Determination in the Characterization of PuO2 Standards for Calorimetric Assay.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) standards are often used both as heat standards and isotopic standards for calorimetric assay. Calorimetric assay is the combination of the power in watts measured in a calorimeter with the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) in watts/g Pu, determined either by nondestructive gamma-ray assay or by destructive mass spectrometry, to yield the total elemental plutonium mass in the sample. To use a PuO{sub 2} sample as a heat standard for calorimetry, one must determine both the plutonium mass and P{sub eff} with very small uncertainties and then calculate the sample watts from the known plutonium mass, specific powers, and isotopic composition. Well-characterized PuO{sub 2} standards have plutonium mass values determined by analytical chemistry with a precision and accuracy on the order of 0.1%-0.2% relative to the total mass of the sample. Mass spectrometry, typically used to determine the isotopic fractions of plutonium standards, is very accurate and precise for the major isotopes but is somewhat less precise for low-abundance isotopes. The characterization of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in the standard is also of great importance because {sup 241}Am can contribute significantly to P{sub eff} and to the heat output of the standard. The determination of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in a plutonium-bearing sample is a process that is less standardized than mass spectrometry. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) traceable to the national measurement system for {sup 241}Am in plutonium, and routine analytical {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio measurements often exhibit uncertainties of several percent relative to the total plutonium or greater.

  4. Examination of the calorimetric spectrum to determine the neutrino mass in low-energy electron capture decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. G. H.

    2015-03-01

    Background: The standard kinematic method for determining neutrino mass from the ? decay of tritium or other isotope is to measure the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. A similar distortion of the "visible energy" remaining after electron capture is caused by neutrino mass. There has been a resurgence of interest in using this method with 163Ho, driven by technological advances in microcalorimetry. Recent theoretical analyses offer reassurance that there are no significant theoretical uncertainties. Purpose: The theoretical analyses consider only single vacancy states in the daughter 163Dy atom. It is necessary to consider configurations with more than one vacancy that can be populated owing to the change in nuclear charge. Method: The shakeup and shake-off theory of Carlson and Nestor is used as a basis for estimating the population of double-vacancy states. Results: A spectrum of satellites associated with each primary vacancy created by electron capture is presented. Conclusions: The theory of the calorimetric spectrum is more complicated than has been described heretofore. There are numerous shakeup and shake-off satellites present across the spectrum, and some may be very near the endpoint. The spectrum shape is presently not understood well enough to permit a sensitive determination of the neutrino mass in this way.

  5. Calorimetric Analysis of Commercial and Dental Waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Powers; R. G. Craig; F. A. Peyton

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetric analysis was used to determine heats of transition and fusion of waxes between 0 and 100 C. In general, hydrocarbon waxes had higher total heats of transition than did ester waxes. Calorimetric measurements on binary mixtures showed that carnauba and beeswax interacted with paraffin, the former having the greater effect.

  6. Calorimetric determination of the acidic character of amorphous and crystalline aluminosilicates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brindusa Dragoi; Antonella Gervasini; Emil Dumitriu; Aline Auroux

    2004-01-01

    Aluminosilicates can present different structures such as crystalline true zeolite molecular sieves or amorphous silica–aluminas. With a large surface area available, both can be involved as catalysts, adsorbents or catalyst supports, and the determination of their surface acidic properties is an important parameter in the study of such materials.The number, strength and strength distribution of the acidic sites were determined

  7. N- Acetyl- l-prolyl- l-leucyl-glycinamide : X-ray structure, energy minimization and calorimetric determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliti, Raffaella; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Sena, Cira; Barone, Guido

    1998-02-01

    A solid-state study of N- acetyl- l-prolyl- l-leucyl-glycinamide hemihydrate (NAPLGA), C 15H 26N 4O 4·0.5H 2O has been performed using single crystal X-ray diffraction method and calorimetric determinations of the fusion thermodynamic parameters. Conformational energy map of Ac?Pro?Leu?Gly?NH 2 molecule has also been evaluated. In the crystal, the molecular backbone is folded back between Leu and Gly residues and the conformation is stabilized by a 1 ? 4 intramolecular H-bond. In this manner a ten-membered cyclic structure with ?-turn type II conformation is formed. Prolyl residue is in a slightly distorted Cs?C ?- exo form and Leu side-chain adopts the energetically favoured t( g+t) conformation. Crystal packing is characterized by four intermolecular hydrogen bonds which involve all the donor groups. The crystallization water placed on a binary axis acts as a bridge, through two H-bonds, between two-fold related peptide molecules. All the hydrogen bonds assemble in wide layers extending parallel to the ab plane of a C2 space group. Along the c direction, adjacent layers are separated by regions characterized by loose van der Waals interactions. Potential energy calculations have been carried out using procedures as in ECEPP (empirical conformational energy program for peptides) and AMBER programs and the most favoured conformations have been analysed in comparison with the one observed in the hydrated crystal. The observed conformation is very close to a relative minimum, whose energy is only 4 kJ mol -1 ( ECEPP procedure) higher than that of the calculated absolute minimum. Thermodynamic properties concerning the fusion, when compared with those of other correlated N-acetyl peptidoamides, suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen bond is probably maintained also in NAPLGA molten, partially limiting the conformational freedom of each peptide molecule.

  8. Calorimetric determination of the thermoneutral potential for Li/BrCl in SOCl2 (BCX) cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcy, Eric C.; Kalu, Eric E.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-05-01

    Proliferation of lithium cells into large modular battery packs are projected for future space applications. Assuring battery design safety while maintaining high energy density requires accurate and precise knowledge of the thermal parameters of the battery cell. Specifically, the thermoneutral potential was determined using heat conduction calorimetry on Li/BrCl in SOCl2 (BCX) DD-cells and compared to measurements obtained on Li/SOCl2 D-cells. Over 20 to 60 C, the Li/BCX cells were found to have a thermoneutral potential significantly higher (near 4.0 volts) than that for the Li/SOCl2 cells tested. The higher heat generation measured during discharge reflects the higher electrochemical polarization observed with the BCX cells.

  9. Quantitative schlieren diagnostics for the determination of ambient species density, gas temperature and calorimetric power of cold atmospheric plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Bleker, A.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2015-05-01

    A measurement and evaluation technique for performing quantitative Schlieren diagnostics on an argon-operated cold atmospheric plasma jet is presented. Combined with computational fluid dynamics simulations, the method not only yields the temporally averaged ambient air density and temperature in the effluent of the fully turbulent jet, but also allows for an estimation of the calorimetric power deposited by the plasma. The change of the refractive index due to mixing of argon and air is in the same range as caused by the temperature increase of less than 35 K in the effluent of the plasma jet. The Schlieren contrast therefore needs to be corrected for the contribution from ambient air diffusion. The Schlieren system can be calibrated accurately using the signal obtained from the argon flow when the plasma is turned off. The temperature measured in this way is compared to the value obtained using a fibre-optics temperature probe and shows excellent agreement. By fitting a heat source in a fluid dynamics simulation to match the measured temperature field, the calorimetric power deposited by the plasma jet can be estimated as 1.1 W.

  10. Calorimetric properties of magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Genova, Danilo; Giordano, Daniele; Romano, Claudia; Alletti, Marina; Scaillet, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic and volcanic processes are strongly controlled by the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts. Recently it has been recognized that the way in which the magma crosses the so-called "glass transition" boundary can determine whether a quite degassing, through preferential pathways, or a catastrophic eruption will take place. On the other hand, the thermodynamic properties inform us regarding the internal energy of melts and crystals and how internal energy and other closely related thermodynamic functions change with temperature, so affecting processes as partial melting, solidification, the advective transport of heat, and volatile exsolution and degassing. The effect of volatiles on these properties is well recognized, but not satisfactorily investigated so far. In this study, calorimetric measurements were conducted on four series of variously hydrated multicomponent melts, obtained by remelting and homogeneization of natural magmas in order to investigate the effect of water on the glass transition interval (Tg) and heat capacity (Cp). The hydrous samples were synthesized in a piston cylinder and measured by the employement of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Pantelleritic, latitic, HK basaltic and trachybasaltic compositions have been analysed over a range of water contents up to 5.3 wt%.For each investigated melt composition the cooling rate dependence of Tg has been characterized at four different temperatures corresponding to the onset, the inflection point, the peak and the stable liquid regions of the heat capacity curves. Tg of all compositions are strongly reduced by increasing water content. Base composition also has an effect, with the lowest Tg occurring in pantelleritic suite. For all sample a clear dependence on cooling/heating rate has been recorded. Peak and onset glass transition temperatures show constant viscosity values at differing water contents. Moreover the activation energies yielded by calorimetric and viscosimetry are, within experimental error, identical. This confirm that the calculation of viscosity through the employment of a simple shift factor, as already proposed by previous authors, can be used, for the investigated samples. So far it concern the effect of water on the heat capacities, we show that water has important effect and that complex patterns are observed for different compositional suites.

  11. Adiabatic calorimetric decomposition studies of 50 wt.% hydroxylamine\\/water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizbeth O Cisneros; William J Rogers; M. Sam Mannan

    2001-01-01

    Calorimetric data can provide a basis for determining potential hazards in reactions, storage, and transportation of process chemicals. This work provides calorimetric data for the thermal decomposition behavior in air of 50wt.% hydroxylamine\\/water (HA), both with and without added stabilizers, which was measured in closed cells with an automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). Among the data provided are onset

  12. Regulation XVI: GENERAL UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Regulation XVI: GENERAL UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION 1. Unless stated otherwise, these and the following Regulations apply to students in all Faculties, including the International Faculty: General Regulations for First Degrees; General Regulations for Higher Degrees

  13. Calorimetric electron telescope mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Torii

    2011-01-01

    We are developing the CALorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, mission for the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility, JEM-EF, of the International Space Station, ISS. Major scientific objective is a search for nearby cosmic ray sources and dark matter by carrying out a precise measurement of the electrons in 1GeV–20TeV and the gamma-rays in 20MeV-several TeV. CALET has, moreover, a capability to measure

  14. Calorimetric determination of the effect of ammonium-iron(II) phosphate monohydrate on Rhodic Eutrudox Brazilian soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nieves Barros; Claudio Airoldi; José A. Simoni; Beatriz Ramajo; Aránzazu Espina; José R. García

    2006-01-01

    The fertilizer NH4FePO4·H2O (AIP) was synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions to be applied on soils to prevent iron deficiencies. The effect of the addition of AIP on soil microbial activity was studied by calorimetry, determining both basal respiration and carbon mineralization by means of the addition of an external carbon source. Thermal analyses (TG and DSC) were also used to

  15. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  16. Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it?

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    XVI-1 Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it? All students matriculating in or after the fall of 1999 are expected to develop and submit portfolios as a requirement for graduation. In academic year 2005-2006, 1104 students of the graduating class submitted portfolios. When is it administered

  17. Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it?

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    XVI-1 Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it? All students matriculating in or after the fall of 1999 are expected to develop and submit portfolios as a requirement for graduation. In May of 2005, 1099 students of the graduating class submitted completed portfolios. When is it administered

  18. Calorimetric studies of tunneling phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Inaba

    1994-01-01

    Calorimetric investigations have been performed for the molecules and ions that show tunneling in solids and adsorbed monolayers. A combination of heat capacity measurement and neutron scattering experiment yields valuable information about the energy scheme and the kinetic behavior such as spin conversion. Finding of a phase transition of those solids also gives us helpful information to understand the whole

  19. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20–26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long–standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster–session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593–598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group–Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 – 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN–10: 0–8218–4355–9, ISBN–13: 978–0–8218–4355–0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically–weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing the Proceedings within a reasonable time. Dieter Schuc

  20. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Moorman, Jack O. (Boone, IA)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe).

  1. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Moorman, J.O.

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus is described for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe). 18 figs.

  2. CalorimetricEnzymicMeasurement of UricAcidin Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja N. Rehak; Gail Janes

    Uric acid in serum was determined calorimetrically with a batch type microcalorimeter, by measuring the heat evolved during a coupled uricase\\/catalase enzymic re.- action in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane HCI buffer (pH 9.0 at 30 #{176}C). Heat evolutionandconcentrationare linearly related throughthe physiologicalrangeof serum uric acid concentrationsand the method is free of interferences of the sort encountered with spectrophotometric methods. Precisionandaccuracy are good(CV, 2%)

  3. Melting enthalpies of mantle peridotite: calorimetric determinations in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 and application to magma generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojitani, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Masaki

    1997-12-01

    High-temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range of 1398-1785 K was performed for the samples of mixtures of synthetic anorthite (An), diopside (Di), enstatite (En) and forsterite (Fo) with the same compositions as those of primary melts generated at 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa at most 10° above the solidus of anhydrous mantle peridotite in the CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 system. From the differences between the heat contents ( H T-H 298) of liquid and that of crystal mixture at the liquidus temperature, melting enthalpies of the samples of 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa-primary melt compositions were determined at 1 atm to be 531 ± 39 J · g -1 at 1583 K, 604 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1703 K, 646 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1753 K, respectively. These heat of fusion values suggest that mixing enthalpy of the melt in the An-Di-En-Fo system is approximately zero within the experimental errors when we use the heat of fusion of Fo by Richet et al. (P. Richet, F. Leclerc, L. Benoist, Melting of forsterite and spinel, with implications for the glass transition of Mg 2SiO 4 liquid, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20 (1993) 1675-1678). The measured enthalpies of melting at 1 atm were converted into those for melting reactions which occur under high pressures by correcting enthalpy changes associated with solid-state mineral reactions. Correcting the effects of pressure, temperature and FeO and Na 2O components on the melting enthalpies at 1 atm, heat of fusion values of a representative mantle peridotite just above the solidus under high pressure were estimated to be 590 J at 1.1 GPa and 1523 K, 692 J at 3 GPa and 1773 K, and 807 J at 4 GPa and 1923 K for melting reactions producing liquid of 1 g, with uncertainties of 50 J. By applying these melting enthalpies to a mantle diapir model which generates present MORBs, a potential mantle temperature of 1533 K has been estimated, assuming an eruption temperature of magma of 1473 K.

  4. Calorimetric enzymic measurement of uric acid in serum.

    PubMed

    Rehak, N N; Janes, G; Young, D S

    1977-02-01

    Uric acid in serum was determined calorimetrically with a batch type microcalorimeter, by measuring the heat evolved during a coupled uricase/catalase enzymic reaction in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane HCl buffer (pH 9.0 at 30 degrees C). Heat evolution and concentration are linearly related through the physiological range of serum uric acid concentrations and the method is free of interferences of the sort encountered with spectrophotometric methods. Precision and accuracy are good (CV, 2%) and the results correlate well with those obtained by a mechanized colorimetric uricase/peroxidase system. PMID:832382

  5. An Improved Formulation for Calorimetric Emittance Testing of Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonny R. Kauder

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft often rely heavily on passive thermal control to maintain operating temperature. An important parameter in the spacecraft heat balance equation is the emittance of thermal control coatings as a function of coating temperature. One method for determining the emittance of spacecraft thermal control from elevated temperature to cryogenic temperatures relies on a calorimetric technique. The fundamental equation governing this

  6. Noise analysis for calorimetric low-temperature detectors for heavy ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A Andrianov; A. Bleile; P. Egelhof; S. Kraft; A. Kiseleva; O. Kiselev; H. J Meier; J. P Meier

    2004-01-01

    The energy resolution of calorimetric low-temperature detectors for heavy ions has been analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of base line noise is small. The energy resolution is determined by intrinsic fluctuations of the detector signal. An incomplete energy thermalization during the stopping process of the heavy ion, the dependence of signal shape on impact position and fluctuations of

  7. Adiabatic calorimetric decomposition studies of 50 wt.% hydroxylamine/water.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, L O; Rogers, W J; Mannan, M S

    2001-03-19

    Calorimetric data can provide a basis for determining potential hazards in reactions, storage, and transportation of process chemicals. This work provides calorimetric data for the thermal decomposition behavior in air of 50wt.% hydroxylamine/water (HA), both with and without added stabilizers, which was measured in closed cells with an automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). Among the data provided are onset temperatures, reaction order, activation energies, pressures of noncondensable products, thermal stability at 100 degrees C, and the effect of HA storage time. Discussed also are the catalytic effects of carbon steel, stainless steel, stainless steel with silica coating, inconel, titanium, and titanium with silica coating on the reaction self-heat rates and onset temperatures. In borosilicate glass cells, HA was relatively stable at temperatures up to 133 degrees C, where the HA decomposition self-heat rate reached 0.05 degrees C/min. The added stabilizers appeared to reduce HA decomposition rates in glass cells and at ambient temperatures. The tested metals and metal surfaces coated with silica acted as catalysts to lower the onset temperatures and increase the self-heat rates. PMID:11165058

  8. Calorimetric Thermometry of Meteoritic Troilite: Early Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gooding, J. L.

    1993-07-01

    Troilite (FeS) exhibits two solid-state phase transformations, which, according to conventional thermodynamic literature [1,2], occur at 411 +- 3 K (alpha/beta) and 598 +- 3 K (beta/gamma). In principal, the thermal history of a particular troilite sample might be expected to impart structural or strain characteristics that could be measured upon experimental inducement of the phase transformations. To investigate that possibility, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the temperatures and enthalpy changes for phase transitions of various troilite samples subjected to controlled heating [3]. Post-heating residues were prepared as polished grain mounts and petrologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Troilite grains separated from the Mundrabilla (octahedrite), PAT91501 (L7 chondrite), and EET83213 (L3 chondrite) meteorites were compared with terrestrial troilite from an ultramafic complex in Del Norte Co., California. Both the alpha/beta and beta/gamma transitions were easily measured by DSC applied to samples on the order of 5 milligrams. Extrapolated-onset temperatures (the DSC approximation of equilibrium transition temperatures) for the alpha/beta transition display a systematic progression as follows: Mundrabilla, PAT91501, EET83213, Del Norte (Fig. 1). At least for Mundrabilla, PAT91501, and Del Norte, there also exists an apparent correlation of transition enthalpy with onset temperature (Fig. 1). (Enthalpy measurements for EET83213 troilite were systematically low, by dilution effects from admixed Ni-Fe metal, and require correction before such comparison.) Although Mundrabilla troilite contains on the order of 1 wt% Cr, and some grains of PAT91501 troilite contain on the order of 1 wt% Ni, it is doubtful that compositional differences can fully account for the measured differences in thermodynamic properties. Instead, it is likely that first-order differences are the consequence of different thermal histories. Multiple samples of Del Norte troilite were used to determine the influence of laboratory-scale thermal histories on DSC signatures by heating and cooling each sample under different programmed conditions. In reconnaissance experiments, maximum temperature achieved during heat treatment appears to be more influential than does either the time maintained at temperature or the heating/cooling rate. The experimentally measured alpha/beta onset temperature shows a systematic decline with maximum temperature achieved during prior heating, suggesting that high onset temperatures are indicative of low maximum temperatures in the natural histories of the troilite samples. That trend is at least qualitatively consistent with the petrologic rankings of the meteorites in which troilite from the relatively unmetamorphosed L3 chondrite shows a higher onset temperature than does troilite from either the highly metamorphosed L7 chondrite or the octahedrite. Additional work should define the limits of a quantitative calibration that might ultimately permit derivation of meteorite thermal histories by calorimetric thermometry of troilite. Samples were kindly provided by E. R. D. Scott (Mundrabilla), C. B. Moore (Del Norte), and the Meteorite Working Group (PAT91501; EET83213 powder from E. Jarosewich). References: [1] Chase M. W. Jr. et al. (1985) JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd ed., 1194. [2] Robie R. A. et al. (1979) Geol. Surv. Bull. 1452, 125. [3] Allton J. H. and Gooding J. L. (1993) LPS XXIV, 21-22. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the thermodynamics of troilite alpha/beta phase transformations measured by DSC during first-heat cycles.

  9. Calorimetric and volumetric data of salting of albumin from human serum using NaCl solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zielenkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volume and enthalpy changes for mixing NaCl (aq.) with albumin from human serum (aq.) are experimentally determined\\u000a (25°C). Calorimetric experiments were carried out in an LKB 10700-2 calorimeter, whereas volumetric measurements were realized\\u000a using an Anton Paar 60\\/602 densimeter. The density measurements were made after 1 and 24 h of the dissolution in the buffer\\u000a (pH 4.2). The

  10. Calorimetric study of hydrogen interaction with LaNi 3.92Al 0.98

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V Ivanova; R. A Sirotina; V. N Verbetsky

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with LaNi3.92Al0.98 has been investigated by means of the calorimetric method. P–X and ?H–X isotherms at pressures up to 60 atm in the temperature range 319–605 K have been determined. The existence of two hydride phases and the decrease of ?H value with increasing temperature has been established.

  11. Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their effects on soil biodegradation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dziejowski; I. Bia?obrzewski

    2011-01-01

    Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their environmental effects focus on three main research\\u000a areas. The first research area involves determination of selected thermal and physical parameters characterizing the above\\u000a substances, such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and others. The second area covers processes of total or gradual destruction\\u000a of the examined substances at a fixed composition

  12. ESTIMATION OF BARE-SOIL EVAPORATION USING A CALORIMETRIC APPROACH WITH HEAT FLUX MEASURED AT MULTIPLE DEPTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assumption in calorimetric methods for soil heat flux is that sensible heat terms can be balanced (i.e., if the heat flux is known at one depth, the heat flux at another depth may be determined by monitoring the change in heat storage). Latent heat from water evaporation is assigned to the energy...

  13. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  14. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  15. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability...procedures for handling your request to file a disability claim when you have a pending...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for...

  16. Thermodynamic properties of anhydrous smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and mixed-layer illite smectite ISCz-1 as determined by calorimetric methods. Part I: Heat capacities, heat contents and entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailhanou, H.; van Miltenburg, J. C.; Rogez, J.; Olives, J.; Amouric, M.; Gaucher, E. C.; Blanc, P.

    2007-11-01

    The heat capacities of the anhydrous international reference clay minerals, smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and mixed-layer illite-smectite ISCz-1, were measured by low temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, from 6 to 520 K (at 1 bar). The samples were chemically purified and Na-saturated. Dehydrated clay fractions <2 ?m were studied. The structural formulae of the corresponding clay minerals, obtained after subtracting the remaining impurities, are K0.026NaCa(SiAl) ( AlFe3+0.184MgFe2+0.038Ti) O(OH)2 for smectite MX-80, K0.762Na(SiAl) ( AlFe3+0.292MgFe2+0.084)O(OH)2 for illite IMt-2 and K0.530Na(SiAl)( AlFe3+0.051MgFe2+0.017Ti) O(OH)2for mixed-layer ISCz-1. From the heat capacity values, we determined the molar entropies, standard entropies of formation and heat contents of these minerals. The following values were obtained at 298.15 K and 1 bar: Cp0 (J mol -1 K -1) S0 (J mol -1 K -1) Smectite MX-80 326.13 ± 0.10 280.56 ± 0.16 Illite IMt-2 328.21 ± 0.10 295.05 ± 0.17 Mixed-layer ISCz-1 320.79 ± 0.10 281.62 ± 0.15

  17. A Calorimetric Method for Determination of Heat Capacity of Ceramics for Concentrated Solar Thermal Systems / Sken?još?s Kalorimetrijas Metode Siltumietilp?bas Noteikšanai Saules Kolektoru Keramik?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalna?s, J.; Grehovs, V.; Mežinskis, G.; Bidermanis, L.

    2013-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to determine the heat capacity (Cp) of the high temperature resistant ceramic materials to be used as protective coatings for stainless steel tubes of parabolic trough solar collectors in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. The ??(?) measurements and calculations were performed at continuous scanning in the temperature range 20-800 °?. In the work, calibration curves have been derived for conversion of measuring units from mcV into mW. To achieve a better repeatability of measurements, methods for stabilization of the thermal contact between the sample-containing vessel and the probe have been developed. The ??(?) dependence was obtained for different ceramic materials. Rakst? izkl?st?ta izstr?d?t? metodika keramikas un emalju siltumietilp?bas noteikšanai p?c diferenci?l?s sken?još?s kalorimetrijas m?r?jumiem. Par?d?ta virkne trauc?jošo faktoru kalibr?šanas l?knes un m?r?jumu veikšanai, pied?v?tas metodes to samazin?šanai vai nov?ršanai, prec?z?ku rezult?tu ieguvei. Noteikta siltumietilp?bas atkar?ba no temperat?ras virknei emalju, kas var tikt izmantotas saules siltuma kolektoros, k? aizsargp?rkl?jumi. Par?d?ta siltumietilp?bas noteikšanas atk?rtojam?bas atkar?ba no siltuma kontakta. Izstr?d?ta metode termisk? kontakta stabiliz?cijai. Virknei emalju noteikta siltumietilp?bas atkar?ba no temperat?ras diapazon? 20 - 800°?.

  18. Calorimetric measurement of absorption loss in orientation-patterned GaP and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyanova, Yelena; Moulton, Peter F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    Materials grown by vapor phase techniques such as chemical vapor deposition or hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) often exhibit very low losses which are difficult to quantify by simple transmission measurements. The measurement of extremely low absorption coefficients can be carried out by laser calorimetric or thermal rise techniques, which determine the absorption coefficients by measuring the temperature increase caused by the absorbed laser radiation. We report here on results of measuring absorption coefficients of bulk HVPE-grown orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) and GaP (OP-GaP) crystals using one of the methods of laser calorimetry, called transient calorimetry. In our setup, the sample under test is attached to a high-conductivity copper holder and placed in a vacuum chamber. A 2-micron cw laser beam is transmitted through the sample and the temperature rise in the sample is measured and, through the calorimeter calibration process, related to the power absorbed in the sample. The absorbed power, Pa, is a function of the total attenuation coefficient ?tot , the length of the sample, and the laser power Po, defined as Pa = Po exp (-?tot l), where total attenuation ?tot is the sum of absorption and scattering: ?tot = ?abs + ?scat. Since scattered light does not cause heating, the calorimetric technique is only applicable to determining ?abs. By this technique we have measured 2-micron absorption coefficients in OP-GaAs and OP-GaP as low as 0.007 cm-1.

  19. Strascino's compliant. Syphilis and the XVI Century Sienese theatre.

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Niccolo Campani, known with the nickname "Strascino" (as shabby, beggarly), is among the most important poets in the XVI Century in Italian theatre. Famous for his sharp-witted humor and the perfect Tuscan rhyming, the Sienese poet left a work whose subject is syphilis, cooght by Campany from 1503 to 1511. In Strascino's Compliant, the poet describes in rhyme the course and recovery of the illness, giving a very personal testimony of being ill with the "la malaise francaise" and a broad overview of the sixteenth Century in Italy PMID:12728208

  20. ELECTROCHEMICAL CALORIMETRIC STUDIES OF THE COLD FUSION EFFECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Miles; D. E. Stilwell

    Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD\\/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd\\/D2O

  1. Calorimetric studies of isothermal curing of phase separating epoxy networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jenninger; J. E. K. Schawe; I. Alig

    2000-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the curing process of multi-component thermosets differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) measurements were performed during isothermal curing of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) with amounts of 10 or 20wt.% of linear polymer and of the corresponding pure networks at temperatures between 333 and 393K. The network component consists of diglycidylether of

  2. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

  3. Premelting at fusion of titanite CaTiSiO5: a calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerád, I.; Mikšíková, E.; Kosa, L.; Adamkovi?ová, K.

    2013-07-01

    An extensive anomalously rapid increase of relative enthalpy H( T) - H(298 K) of crystalline CaTiSiO5 was observed by means of high-temperature drop calorimetry when melting point is approached. X-ray diffraction analysis of the quenched products after drop in calorimeter shows that this effect is related to premelting. The determined excess enthalpy of crystals near the melting point reaches up to 115 kJ mol-1, that is about 82 % of the total enthalpy of melting, indicating that the premelting effect reflects configurational changes in the bulk of the crystals rather than a surface melting or any other type of partial melting. The obtained results support the presumption that calorimetrically measured premelting effect in titanite reflects the energy-consuming temperature-induced disordering of the framework elements, Si and Ti, which are strongly bonded to oxygen.

  4. A calorimetric study on interactions of colchicine with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Min; Sun, De-Zhi; Li, Lin-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Interaction of colchicine (COL) with human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solutions (pH 7.2) has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra. Heats of the interactions have been determined at 298.15 K. Based on the calorimetric data and reasonable suppositions for the bio-macromolecule - ligand binding process, the equilibrium constants, standard changes of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the processes are obtained. The results show that there are two classes of ligand binding sites. The first-class binding is mainly driven by entropy, while the second-class binding is synergistically driven by entropy and enthalpy. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra show that COL can change the secondary structure of HSA molecule.

  5. A paper-based calorimetric microfluidics platform for bio-chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Davaji, Benyamin; Lee, Chung Hoon

    2014-09-15

    In this report, a paper-based micro-calorimetric biochemical detection method is presented. Calorimetric detection of biochemical reactions is demonstrated as an extension of current colorimetric and electrochemical detection mechanisms of paper-based biochemical analytical systems. Reaction and/or binding temperature of glucose/glucose oxidase, DNA/hydrogen peroxide, and biotin/streptavidin, are measured by the paper-based micro-calorimeter. Commercially available glucose calibration samples of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.3% wt/vol concentration are used for comparing the device performance with a commercially available glucose meter (electrochemical detection). The calorimetric glucose detection demonstrates a measurement error less than 2%. The calorimetric detection results of DNA concentrations from 0.9 to 7.3 mg/mL and temperature changes in biotin and streptavidin reaction are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the calorimetric detection method with paper based microfluidic devices. PMID:24713542

  6. Novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy for mine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Datskou, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The authors have developed a novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used in mine detection applications. In this technique target molecules are allowed to adsorb on the surface of sub-femtojoule sensitive micromechanical thermal detectors. The adsorption of molecules on the thermal detector surface causes a differential surface stress resulting in an initial trigger. By exposing each element in an array of thermal detectors to different photon wavelengths, an extremely sensitive and unique photothermal signature response can be obtained. The authors present their results on target chemicals adsorbed on the detector surface at sub-monolayer coverage levels. They will present infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns the photothermal spectra of DIMP and TNT exhibit a number of peaks and are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption spectra found in the literature. Chemical detectors based on micro-calorimetric spectroscopy can be used to sensitively sense small number of molecules adsorbed on a thermal detector surface. The photothermal signature resulting from photon irradiation can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  7. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  8. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  9. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  10. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  11. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  12. Dirac R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross-sections of Fe XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, S.; Bilal, M.; Nazir, R. T.; Bari, M. A.; Hannan, A.; Nasim, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    We present photoionization cross-sections of the ground state (S1/2) and the first four excited states (2P1/2, 3/2, 2D3/2, 5/2) of the Fe XVI ion using the fully relativistic R-matrix code DARC. The target wavefunctions are constructed with the fully relativistic GRASP1 code. In our calculations, we have included core excitations up to n = 3, 4, which give rise to 89 fine-structure target levels of Fe XVII. In particular, the total photoionization cross-sections, which include important resonance structures for the four excited states of Fe XVI, are reported here for the first time. Our target state energies and the binding energy of the ground state of Fe XVI are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical results.

  13. Fast electron thermometry towards ultra-sensitive calorimetric detection

    E-print Network

    S. Gasparinetti; K. L. Viisanen; O. -P. Saira; T. Faivre; M. Arzeo; M. Meschke; J. P. Pekola

    2014-11-04

    We demonstrate radiofrequency thermometry on a micrometer-sized metallic island below 100 mK. Our device is based on a normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction coupled to a resonator with transmission readout. In the first generation of the device, we achieve 90 {\\mu}K/Hz^1/2 noise-equivalent temperature with 10 MHz bandwidth. We measure the thermal relaxation time of the electron gas in the island, which we find to be of the order of 100 {\\mu}s. Such a calorimetric detector, upon optimization, can be seamlessly integrated into superconducting circuits, with immediate applications in quantum-thermodynamics experiments down to single quanta of energy.

  14. Calorimetric AC loss measurement of MgB2 superconducting tape in an alternating transport current and direct magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2012-11-01

    Applications of MgB2 superconductors in electrical engineering have been widely reported, and various studies have been made to define their alternating current (AC) losses. However, studies on the transport losses with an applied transverse DC magnetic field have not been conducted, even though this is one of the favored conditions in applications of practical MgB2 tapes. Methods and techniques used to characterize and measure these losses have so far been grouped into ‘electrical’ and ‘calorimetric’ approaches with external conditions set to resemble the application conditions. In this paper, we present a new approach to mounting the sample and employ the calorimetric method to accurately determine the losses in the concurrent application of AC transport current and DC magnetic fields that are likely to be experienced in practical devices such as generators and motors. This technique provides great simplification compared to the pickup coil and lock-in amplifier methods and is applied to a long length (˜10 cm) superconducting tape. The AC loss data at 20 and 30 K will be presented in an applied transport current of 50 Hz under external DC magnetic fields. The results are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions because of the metallic fraction of the tape that contributes quite significantly to the total losses. The data, however, will allow minimization of losses in practical MgB2 coils and will be used in the verification of numerical coil models.

  15. SPIE Proceedings, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, vol. 6138 (2006) Noninvasive Dosimetry and Monitoring of TTT

    E-print Network

    Palanker, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    SPIE Proceedings, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, vol. 6138 (2006) 1 Noninvasive Dosimetry and the lack of immediately observable outcome of the therapy, a real-time dosimetry is highly desirable. We-time monitoring and dosimetry of TTT. A 795nm laser was applied in rabbit eyes for 60 seconds using a 0.86mm

  16. Nutritional and psycho-physiological assessment of members of the XVI Antarctica expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARINDER K. SATIJA; ANAJANA G. VIJ; K. SRIDHARAN

    2000-01-01

    The present studies are aimed to evaluate the effects of physiological stress and metabolic requirements necessary to maintain homeostasis and physical and mental functions during stay at Antarctica in expedition members. Nutritional and psycho-physiological assement of the members of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica was carried alongwith supplementation of vitamins, viz., vitamins, viz., vitamin C and vitamin E

  17. Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency November/December 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Annual Report Summaries #12;3 Letter from the Editor Installation Management

  18. American Press Coverage of the Execution of Louis XVI: A Lesson Strategy for Gauging Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankiewicz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    In this unit of study high school students read and discuss U.S. newspaper articles reporting the trial and execution of the French king Louis XVI. Students look for key words and phrases that might indicate a subtle favorable or unfavorable opinion. (RM)

  19. Energy calibration of Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Asaoka, Yoichi; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa

    2015-06-01

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States. CALET will measure the flux of cosmic ray electrons (including positrons) up to 20 TeV, gamma-rays up to 10 TeV and nuclei from Z = 1 up to 40 up to 1000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. The unique feature of CALET is its thick, fully active calorimeter that allows measurements well into the TeV energy region with excellent energy resolution (< 3 %), coupled with a fine imaging upper calorimeter to accurately identify the starting point of electromagnetic showers. For continuous high performance of the detector, it is required to calibrate each detector component on orbit. We use the measured response to minimum ionizing particles for the energy calibration, taking data in a dedicated trigger mode and selecting useful events in off-line analysis. In this paper, we present on-orbit and off-line data handling methods for the energy calibration developed through beam tests at CERN-SPS and Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. In-situ calorimetric studies of SWCNT growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg; Tokune, Toshio; Mora, Elena; Chen, Gugang; Harutyunyan, Avetik

    2008-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were grown inside of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) apparatus with an attached mass spectrometer (MS), using different hydrocarbons (CH4 and C2H4) and alumina supported (Fe, Fe/Mo, and Ni) catalysts. This set-up allowed to in situ follow the evolution of calorimetric, thermogravimetric and MS data during the synthesis. A Raman spectrometer (with laser excitations wavelengths 532 and 785 nm) was used for verification of the growth of SWCNTs. DSC studies at temperatures ˜650-900 C of the interaction between the hydrocarbons and the preliminary reduced alumina supported catalysts showed a release (C2H4) or absorption (CH4) of heat depending on the type of hydrocarbon used. The effect of this energy on the growth of SWCNTs was studied. We found that the incubation time for nanotube nucleation depends on the hydrocarbon type and flow rate, as well as on the synthesis temperature. The origin of the initial endothermic peak observed during nanotube growth with both hydrocarbon sources will be discussed. Furthermore, the kinetics and thermodynamic of hydrocarbon decomposition, carbon atoms diffusion and solid carbon structure formation dependence on the catalyst and synthesis parameters will also be presented.

  1. Calorimetric measurements of energetics of defect interactions in fluorite oxides.

    PubMed

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Simoncic, Petra; Yokokawa, Harumi; Chen, Weiqun; Lee, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Direct measurement by oxide melt solution calorimetry of energetics of mixing in rare earth and yttrium doped zirconia, hafnia, and ceria systems provides support for spectroscopic and computational studies of the location and clustering of vacancies in these systems. Strongly negative heats of mixing are seen when the vacancy is transferred from being nearest neighbor to Y or RE in the sesquioxide to being nearest neighbor to Zr or Hf in the cubic solid solution. In the absence of such redistribution, small positive enthalpies of mixing are seen in CeO2-YO1.5 and CeO2-REO.15 systems. Strongly positive enthalpies of mixing are seen in CeO2-ZrO2, which has a large difference in cation sizes and no vacancy formation. The system Ce0.8Y0.2O1.9-Zr0.8Y0.2O1.9 shows small positive heats of formation with less destabilization in the Ce-rich region, suggestive of "scavenging" of oxygen vacancies by Zr. The calorimetric data obtained in these studies offer direct comparison with the results of computations on defect clusters and their binding energies. PMID:17326568

  2. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title...930 Section 408.930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  3. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title...930 Section 408.930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.930 Are...

  5. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.930 Are...

  6. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Docket No. SSA-2012-0006] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (DAA); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  7. Calorimetric study of plastically crystalline o- and m-carboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, Osamu; Hayashi, Masayuki; Matsuo, Takasuke; Lunkenheimer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    The heat capacities of o- and m-carboranes were measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 5-310 K. m-carborane underwent two phase transitions at 170 K and 284 K with transition entropies of 12.70 and 15.52 J K-1 mol-1. The total transition entropy agreed well with the theoretical value, indicating that m-carborane is ordered at 0 K. o-carborane also exhibited two phase transitions at 160 K and 275 K with transition entropies of 3.72 and 13.72 J K-1 mol-1, and additionally a glass transition at 120 K. This glass transition does occur not in the supercooled intermediate-temperature phase but in the low-temperature phase of o-carborane. The high- and intermediate-temperature phases of o-carborane could not be quenched at the maximum cooling rate (10 K min-1) of this experiment. The total transition entropy of o-carborane was smaller than that of m-carborane by 10.8 J K-1 mol-1, suggesting that o-carborane has residual orientational disorder at 0 K. The enthalpy relaxation was examined by the temperature jump method around the glass transition of o-carborane. The results were reproduced well by the KWW function. The calorimetric relaxation time and nonexponential parameter agreed with dielectric ones at the glass transition temperature. This indicates that the glass transition of o-carborane is due to the freezing of molecular reorientation.

  8. On board LIBS analysis of marine sediments collected during the XVI Italian campaign in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barbini; F Colao; V Lazic; R Fantoni; A Palucci; M Angelone

    2002-01-01

    The Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique was applied on board the R\\/V Italica during the XVI Antarctic campaign (2000–2001) to carry out elemental chemical analysis of marine sediments collected using different sampling systems. To this end, a compact system has been built, which was suitable to operate also in the presence of mechanical vibrations, induced by the ship motion. Qualitative and

  9. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), king of France

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754–1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fe XVI radiative rates (Diaz+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n<=5 states arising from the configuration 1s22sk2pm3lpnl'q, where k+m+p+q=9, l<=3 and p+q<=2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines. (2 data files).

  11. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754-1793), king of France.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M; Chiang, Charleston W K; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  12. Emittance characterization of thermal control paints, coatings and surfaces using a calorimetric technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Jaworske

    1994-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces are used in every spacecraft thermal management system to dissipate heat through radiant heat transfer. This paper describes the thermal performance of several thermal control paints, coatings, and surfaces, as characterized by a calorimetric vacuum emissometer. The emissometer is designed to measure the functional emittance of a surface based on heat transfer from an underlying substrate to

  13. Micro-calorimetric sensor for vapor phase explosive detection with optimized heat profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Greve; J. K. Olsen; N. Privorotskaya; L. Senesac; T. Thundat; W. P. King; A. Boisen

    2010-01-01

    A heater design, used in a micro-calorimetric sensor, has been optimized for temperature uniformity in order to increase the sensitivity and reliability of detection of trace amounts of explosives. In this abstract the design, fabrication and characterization is described. The performance of the novel heater design is characterized by measuring the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) values and by mapping

  14. Calorimetric detection of the conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Calorimetric detection of the conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air terahertz (THz) emission from a femtosecond laser filament in air is measured with a bolometric detector and a set of filters, confirming that the main part of the emission lies between 0.5 and 3 THz

  15. Realization of the triple points of gallium, water and mercury by an adiabatic calorimetric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sakurai

    1996-01-01

    The triple points of water, mercury and gallium are realized, mainly for the calibration of capsule-type thermometers, by a calorimetric method using platinum cells for water and mercury, and a small glass cell for gallium. Their molar impurities are estimated from the relation between the melting temperatures and the inverses of the fraction of melt. Almost all the samples show

  16. A Calorimetric Study of Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions in Restrictive Geometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germano Silvio Iannacchione

    1993-01-01

    A considerable amount of experimental and theoretical efforts have been applied to the study of confined liquid crystals. This has been motivated by the obvious interest for industrial applications and by the fundamental scientific questions that these systems address. This work details a calorimetric study of three phase transitions for liquid crystals confined within submicron size cylindrical cavities and random

  17. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO2 laser beam welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Fuerschbach

    1990-01-01

    The previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals'

  18. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuerschbach

    1990-01-01

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals'

  19. The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis of the Molecular of hydrogen-bondformation between guanine (G) and cytusine (C) in o-dichloro- benzene and in chloroformat 25°C forming hydrogen bonds. Consequently, hydrogen-bond formation in our system is primarily between the bases

  20. THEORETICAL WAVELENGTHS OF Fe XVI L-SHELL TRANSITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF CAPELLA

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Diaz, F.; Ishikawa, Y. [Department of Chemistry and the Chemical Physics Program, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the energy levels of Fe XVI, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole state in the L shell. Comparison of the resulting L-shell transition wavelengths with those from recent laboratory measurements shows remarkable agreement, i.e., agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Our calculation allows us to predict the wavelength of the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not yet been directly observed in the laboratory, to be 15.266 A. This wavelength is within 0.0042 A of the strong Fe XVII line commonly labeled 3D. Relying on the high accuracy of our calculations, we have reassigned two previously identified lines and predict a different location than previously thought for the strongest Fe XVI magnetic quadrupole transition. Inspection of the spectra of Capella recorded with the transmission grating spectrometers on the Chandra X-ray Observatory yields features corresponding to the predicted location of the innershell excited Fe XVI lines. These features have not been identified before. Our analysis shows that these features are most likely from Fe XVI.

  1. A Calorimetric Study of Almandine: Are the Thermodynamic Properties of the End-Member Aluminosilicate Garnets Finally Known Quantitatively?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachs, E.; Geiger, C. A.; Benisek, A.

    2012-12-01

    The aluminosilicate garnets (E3Al2Si3O12 with E = Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca, Mg) form an important rock-forming mineral group. Much study has been directed toward determining their thermodynamic properties. The iron end-member almandine (Fe3Al2Si3O12) is a key phase in many petrologic investigations. As part of an ongoing calorimetric and thermodynamic study of the aluminosilicate garnets, the heat capacity of three synthetic well-characterized polycrystalline almandine garnets and one natural almandine-rich single crystal was measured. The various garnets were characterized by optical microscopy, electron-microprobe analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Heat capacity measurements were performed in the temperature range 3 to 300 K using relaxation calorimetry and between 282 and 764 K using DSC methods. From the former, So values between 336.7 ± 0.8 and 337.8 ± 0.8 J/molK are calculated for the different samples. The smaller value is considered the best So for end-member stoichiometric almandine, because it derives from the "best" Fe3+-free synthetic sample. The Cp behavior for almandine at T > 298 K is given by the polynomial (in J/molK): Cp = 649.06(±4) - 3837.57(±122)T-0.5 - 1.44682(±0.06)107T-2 + 1.94834(±0.09)109T-3, which is calculated using DSC data together with one published heat-content datum determined by transposed-drop calorimetry along with a new determination that gives H1181K - H302K = 415.0 ± 3.2 kJ/mole. Almandine shows a ?-type heat-capacity anomaly at low temperatures resulting from a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition at about 9 K. The lattice heat capacity was calculated using the single-parameter phonon dispersion model of Komada and Westrum (1997), which allows the non-lattice heat capacity (Cex) behavior to be modelled. An analysis shows the presence of an electronic heat-capacity contribution (Cel - Schottky anomaly) around 17 K that is superimposed on a larger magnetic heat-capacity effect (Cmag). The calculated lattice entropy at 298.15 K is Svib = 303.3 J/molK and it contributes about 90% to the total standard entropy at 298 K. The non-lattice entropy is Sex = 33.4 J/molK and consists of Smag = 32.1 J/molK and Sel = 1.3 J/molK contributions. Using the So = 336.7 J/molK value and the Cp polynomial for almandine, we derived its enthalpy of formation, ?Hof, from an analysis of experimental phase equilibrium results on the reactions almandine + 3rutile = 3ilmenite + sillimanite + 2quartz and 2ilmenite = 2iron + 2rutile + O2. ?Hof = -5269.63 kJ/mol was obtained. So for grossular, pyrope, spessartine, and almandine, as well as their Cp behavior to high temperatures, have all been measured calorimetrically. Uncertainties in older calorimetric studies appear to have been resolved. The standard thermodynamic properties Vo and So are now well determined for all four garnets. In addition, ?Hof for all, except possibly spessartine, also appear to be well known.

  2. Calorimetric thermal voltage converter as a wideband calculable standard of AC-DC difference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr S. Filipski; Richard F. Clark; David C. Paulusse

    1999-01-01

    A calorimetric thermal voltage converter is used at the National Research Council of Canada as a high-frequency reference standard of the Ac-DC transfer difference. This paper describes its redesigned realization with an optimized frequency characteristic. Results presented in the paper show that it can be used as a standard of AC-DC difference in the 1 Hz to 100 MHz frequency

  3. Advances in high power calorimetric matched loads for short pulses and CW gyrotrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bin; A. Bruschi; S. Cirant; V. Erckmann; F. Gandini; G. Granucci; F. Hollmann; H. P. Laqua; V. Mellera; V. Muzzini; A. Nardone; F. Noke; B. Piosczyk; F. Purps; T. Rzesnicki; M. Schmid; C. Sozzi; W. Spies; N. Spinicchia; M. Stoner

    2007-01-01

    The development of high power gyrotrons for plasma physics research needs properly matched calorimetric loads able to absorb and measure the power, which nowadays is foreseen to be as high as 2MW during CW operations. To this end IFP\\/CNR has developed a family of matched loads useful in the mm-wave frequency band for applications ranging from a few ms to

  4. Calorimetric thermal-vacuum performance characterization of the BAe 80 K space cryocooler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Y. Kotsubo; D. L. Johnson; R. G. Ross Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization program is underway at JPL to generate test data on long-life, miniature Stirling-cycle cryocoolers for space application. The key focus of this paper is on the thermal performance of the British Aerospace (BAe) 80 K split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler as measured in a unique calorimetric thermal-vacuum test chamber that accurately simulates the heat-transfer interfaces of space. Two separate cooling

  5. Investigation of ZrMn 2+ x -H 2 by means of calorimetric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Anikina; V. N. Verbetsky

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with the ZrMn2+x (x=0, 0.7) Laves phase compounds at pressure up to 50atm and temperature range from 75 to 305°C were studied by means of calorimetric and P–C-isotherm methods. On the base of obtained results it can be assumed that in the ZrMn2+x-H2 system one or two hydride phases exist according to experimental temperature.

  6. Calorimetric study of water two-dimensionally condensed on the homogeneous surface of a solid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahiko Nagao; Ryotaro Kumashiro; Takeshi Matsuda; Yasushige Kuroda

    1995-01-01

    The state of water adsorbed on ZnO, Cr2O3 and SrF2, on which two-dimensional condensation of water occurs, has been studied by a direct calorimetric method. It was found that the differential heat of adsorption exhibits a maximum in the coverage region where a steep increase in the adsorbed amount is observed in the corresponding adsorption isotherm. This suggests the two-dimensional

  7. Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

  8. Ultra-Responsive Thermal Sensors for the Detection of Explosives Using Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec)

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.; Datskou, I.; Marlar, T.A.; Rajic, S.

    1999-04-05

    We have developed a novel chemical detection technique based on infrared micro-calorimetric spectroscopy that can be used to identify the presence of trace amounts of very low vapor pressure target compounds. Unlike numerous recently developed low-cost sensor approaches, the selectivity is derived from the unique differential temperature spectrum and does not require the questionable reliability of highly selective coatings to achieve the required specificity. This is accomplished by obtaining the infrared micro-calorimetric absorption spectrum of a small number of molecules absorbed on the surface of a thermal detector after illumination through a scanning monochromator. We have obtained infrared micro-calorimetric spectra for explosives such as TNT over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 Mu-m. Thus both sophisticated and relatively crude explosive compounds and components are detectable with these ultra-sensitive thermal-mechanical micro-structures. In addition to the above mentioned spectroscopy technique and associated data, the development of these advanced thermal detectors is also presented in detail.

  9. THE JOURNAL OF THE CAMBRIDGE COMPUTER LAB RING Issue XVI --September 2007 --20 www.camring.ucam.org

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    to emanate from the bar, alarms were ringing and the fire brigade was called.The London Ringlet Bar carriedRingThe THE JOURNAL OF THE CAMBRIDGE COMPUTER LAB RING Issue XVI -- September 2007 -- £20 www.camring.ucam.org Richard Muirhead 5 Founder ofTideway Systems Igor Drokov 7 Founder of Cronto Ring news 2 Ring events

  10. Complexation of manganese(II) by cyclohexano-15-crown-5 in propylene carbonate: Calorimetric and X-ray crystallographic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yanpei; Burns, J.H.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-04

    Calorimetric titrimetry reveals that cyclohexano-15-crown-5 (C15C5) forms a 1:1 complex with Mn(II) ions (2.5 mM) in propylene carbonate (PC) solution to which was added levels of water up to 134 mM. The reaction proceeds with a strong driving force (log K = 4.7-5.0) and is enthalpically driven overall, but the magnitude of the enthalpy change decreases with increasing water concentration in the case of the Mn(II) nitrate salt. A minor anion effect occurs in which the trifluoromethansulfonate ion gives slightly more negative values of {Delta}H and T{Delta}S than the nitrate ion. Values of log K, however, do not change appreciably with increasing water concentration, nor are they dependent on the anion. The crystal structure of Mn(C15C5)(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} was determined, showing that the Mn(II) ion is coordinated by a pentagonal bipyramid of oxygen atoms provided by the equatorial crown {Angstrom}, b=14.145(1) {Angstrom}, c = 13,420(1) {Angstrom} {beta} = 100.31(2){degrees}, V = 5028 {Angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 8, t = 26 {degrees}C. For 2178 reflections with I > {sigma}(I), and 325 parameters, R(F) = 0.050 and R{sub w}(F) = 0.054.

  11. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  12. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  13. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  14. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.931 How...

  15. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.931 How...

  16. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  17. A calorimetric study of the thermodynamic properties of potassium molybdate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichev, K. S.; Ryumin, M. A.; Tyurin, A. V.; Gurevich, V. M.; Komissarova, L. N.; Khoroshilov, A. V.; Sharpataya, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The low-temperature heat capacity of K2MoO4 was measured by adiabatic calorimetry. The smoothed heat capacity values, entropies, reduced Gibbs energies, and enthalpies were calculated over the temperature range 0-330 K. The standard thermodynamic functions determined at 298.15 K were C {/p °} (298.15 K) = 143.1 ± 0.2 J/(mol K), S°(298.15 K) = 199.3 ± 0.4 J/(mol K), H°(298.15 K)- H°(0) = 28.41 ± 0.03 kJ/mol, and ?°(298.15 K) = 104.0 ± 0.4 J/(mol K). The thermal behavior of potassium molybdate at elevated temperatures was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The parameters of polymorphic transitions and fusion of potassium molybdate were determined.

  18. Calorimetric study on inclusion of some alcohols into ?-cyclodextrin cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimura; M. Fujisawa; Y. Nakano; T. Kamiyama; T. Otsu; M. Maeda; S. Takagi

    2007-01-01

    The enthalpies of transfer 2-propanol, 1,2-butanediol (BD) and 1-hexanol from aqueous to aqueous ?-cyclodextrin (CD) solutions\\u000a have been determined by microcalorimetry at various mole fractions at 298.15 K. To clarify stabilities of inclusion complexes\\u000a in aqueous solutions, hydration Gibbs energies calculation of inclusion complex of CD-alcohol were performed by using the\\u000a molecular mechanics with the MMFF94s force field in the

  19. Determination of Kinetic Equations of Alkaline Activation of Blast Furnace Slag by Means of Calorimetric Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fernandez-Jimenez; F. Puertas; A. Arteaga

    1998-01-01

    The alkaline activation of blast furnace slag promotes the formation of new cement materials. These materials have many advantages\\u000a over ordinary Portland cement, including high strength, low production cost and good durability. However, many aspects of\\u000a the chemistry of alkaline activated slags are not yet very well understood. Some authors consider that these processes occur\\u000a through a heterogeneous reaction, and

  20. Calorimetric Measurement of the Heat of Adsorption of Benzene on Pt(111) Hyeran Ihm, Henry M. Ajo, J. M. Gottfried, P. Bera, and Charles T. Campbell*

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Charles T.

    adsorption isotherms is also impossible. Thus, a direct method like SCAC is required for the measurementCalorimetric Measurement of the Heat of Adsorption of Benzene on Pt(111) Hyeran Ihm, Henry M. Ajo of adsorption of benzene on clean Pt(111) at 300 K is measured calorimetrically and found to decrease

  1. Nanowell-patterned TiO{sub 2} microcantilevers for calorimetric chemical sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu, E-mail: dongkyu@ualberta.ca; Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Kim, Seonghwan [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Jeon, Sangmin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-07

    A sensitive calorimetric sensor using a TiO{sub 2} microcantilever with nanowells patterned on one of its sides is described. This single material cantilever is sensitive to temperature change without relying on the metal deposition-based bimetallic effect. The thermomechanical sensitivity originates from the structure dependent variations in both the elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient due to the presence of ordered nanowells. These cantilever beams offer an alternate and efficient chemical sensing route for vapor phase analytes using photothermal spectroscopy. Selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorus compounds, as well as their photocatalytic decomposition under ultraviolet light exposure are demonstrated.

  2. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines. PMID:20687748

  3. Calorimetric thermoelectric gas sensor for the detection of hydrogen, methane and mixed gases.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam-Hee; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/?-Al2O3) and cold (Pt/?-Al2O3) ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS), combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100-400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%. PMID:24818660

  4. Differential scanning calorimetric investigation of pea chloroplast thylakoids and thylakoid fractions.

    PubMed

    Nolan, W G; Hopkins, H P; Kalini, S A

    1992-08-15

    High sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to study the thermal denaturation of components of pea chloroplast thylakoid membranes. In contrast to previous reports utilizing spinach thylakoids, several transitions are reversible, and deconvolution of the calorimetric curves indicates nine transitions in both first and second heating scans, but overlapping transitions obscure at least three transitions in the first heating scans of control thylakoids. Glutaraldehyde fixation increases the denaturation temperature of several transitions which is consistent with a reported increase in thermal stability of thylakoid function due to fixation. Acidic pH treatment has little effect on the DSC curves, although it has been reported to have a significant effect on membrane structure. Separation of grana from stroma thylakoids indicates that components responsible for transitions centered at approximately 56, 73, 77, and 91 degrees C are predominantly or exclusively associated with grana thylakoids, whereas components responsible for transitions centered at approximately 63 and 81 degrees C are predominantly associated with stroma thylakoids. A broad transition centered at 66 degrees C is associated with grana thylakoids, whereas a sharp transition at the same temperature is due to a component associated with stroma thylakoids. Evidence obtained by washing treatments suggests the latter transition originates from the denaturation of the thylakoid ATPase (CF1). Analysis of the calorimetric enthalpy values indicates most components of the grana thylakoids denature irreversibly at high temperature, whereas components associated with the stroma thylakoids have a considerable degree of thermal reversibility. PMID:1386214

  5. Chip-calorimetric monitoring of biofilm eradication with antibiotics provides mechanistic information.

    PubMed

    Mariana, Frida; Buchholz, Friederike; Lerchner, Johannes; Neu, Thomas R; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Increased antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria dwelling in biofilm structures has motivated the development of various monitoring tools specifically designed for biofilm investigations. In this study, the potential of the recently emerging chip calorimetry for this purpose was analysed. The activity of biofilms of Pseudomonas putida PaW340 was monitored chip-calorimetrically and compared with counts of colony forming units (CFU), bioluminescence-based ATP measurements, and quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The biofilms were treated with antibiotics differing in their mechanisms of action (bactericidal kanamycin vs. bacteriostatic tetracycline) and referenced to untreated biofilms. For untreated biofilms, all methods gave comparable results. Calorimetric killing curves, however, reflecting metabolic responses to biofilm eradication non-invasively in real time, differed from those obtained with the established methods. For instance, heat signals increased right after addition of the antibiotics. This transient increase of activity was not detected by the other methods, since only calorimetry delivers specific information about the catabolic part of the metabolism. In case of the bactericidal antibiotic, CFU misleadingly indicated successful biofilm eradication, whereas calorimetry revealed enduring activity. Our results show that calorimetry holds promise to provide valuable mechanistic information, thereby complementing other methods of biofilm analysis. PMID:23453494

  6. arXiv:hep-ex/0211071v325Feb2003 A Calorimetric Search on Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    arXiv:hep-ex/0211071v325Feb2003 A Calorimetric Search on Double Beta Decay of 130 Te C. Arnaboldi of experiments on double beta decay of 130Te carried out with an array of twenty cryogenic detectors. The set and on the neutrinoless double beta decay of 128Te to the ground state of 128Xe are also reported and discussed

  7. Calorimetric study of the isotropic to nematic phase transition in an aligned liquid crystal nano?colloidal gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Crucenau; D. Liang; R. L. Leheny; G. S. Iannacchione

    2008-01-01

    A high?resolution calorimetric study of the specific heat (Cp) has been carried out for the isotropic to nematic phase transition in an aligned liquid crystal (octylcyanobiphenyl ? 8CB) and aerosil nano?colloid gel. A stable alignment was achieved by repeated thermal cycling of the samples in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field, which introduces anisotropy to the quenched random

  8. Calorimetrically-derived parameters for protein interactions with urea and guanidine-HCl are not consistent with denaturant m values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. DeKoster; Andrew D. Robertson

    1997-01-01

    A recent study used calorimetric data and a stoichiometric binding model to derive binding constants, enthalpies, and stoichiometries describing the interaction between proteins and the chemical denaturants, urea and guanidine-HCl (Makhatadze and Privalov, J. Mol. Biol., 226 (1992) 491). In the present study, these parameters have been used to calculate the excess free energy, ?Gex, associated with interactions between chemical

  9. Heat conduction limits on calorimetric effects at Mercury due to solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.

    1987-12-01

    Heat produced at the surface of Mercury by the highly time-variable precipitation of charged particles need not be radiated away immediately but can also be conducted into the interior of the planet. For a given precipitated energy flux density, the rise of surface temperature can be computed taking both heat conduction and radiation into account. When the energy input varies on time scales shorter than a characteristic period, estimated to be one (terrestrial) day for conditions typical of Mercury's dark side, heat conduction dominates over radiation and the predicted surface temperature rise becomes negligibly small. Possible observable calorimetric effects are therefore confined to long time scales, and their magnitude is constrained by the average rate of energy input from the solar wind together with limits on the observable area of precipitation.

  10. Transport and calorimetric studies on CeNi2Al3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Sankararao; Shanmukharao Samatham, S.; D, Venkateshwarlu; Gangrade, Mohan; Ganesan, V.

    2014-09-01

    Transport and calorimetric properties of Kondo lattice system CeNi2Al3 are reported. CeNi2Al3 shows good agreement with Grand Kadowaki-Woods relation with degeneracy of the quasi-particle N=6. The nonmagnetic nature of CeNi2Al3 is evident from resistivity measurement even though magnetic elements Ce and Ni are present. Three signatures, deviation from the normal metallic behaviour in resistivity above 140 K, relatively low charge carrier concentration (1021 cm?3) and energy gap Eg~11.6 meV obtained from two band model shed light on the most basic notions related to the semimetal nature of CeNi2Al3.

  11. Rapid discrimination of DNA strands using an opto-calorimetric microcantilever sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongkyu; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Seonghwan; Thundat, Thomas

    2014-12-21

    A rapid technique for quantitative detection and discrimination of DNA strands without using immobilized probe molecules is demonstrated using an opto-calorimetric, self-powered sensor based on a Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 (PZT) microcantilever. Microcalorimetric infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides excellent chemical selectivity based on the unique molecular vibrational characteristics of each nucleotide in the mid IR region. The piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of the PZT microcantilever were exploited in the quantitative detection and discrimination of adsorbed DNA strands with their spectral characteristics. We report the unique spectral characteristics of different DNA nucleotides that are monitored by wavelength-dependent temperature variations for different relative molar ratio of each nucleotide. This approach offers a fast, label-free technique which is highly sensitive and selective for the detection of single nucleotide differences in DNA strands and has the potential to be used as a rapid prescreening biosensor for various biomolecules. PMID:25300415

  12. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, Frank; Mirtich, Michael J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stidham, Curtis; Kussmaul, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements (plus or minus 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent.

  13. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: calorimetric studies on surfactant and drug loading effects.

    PubMed

    Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Accolla, Maria Lorena; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Montenegro, Lucia

    2014-08-25

    In this study we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, using cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and three different non-ionic emulsifiers of the polyoxyethylene ethers family (ceteth-20, isoceteth-20, oleth-20). These SLN were loaded with different amount of idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and skin oxidative damages. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the effects of the different emulsifiers and the different amounts of drug loaded on the thermotropic behavior of SLN and to investigate how the drug was arranged into these nanoparticles. The IDE seemed to be located into different regions of the SLN depending on its concentration and on the surfactant used. The results of this study suggest that the calorimetric studies performed on SLN could provide valuable information to optimize SLN design and drug release from these carriers. PMID:24845103

  14. Calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of solid proteins immersed in low water organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, V A; Zinatullin, A N; Solomonov, B N; Faizullin, D A; Fedotov, V D

    2001-06-11

    Calorimetric heat effects and structural rearrangements assessed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) amide I spectra were followed by immersing dry human serum albumin and bovine pancreatic alpha-chymotrypsin in low water organic solvents and in pure water at 298 K. Enthalpy changes upon immersion of the proteins in different media are in a good linear correlation with the corresponding IR absorbance changes. Based on calorimetric and FTIR data the solvents were divided into two groups. The first group includes carbon tetrachloride, benzene, nitromethane, acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, n-butanol, n-propanol and pyridine where no significant heat evolution and structural changes were found during protein immersion. Due to kinetic reasons no significant protein-solvent interactions are expected in such systems. The second group of solvents includes dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, and water. Immersion of proteins in these media results in protein swelling and involves significant exothermic heat evolution and structural changes in the protein. Dividing of different media in the two groups is in a qualitative correlation with the solvent hydrophilicity defined as partial excess molar Gibbs free energy of water at infinite dilution in a given solvent. The first group includes the solvents with hydrophilicity exceeding 2.7 kJ/mol. More hydrophilic second group solvents have this energy values less than 2.3 kJ/mol. The hydrogen bond donating ability of the solvents also assists in protein swelling. Hydrogen bonding between protein and solvent is assumed to be a main factor controlling the swelling of dry solid proteins in the studied solvents. PMID:11410292

  15. Calorimetric quantification of linked equilibria in cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent mixtures for membrane-protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Reconstitution from detergent micelles into lipid bilayer membranes is a prerequisite for many in vitro studies on purified membrane proteins. Complexation by cyclodextrins offers an efficient and tightly controllable way of removing detergents for membrane-protein reconstitution, since cyclodextrins sequester detergents at defined stoichiometries and with tuneable affinities. To fully exploit the potential advantages of cyclodextrin for membrane-protein reconstitution, we establish a quantitative model for predicting the supramolecular transition from mixed micelles to vesicles during cyclodextrin-mediated detergent extraction. The model is based on a set of linked equilibria among all pseudophases present in the course of the reconstitution process. Various isothermal titration-calorimetric protocols are used for quantifying a detergent's self-association as well as its colloidal and stoichiometric interactions with lipid and cyclodextrin, respectively. The detergent's critical micellar concentration, the phase boundaries in the lipid/detergent phase diagram, and the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent complex thus obtained provide all thermodynamic parameters necessary for a quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during cyclodextrin-driven reconstitution. This is exemplified and validated by stepwise complexation of the detergent lauryldimethylamine N-oxide in mixtures with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon titration with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, both in the presence and in the absence of the membrane protein Mistic. The calorimetric approach presented herein quantitatively predicts the onset and completion of the reconstitution process, thus obviating cumbersome trial-and-error efforts and facilitating the rational optimisation of reconstitution protocols, and can be adapted to different cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent combinations. PMID:25583305

  16. SEM Observations and Differential Scanning Calorimetric Studies of New and Sterilized Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia B. Alexandrou; Konstantinos Chrissafis; Leonidas P. Vasiliadis; Eleni Pavlidou; E. K. Polychroniadis

    2006-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies were utilized to investigate surface and microstructure of two brands of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments, in the as-received condition and after subjection to 1, 6, and 11 sterilization cycles. A total of 66 ProFile (n = 33) and Flexmaster (n = 33) files were examined. SEM observations indicated the

  17. Calorimetric, X-Ray Diffraction, and Spectroscopic Studies of the Thermotropic Phase Behavior and Organization of Tetramyristoyl Cardiolipin Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruthven N. A. H. Lewis; Dagmar Zweytick; Georg Pabst; Karl Lohner; Ronald N. McElhaney

    2007-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and organization of aqueous dispersions of the quadruple-chained, anionic phospholipid tetramyristoyl diphosphatidylglycerol or tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TMCL) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, 31P NMR, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. At physiological pH and ionic strength, our calorimetric studies indicate that fully equilibrated aqueous dispersions of TMCL exhibit two thermotropic phase transitions upon heating. The

  18. Calorimetric study of the oxygen bond energy in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual vanadium and titanium oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Bondareva; T. V. Andrushkevich; Yu. D. Pankratiev

    1997-01-01

    Bond energy of oxygen in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual V and Ti oxides has been studied by the calorimetric method.\\u000a The samples studied were shown to be significantly different in bond energy, homogeneity of surface oxygen and mobility of\\u000a the bulk one. Vanadium and titanium oxides appeared to interact in the binary system to form an active surface

  19. Thin-film calorimetric H 2O 2 gas sensor for the validation of germicidal effectivity in aseptic filling processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kirchner; B. Li; H. Spelthahn; H. Henkel; A. Schneider; P. Friedrich; J. Kolstad; M. Keusgen; M. J. Schöning

    2009-01-01

    A novel thin-film gas sensor was realized to detect the H2O2 concentration up to 10 vol.-% during microbial reduction of carton packages by hydrogen peroxide vapor in aseptic filling processes. The calorimetric sensing device contains two meander-shaped platinum layers as temperature sensing elements, both have been passivated with perfluoralkoxy and one additionally covered with catalytically active manganese oxide particles. First

  20. Flow Calorimetric Comparison of the AcidBase Bonding in the Outer Surface and Subsurface Regions of Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH L. JONES

    1992-01-01

    A flow calorimetric method was developed for comparing the strength and\\/or extent of acid-base bonding in the outer surface and subsurface regions of fine coal particles. This method was applied to an ultrafine sample of a low-sulfur, low-ash bituminous coal. Information about the acid-base bonding in the outer surface region of the fine particles was deduced from heats of interaction

  1. Isothermal titration calorimetric study of the association of hen egg lysozyme and the anti-lysozyme antibody HyHEL-5.

    PubMed

    Hibbits, K A; Gill, D S; Willson, R C

    1994-03-29

    The thermodynamics of association of hen egg lysozyme and the antibody HyHEL-5 was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. The structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8-A resolution by Sheriff et al. [Sheriff, S., Silverton, E. W., Padlan, E. A., Cohen, G. H., Smith-Gill, S. J., Finzel, B. C., & Davies, D. R. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 8075-8079]. The calorimetric enthalpy of association is negative and declines linearly with temperature in the range 10-37 degrees C (delta Cp = -340 +/- 40 cal mol-1 K-1). Entropic contributions calculated using previously determined values of the affinity of association are negative (unfavorable) in this temperature range. This result is consistent with the loss of mobility upon association of the unusually mobile segments of HEL which form the HyHEL-5 epitope. As the affinity of association is approximately constant in this temperature range, an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect is implied. The hydrophobic and vibrational contributions to delta S and delta Cp are estimated using the method of Sturtevant [Sturtevant, J. M. (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 2236-2240]. The experimental value of delta Cp is in rather close agreement with the delta Cp estimated from the polar and nonpolar surface areas buried upon association. PMID:8142356

  2. Soluble expression and sodium channel activity of lt16a, a novel framework XVI conotoxin from the M-superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maojun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yun; Liu, Junliang; Sun, Dandan; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Yuchao; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-05-01

    A peptide toxin, lt16a, from the venom of the worm-hunting Conus litteratus, shares the typical signal peptide sequences of M-superfamily conotoxins, which usually contain six cysteine residues that are arranged in a CC-C-C-CC pattern. Interestingly, lt16a comprises 21 amino acid residues in its mature region and has a cysteine framework XVI, which is arranged in a C-C-CC pattern. The coding region of lt16a was cloned into the pTRX vector and the fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. After cleaving the fusion protein and purifying the protein lt16a using chromatography, the mass of lt16a was found by mass spectrometry to be consistent with the expected mass of 2357.7 Da. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments demonstrated that lt16a could inhibit both the TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium currents in adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of lt16a on TTX-resistant sodium currents was stronger than on TTX-sensitive sodium currents. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a framework XVI conotoxin that can inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel currents in mammalian sensory neurons. This report helps facilitates an understanding of the sequence diversity of conotoxins. PMID:25600641

  3. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  4. Effect of Temperature on Xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414: A Calorimetric, Catalytic, and Conformational Study

    PubMed Central

    López, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The secondary structure of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei is lost in an apparent irreversible cooperative process as temperature is increased with a midpoint transition of 58.8 ± 0.1°C. The shift of the spectral centre of mass above 50°C is also apparently cooperative with midpoint transition of 56.3 ± 0.2°C, but the existence of two isofluorescent points in the fluorescence emission spectra suggests a non-two-state process. Further corroboration comes from differential scanning calorimetry experiments. At protein concentrations ?0.56?mg·mL?1 the calorimetric transition is reversible and the data were fitted to a non-two-state model and deconvoluted into six transitions, whereas at concentrations greater than 0.56?mg·mL?1 the calorimetric transition is irreversible with an exothermic contribution to the thermogram. The apparent Tm increased linearly with the scan rate according to first order inactivation kinetics. The effect of additives on the calorimetric transition of xylanase is dependent on their nature. The addition of sorbitol transforms reversible transitions into irreversible transitions while stabilizing the protein as the apparent Tm increases linearly with sorbitol concentration. d-Glucono-1,5-lactone, a noncompetitive inhibitor in xylanase kinetics, and soluble xylan change irreversible processes into reversible processes at high protein concentration. PMID:25276420

  5. Calorimetric and acoustic emission study of martensitic transformation in single-crystalline Ni2MnGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, László Z.; Szabó, Sándor; Daróczi, Lajos; Beke, Dezs? L.

    2014-12-01

    The jerky character of austenite-martensite phase transformation in Ni2MnGa single crystals (with 10M martensite structure) has been investigated by thermal cycling using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by detection of acoustic emissions (AEs) at low cooling and heating rates (0.1 K/min and below). It is illustrated that, besides the low cooling and heating rate, mass and surface roughness are also important parameters in optimizing the best signal/noise ratio in order to obtain individual peaks suitable for statistical analysis. Three types of samples, differing in the twin structure and twin boundary behavior, were investigated with and without surface roughening made by electro-erosion. The statistical analysis, carried out for both (thermal and acoustic) types of signals, provided power-law behavior. In calorimetric measurements the energy exponents, obtained in cooling, were the same within the experimental errors (? =1.7 ±0.2 ) for the three samples investigated. In acoustic emission experiments the energy and amplitude, ? , exponents were determined both for cooling and heating. The exponents for cooling and heating runs are slightly different. They are larger for heating for both ? and ? , in accordance with the asymmetric acoustic activity: we observed higher acoustic activity (higher number of hits) during cooling. The effect of the surface roughness is negligible in the exponents (but higher acoustic activity corresponds to higher roughness) and the following values were obtained: ? =1.5 ±0.1 and ? =2.1 ±0.1 for cooling as well as ? =1.8 ±0.1 and ? =2.6 ±0.1 for heating. Our results are in accordance with the results of Gallardo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174102 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.174102] obtained in Cu based alloys: the exponents of the energy distributions, for both DSC and AE signals, were the same within the experimental errors. Furthermore, our exponents obtained from the AE measurements are close to the values obtained by Ludwig et al. (? =2.6 ±0.1 and ? =1.75 ±0.1 ) [App. Phys. Lett. 94 121901 (2009), 10.1063/1.3103289] and Niemann et al. (? =1.9 ±0.1 ) [Phys. Rev. B 86, 214101 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.214101] in Ni2MnGa alloys with similar 10M martensite structure.

  6. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: "US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the "Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate."…

  7. Minor groove binding of the food colorant carmoisine to DNA: spectroscopic and calorimetric characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of the food additive carmoisine with herring testes DNA was studied by multifaceted biophysical techniques. Carmoisine exhibited hypochromic effects in absorbance, whereas in fluorescence the intensity enhanced upon complexation with DNA. Energy transfer from the DNA base pairs to carmoisine molecules occurred upon complexation. A groove binding model of interaction was envisaged for carmoisine-DNA complexation from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst displacement studies. The binding of carmoisine stabilized the DNA structure against thermal denaturation. The binding induced moderate conformational perturbations in the B-form structure of DNA. The binding affinity (10(4) M(-1)) values, calculated from absorbance and fluorescence data, and calorimetry titrations were in close agreement with each other. The binding was characterized to be exothermic and favored by small negative enthalpic and large positive entropic contributions. Salt-dependent calorimetric studies revealed that the binding reaction was dominated by nonpolyelectrolytic forces. The negative heat capacity value suggested the role of hydrophobic effect in the interaction. PMID:24328331

  8. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  9. Interaction of adriamycin with a regulatory element of hmgb1: spectroscopic and calorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Neelam; Narayan Singh, Himanshu; Agarwal, Shweta; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Rajeswari, Moganty R

    2015-08-01

    HMGB1 is a non-histone nuclear protein which plays important role in transcription, variable, diverse and joining (VDJ) recombination, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair, etc. and its over expression is directly correlated with various human malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Because of the clear association between HMGB1 and cancer, we studied the binding of adriamycin (ADM), a well-known anticancer drug with the promoter region (-165 to -183) of hmgb1 by using a variety of spectroscopic, calorimetric techniques, and in-silico molecular modeling. Changes in UV and CD spectral characteristics (intensity and wavelength) of ADM and DNA associated with an induced peak (300 nm) in CD spectrum of DNA and a high binding constant of 2.0 × 10(5) M(-1) suggest a strong and stable complex formation between DNA and ADM. Scatchard analysis of spectroscopic data indicate that ADM binds to DNA in a non-cooperative nature. Further the quenching of fluorescence emission of ADM and isothermal titration calorimetry of ADM in presence of DNA points out to the intercalative mode of ADM binding to DNA which is enthalpically driven with additional small entropic contribution. Results from molecular modeling, Isothermal titration calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that ADM has no marked preference between AT vs. GC base pair in binding to DNA. Therefore, hmgb1 can be considered as a novel potential chemotherapeutic target in treating cancers associated with HMGB1 upregulation. PMID:25311659

  10. Temperature-dependent infrared and calorimetric studies on arsenicals adsorption from solution to hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sabur, Md Abdus; Goldberg, Sabine; Gale, Adrian; Kabengi, Nadine; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2015-03-10

    To address the lack of systematic and surface sensitive studies on the adsorption energetics of arsenic compounds on metal (oxyhydr)oxides, we conducted temperature-dependent ATR-FTIR studies for the adsorption of arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid on hematite nanoparticles at pH 7. Spectra were collected as a function of concentration and temperature in the range 5-50 °C (278-323 K). Adsorption isotherms were constructed from spectral features assigned to surface arsenic. Values of K(eq), adsorption enthalpy, and entropy were extracted from fitting the Langmuir model to the data and from custom-built triple-layer surface complexation models derived from our understanding of the adsorption mechanism of each arsenical. These spectroscopic and modeling results were complemented with flow-through calorimetric measurements of molar heats of adsorption. Endothermic adsorption processes were predicted from the application of mathematical models with a net positive change in adsorption entropy. However, experimentally measured heats of adsorption were exothermic for all three arsenicals studied herein, with arsenate releasing 1.6-1.9 times more heat than methylated arsenicals. These results highlight the role of hydration thermodynamics on the adsorption of arsenicals, and are consistent with the spectral interpretation of type of surface complexes each arsenical form in that arsenate is mostly dominated by bidentate, MMA by a mixture of mono- and bidentate, and DMA by mostly outer sphere. PMID:25695733

  11. Electron energy and charge albedos - calorimetric measurement vs Monte Carlo theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    A new calorimetric method has been employed to obtain saturated electron energy albedos for Be, C, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, U, and UO/sub 2/ over the range of incident energies from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. The technique was so designed to permit the simultaneous measurement of saturated charge albedos. In the cases of C, Al, Ta, and U the measurements were extended down to about 0.025 MeV. The angle of incidence was varied from 0/sup 0/ (normal) to 75/sup 0/ in steps of 15/sup 0/, with selected measurements at 82.5/sup 0/ in Be and C. In each case, state-of-the-art predictions were obtained from a Monte Carlo model. The generally good agreement between theory and experiment over this extensive parameter space represents a strong validation of both the theoretical model and the new experimental method. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies at low incident energies, especially in high-atomic-number materials, and at all energies in the case of the U energy albedos are not completely understood.

  12. A ternary feldspar-mixing model based on calorimetric data: development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar; Kroll, Herbert

    2010-09-01

    A mixing model for high structural state ternary feldspars in the NaAlSi3O8-KAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8 system is presented based exclusively on calorimetric and volumetric measurements. Comparisons with existing mixing models, which are based on phase-equilibrium experiments, reveal distinct differences. The incorporation of K into Ca-rich plagioclase and of Ca into K-rich alkali feldspar is more strongly limited by our calorimetry-based model, whereas the stability field of Na-rich feldspars is broadened. Natural feldspar assemblages from well-studied magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks (i.e. a teschenite sill in Scotland, the Klokken syenogabbro in Greenland, and a granulite-facies metapelite in Sri Lanka) were used to test the mixing models. It was found that the new model largely eliminates discrepancies between observed and predicted feldspar compositions that were present in earlier attempts. The reasons for the problems associated with phase-equilibrium based mixing models are discussed.

  13. Optical and Calorimetric Studies of Cholesterol-Rich Filamentous, Helical Ribbon and Crystal Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnikova, Y. A.; Elsenbeck, M.; Zastavker, Y. V. [Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA (United States); Kashuri, K; Iannacchione, G. S. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2009-04-19

    Formation of biological self-assemblies at all scales is a focus of studies in fields ranging from biology to physics to biomimetics. Understanding the physico-chemical properties of these self-assemblies may lead to the design of bio-inspired structures and technological applications. Here we examine self-assembled filamentous, helical ribbon, and crystal microstructures formed in chemically defined lipid concentrate (CDLC), a model system for cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile. CDLC consists of cholesterol, bilayer-forming amphiphiles, micelle-forming amphiphiles, and water. Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy indicate the presence of three microstructure types in all samples studied, and allow for an investigation of the structures' unique geometries. Additionally, confocal microscopy is used for qualitative assessment of surface and internal composition. To complement optical observations, calorimetric (differential-scanning and modulation) experiments, provide the basis for an in-depth understanding of collective and individual thermal behavior. Observed ''transition'' features indicate clustering and ''straightening'' of helical ribbons into short, increasingly thickening, filaments that dissolve with increasing temperature. These results suggest that all microstructures formed in CDLC may coexist in a metastable chemical equilibrium. Further investigation of the CDLC thermal profile should uncover the process of cholesterol crystallization as well as the unique design and function of microstructures formed in this system.

  14. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. L.; Roldán, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-02-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcañiz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yáñez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia.

  15. An IR and Calorimetric Investigation of the Structural, Crystal-Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogrossular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Dachs, E.

    2012-04-01

    The garnet class of phases is extremely broad in terms of composition and structural properties. Garnet is found in nature and various synthetic garnet phases have a number of important technical applications. There exist the rock-forming silicate garnets that are so widespread geologically. An additional class is given by the so-called "hydrogarnets" in which the tetrahedral site (Wyckoff position 24d) is empty. At relatively low temperatures there is complete solid solution between Ca3Al2Si3O12 and Ca3Al2H12O12, for example. The substitution mechanism can be written as O4H4 \\lrarr SiO4. The latter, pure OH-containing end-member, which has not been found in nature, is termed katoite/hydrogrossular. Its structure has been investigated by various workers by X-ray and neutron diffraction and by proton NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopic methods. At ambient conditions the structure has the "standard" garnet cubic symmetry of Ia-3d. At high pressures, and possibly at low temperatures, a different structure may occur. We measured the low temperature IR spectra and heat capacity of katoite in order to understand its structural, crystal-chemical and thermophysical properties. A sample of Ca3Al2H12O12 was synthesized hydrothermally in Au capsules at 250 °C and 3 kb water pressure. X-ray powder measurements show that about 98-99% katoite was obtained. Powder IR spectra were recorded between 298 K and 10 K. The measured spectra are considerably different in the high wavenumber region, where O-H stretching modes occur, between 298 K and 10 K. At room temperature the IR-active O-H band located around 3662 cm-1 is broad and it narrows and shifts to higher wavenumbers and also develops structure below about 80 K. Concomitantly, additional weak intensity O-H bands located around 3600 cm-1 begin to appear and they become sharper and increase in intensity with further decreases in temperature down to 10 K. The spectra indicate that the vibrational behavior of individual OH groups and their collective interactions measurably affect the lattice dynamic (i.e. thermodynamic) behavior. The low temperature heat capacity behavior was investigated with a commercially designed relaxation calorimeter between 5 and 300 K on a mg-sized sample. The heat capacity data are well behaved at T < 300 K and show a monotonic decrease in magnitude with decreasing temperature. A standard third-law entropy value of So = 421.7 ± 1.6 J/mol·K was calculated. Using this new calorimetric-based So value and published standard enthalpy of formation data for katoite, a calorimetric-based Gibbs free energy of formation at 298 K can be obtained as ?G°f = -5021.2 kJ/mol. The Cp data show no evidence for any phase transition as possibly expected by the change in OH-mode behavior with decreasing temperature. We have no explanation for the appearance of the additional modes. It is worth noting that the katoite crystal structure in terms of lattice dynamic or thermodynamic behavior should be thought of having OH groups and not O4H4 clusters or polyhedral units as is often written in the literature. The single crystallographic OH group in katoite shows very weak, if any, hydrogen bonding and the H atoms have large amplitudes of vibration. The weak H bonding controls the nature of low energy OH-related vibrations and this leads to its large So value.

  16. Calorimetric investigation of equilibrium and thermal relaxation properties of the switchable Prussian Blue analog Na0.32Co[Fe(CN)6]0.74 · 3.4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. A.; Boukheddaden, K.; Varret, F.; Tokoro, H.; Ohkoshi, S.

    2007-07-01

    Calorimetric measurements have been performed on the Prussian Blue analog Na0.32Co[Fe(CN)6]0.74·3.4H2O. The thermal relaxation of the metastable state obtained by thermal quenching of the high temperature phase gives rise to an exothermic peak (at the "thermal relaxation temperature", TTR) which appears at higher temperature and with a larger width as the temperature scan rate increases. Values for the enthalpy and entropy changes upon the charge transfer-induced spin transition (CTIST) have been subsequently determined. The equilibrium and thermal relaxation data have been quantitatively analyzed through a mean-field cooperative dynamic model that also provides a quantitative description of the trapping process. The changes in enthalpy and "apparent" entropy during the thermal relaxation process are investigated and the evaluation of the activation energy by the Kissinger's plot is also discussed.

  17. A high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor employing ion conduction in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A.; Lekholm, V.; Thornell, G.; Klintberg, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the use of the temperature-dependent ion conductivity of 8 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) in a miniature high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor. The sensor consists of 4 layers of high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) YSZ8 tape with a 400 ?m wide, 100 ?m deep, and 12 500 ?m long internal flow channel. Across the center of the channel, four platinum conductors, each 80 ?m wide with a spacing of 160 ?m, were printed. The two center conductors were used as heaters, and the outer, up- and downstream conductors were used to probe the resistance through the zirconia substrate around the heaters. The thermal profile surrounding the two heaters could be made symmetrical by powering them independently, and hence, the temperature sensing elements could be balanced at zero flow. With nitrogen flowing through the channel, forced convection shifted the thermal profile downstream, and the resistance of the temperature sensing elements diverged. The sensor was characterized at nitrogen flows from 0 to 40 sccm, and resistances at zero-flow from 10 to 50 M?. A peak sensitivity of 3.1 M?/sccm was obtained. Moreover, the sensor response was found to be linear over the whole flow range, with R2 of around 0.999, and easy to tune with the individual temperature control of the heaters. The ability of the sensor to operate in high temperatures makes it promising for use in different harsh environments, e.g., for close integration with microthrusters.

  18. Calorimetric studies of the kinetic unfreezing of molecular motions in hydrated lysozyme, hemoglobin, and myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, G; Mayer, E; Johari, G P

    1994-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies of the glassy states of as-received and hydrated lysozyme, hemoglobin, and myoglobin powders, with water contents of < or = 0.25, < or = 0.30, and < or = 0.29 g/g of protein, show that their heat capacity slowly increases with increasing temperature, without showing an abrupt increase characteristic of glass-->liquid transition. Annealing (also referred to as physical aging) of the hydrated proteins causes their DSC scans to show an endothermic region, similar to an overshoot, immediately above the annealing temperature. This annealing effect appears at all temperatures between approximately 150 and 300 K. The area under these peaks increases with increasing annealing time at a fixed temperature. The effects are attributed to the presence of a large number of local structures in which macromolecular segments diffuse at different time scales over a broad range. The lowest time scale corresponds to the > N-H and -O-H group motions which become kinetically unfrozen at approximately 150-170 K on heating at a rate of 30 K min-1 and which have a relaxation time of 5-10 s in this temperature range. The annealing effects confirm that the individual glass transition of the relaxing local regions is spread over a temperature range up to the denaturation temperature region of the proteins. The interpretation is supported by simulation of DSC scans in which the distribution of relaxation times is assumed to be exceptionally broad and in which annealing done at several temperatures over a wide range produces endothermic effects (or regions of DSC scans) qualitatively similar to those observed for the hydrated proteins. PMID:8130342

  19. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  20. Nonisothermal calorimetric study of the precipitation processes in a Cu–1Co–0.5Ti alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Donoso; A. Zúñiga; M. J. Diánez; J. M. Criado

    2010-01-01

    The precipitation processes in a Cu–1.0 at.%Co–0.5 at.%Ti (Cu–1.5 at.%Co2Ti) alloy were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and microhardeness\\u000a measurements. The analysis of the calorimetric curves from room temperature to 900 K shows the presence of two exothermic\\u000a reactions attributed to the formation of CoTi and Co2Ti particles in the copper matrix. On the basis of enthalpy calculations, it

  1. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric Re-187 and Ho-163 Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schafer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta (b) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 microsecond are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the beta-decay of Re-187 and the EC of Ho-163. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for Re-187 and for Ho-163 experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted Ho-163 ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  2. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric 187Re and 163Ho Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schäfer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-06-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta ( ?) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 ?s are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the ?-decay of 187Re and the EC of 163Ho. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for 187Re and for 163Ho experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted 163Ho ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  3. Investigation of a zirconia co-fired ceramic calorimetric microsensor for high-temperature flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Klintberg, Lena; Thornell, Greger

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a flow sensor for high-temperature, or otherwise aggressive, environments, like, e.g. the propulsion system of a small spacecraft. The sensor was fabricated using 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) tape and screen printed platinum paste. A calorimetric flow sensor design was used, with five 80 µm wide conductors, separated by 160 µm, in a 0.4 mm wide, 0.1 mm deep and 12.5 mm long flow channel. The central conductor was used as a heater for the sensor, and the two adjacent conductors were used to resistively measure the heat transferred from the heater by forced convection. The two outermost conductors were used to study the influence of an auxiliary heat source on the sensor. The resistances of the sensor conductors were measured using four-point connections, as the gas flow rate was slowly increased from 0 to 40 sccm, with different power supplied through the central heater, as well as with an upstream or downstream heater powered. In this study, the thermal and electrical integrability of microcomponents on the YSZ8 substrate was of particular interest and, hence, the influence of thermal and ionic conduction in the substrate was studied in detail. The effect of the ion conductivity of YSZ8 was studied by measuring the resistance of a platinum conductor and the resistance between two adjacent conductors on YSZ8, in a furnace at temperatures from 20 to 930 °C and by measuring the resistance with increasing current through a conductor. With this design, the influence of ion conductivity through the substrate became apparent above 700 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor was up to 1 m? sccm?1 in a range of 0–10 sccm. The results show that the signal from the sensor is influenced by the integrated auxiliary heating conductors and that these auxiliary heaters provide a way to balance disturbing heat sources, e.g. thrusters or other electronics, in conjunction with the flow sensor.

  4. Thermodynamic studies on the specificity of L-isoleucine-tRNA ligase of Escherichia coli MRE 600. Calorimetric investigations on binding of amino acids and isoleucinol to the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hinz, H J; Weber, K; Flossdorf, J; Kula, M R

    1976-12-11

    The association enthalpies, delta Ha, involved in the reactions between L-isoleucine:tRNA ligase (AMP-forming) from Escherichia coli MRE 600 (EC 6.1.1.5) and various amino acids have been determined calorimetrically in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5, in the presence of 1 mM dithioerythritol. The delta Ha values for binding of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-norvaline and L-2-amino-3S, 4-dimethyl pentanoic acid agree within the limits of experimental error in magnitude (3.7 +/- 0.9 kcal mol-1 or 15.5 +/- 3.8 kJ mol-1 at 25 degrees C) and variation with temperature (delta cp = -430 +/- 20 cal mol-1 K-1 or 1799 +/- 84 J mol-1 K-1). In view of the large differences in the equilibrium constants for the corresponding binding equilibria, the identical association enthalpies suggest that the enthalpic contribution to the Gibbs free energy of binding, delta Ga, cannot be responsible for the specificity of the interaction of the enzyme with the amino acids. It has rather to be inferred that the entropic term, delta Sa, is decisive in discriminating the correct amino acid. Analogous calorimetric binding studies on the reaction between L-isoleucinol and the enzyme suggest that the absence of the carboxyl group renders the association enthalpy more positive (by 4-5 kcal mol-1 or 16.7-20.9 kJ mol-1) with respect to that of the amino acids. The variation with temperature of the delta Ha values, however, practically parallels that of the amino acids. PMID:795668

  5. Calorimetric Study of Adsorption of Alkanes in High-Silica Zeolites Scott Savitz, Flor Siperstein, Raymond J. Gorte, and Alan L. Myers

    E-print Network

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    and adsorption isotherms were measured for combinations of three alkanes (methane, ethane, propane) on a series Section Isosteric heats of adsorption and adsorption isotherms were measured for aCalorimetric Study of Adsorption of Alkanes in High-Silica Zeolites Scott Savitz, Flor Siperstein

  6. Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen*

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson is used to observe the glass transition in thin (1­400 nm) spin-cast films of polystyrene, poly (2-vinyl numbers: 64.70.Pf, 36.20.­r, 68.60.Dv The glass transition in thin polymer films attracts tre- mendous

  7. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  8. Measurement And Modeling Of Fe VIII To Fe XVI M-shell Emission In The Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Lepson, J. K.; Hurwitz, M.

    2007-05-01

    The solar EUV emission near 200 Å is presently being studied with high resolution with the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS), which focuses on the emission between 90 and 270 Å, and with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode, which focuses on the region 180 to 204 Å and 250 to 290 Å. The Solar EUV Experiment on the TIMED spacecraft also observes this spectral band but with greatly reduced resolution. The spectrum in this region is dominated by emission from moderate charge states of iron. The interpretation of the data relies on accurate and complete plasma emission models, notably CHIANTI. We have performed a series of laboratory measurements of the 3-3 emission from M-shell iron ions. The measurements cover the range 170 - 250 Å and are made at an electron density of about 1011 cm-3. Emission from Fe VIII through Fe XVI has been identified. Excellent agreement with CHIANTI predictions is found. A few weak transitions are noted in the laboratory data that are predicted by CHIANTI to be vanishingly small and should not have been observed. These are tentatively attributed to transitions in Fe XV. A comparison with observations from CHIPS is also presented. This work was supported in part by NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program. Work at UC-LLNL was performed under the auspices of the DOE by under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  9. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  10. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, F. M.; Burnet, N. G.; Jena, R.; Plaistow, R.; Parker, M. A.; Thomas, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  11. Measurement of the Fe VIII-Fe XVI 3-3 Emission in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Comparison with CHIANTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Lepson, J. K.

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory measurements of the n = 3 to n = 3 emission from M-shell iron ions are presented and compared to synthetic spectra from the CHIANTI spectral model. The measurements cover the range 170-290 Å and are made at an electron density of about 1011 cm-3. Emission from Fe VIII through Fe XVI has been identified. Excellent agreement with CHIANTI predictions is found for most lines. Twenty weaker features are noted in the laboratory data that are either absent in CHIANTI or have recently been added and correspond to lines that have not been verified by experimental measurements. A few of these lines may have already been observed (but not yet identified) in the Sun. The features are attributed to emission from various charge states of iron, notably Fe IX and Fe XIII, and two features have been identified as transitions in Fe VIII, i.e., the 3p 63d 2 D 5/2-3p 53d 2 2 P 3/2 and the 3p 63d 2 D 3/2-3p 53d 2 2 P 1/2 transitions at 225.25 ± 0.12 and 226.35 ± 0.10 Å, respectively. Seven lines in Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 200 and 205 Å are noted for which the wavelengths in the CHIANTI database disagree with those in the current database of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Our measurements of five of these lines appear to agree with the assignments used in CHIANTI.

  12. Calorimetric investigation of the hydrogen interaction with Ti 0.9Zr 0.1Mn 1.1V 0.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu Anikina; V. N Verbetsky

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.1V0.1 compound was studied by means of calorimetric and P–C isotherm methods. The obtained results allow to propose the existence of two hydride phases in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.1V0.1–H2 system in the temperature range 72–116°C.

  13. Spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric studies on the unfolding of Trichosanthes dioica seed lectin. Similar modes of thermal and chemical denaturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kavitha; Musti J. Swamy

    2009-01-01

    Physico-chemical and unfolding studies have been carried out on Trichosanthes dioica seed lectin (TDSL). The lectin exhibited maximum activity between pH 7.0 and 10.0, which decreased steeply at lower pH. The\\u000a hemagglutination activity of TDSL was unaffected in the temperature range 4–50°C, but decreased rapidly at higher temperatures.\\u000a Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicate that thermal unfolding of TDSL is an irreversible

  14. Population and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century Eugen Ghita Populaie i habitat pe domeniul cetii iria la nceputul secolului al XVI lea

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Population and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century Eugen Ghita Populaie i habitat pe domeniul cetii iria la începutul secolului al XVI ­lea 1 Populaie i habitat pe and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century" is based on a statistical

  15. Mammalian exocrine secretions XVI. Constitutents of secretion of supplementary sacculi of dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Smit, D; Spies, H S; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, U; Telitsina, A Y

    2001-06-01

    As a first step in a study of the role of the secretion of the supplementary sacculi (buccal secretion) of the dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, almost complete chemical characterization of the secretion was achieved. The 35 compounds identified include carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, a large number of carboxylic acids (representing the bulk of the organic volatile fraction of the secretion), phenol, 2-piperidone, indole, two long-chain hydroxyesters, cholestrol, desmosterol, and lanosterol. The position of the double bonds in gamma-icosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone and gamma-henicosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone could not be determined, and these two compounds remained only partially characterized. Large variations were found in the relative concentrations in which the short-chain carboxylic acids are present in the secretions of individual animals, and although this aspect was not investigated in sufficient detail in the present investigation, the difference in the carboxylic acid profiles of the secretions of individual animals could play a role in individual recognition in this animal. PMID:11504028

  16. A base-triggerable catanionic mixed lipid system: isothermal titration calorimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Pradip K; Reddy, S Thirupathi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-11-01

    Lipid-based, base-triggerable systems will be useful for colon specific targeted delivery of drugs and pharmaceuticals. In light of this, a catanionic surfactant system, composed of O-lauroylethanolamine hydrochloride (OLEA·HCl) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), has been designed. The aggregates formed by near equimolar mixtures of OLEA·HCl-SDS have shown lability at basic pH, indicating that the system may be useful for developing colon specific drug delivery system(s). Turbidimetric and isothermal titration calorimetric studies revealed that OLEA·HCl forms a 1:1 (mol/mol) complex with SDS. The three-dimensional structure of the equimolar OLEA-SDS complex has been solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Analysis of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice revealed a hydrogen bonding belt in the headgroup region of the complex and dispersion interactions among the acyl chains as the main factors stabilizing the complex. These observations will be useful in understanding specific interactions between lipids in more complex systems, e.g., biomembranes. PMID:20936832

  17. Calorimetric and Light Scattering Investigations of the Transition from Spherical to Wormlike Micelles of C14TAB Triggered by Salicylate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Thiago Heiji; Rodrigues, Roberta Kamei; Loh, Watson; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2015-06-01

    Although wormlike micelles (WLM) were first described more than 30 years ago, many aspects of their formation process are still unclear. Herein, a systematic experimental investigation of the process for wormlike micelle (WLM) formation in mixtures of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) and salicylate (2-hydroxybenzoate) was carried out. This system was used as a model to investigate the conditions for the formation of the giant aggregate. For comparison, the other two isomers of salicylate (3- and 4-hydroxybenzoate) were also investigated, once in these cases wormlike micelles are not formed. The studies were based on calorimetric titration, static light scattering, and rheological measurements. Enthalpy changes upon titration of C14TAB into 2-hydroxybenzoate solutions revealed a highly cooperative and exothermic process that was associated with micelle growth. The size of the aggregates, obtained by static light scattering measurements, confirms the shape transition. In addition, the correlation of these two sets of results with measurements of micelle charge surface indicates that this transition occurs around the point of charge neutralization. PMID:25978073

  18. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  19. Backbone nuclear relaxation characteristics and calorimetric investigation of the human Grb7-SH2/erbB2 peptide complex

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Monika; Spuches, Anne M.; Guth, Ethan C.; Daugherty, Margaret A.; Wilcox, Dean E.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Grb7 is a member of the Grb7 family of proteins, which also includes Grb10 and Grb14. All three proteins have been found to be overexpressed in certain cancers and cancer cell lines. In particular, Grb7 (along with the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB2) is overexpressed in 20%–30% of breast cancers. Grb7 binds to erbB2 and may be involved in cell signaling pathways that promote the formation of metastases and inflammatory responses. In a prior study, we reported the solution structure of the Grb7-SH2/erbB2 peptide complex. In this study, T1, T2, and steady-state NOE measurements were performed on the Grb7-SH2 domain, and the backbone relaxation behavior of the domain is discussed with respect to the potential function of an insert region present in all three members of this protein family. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies were completed measuring the thermodynamic parameters of the binding of a 10-residue phosphorylated peptide representative of erbB2 to the SH2 domain. These measurements are compared to calorimetric studies performed on other SH2 domain/phosphorylated peptide complexes available in the literature. PMID:15930003

  20. THE KINETICS OF PENETRATION : XVI. THE ACCUMULATION OF AMMONIA IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS.

    PubMed

    Jacques, A G

    1939-03-20

    The accumulation of ammonia takes place more rapidly in light than in darkness. The accumulation appears to go on until a steady state is attained. The steady state concentration of ammonia in the sap is about twice as great in light as in darkness. Both effects are possibly due to the fact that the external pH (and hence the concentration of undissociated ammonia) outside is raised by photosynthesis. Certain "permeability constants" have been calculated. These indicate that the rate is proportional to the concentration gradient across the protoplasm of NH(4)X which is formed by the interaction of NH(3) or NH(4)OH and HX, an acid elaborated in the protoplasm. The results are interpreted to mean that HX is produced only at the sap-protoplasm interface and that on the average its concentration there is about 7 times as great as at the sea water-protoplasm interface. This ratio of HX at the two surfaces also explains why the concentration of undissociated ammonia in the steady state is about 7 times as great in the sea water as in the sap. The permeability constant P''' appears to be greater in the dark. This is possibly associated with an increase in the concentration of HX at both interfaces, the ratio at the two surfaces, however, remaining about the same. The pH of sap has been determined by a new method which avoids the loss of gas (CO(2)), an important source of error. The results indicate that the pH rises during accumulation but the extent of this rise is smaller than has hitherto been supposed. As in previous experiments, the entering ammonia displaced a practically equivalent amount of potassium from the sap and the sodium concentration remained fairly constant. It seems probable that the pH increase is due to the entrance of small amounts of NH(3) or NH(4)OH in excess of the potassium lost as a base. PMID:19873117

  1. Calorimetric studies of the association of chitin and chitosan with sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre G. S Prado; Julio L Macedo; S??lvia C. L Dias; José A Dias

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of hydrophobic chitin and chitosan with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been studied by titration calorimetry at 298.15K. The nature of interaction of the surfactant and biopolymers was followed by enthalpy interaction profiles. The mixing enthalpy curves were determined by mixing SDS solutions above their critical micelle concentration with chitin and chitosan suspensions in different concentrations. The Gibbs

  2. Calorimetric study of vanadium pentoxide catalysts used in the reaction of ethane oxidative dehydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Le Bars; J. C. Vedrine; A. Auroux; B. Pommier; G. M. Pajonk

    1992-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide catalysts have been studied in the partial oxidation reaction of ethane in the 723-843 K temperature range. The relationship between the acid-base properties and the catalytic behavior was investigated. The number and character of acidic sites of VâOâ catalysts were determined by studying the adsorption of a basic molecule using microcalorimetry. The reducibility level and the evolution of

  3. Calorimetric study of the reactions of n-alkylphosphonic acids with metal oxide surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime M. Ferreira; Stephen Marcinko; Richard Sheardy; Alexander Y. Fadeev

    2005-01-01

    The reaction enthalpies for the solution-phase self-assembly of n-alkylphosphonic acids on the surfaces of TiO2 and ZrO2 have been determined using isothermal titration calorimetry at 298 K. The reaction enthalpies were negative (exothermic) for methyl- and n-octylphosphonic acids and positive (endothermic) for n-octadecylphosphonic acid with both metal oxides. The enthalpy\\/energy analysis showed that the net enthalpy of the formation of

  4. Predicting relative low-temperature tolerance of non-acclimatized buffalograss using calorimetric data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Burger; Y. L. Qian

    2008-01-01

    No information is available regarding the usefulness of calorimetry in assessing freeze tolerance, cold hardiness and associated mechanisms in turfgrass. In this study, isothermal and scanning microcalorimetric techniques were used to determine relative low-temperature tolerance and freezing points of leaf and root segments of three, non-acclimatized buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.) genotypes. Based on isothermal microcalorimetric data, genotype NE91-118 (cultivar

  5. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  6. Localized Recrystallization in Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy during Solution Heat Treatment: Dilatometric and Calorimetric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, S. K.; Warke, V.; Shankar, S.; Apelian, D.

    2011-10-01

    During heat treatment, the work piece experiences a range of heating rates depending upon the sizes and types of furnace. When the Al-Si-Mg cast alloy is heated to the solutionizing temperature, recrystallization takes place during the ramp-up stage. The effect of heating rate on recrystallization in the A356 (Al-Si-Mg) alloy was studied using dilatometric and calorimetric methods. Recrystallization in as-cast Al-Si alloys is a localized event and is confined to the elasto-plastic zone surrounding the eutectic Si phase; there is no evidence of recrystallization in the center of the primary Al dendritic region. The size of the elasto-plastic zone is of the same order of magnitude as the Si particles, and recrystallized grains are observed in the elasto-plastic region near the Si particles. The coefficient of thermal expansion of Al is an order of magnitude greater than Si, and thermal stresses are generated due to the thermal mismatch between the Al phase and Si particles providing the driving force for recrystallization. In contrast, recrystallization in Al wrought alloy (7075) occurs uniformly throughout the matrix, stored energy due to cold work being the driving force for recrystallization in wrought alloys. The activation energy for recrystallization in as-cast A356 alloy is 127 KJ/mole. At a slow heating rate of 4.3 K/min, creep occurs during the heating stage of solution heat treatment. However, creep does not occur in samples heated at higher heating rates, namely, 520, 130, and 17.3 K/min.

  7. Multiple phase transitions of leonite-type compounds: optical, calorimetric, and X-ray data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hertweck; T. Armbruster; E. Libowitzky

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Low-temperature phase transitions of leonite-type compounds, K2Me2+(SO4)2???4H2O (Me?=?Mg, Mn, Fe), are investigated by temperature dependent measurements of single-crystal X-ray reflection intensities\\u000a and lattice parameters. The transition temperatures and the progress of the transitions are determined by birefringence data\\u000a and differential scanning calorimetry. The cause for the phase transitions of leonite-type compounds is a dynamic disorder\\u000a of sulphate groups at

  8. The Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE): a next-generation calorimetric neutrino mass experiment

    E-print Network

    Monfardini, A; Brofferio, C; Capelli, S; Capozzi, F; Cremonesi, O; Enss, C; Fiorini, E; Fleischmann, A; Foggetta, L; Gallinaro, G; Gastaldo, L; Gatti, F; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C A; Margesin, B; McCammon, D; Nones, C; Nucciotti, A; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pergolesi, D; Pessina, G; Porter, F S; Prest, M; Previtali, E; Repetto, P; Ribeiro-Gomez, M; Sangiorgio, S; Sisti, M

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but can't determine their absolute mass scale. Therefore the neutrino mass is still an open question in elementary particle physics. An international collaboration is growing around the project of Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for directly measuring the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2eV/c2. Many groups are joining their experiences and technical expertise in a common effort towards this challenging experiment. We discuss the different scenarios and the impact of MARE as a complement of KATRIN.

  9. Slovenica XVI—XIX ??. ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? (??????????) ???????????? (? ????????????????? ?????????????)

    E-print Network

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    2001-01-01

    University possesses the necessary materials for research on the history of the Slovene language. SLOVENE: Znanstvena knjižnica Univerze v Tartuju, ki danes obsega ve? kot pet milijonov enot, je bila ustanovljena leta 1802. V njej je med drugim tudi ve? knjig...

  10. Exploring the comparative binding aspects of benzophenanthridine plant alkaloid chelerythrine with RNA triple and double helices: a spectroscopic and calorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Haque, Lucy; Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Das, Suman

    2015-06-24

    A comparative study on the interaction of a benzophenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine (CHL) with RNA triplex poly(U).poly(A)*poly(U) (hereafter U.A*U, .(dot) and *(asterisk) represent Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairing respectively) and its parent duplex poly(A).poly(U) (A.U) was carried out by using a combination of various spectroscopic, viscometric and calorimetric techniques. The interaction was characterized by hypochromic and bathochromic effects in the absorption spectrum, the increase of thermal melting temperature, enhancement in solution viscosity, and perturbation in the circular dichroic spectrum. The binding constant calculated by using spectrophotometric data was in the order of 10(5) for both forms of RNA, but it was greater for triplex RNA (30.2 × 10(5) M(-1)) than duplex RNA (3.6 × 10(5) M(-1)). Isothermal titration calorimetric data are in good agreement with the spectrophotometric data. The data indicated stronger binding of CHL to the triplex structure of RNA compared to the native duplex structure. Thermal melting studies indicated greater stabilization of the Hoogsteen base paired third strand of the RNA triplex compared to its Watson-Crick strands. The mode of binding of CHL to both U.A*U and A.U was intercalation as revealed from fluorescence quenching, viscosity measurements and sensitization of the fluorescence experiment. Thermodynamic data obtained from isothermal calorimetric measurements revealed that association was favoured by both a negative enthalpy change and a positive entropy change. Taken together, our results suggest that chelerythrine binds and stabilizes the RNA triplex more strongly than its respective parent duplex. The results presented here may be useful for formulating effective antigene strategies involving benzophenanthridine alkaloids and the RNA triplex. PMID:26073991

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROGEN INTERACTION WITHTi 0.9 Zr 0.1 Mn 1.3 V 0.5 BY CALORIMETRIC METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. U. ANIKINA; V. N. VERBETSKY

    The interaction of hydrogen with nonstoichiometric Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and in temperature range from 150 to 190°C has been studied by means of calorimetric\\u000a and P-X isotherm methods. The obtained results allow us to propose the existence of one hydride phase,?- hydride, in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 - H2 system in the temperature range 150-170°C.

  12. Calorimetric Investigation of the Hydrogen Interaction with Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 Mn 1.3 V 0.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Anikina; V. N. Verbetsky

    The interaction of hydrogen with nonstoichiometric Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and temperature range from 336 to 413 K has been studied by means of calorimetric\\u000a and P-X isotherm methods. The obtained results allow to propose the existence of two hydride phases in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5-H2 system under this conditions.

  13. Calorimetric investigation of the hydrogen interaction with Ti 0.9Zr 0.1Mn 1.2V 0.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Yu. Anikina; Victor N. Verbetsky

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we compare such thermodynamic functions as partial molar enthalpies and partial molar entropies of the reaction of the hydrogen desorption from the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.2V0.1-H and Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.5V0.8-H systems, which were calculated on the base of data obtained from the study of these systems by means of P–C measurements and the calorimetric method at pressure up to 50 atm and

  14. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) Analysis of Rotary Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Endodontic File (RNEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ray Chun Tung; Chung, C. Y.

    2012-12-01

    To determine the variation of A f along the axial length of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files (RNEF). Three commercial brands of 4% taper RNEF: GTX (#20, 25 mm, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), K3 (#25, 25 mm) and TF (Twisted File #25, 27 mm) (Sybron Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) were cut into segments at 4 mm increment from the working tip. Regional specimens were measured for differential heat-flow over thermal cycling, generally with continuous heating or cooling (5 °C/min) and 5 min hold at set temperatures (start, finish temperatures): GTX: -55, 90 °C; K3: -55, 45 °C; TF: -55, 60 °C; using differential scanning calorimeter. This experiment demonstrated regional differences in A f along the axial length of GTX and K3 files. Similar variation was not obvious in the TF samples. A contributory effect of regional difference in strain-hardening due to grinding and machining during manufacturing is proposed.

  15. Calorimetric study of the entropy relation in the NaCl–KCl system

    PubMed Central

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The heat capacity of one Na-rich and two K-rich samples of the NaCl–KCl (halite–sylvite) crystalline solution was investigated between 5 and 300 K. It deviated positively from ideal behaviour with a maximum at 40 K. The thereby produced excess entropy at 298.15 K was described by a symmetric Margules mixing model yielding WmS = 8.73 J/mol/K. Using enthalpy of mixing data from the literature and our data on the entropy, the solvus was calculated for a pressure of 105 Pa and compared with the directly determined solvus. The difference between them can be attributed to the effect of Na–K short range ordering (clustering). PMID:24926102

  16. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of superficial digital flexor tendon degeneration in the horse.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Wardale, R J; Birch, H L; Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of equine superficial digital flexor tendons revealed the presence of a small exothermic peak at 23 degrees C of unknown origin, and a large endothermic peak at 70 degrees C due to denaturation of cross-linked collagen fibres. In the central degenerated core of damaged tendons the denaturation temperature remained at 70 degrees C but the enthalpy decreased in relation to the extent of degeneration of the tendon. We suggest that this reduction in enthalpy is due to depolymerisation and denaturation of the collagen fibres. This contention is supported by the observed increased activity of the degradative enzyme cathepsin B secreted by the fibroblasts. DSC analysis of cultured porcine tendon fibroblasts revealed a multicomponent endotherm, denaturation beginning at 46 degrees C, a temperature capable of being achieved within the tendon during intensive exercise. DSC clearly has considerable potential in complementing morphological and biochemical studies to determine the aetiology and progress of equine tendon degeneration. PMID:8575396

  17. Calorimetric and transport properties of Zircalloy 2, Zircalloy 4, and Inconel 625

    SciTech Connect

    Maglic, K.D.; Perovic, N.Lj.; Stanimirovic, A.M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the measurements and the results on thermal and electrical transport properties of three nuclear reactor cladding materials: Zircalloy 2, Zircalloy 4, and Inconel 625. Study of these materials constituted a part of the IAEA coordinated research program aimed at the generation and establishment of a reliable and complete database of the thermal properties of reactor materials. Measured properties include thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and electrical resistivity. Thermal diffusivity was measured by the laser pulse technique. Specific heat and electrical resistivity were measured using a millisecond-resolution direct electrical pulse heating technique. Thermal conductivity was computed from the experimentally determined thermal diffusivity and specific heat functions and the room temperature density values. Measurements were performed in the 20 to 1500{degrees}C temperature range, depending on the material and property concerned.

  18. Calorimetric and transport properties of Zircalloy 2, Zircalloy 4, and Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magli?, K. D.; Perovi?, N. Lj.; Stanimirovi?, A. M.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the measurements and the results on thermal and electrical transport properties of three nuclear reactor cladding materials: Zircalloy 2, Zircalloy 4, and Inconel 625. Study of these materials constituted a part of the IAEA coordinated research program aimed at the generation and establishment of a reliable and complete database of the thermal properties of reactor materials. Measured properties include thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and electrical resistivity. Thermal diffusivity was measured by the laser pulse technique. Specific heat and electrical resistivity were measured using a millisecond-resolution direct electrical pulse heating technique. Thermal conductivity was computed from the experimentally determined thermal difusivity and specific heat functions and the room temperature density values. Measurements were performed in the 20 to 1500°C temperature range, depending on the material and property concerned.

  19. Combined force spectroscopy, AFM and calorimetric studies to reveal the nanostructural organization of biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Germà, C; Morros, A; Montero, M T; Hernández-Borrell, J; Domènech, Ò

    2014-10-01

    In this work we studied a binary lipid matrix of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG), a composition that mimics the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. More specifically, liposomes with varying fractions of POPG were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a binary phase diagram of the system was created. Additionally, we performed atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) of similar compositions at different temperatures, in order to create a pseudo-binary phase diagram specific to this membrane model. AFM study of SLBs is of particular interest, as it is conceived as the most adequate technique not only for studying lipid bilayer systems but also for imaging and even nanomanipulating inserted membrane proteins. The construction of the above-mentioned phase diagram enabled us to grasp better the thermodynamics of the thermal lipid transition from a gel-like POPE:POPG phase system to a more fluid phase system. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy (FS) was used to determine the nanomechanics of these two lipid phases at 27°C and at different POPG fractions. The resulting data correlated with the specific composition of each phase was calculated from the AFM phase diagram obtained. All the experiments were done in the presence of 10 mM of Ca(2+), as this ion is commonly used when performing AFM with negatively charged phospholipids. PMID:25093830

  20. Calorimetric studies of Cu–Li, Li–Sn, and Cu–Li–Sn

    PubMed Central

    Fürtauer, S.; Tserenjav, E.; Yakymovych, A.; Flandorfer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Integral molar enthalpies of mixing were determined by drop calorimetry for Cu–Li–Sn at 1073 K along five sections xCu/xSn ? 1:1, xCu/xSn ? 2:3, xCu/xSn ? 1:4, xLi/xSn ? 1:1, and xLi/xSn ? 1:4. The integral and partial molar mixing enthalpies of Cu–Li and Li–Sn were measured at the same temperature, for Li–Sn in addition at 773 K. All binary data could be described by Redlich–Kister-polynomials. Cu–Li shows an endothermic mixing effect with a maximum in the integral molar mixing enthalpy of ?5300 J · mol?1 at xCu = 0.5, Li–Sn an exothermic minimum of ? ?37,000 J · mol?1 at xSn ? 0.2. For Li–Sn no significant temperature dependence between 773 K and 1073 K could be deduced. Our measured ternary data were fitted on the basis of an extended Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model for substitutional solutions. Additionally, a comparison of these results to the extrapolation model of Chou is given. PMID:23814314

  1. Calorimetric investigation of the interactions of some hydrogen-bonded systems at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, T.M.; Bricknell, B.C. [Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the enthalpies of hydrogen-bonded interactions involving a variety of proton donors and acceptors. Excess molar enthalpies H{sub m}{sup E}, as a function of mole fraction, are presented for single hydrogen-bonded systems involving propan-1-ol + dipropyl ether, + tripropylamine, + dipropyl sulfide, and + heptan-4-one, dipropylamine + dipropyl ether, + tripropylamine, + dipropyl sulfide, and + heptan-4-one, and propane-1-thiol + dipropyl ether, + tripropylamine, + dipropyl sulfide, and + heptan-4-one. Partial molar enthalpies at infinite dilution H{sub i,m}{sup E} (x{sub i} = 0), calculated from an analysis of the data near x{sub i} = 0, were used in an attempt to determine the relative strengths and propensities of the hydrogen-bonded interactions OH--O, OH--N, OH--S, NH--O, NH--N, NH--S, SH--O, SH--N, and SH--S. The component molecules are all fully propylated, thus localizing the source of the hydrogen-bonded interaction. For the systems involving a strong hydrogen donor, i.e., alkanol, the liquid phase hydrogen bond strength order mirrors that calculated for interactions in the gas phase from ab initio molecular orbital theory. In the systems involving a relatively weak hydrogen donor, i.e., secondary amine and a thiol, the hydrogen bond strength appears to be related to the available surface area of the hydrogen acceptor atom.

  2. Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of DNA interaction with a new series of actinocin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleev, V.; Semenov, M.; Kruglova, E.; Bolbukh, T.; Gasan, A.; Bereznyak, E.; Shestopalova, A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of investigations of the physical mechanisms of the interaction with DNA of a new series of biologically active actinocin derivatives with side chains of different length are discussed. The main goal of these studies is to understand the nature of the specificity of interaction between drugs and nucleic acids, taking into account the interaction of the individual components with water molecules. The following experimental physical methods have been used to investigate this problem: UV-Visible spectrophotometry to study different modes of binding of ligands with DNA, infrared spectroscopy and piezogravimetry to give information on the influence of water in the formation of DNA-drug complexes, and differential scanning calorimetry to obtain direct data on the thermostability of such complexes. We have also used the method of computational analysis (Monte Carlo simulations) in order to determine the best molecular models for ligand-DNA complexation. It is expected that the results obtained by these methods will be useful for the rational design of drugs with high biological activity.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of autunite, uranyl hydrogen phosphate, and uranyl orthophosphate from solubility and calorimetric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Shareva, Tatiana; kubatko, Karrie-Ann; burns, Peter; Wellman, Dawn M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; szymanowski, jennifer; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we use solubility and oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements to determine the thermodynamic properties of the uranyl phosphate phases autunite (abbreviated: CaUP), uranyl hydrogen phosphate (HUP), and uranyl orthophosphate (UP). Solubility measurements from both supersaturated and undersaturated conditions, as well as under different pH conditions, rigorously demonstrate attainment of equilibrium and yield well-constrained solubility product values of -48.36 (-0.03 /+ 0.03), -13.17 (-0.11 / +0.07), and -49.36 (-0.04 / +0.02) for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively. We use the solubility data to calculate standard state Gibbs free energies of formation for all phases (-7630.61 ± 9.69, -3072.27 ± 4.76, and -6138.95 ± 12.24 kJ mol-1 for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively), and calorimetry data to calculate standard state enthalpies of formation of -3223.22 ± 4.00 and -7001.01 ± 15.10 kJ mol-1 for HUP and UP, respectively. Combining these results allows us also to calculate the standard state entropies of formation of -506.54 ± 10.48 and -2893.12 ± 19.44 kJ mol-1 K-1 for HUP and UP phases, respectively. The results from this study are part of a combined effort to develop reliable and internally consistent thermodynamic data for environmentally relevant uranyl minerals. Data such as these are required in order to optimize and quantitatively assess the effect of phosphate amendment remediation technologies for uranium contaminated systems.

  4. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect

    Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: meddammak@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  5. Dynamic fuzzy c-means (dFCM) clustering and its application to calorimetric data reconstruction in high-energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhir, Radha Pyari; Muhuri, Sanjib; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2012-07-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, calorimetric data reconstruction requires a suitable clustering technique in order to obtain accurate information about the shower characteristics such as the position of the shower and energy deposition. Fuzzy clustering techniques have high potential in this regard, as they assign data points to more than one cluster, thereby acting as a tool to distinguish between overlapping clusters. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is one such clustering technique that can be applied to calorimetric data reconstruction. However, it has a drawback: it cannot easily identify and distinguish clusters that are not uniformly spread. A version of the FCM algorithm called dynamic fuzzy c-means (dFCM) allows clusters to be generated and eliminated as required, with the ability to resolve non-uniformly distributed clusters. Both the FCM and dFCM algorithms have been studied and successfully applied to simulated data of a sampling tungsten-silicon calorimeter. It is seen that the FCM technique works reasonably well, and at the same time, the use of the dFCM technique improves the performance.

  6. Calorimetric and computational study of thiacyclohexane 1-oxide and thiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (thiane sulfoxide and thiane sulfone). Enthalpies of formation and the energy of the S=O bond.

    PubMed

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Jiménez, Pilar; Dávalos, Juan Zenón; Notario, Rafael; Guzmán-Mejía, Ramón; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2003-03-01

    A rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter specifically designed for the study of sulfur-containing compounds [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 1999, 31, 635] has been used for the determination of the enthalpy of formation of thiane sulfone, 4, Delta(f)H(o) m(g) = -394.8 +/- 1.5 kJ x mol(-1). This value stands in stark contrast with the enthalpy of formation reported for thiane itself, Delta(f)H(o) m(g) = -63.5 +/- 1.0 kJ x mol(-1), and gives evidence of the increased electronegativity of the sulfur atom in the sulfonyl group, which leads to significantly stronger C-SO2 bonds. Given the known enthalpy of formation of atomic oxygen in the gas phase, Delta(f)H(o) m(O,g) = +249.18 kJ x mol(-1), and the reported bond dissociation energy for the S=O bond in alkyl sulfones, BDE(S=O) = +470.0 kJ x mol(-1), it was possible to estimate the enthalpy of formation of thiane sulfoxide, 5, a hygroscopic compound not easy to use in experimental calorimetric measurements, Delta(f)H(o) m(5) = -174.0 kJ x mol(-1). The experimental enthalpy of formation of both 4 and 5 were closely reproduced by theoretical calculations at the G2(MP2)+ level, Delta(f)H(o) m(4) = -395.0 kJ x mol(-1) and Delta(f)H(o) m(5) = -178.0 kJ x mol(-1). Finally, calculated G2(MP2)+ values for the bond dissociation energy of the S=O bond in cyclic sulfoxide 5 and sulfone 4 are +363.7 and +466.2 kJ x mol(-1), respectively. PMID:12608789

  7. Thermodynamic property determination in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margrave, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for determining heat capacities and other properties of molten metals were investigated and critically evaluated. Precisely determining heat capacities calorimetrically in space poses several problems. The weight of a drop calorimeter block along with the necessity of obtaining a large number of data points tend to make traditional approaches appear infeasible. However, for many substances exhibiting sufficiently high thermal conductivities and with known emissivities, it appears possible to investigate their properties by observing the rate of cooling of a levitated sphere which is initially at a uniform temperature above the melting point. A special advantage of the levitation method is that considerable supercooling is expected, making the study of the heat capacities of molten metals both above and below their melting points possible.

  8. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  9. Spectroscopic and calorimetric studies of formation of the supramolecular complexes of PAMAM G5-NH2 and G5-OH dendrimers with 5-fluorouracil in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Adam; Olesinski, Tomasz; Zbicinska, Elzbieta; Urbaniak, Pawel; Palecz, Bartlomiej

    2015-07-25

    The results of spectroscopic measurements (increase in solubility, equilibrium dialysis, (1)H NMR titration) and calorimetric measurements (isothermal titration ITC) indicate exothermic (?H<0) and spontaneous (?G<0) combination of an antitumor drug, 5-fluorouracil, by both cationic PAMAM G5-NH2 dendrimer and its hydroxyl analog PAMAM G5-OH in aqueous solutions at room temperature. PAMAM G5-NH2 dendrimer combines about 70 molecules of the drug with equilibrium constant K?300, which is accompanied by an increase in the system order (?S<0). Hydroxyl dendrimer, PAMAM G5-OH, combines about 14 molecules of 5-fluorouracil with equilibrium constant K?100. This process is accompanied by an increase in the system disorder (?S>0). PMID:25997661

  10. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV /c2.

  11. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c^2.

  12. Calorimetric, FTIR and 1H NMR measurements in combination with DFT calculations for monitoring solid-state changes of dynamics of sibutramine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Pajzderska, Aleksandra; Chudoba, Dorota M; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; W?sicki, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Two forms of sibutramine hydrochloride, monohydrate and anhydrous, have been investigated by calorimetric methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements as well as by density functional theory (DFT) of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities, calculations of steric hindrances and Monte Carlo simulations. The results of FTIR spectra combined with DFT calculations permitted identification of the bands corresponding to the dynamics and vibrations of water molecules. NMR study and Monte Carlo simulations revealed the occurrence of reorientation jumps of the methyl groups in sibutramine cation and also revealed that the reorientation of isopropyl group is possible only in sibutramine monohydrate hydrochloride. The hydration of sibutramine hydrochloride causes a change in the conformation of sibutramine cation. PMID:22826266

  13. Spectral-based calorimetric calibration of a 3CCD color camera for fast and accurate characterization and calibration of LCD displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2011-03-01

    LCD displays exhibit significant amount of variability in their tone-responses, color responses and backlight-modulation responses. LCD display characterization and calibration using a spectrometer or a color meter, however, leads to two basic deficiencies: (a) It can only generate calibration data based on a single spot on the display (usually at panel center); and (b) It generally takes a significant amount of time to do the required measurement. As a result, a fast and efficient system for a full LCD display characterization and calibration is required. Herein, a system based on a 3CCD calorimetrically-calibrated camera is presented which can be used for full characterization and calibration of LCD displays. The camera can provide full tri-stimulus measurements in real time. To achieve high-degree of accuracy, colorimetric calibration of camera is carried out based on spectral method.

  14. 78 FR 11939 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p.; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...process, a State agency medical or psychological consultant (MC/PC) may use his...testing to determine the validity of psychological testing. The examining psychologist...provide an opinion on the validity of the psychological test findings without drug...

  15. Implementation of water calorimetry in a 180 MeV scanned pulsed proton beam including an experimental determination of kQ for a Farmer chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joakim Medin

    2010-01-01

    Water calorimetric measurements have been performed in a 180 MeV scanned pulsed proton beam and the absorbed dose determined has been compared with the results obtained using two NE2571 Farmer chambers and the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The depth of measurement in water corresponded to a residual range of Rres = 16.5 cm, corresponding to a mean energy of

  16. A calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of formation and a description of the defect structure of the ordered beta-phase /Ni, Cu/ /1-x/ Al/x/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henig, E. T.; Lukas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to describe thermodynamically the defect structure of an ordered B-Hume-Rothery phase, the heat of formation of (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x) was measured at 1100 K as a function of concentration in the range x (sub Al) = 0.4 and 0.55 for three substitution rations x (sub Ni)/x (sub Cu) = infinity; 11; 5. The heat of formation of the NiAl beta-phase is strongly negative. For the stoichiometric composition it is -72.2 kJ/g-atom. On both the nickel-rich side and the aluminum-rich side the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation decreases linearly with concentration. Substitution of nickel for copper decreases the magnitude of the enthalpy of formation over the entire homogeneity range for the phase (Ni,Cu)(1-x)Al(x). The curve for the enthalpy of formation as well as the literature values for the chemical potential of aluminum are described with great accuracy by the disorder model of Wagner-Schottky.

  17. Interaction of the 5-fluorouracil analog 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine with 'N' and 'B' isoforms of human serum albumin: a spectroscopic and calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Khan, Shawez; Badr, Gamal; Osama Mohamed, Amany; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2014-11-01

    Drugs and metabolites are transported in the blood by plasma proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA). The uridine analog 2'dFUrd, which is a cytotoxic prodrug metabolite of capecitabine, has remarkable activity against solid tumors when administered orally. We report the results of an in vitro experimental study on the interactions of 2'-dFUrd with the N-isoform (at pH 7.4) and B-isoform (at pH 9.0) of HSA, investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking. The binding constant (Kb) was higher for the N-isoform than for the B-isoform. Thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy change (?H°), entropy change (?S°), and Gibbs free energy change (?G°), were also calculated for both isoform interactions using calorimetric techniques. The thermostabilities of HSA and the HSA-2'dFUrd complex were found to be higher for the N-isoform. The interaction of 2'dFUrd with HSA was also explored in molecular docking studies, which revealed that 2'dFUrd was bound to the Sudlow site I in subdomain IIA through multiple modes of interaction, such as hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. These results suggest that 2'dFUrd has higher binding affinity for the N-isoform of HSA. PMID:25141914

  18. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon (India)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  19. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  20. CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS

    E-print Network

    to the vertebrates and are included with them in the phYlum Chordata to which the higher animals, InclUding man, belong. In modern classifications they are given the rank vf a subphylum of the Chordata. They are

  1. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Sulfate at 10-70oC

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2008-06-16

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/sulfate complex and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 10-70 C. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is weak but slightly enhanced by the increase in temperature. The complexation is endothermic and becomes more endothermic with the increase in temperature. The enhanced complexation at elevated temperatures is due to the increasingly larger entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase in enthalpy, suggesting that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is entropy-driven.

  2. The determination of the specific heat of a fine-grained soil by a non-mixing method 

    E-print Network

    Evans, Leighton Allen

    1952-01-01

    of wetting of the so11~ The heat of wetting of the soil is the heat energy evolved when the soil of the spec1men is wetted by the calorimetric fluid, Moreover, the method of mixtures made it impossible to determine exactly the test conditions for a moist... the synthetic sapphire. The values of the variables obtained as outlined above end those obtained directly by measurement were then substituted into equation (1), and the specific heat of the soil specimen was oomputed, The moisture content...

  3. A calorimetric study of energy conversion efficiency of a sonochemical reactor at 500 kHz for organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Toma, Maricela; Fukutomi, Satoshi; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    It would seem that the economic viability is yet to be established for a great number of sonochemical processes, owning to their perfectible ultrasonic equipments. Industrial scale sonoreactors may become more important as a result of mastering the parameters with influence on their energy balance. This work related the solvent type to the energy efficiency as the first step of a complex study aiming to assess the energy balance of sonochemical reactors at 500 kHz. Quantitative measurements of ultrasonic power for water and 10 pure organic solvents were performed by calorimetry for a cylindrically shaped sonochemical reactor with a bottom mounted vibrating plate. It was found that the ultrasonic power is strongly related to the solvent, the energy conversion for organic liquids is half from that of water and there is a drop in energy efficiency for filling levels up to 250 mm organic solvents. Surface tension, viscosity and vapor pressure influence the energy conversion for organic solvents, but it is difficult explain these findings based on physical properties of solvents alone. The apparent intensity of the atomization process shows a good agreement with the experimentally determined values for energy conversion for water and the solvent group studied here. This study revealed that to attain the same ultrasonic power level, more electrical energy is need for organic solvents as compared to water. The energy balance equation has been defined based on these findings by considering an energy term for atomization. PMID:20655791

  4. Isothermal Calorimetric Observations of the Affect of Welding on Compatibility of Stainless Steels with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy C.

    2002-01-01

    Compatibility is determined by the surface area, the chemical constituency and the surface finish of a material. In this investigation exposed area is obviously not a factor as the welded samples had a slightly smaller surface than the unwelded, but were more reactive. The chemical makeup of welded CRES 316L and welded CRES 304L have been observed in the literature to change from the parent material as chromium and iron are segregated in zones. In particular, the ratio of chromium to iron in CRES 316L increased from 0.260 to 0.79 in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the weld and to 1.52 in the weld bead itself. In CRES 304L the ratio of chromium to iron increased from 0.280 to 0.44 in the HAZ and to 0.33 in the weld bead. It is possible that the increased reactivity of the welded samples and of those welded without purge gas is due to this segregation phenomenon. Likewise the reactivity increased in keeping with the greater roughness of the welded and welded without purge gas samples. Therefore enhanced roughness may also be responsible for the increased reactivity.

  5. Calorimetric studies of solvates of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} with aromatic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Korobov, M.V.; Mirakyan, A.L.; Avramenko, N.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry] [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Olofsson, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)] [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Smith, A.L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Ruoff, R.S. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Physics Dept.] [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Physics Dept.

    1999-02-25

    To improve the understanding of the solution properties of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} in aromatic solvents, binary systems of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} with benzene, toluene, 1,2- and 1,3-dimethylbenzene, 1,2,4,- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromobenzene, and 1,2- and 1,3-dichlorobenzene were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, solution calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. Solid solvates with different compositions were identified in many of the systems. The solvates were characterized by composition and by the temperature and the enthalpy of the incongruent melting transition. Enthalpies of solution of C{sub 60} in toluene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,2- and 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and of C{sub 70} in 1,2-dimethylbenzene and in 1,2- and 1,3-dichlorobenzene were determined. The formation-incongruent melting of solid solvates causes maxima in the temperature-solubility curves of fullerenes in aromatic solvents. Trends in solubility behavior of fullerenes were discussed in terms of thermodynamics of solution and solvate formation.

  6. Calorimetric study of cationic photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajlik, I.; Hedvig, P.; Ille, A.; Dobó, J.

    1996-03-01

    The photopolymerization of penta-erythritol tetra-glycidyl ether (initiator Degacure KI-85) was studied by a du Pont 910 type DSC. From our experimental results the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) During the cationic polymerization reaction the lifetime of the initiating centers are long compared to the lifetime of free radicals in case of radical polymerization. (2) The rate of deactivation of the initiating centers increases with increasing temperature.

  7. Determinants Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Determinants 7.3 Introduction Among other uses, determinants allow us to determine whether a system of linear equations has a unique solution or not. The evaluation of a determinant is a key skill in engineering mathematics and this section concentrates on the evaluation of small size determinants

  8. Thermodynamics of the interactions of a homologous series of some amino acids with trimethylamine N-oxide: Volumetric, compressibility, and calorimetric studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinjan Choudhary; Nand Kishore

    2011-01-01

    The values of apparent molar volume V2,? and apparent molar compressibility KS,2,? of glycine, l-alanine, dl-?-amino-n-butyric acid, l-valine, and l-leucine have been determined in the aqueous solution of 1mol·kg?1 and 2mol·kg?1 trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solutions by density and sound velocity measurements. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been employed to determine the values of heats of dilution q of the aqueous solutions

  9. Use of flow calorimetry for determining enthalpies of absorption and the solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous monoethanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonat, C.; Majer, V.; Grolier, J.P.E. [Univ. Blaise Pascal/CNRS, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Genie Chimique] [Univ. Blaise Pascal/CNRS, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Genie Chimique; Mather, A.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    1998-10-01

    A flow mixing unit adapted to a Setaram C-80 calorimeter was used for measuring enthalpies of absorption of carbon dioxide in a 30 wt% aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) at three temperatures (313.15, 353.15, and 393.15 K) and three pressures (2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 MPa). Determinations were performed both in the region where the gas is fully absorbed in the solvent and also in the region of concentrations above the saturation. Experimental data served to obtain the integral enthalpies of absorption and for indirect determination of solubility limits. Where comparison was possible, the presented results derived from calorimetric determinations were in reasonable agreement with those obtained from phase equilibria measurements.

  10. First stars. XVI. HST/STIS abundances of heavy elements in the uranium-rich metal-poor star CS 31082-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The origin and site(s) of the r-process nucleosynthesis is(are) still not known with certainty, but complete, detailed r-element abundances offer our best clues. The few extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with large r-element excesses allow us to study the r-process signatures in great detail, with minimal interference from later stages of Galactic evolution. CS 31082-001 is an outstanding example of the information that can be gathered from these exceptional stars. Aims: Here we aim to complement our previous abundance determinations for third-peak r-process elements with new and improved results for elements of the first and second r-process peaks from near-UV HST/STIS and optical UVES spectra. These results should provide new insight into the nucleosynthesis of the elements beyond iron. Methods: The spectra were analyzed by a consistent approach based on an OSMARCS LTE model atmosphere and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code to derive abundances of heavy elements in CS 31082-001, and using updated oscillator strengths from the recent literature. Synthetic spectra were computed for all lines of the elements of interest to check for proper line intensities and possible blends in these crowded spectra. Our new abundances were combined with the best previous results to provide reliable mean abundances for the first and second-peak r-process elements. Results: We present new abundances for 23 neutron-capture elements, 6 of which - Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, and Re - have not been reported before. This makes CS 31082-001 the most completely studied r-II star, with abundances for a total of 37 neutron-capture elements. We also present the first NLTE+3D abundance of lead in this star, further constraining the nature of the r-process. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; and with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile; Progr. ID 165.N-0276.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Availability, fermentability, and energy value of resistant maltodextrin: modeling of short-term indirect calorimetric measurements in healthy adults1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinao God; Yuya Kajiya; Kazuhito Suruga; Hiroyuki Tagami; Geoffrey Livesey

    Background: Determination of the metabolizable (ME) and net metabolizable (NME) energy of total carbohydrate requires estima- tion of its available (AC) and fermentable (FC) carbohydrate con- tent.Modelingofindirectcalorimetricobservations(respiratorygas exchange) and breath hydrogen would appear to make it possible to estimate noninvasively these nutritional quantities and the approx- imate time-course of availability. Objective: We assessed the time-course of metabolism and energy availability

  12. Time-Dependence of Molecular Mobility during Structural Relaxation and its Impact on Organic Amorphous Solids: An Investigation Based on a Calorimetric Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Mao; Sai Prasanth Chamarthy; Rodolfo Pinal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  To develop a calorimetry-based model for estimating the time-dependence of molecular mobility during the isothermal relaxation of amorphous organic compounds below their glass transition temperature (T\\u000a g).Methods  The time-dependent enthalpy relaxation times of amorphous sorbitol, indomethacin, trehalose and sucrose were estimated based on the nonlinear Adam?Gibbs equation. Fragility was determined from the scanning rate dependence of T\\u000a g. Time evolution of

  13. Calorimetric study of alternating copolymer of bicyclo[2,2,1]-hepta-2,5-diene and carbon monoxide in the range from T ? 0 to 510 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Smirnova; L. V. Nikishchenkova; T. A. Bykova; T. G. Kulagina; G. P. Belov; E. V. Novikova

    2006-01-01

    By adiabatic vacuum and dynamic calorimetry, the temperature dependence of heat capacity for alternating copolymer of bicyclo[2,2,1]-hepta-2,5-diene and carbon monoxide has been determined over the 6–510K range with an uncertainty of 0.2–0.5% between 6 and 350K and 0.5–1.5% from 330 to 510K. In the above temperature ranges, the physical transformations of the copolymer have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics

  14. Physicochemical determinants in the cellular responses to nanostructured amorphous silicas.

    PubMed

    Gazzano, Elena; Ghiazza, Mara; Polimeni, Manuela; Bolis, Vera; Fenoglio, Ivana; Attanasio, Angelo; Mazzucco, Gianna; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario

    2012-07-01

    Amorphous silicas, opposite to crystalline polymorphs, have been regarded so far as nonpathogenic, but few studies have addressed the toxicity of the wide array of amorphous silica forms. With the advent of nanotoxicology, there has been a rising concern about the safety of silica nanoparticles to be used in nanomedicine. Here, we report a study on the toxicity of amorphous nanostructured silicas obtained with two different preparation procedures (pyrolysis vs. precipitation), the pyrogenic in two very different particle sizes, in order to assess the role of size and origin on surface properties and on the cell damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response elicited in murine alveolar macrophages. A quartz dust was employed as positive control and monodispersed silica spheres as negative control. Pyrogenic silicas were remarkably more active than the precipitated one as to cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide synthesis, and production of tumor necrosis factor-?, when compared both per mass and per unit surface. Between the two pyrogenic silicas, the larger one was the more active. Silanols density is the major difference in surface composition among the three silicas, being much larger than the precipitated one as indicated by joint calorimetric and infrared spectroscopy analysis. We assume here that full hydroxylation of a silica surface, with consequent stable coverage by water molecules, reduces/inhibits toxic behavior. The preparation route appears thus determinant in yielding potentially toxic materials, although the smallest size does not always correspond to an increased toxicity. PMID:22491428

  15. Determining Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students quantify the percent of light reflected from solutions containing varying concentrations of red dye using LEGO© MINDSTORMS© NXT bricks and light sensors. They begin by analyzing a set of standard solutions with known concentrations of food coloring, and plot data to graphically determine the relationship between percent reflected light and dye concentration. Then they identify dye concentrations for two unknown solution samples based on how much light they reflect. Students gain an understanding of light scattering applications and how to determine properties of unknown samples based on a set of standard samples.

  16. xvi Preface to the second edition Acknowledgments

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    , William Talbot, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, Fritz Warfield and Paul Weirich. In addition, I have continued to benefit from regular exchanges of ideas or papers (usually both) with many philosophers, including William Alston, Laurence Bonjour, Panayot Butchvarov, Elizabeth Fricker, Alvin Goldman, John Greco, Gilbert

  17. Polymorphism of 2-nitroaniline studied by calorimetric (DSC), structural (X-ray diffraction) and spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV Vis) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Tomasz; Misiaszek, Tomasz; Szostak, M. Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    The separation and growth methods of three ortho-nitroaniline ( o-NA) polymorphs were found. The irreversible character of the ? ? ? and ? ? ? phase transitions was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and microscopic hot stage observations. The X-ray structure of the ?-form was determined and compared with the ? phase structure solved by Daneshwar et al. [N.N. Daneshwar et al. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 34 (1978) 2507]. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (intra H-bond) interactions are dominant in both structures. The IR and Raman spectral features of the solutions and of three polycrystalline o-NA polymorphs are specific for intramolecular resonance assisted H-bonds (RAHB's). The DFT calculations facilitated the almost complete assignments of bands to normal vibrations and the analysis of the measured spectra. The manifestations of weak inter H-bonds in the ? and ? crystals and in the vibrational spectra of all polymorphs are observed as well; the strongest inter H-bonds occur in the ? polymorph. The differences in lowest electronic transition energies of three ?, ? and ? layers explain their different colours: the yellowish-green of the ? form and the orange ones of the ?- and ?- phases. The least stable ? form is probably an amorphous one with the weakest inter H-bonds. The differences in relative orientations of the -NH 2, -NO 2 groups and phenyl rings in the ?- and ?-phases indicate that the o-NA polymorphism has conformational character.

  18. Calorimetric investigation of copper binding in the N-terminal region of the prion protein at low copper loading: evidence for an entropically favorable first binding event.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, Devi Praneetha; Spuches, Anne M; Burns, Colin S

    2015-01-20

    Although the Cu(2+)-binding sites of the prion protein have been well studied when the protein is fully saturated by Cu(2+), the Cu(2+)-loading mechanism is just beginning to come into view. Because the Cu(2+)-binding modes at low and intermediate Cu(2+) occupancy necessarily represent the highest-affinity binding modes, these are very likely populated under physiological conditions, and it is thus essential to characterize them in order to understand better the biological function of copper-prion interactions. Besides binding-affinity data, almost no other thermodynamic parameters (e.g., ?H and ?S) have been measured, thus leaving undetermined the enthalpic and entropic factors that govern the free energy of Cu(2+) binding to the prion protein. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the thermodynamic parameters (K, ?G, ?H, and T?S) of Cu(2+) binding to a peptide, PrP(23-28, 57-98), that encompasses the majority of the residues implicated in Cu(2+) binding by full-length PrP. Use of the buffer N-(2-acetomido)-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), which is also a well-characterized Cu(2+) chelator, allowed for the isolation of the two highest affinity binding events. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to characterize the different binding modes as a function of added Cu(2+). The Kd values determined by ITC, 7 and 380 nM, are well in line with those reported by others. The first binding event benefits significantly from a positive entropy, whereas the second binding event is enthalpically driven. The thermodynamic values associated with Cu(2+) binding by the A? peptide, which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, bear striking parallels to those found here for the prion protein. PMID:25541747

  19. Salt-specific effects observed in calorimetric studies of alkali and tetraalkylammonium salt solutions of poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).

    PubMed

    Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Vohlídal, Jir Combining Breve Í; Cerar, Janez

    2015-01-28

    The enthalpies of dilution ?Hdil of aqueous solutions of a conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid), neutralized by lithium, sodium, cesium, tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxides, were determined in the concentration range from cp = 2 × 10(-3) to 1 × 10(-1) monomol dm(-3) and for T = 278.15, 298.15, and 318.15 K. At low concentrations the dilution of the alkali PTAA salts yields an endothermic effect, which is in part a consequence of the hydrolysis. An exception is PTALi at 278.15 K, where ?Hdil < 0. In the case of tetraalkylammonium salts the enthalpies of dilution increase in the order TBA < TPA < TEA < TMA. Only the TBA salt of PTAA yields an exothermic effect upon dilution in the whole temperature range. In the second part of the study we measured the enthalpies of mixing, ?Hmix, of various salts of poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) with LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and CsCl solutions in water. When lithium salt of PTAA is mixed with LiCl ?Hmix is positive. For mixing experiments with other alkali chlorides the effect is exothermic. In addition, the enthalpies of mixing of PTALi with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetrabutylammonium chloride were measured at T = 278.15 K, 298.15 K, and 318.15 K. Popular polyelectrolyte theories, such as Manning's limiting law, predict for the heat to be released upon dilution, and consumed upon mixing; the agreement between this purely electrostatic theory and experiments is at best qualitative. The ?Hmix values are correlated with the enthalpies of hydration of the cations of the low molecular mass salts added to the solution. PMID:25491322

  20. On the Behavior of Nonionic Surfactants at the N-Heptane/Silica Gel Interface: Influence of the Presence of Interfacial Water Inferred from Adsorption Isotherms and Calorimetric Data.

    PubMed

    Lagerge; Keh; Partyka; Lindheimer

    2000-07-15

    The behavior of two polydisperse nonionic surfactants, poly (oxyethylene) glycol alkylphenyl ether TX-35 and TX-100, at the prewetted silica gel/n-heptane and dried silica gel/n-heptane interfaces has been compared by the determination of the average adsorption isotherms of the polydisperse surfactants and of displacement enthalpies. From HPLC experiments, we could also separately quantify the adsorption of each ethyleneoxide (EO) fractions for silica gel from the polydisperse surfactant solution. The adsorption isotherms clearly indicate an incomplete preferential adsorption of the large (EO) chains over the small ones, as well on dried silica gel as on a prehydrated sample. This preferential adsorption and its driving force follow the solubility rules of the poly(oxyethylene) glycol alkylphenyl ether in an apolar solvent and support the idea of a solubility-limited adsorption: solubility in organic solvents of the smaller (EO) chains is much more significant than that of the longer ones and hence prevents adsorption of the smaller species. Consequently, it is observed that the presence of interfacial water decreases the affinity of TX-35 molecules for the hydrophilic silica surface due to the hydration of (EO) chains. In contrast, for TX-100 adsorption after the prewetting treatment the clearest trend is a drastic increase of the adsorption ascribed to the additional solubilization (and micellization) of the TX-100 molecules in the interfacial aqueous phase. The differential molar enthalpies of displacement show a change in the adsorption mechanism, depending on the presence of molecular water on the surface. In the initial part of the adsorption isotherm, a prevailing exothermic process is obtained with prehydrated silica and suggests that hydration of the polar heads of TX-35 and the solubilization of the TX-35 in interfacial water are occurring. For higher equilibrium concentrations, the enthalpies of displacement observed with the prehydrated adsorbent become slightly lower than those obtained with dry silica gel. It may be that this difference is due to the micellization phenomenon of the surfactant species with longer EO chains in interfacial water. These features emphasize the influence of interfacial water on the adsorption of EO fractions from organic solvent. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10873328

  1. A calorimetric study on the low temperature dynamics of doped ice V and its reversible phase transition to hydrogen ordered ice XIII.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Christoph G; Radaelli, Paolo G; Finney, John L; Mayer, Erwin

    2008-11-01

    Doped ice V samples made from solutions containing 0.01 M HCl (DCl), HF (DF), or KOH (KOD) in H(2)O (D(2)O) were slow-cooled from 250 to 77 K at 0.5 GPa. The effect of the dopant on the hydrogen disorder --> order transition and formation of hydrogen ordered ice XIII was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with samples recovered at 77 K. DSC scans of acid-doped samples are consistent with a reversible ice XIII <--> ice V phase transition at ambient pressure, showing an endothermic peak on heating due to the hydrogen ordered ice XIII --> disordered ice V phase transition, and an exothermic peak on subsequent cooling due to the ice V --> ice XIII phase transition. The equilibrium temperature (T(o)) for the ice V <--> ice XIII phase transition is 112 K for both HCl doped H(2)O and DCl doped D(2)O. From the maximal enthalpy change of 250 J mol(-1) on the ice XIII --> ice V phase transition and T(o) of 112 K, the change in configurational entropy for the ice XIII --> ice V transition is calculated as 2.23 J mol(-1) K(-1) which is 66% of the Pauling entropy. For HCl, the most effective dopant, the influence of HCl concentration on the formation of ice XIII was determined: on decreasing the concentration of HCl from 0.01 to 0.001 M, its effectiveness is only slightly lowered. However, further HCl decrease to 0.0001 M drastically lowered its effectiveness. HF (DF) doping is less effective in inducing formation of ice XIII than HCl (DCl) doping. On heating at a rate of 5 K min(-1), kinetic unfreezing starts in pure ice V at approximately 132 K, whereas in acid doped ice XIII it starts at about 105 K due to acceleration of reorientation of water molecules. KOH doping does not lead to formation of hydrogen ordered ice XIII, a result which is consistent with our powder neutron diffraction study (C. G. Salzmann, P. G. Radaelli, A. Hallbrucker, E. Mayer, J. L. Finney, Science, 2006, 311, 1758). We further conjecture whether or not ice XIII has a stable region in the water/ice phase diagram, and on a metastable triple point where ice XIII, ice V and ice II are in equilibrium. PMID:18936855

  2. Determining Densities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-04-12

    Students will use two different methods to determine the densities of a variety of materials and objects. The first method involves direct measurement of the volumes of objects that have simple geometric shapes, while the second uses the water displacement method to determine the volumes of irregularly-shaped objects. After the densities are determined, students will create x-y scatter graphs of mass versus volume, and these graphs will reveal that objects with densities less than water (floaters) lie above the graph’s diagonal, and those with densities greater than water (sinkers) lie below the diagonal. Pre-requisite Knowledge: * Students should be able to use rulers to measure lengths to the nearest millimeter, triple beam balances to measure masses to at least the nearest 0.1 gram, and graduated cylinders to measure liquids to at least the nearest 1 milliliter. * Students should be able to calculate the volumes of rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical solids. * Students should be able to graph points on an x-y coordinate grid.

  3. Ash Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for these emissions or smoking at low loads and limiting can be easily determined, and the operational fly ash reinjection to reduce opacity and parameters have a significant effect on the particulate emissions have impacted on boiler losses. efficiency...-cooled 15-40 2.8-6.0 Furnace for dry-ash removal Stoker Chain or traveling grate 15-50 2.8-7.0 Underfeed 20-50 3.5-7.0 Spreader 30-60 5.0-8.0 Water-cooled vibrating 30-60 5.0-8.0 grate Unburned combustible losses can be separated into volatile...

  4. Calcium oxalate crystallization kinetics from calorimetric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Söhnel; M. Kroupa; G. Franková; V. Velich

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate precipitation effected by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium oxalate together in the stoichiometric ratio at 25 and 37°C, were studied using an isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. A method for inferring the crystal growth kinetic parameters from experimental progress curve giving the time development of the integral heat evolved during the precipitation

  5. Calorimetric Study of Thermal Denaturation of ?-Lactoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwan Hwa Park; Daryl B. Lund

    1984-01-01

    Effects of pH and milk constituents (milk ultrafiltrate and ~:-casein) on de- naturation of fl-lactoglobulin were investi- gated by a dynamic method based on dif- ferential scanning calorimetry. The appar- ent reaction order of \\/Ltactoglobulin de- naturation by the dynamic method was 2.0 over the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0, which is in fair agreement with results by other

  6. Calorimetric study of the mechanochemically activated sphalerite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongliang Xiao; Qiyuan Chen; Zhounan Yin; Pingmin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The thermal behavior of mechanochemically activated sphalerite during aging was investigated by calorimetry. The results indicate that mechanochemically activated sphalerite releases the stored energy which may origin from a series of complex transformations. The amount of energy released increases with the grinding time but remains almost constant after grinding for 1h. It is independent of the grinding atmosphere and is

  7. Calorimetric studies of high temperature oxide superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasutoshi Saito; Tetsuro Nakamura; Tooru Atake

    1988-01-01

    The heat capacities of single phase samples of Ba2DyCu3O7 and Ba2ErCu3O7 which were prepared by the method of powder-calcination have been measured over the temperature range 13-300 K by using a laboratory-made adiabatic calorimeter. A typical second-order type of anomaly was observed due to the superconducting phase transition at 92.5 K in Ba2DyCu3O7 and at 91.2 K in Ba2ErCu3O7. From

  8. Determination of test methods for the prediction of the behavior of mass concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Christopher C.

    Hydration at early ages results from chemical and physical processes that take place between Portland cement and water, and is an exothermic process. The resultant heat evolution and temperature rise for massive concrete placements can be so great that the temperature differentials between the internal concrete core and outer concrete stratum can cause cracking due to thermal gradients. Accurate prediction of temperature distribution and stresses in mass concrete is needed to determine if a given concrete mixture design may have problems in the field, so that adjustments to the design can be made prior to its use. This research examines calorimetric, strength, and physical testing methods in an effort to predict the thermal and physical behavior of mass concrete. Four groups of concrete mixture types containing different cementitious materials are examined. One group contains Portland cement, while the other three groups incorporate large replacements of supplementary cementitious materials: granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and a ternary blend (combining Portland cement, fly ash, and slag).

  9. Determination and predictibility

    E-print Network

    Longo, Giuseppe

    Determination and predictibility the continuum and the discrete Giuseppe Longo LIENS, CNRS ­ ENS of the Solar system. #12;Formal determination God « An infinite intelligence... » [Laplace, Philosophie des Probas, 1786] This is a characterization of "mathematical determination" as equational determination #12

  10. DIPPER project 871 determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds, The 1991 project results

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Tasker, I.R.

    1993-09-01

    Results of a study aimed at improving group-contribution methodology for estimating thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of cyclohexene, phthalan (2,5-dihydrobenzo-3,4-furan), isoxazole, n-octylamine, di-n-octylamine, tri-n-octylamine, phenyl isocyanate, and 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine are reported. Two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined for phthalan, isoxazole, the three octylamines, and phenyl isocyanate. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for phthalan and isoxazole at 298 to 425 K. The critical temperature and critical density of n-octylamine were determined from d.s.c. results and critical pressure derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, pressures, and densities for cyclohexene (pressure and density only), phthalan, isoxazole, di-n-octylamine, and phenyl isocyanate. Group-additivity parameters or ring-correction terms are derived.

  11. Genomics of sex determination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray

    2014-04-01

    Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution. PMID:24682067

  12. Study the penetration of IR laser radiation in human teeth: determination of the absorbed and scattered parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova, Pepa; Rabadgiiska, Stanislava; Uzunov, Tzonko; Kisov, Hristo; Kaimakanova, Nadejda; Deneva, Margarita; Dinkov, Emil; Nenchev, Marin

    2013-03-01

    By using the developed by us approaches and instrumentation, we have obtained and presented series of systematized data, which are important for the use of the laser light in infrared (IR) spectral region. The obtained data include: 1) reflectivity of the human tooth dentin; 2) the spatial intensity distribution in the cross-section of the light beam penetrating the tooth's dentin; 3) the absorbed and the diffused parts of the laser light that have been determined separately through combination of optical and calorimetric techniques. The last result is the most important because it permits to calculate the dentin absorption and scattering coefficients. The study is performed for the laser light at two easily generated wavelengths - 1.06 ?m and 1.36 ?m, emitted by the Nd:YAG laser that is well known, commercially available, economical and widely used in many laboratories and medical institutions. The study is made on the basis of fresh in-vitro teeth samples from the persons of Bulgaria, Sofia region.

  13. Optimized structure and thermochemical properties of flavonoids determined by the CHIH(medium) DFT model chemistry versus experimental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María.; Lardizabal-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Balandrán-Quintana, René R.; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the CHIH(medium)-DFT model chemistry (PBEg/CBSB2 ??//PBEg/CBSB4) in the determination of the optimized structure and thermochemical properties of heterocyclic systems of medium size such as flavonoids, wherefore were selected three of the most abundant flavonoids in vegetable tissues, and which posses the higher antioxidant activity: quercetin, (+)-catechin and cyanidin. As reference systems were employed three cyclic compounds: phenol, catechol and resorcinol. The thermochemical properties evaluated were enthalpy of formation, bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP), following the scheme of isodesmic reactions. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data generated by X-ray diffraction and calorimetric techniques realized in part by us, whereas other data were taken from the literature. The results obtained in this work reveal that the CHIH(medium)-DFT model chemistry represents an accurate computational tool to calculate structural and thermochemical properties in the studied flavonoid and reference compounds. The average absolute deviation of enthalpy of formation for reference compounds was 3.0 kcal/mol, 2.64 kcal/mol for BDE, and 2.97 kcal/mol for IP.

  14. DDD: Density Distribution Determination

    E-print Network

    Horn, Berthold K.P.

    1973-03-08

    This paper presents a solution to the problem of determining the distribution of an absorbing substance inside a non-opaque non-scattering body from images or ray samplings. It simultaneously solves the problem of determining ...

  15. Short arcs at low current determination of the power lost by conduction into anode

    SciTech Connect

    Abbaoui, M.; Salihou, H. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)

    1995-12-31

    The mechanisms occurring at the anode of an electric arc are less important compared to that at the cathode, Many studies have been carried out to get a better understanding of anode phenomena in welding, but few of them have been reported on sham am in gases then last years. In general, for short arcs, the major problem encouraged in experiment was the instability of the arc voltage. This instability depends on the phenomena associated with the existence of the arc, the erosion, the nature and surface state of the electrode materials mainly for low currents arcs. Thus, for short arcs operating in gases at low current, experimental investigations are complicated because of their inherent instability and the metal gas interaction. Moreover, because of this instability, there are less data available. In this paper, we are concerned with low arc current (2-5A) and small electrode separation (0.4-1mm). For short arcs in gases at low-current, it is known from literature that one of the important tool is the energy balance which enables to deal with the power lost by conduction into electrodes and the current density. Calorimetric observations show that about 80% of the electrical power input is lost into both electrodes mainly by conduction. In the following analysis, a simple method of determining the power lost by conduction into different anode materials using a wall stabilised arc is presented. The experimental method consists in measuring the temperature reached in steady state at different points distributed along the electrode axis, fitting the values obtained and calculating the power supplied P{sub cd} to the anode surface facing the column.

  16. Aspects of Toeplitz Determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Krasovsky

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a We review the asymptotic behavior of a class of Toeplitz (as well as related Hankel and Toeplitz + Hankel) determinants which\\u000a arise in integrable models and other contexts. We discuss Szego, Fisher-Hartwig asymptotics, and how a transition between\\u000a them is related to the Painlevé V equation. Certain Toeplitz and Hankel determinants reduce, in certain double-scaling limits,\\u000a to Fredholm determinants which

  17. CALORIMETER-BASED ADJUSTMENT OF MULTIPLICITY DETERMINED 240PU EFF KNOWN-A ANALYSIS FOR THE ASSAY OF PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Dubose, F.

    2012-02-21

    In nuclear material processing facilities, it is often necessary to balance the competing demands of accuracy and throughput. While passive neutron multiplicity counting is the preferred method for relatively fast assays of plutonium, the presence of low-Z impurities (fluorine, beryllium, etc.) rapidly erodes the assay precision of passive neutron counting techniques, frequently resulting in unacceptably large total measurement uncertainties. Conversely, while calorimeters are immune to these impurity effects, the long count times required for high accuracy can be a hindrance to efficiency. The higher uncertainties in passive neutron measurements of impure material are driven by the resulting large (>>2) {alpha}-values, defined as the ({alpha},n):spontaneous fission neutron emission ratio. To counter impurity impacts for high-{alpha} materials, a known-{alpha} approach may be adopted. In this method, {alpha} is determined for a single item using a combination of gamma-ray and calorimetric measurements. Because calorimetry is based on heat output, rather than a statistical distribution of emitted neutrons, an {alpha}-value determined in this way is far more accurate than one determined from passive neutron counts. This fixed {alpha} value can be used in conventional multiplicity analysis for any plutonium-bearing item having the same chemical composition and isotopic distribution as the original. With the results of single calorimeter/passive neutron/gamma-ray measurement, these subsequent items can then be assayed with high precision and accuracy in a relatively short time, despite the presence of impurities. A calorimeter-based known-{alpha} multiplicity analysis technique is especially useful when requiring rapid, high accuracy, high precision measurements of multiple plutonium bearing items having a common source. The technique has therefore found numerous applications at the Savannah River Site. In each case, a plutonium (or mixed U/Pu) bearing item is divided into multiple containers. A single item from that batch is then selected for both neutron and calorimetric measurements; all remaining items undergo a neutron measurement only. Using the technique mentioned above, the 'true' {alpha} value determined from the first (calorimeter and passive neutron measured) item is used in multiplicity analysis for all other items in the batch. The justification for using this {alpha} value in subsequent calculations is the assumption that the chemical composition and isotopic distribution of all batch items are the same, giving a constant ({alpha},n):spontaneous fission ratio. This analysis method has been successfully applied to the KIS Facility, significantly improving measurement uncertainties and reducing processing times for numerous items. Comprehensive plans were later developed to extend the use of this method to other applications, including the K-Area Shuffler and the H-Area Pu-Blending Project. While only the feasibility study for the Shuffler has been completed, implementation of the method in the H-Area Pu-Blending Project is currently in progress and has been successfully applied to multiple items. This report serves to document the details of this method in order to serve as a reference for future applications. Also contained herein are specific examples of the application of known-{alpha} multiplicity analysis.

  18. Determinism without causality

    E-print Network

    Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Franco Manessi; Paolo Perinotti

    2013-05-16

    Causality has been often confused with the notion of determinism. It is mandatory to separate the two notions in view of the debate about quantum foundations. Quantum theory provides an example of causal not-deterministic theory. Here we introduce a toy operational theory that is deterministic and non-causal, thus proving that the two notions of causality and determinism are totally independent.

  19. Viking satellite orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Hildebrand; E. J. Christensen; D. H. Boggs; G. H. Born; H. Hokikian; J. F. Jordan; W. B. Howard

    1977-01-01

    During the summer of 1976, the two Viking spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter-lander combination, were inserted into orbit about Mars. The paper describes the experiences of the Viking Satellite Orbit Determination Team in determining Mars centered ephemerides of the orbiters and positions of the landers from the two-way Doppler and range data, and synthesizes the different phases of the

  20. ANUNCIA LA CONVOCATORIA DE SU XVI CONGRESO NACIONAL Y

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    / "Investigación e Innovación Educativa al Servicio de Instituciones y Comunidades Globales, Plurales y Diversas comunidades educativas actuales para hacer frente a los problemas educativos derivados de la teóricofilosóficas sobre diversidad, equidad y globalidad y sus implicaciones educativas y, por otro

  1. Life Story of His Holiness the XVI Gyalwa Karmapa

    E-print Network

    Rinpoche, Jamgon Kongtrul

    1982-01-01

    Jnth of the year of the Wood Mouse Early life and recognition of H. H. the Karmapa (1923 A. D.). He was born in an aristocratic family named Ah. Thub, His father's name was Tshe. dbang.Nor.Bu, and his mother's name was Kal. bZang.Chos.lDan. 'the birth of a... , and the child was speedily recognized to be the Sixteenth Karmapa incarnation. His Holiness stayed with His family for several years. When He was Lay ordination of the H.H. Karmapa from Situ Rimpoche seven years old, he received the lay ordination from Si...

  2. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and program needs. Each activity program shall help develop leadership abilities and provide opportunities for student participation...include the purpose, structure, coordination, and planned types of fund-raising activities. (c) School may...

  3. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    E-print Network

    Ade, P A R; Akrami, Y; Aluri, P K; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fantaye, Y; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Gauthier, C; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huang, Z; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kim, J; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Liu, H; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marinucci, D; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Pant, N; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rotti, A; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Souradeep, T; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...

  4. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; C. Dickinson; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; A. Lähteenmäki; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; S. Madden; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; M. Peel; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca

    2011-01-01

    The all-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR\\/submm wavelengths over which they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these

  5. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    and Europe are equipped with diesel particle filters (DPFs). These traps are frequently designed to be self between the imposition of diesel article filters (DPFs) on London buses with the increase in the NO2/NOx manifestations of photochemical smog. An attempt to simplify the complexity of these photochemical processes

  6. Speckle Interferometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory. XVI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L.

    2011-05-01

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0farcs15 to 16farcs94, with a median separation of 3farcs03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  7. O PRÍNCIPE PROPOSTO POR NICOLAU MAQUIAVEL NO SÉCULO XVI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Aparecida; Lopes Benassi

    The present communication has the purpose of making some considerations about the political thought of the Italian Niccolo Machiavelli, author who lived between the 15th and 16th centuries, a period of rapid decomposition of the feudal order and also of fights for the construction of the modern institutions. Differently from countries like France and Spain, for example, that at this

  8. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L., E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''15 to 16.''94, with a median separation of 3.''03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  9. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XVI. A cluster inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Clemens, M.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Fuller, C.; Pappalardo, C.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Herschel far-infrared (FIR) observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The FIR spectral energy distributions are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is overdense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (?)-temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and H I data to show that Virgo is overdense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20, respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is ˜0.7 solar, and ˜50 per cent of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole, the mass density of stars in galaxies is eight times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in the effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.

  10. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  11. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  12. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  13. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional...competitive opportunities are provided to all students, regardless of sex, no student shall be barred from participation in...

  14. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  15. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  16. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-print Network

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  17. Genetic of gonadal determination.

    PubMed

    Morel, Yves; Roucher, Florence; Mallet, Delphine; Plotton, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Fetal sexual differentiation results from complex subsequent intracellular signaling and hormonal events that interact together in a definite timing. This process contributes to the setting of gonad determination, internal and external genitalia resulting in a female or male phenotype. Here, we review our current knowledge of gonadal determination drawing on insights from knock-out and transgenic mouse models and analysis of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). PMID:24793987

  18. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  19. Determination of stabilizer states

    E-print Network

    Xia Wu; Ying-hui Yang; Yu-kun Wang; Qiao-yan Wen; Su-juan Qin; Fei Gao

    2015-03-18

    The determination of many special types of quantum states has been studied thoroughly, such as the generalized |GHZ> states, |W> states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication and Dicke states. In this paper, we are going to study another special entanglement states which is stabilizer states. The stabilizer states and their subset graph states play an important role in quantum error correcting codes, multipartite purification and so on. We show that all n- qubit stabilizer states are uniquely determined (among arbitrary states, pure or mixed) by their reduced density matrices for systems which are the supports of n independent generators of the corresponding stabilizer formalisms.

  20. Ultrasonic determination of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and colume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  1. Interplanetary orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Rourke; N. Jerath; C. H. Acton; W. G. Breckenridge; J. K. Campbell; C. S. Christensen; A. J. Donegan; H. M. Koble; N. A. Mottinger; G. C. Rinker

    1979-01-01

    A general description of the Viking interplanetary orbit determination activity extending from launch to Mars encounter is given. The emphasis is on the technical fundamentals of the problem, basic strategies and data types used, quantitative results, and specific conclusions derived from the inflight experience. Special attention is given to the use of the spacecraft-based optical measurements and their first application

  2. and Method of Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. Thiers; Gaw T. Wu; Allen H. Reed; Lawrence K. Oliver

    We propose defining the stability of any chemical con- stituent of stored samples in terms that are quantitative- ly related to the precision of the measurement by which it is determined. We suggest that a constituent may be considered stable, for a stated period and under exactly defined conditions, when the average change in its measured value is less than

  3. Determining Plausible Forecast Outcomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    The content of this lesson will assist the forecaster with the third step of the forecast process, namely, determining plausible forecast outcomes forward in time. The lesson will highlight the role of probabilistic forecast tools to assess the degree of uncertainty in a forecast, as well as suggest an approach for evaluating past and present model performance.

  4. Determinants of project success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. C.; Baker, B. N.; Fisher, D.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of numerous project characteristics, with particular reference to project performance, were studied. Determinants of success are identified along with the accompanying implications for client organization, parent organization, project organization, and future research. Variables are selected which are found to have the greatest impact on project outcome, and the methodology and analytic techniques to be employed in identification of those variables are discussed.

  5. Diazepam disposition determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Greenblatt; Marcia Divoll Allen; Jerold S Harmatz; Richard I Shader

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing diazepam kinetics were assessed in 4 equal groups (n = 11) of young male and female (aged 21 to 37 yr) and elderly male and female (aged 61 to 84 yr) subjects, all of whom were healthy. In all 44, plasma diazepam concentrations were determined by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography in multiple samples drawn for as long as 9

  6. Determination of Offgassed Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A technician at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials Combustion Research Facility begins the Determination of Offgassed Products Test to determine the identity and quantity of volatile offgassed products from materials and assembled articles. Materials are measured, weighed, and loaded into a clean toxicity chamber (pictured). The chamber is purged with high-purity air and loaded into an oven where it will be held at 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. At the end of the 72-hour period, the chamber is removed and allowed to cool to room temperature. Gas samples are taken from the chamber and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. From this, the quantity of the material that may be used safely in habitable areas of spacecraft is determined. This test also determines whether a flight hardware item may be flown safely in a crew compartment. Everything going into space with the astronauts is tested prior to flight to ensure the health and safety of the crew members.

  7. Determining Haugh Units

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, it is almost impossible for multiple p...

  8. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  9. Determining Optimal College Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Location can be a critical determinant of the success of a college. Central Place Theory, as developed in geographic studies of population distribution patterns, can provide insights into the problem of evaluating college locations. In this way preferences of students can be balanced against economic, academic, and political considerations.…

  10. ICESat Precision Orbit Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rim; S. Yoon; C. E. Webb; Y. Kim; B. E. Schutz

    2003-01-01

    Following the successful launch of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) on January 13, 2003, 00:45 UTC, the GPS receiver on ICESat was turned on successfully on Jan. 17, 2003. High quality GPS data were collected since then to support Precision Orbit Determination (POD) activities. ICESat carries Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to measure ice-sheet topography and associated

  11. Determining TOC in Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental method for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water samples is detailed. The method's limitations are discussed and certain precautions that must be taken are emphasized. The subject of TOC versus COD and BOD is investigated and TOC is determined to be a valid indication of biological demand. (BT)

  12. Determination of Radionuclide \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalez J; Calderón C; Rodriguez M

    The most widely extended method to determine the macroscopic non-uniform dose distribution at voxel level is the dose-point convolution method. The lack of tabulated S values for different combinations of voxel size used in SPECT and PET studies has limited the use of voxel S values as a method of choice for absorbed dose calculation at voxel level. The aim

  13. Determination of Brain Death

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Lawrence H.

    1984-01-01

    With the careful application of the principles outlined herein, brain death can be determined with certainty. There have been no documented reports of survivors when these guidelines have been followed. The traid of a known mechanism of brain injury, absence of contributing metabolic or toxic central nervous system depression and absence of demonstrable brain function is sufficient to determine brain death clinically and, in most states, legally. The use of apneic oxygenation protects cadaver organs for transplantation during the period needed to prove that a patient cannot breathe. Very little can ameliorate the tragedy of sudden and unexpected fatal cerebral injury. Nonetheless, the concept of brain death is well established, and there is no longer a medical or an ethical reason to prolong unnecessary support of these patients. PMID:6719920

  14. Dielectric and Calorimetric Studies of Hydrated Purple Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Peter; Bergman, Rikard; Jansson, Helén; Weik, Martin; Swenson, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Purple membranes (PM) from halobacteria were hydrated to ?0.4 and ?0.2 g H2O/g of PM and studied by dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry between 120 and 300 K. The dielectric process, attributed to a local (?) relaxation of the confined supercooled water, shows an Arrhenius temperature behavior at low temperatures. In the case of the most hydrated PM a small deviation from the Arrhenius behavior occurs at 190–200 K together with a pronounced endothermic process and an increased activation energy. The observed crossover is accompanied by a reduction of the interlayer spacing due to the partial loss of the intermembrane water. All these effects at ?200 K are consistent with a scenario where the local relaxation process merges with a nonobservable ?-relaxation of the interlayer water, giving rise to a more liquid-like behavior of the interfacial water. For the less hydrated sample the effects are less pronounced and shift to a slightly higher temperature. PMID:16055533

  15. Metalcarbon bond energies for adsorbed hydrocarbons from calorimetric data

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Charles T.

    September 2004 Abstract Single crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC) is a powerful new method for measuring is available from either experiment or theory on well- defined surfaces, this method can provide crucially of how this bond energy should differ when the C atomÕs ligands are different. Ó 2004 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Calorimetric study on interaction of dioxygen with alumina supported palladium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Shen Ho; Chen-Bin Wang; Chuin-Tih Yeh

    1996-01-01

    Pd\\/Al2O3 samples of various palladium loadings were prepared with the incipient-wetness method. With an increase in the palladium loading, the average diameter (d) of palladium crystallites on these samples was estimated from chemisorption of hydrogen to vary from 10 to 80 Å. Also, the phenomena of oxidizing these dispersed palladium crystallites with dioxygen were studied by a simultaneous TG-DSC instrument.

  17. Calorimetric measurements of a Yang-Koldamasov device

    E-print Network

    Novosad, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Due to the finite supply of oil, energy availability and price are issues facing the world. Among the possible approaches to this problem is research of new physical effects which may produce energy in novel ways. The ...

  18. Calorimetric study of thermal decomposition of lithium hexafluorophosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Gavritchev; G. A. Sharpataya; A. A. Smagin; E. N. Malyi; V. A. Matyukha

    2003-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation of lithium hexafluorophosphate was calculated based on the differential scanning calorimetry study of\\u000a heat capacity and thermal decomposition. It was found that thermal decomposition of LiPF6 proceeds at normal pressure in the temperature range 450-550 K. Enthalpy of LiPF6 decomposition is ?d\\u000a H(LiPF6, c, 298.15 K)= 84.271.34 kJ mole-1. Enthalpy of formation of lithium hexafluorophosphate from elements

  19. [Calorimetric study of the glass transition of denatured collagen].

    PubMed

    Tsereteli, G I; Smirnova, O I

    1990-01-01

    Temperature dependence of heat capacity of native and denatured collagen samples with different content of bound water (6 divided by 27%) has been studied by DSC method in the temperature range from -50 to 150 degrees C. Heat capacity of denatured samples demonstrates a jump of 0.50 J/g.grad. at temperature Tg, which depends on humidity of the sample. It has been shown that Tg value also depends on the heating rate and thermal history. Annealing at the temperature below Tg produces an additional maximum in the temperature dependence on heat capacity. The magnitude of this maximum, as well as the Tg value increase with the annealing time. It is concluded that these properties of heat capacity reflect glass transition in the denatured collagen. PMID:2369594

  20. CALORIMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN INTERACTION WITH ZrMn 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. U. ANIKINA; E. V. GERASIMOVA; V. N. VERBETSKY

    The interaction of hydrogen with ZrMn2 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and temperature range from 100 to 305 °C has been investigated using reaction\\u000a calorimetry. The obtained results allow us to propose the existence of two hydride phase in the ZrMn2-H2 system.

  1. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge,

  2. Calorimetric estimation for a batch-loop emulsion polymerisation reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunjie Fan; Esat Alpay

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale polymerisation reactor, state estimation techniques are investigated. Specifically, a batch-loop reactor is employed for the emulsion polymerisation of methyl methacrylate. The reactor consists of jacketed tubular sections fitted with in-line static mixers, thus providing mixing homogeneity and improved temperature control. A direct estimation of the reaction rate is attained through

  3. Calorimetric investigation of radiation-thermal synthesized lithium pentaferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Surzhikov; A. M. Pritulov; E. N. Lysenko; A. N. Sokolovskiy; V. A. Vlasov; E. A. Vasendina

    2010-01-01

    LiFe5O8 solid-phase synthesis at radiation-thermal (RT) annealing of lithium carbonate and iron oxide mechanical mixture was studied\\u000a using thermal analysis (TG\\/DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. The RT annealing was proceeded with high-power\\u000a pulsing beam of 2.4 MeV electrons. It was shown that RT synthesis of the precursors considerably enhances the reactivity of\\u000a the solid system within temperatures range 600–800 °C.

  4. Laser calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bass; Eric W. Van Stryland; A. F. Stewart

    1979-01-01

    A laser calorimeter has been used to measure two-photon absorption in solids. This new technique provides greater sensitivity than is possible in nonlinear transmission measurements. The two-photon absorption coefficients of CdTe and CdSe at 1.06 ?m using ?16-nsec (FWHM) pulses are 0.13±0.04 and 0.050±0.014 cm\\/MW, respectively.

  5. Calorimetric study of localized helium films in disordering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Charles J.; Steele, Lindsay M.; Finotello, Daniele

    1994-04-01

    Helium films of thickness less than the critical coverage for superfluid onset at T=0 K were studied using a high-resolution calorimetry technique. The films were adsorbed on three disordering substrates: a planar geometry as offered by Mylar tape, a cylindrical geometry as provided by Anopore membranes, and a randomly connected porous geometry as obtained from Millipore fibrous filter paper. The substrates were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. A heat-capacity ``bump'' centered at a temperature that decreases with increasing thickness is found in all cases. The presence of the bump is interpreted as a universal feature for localized helium films adsorbed in substrates introducing disorder. The parameters characterizing such a bump are nonuniversal. The heat-capacity results are analyzed using models for adsorption on heterogeneous substrates.

  6. Calorimetric Characterizacion of PLLA-MWCNTs and PLLA-MWCNTsf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, C.; Gonzalez, G.; Karam, A.; Covis, M.

    2010-06-01

    In the present work the thermal characterization of composites of polylactide (PLLA) with pristine or functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by the method solution mixing. The effect of % MWCNTs added on the thermal transitions was evaluated.

  7. Calorimetric Study of Frost Attack During Cement Hardening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Usherov-Marshak; O. Zlatkovski; V. Sopov

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with practical and experimental studies of the effects of frost attack on hardening cement stone and concrete.\\u000a The basic component of concrete, cement stone, is a typical capillary-porous material formed from solid, liquid and gaseous\\u000a phases. The level of knowledge on the effects of frost attack on cement stone and concrete hardening is insufficient, due\\u000a to the

  8. Determining GAC bed life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. T. Gillogly; Vernon L. Snoeyink; John C. Vogel; Claude M. Wilson; Earl P. Royal

    1999-01-01

    This study developed a way to rapidly and effectively evaluate the remaining life of a granular activated carbon (GAC) bed used to mitigate taste and odor episodes. The maximum attenuation of a 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) episode, a representative taste and odor compound, can rapidly be determined using laboratory-scale columns packed with partially spent GAC taken from full-scale operating adsorbers. These laboratory-scale

  9. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-06-13

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities.

  10. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal Abstract. We study the problem of expressing permanent of matrices as determinant of (possibly larger) matrices. This problem has close connections with complexity of arithmetic computations: complexities of computing permanent and determinant roughly correspond

  11. Determination of CTX equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, S.O.; Barnes, C.W.; Marklin, G.J.; Jarboe, T.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The method by which we determine the magnetic field equilibrium for CTX in a nonperturbing manner is presented. Measurements of flux conserver image currents are combined with calculations from a numerical model of the equilibrium. Results give equilibria which differ significantly from the minimum energy state, but the equilibria data are well-described by a model where j/B has a linear dependence on the poloidal flux function. The observation of non-disruptive rotating internal kink distortions (with toroidal mode numbers n = 1, 2 and 3) within the equilibria and theoretical MHD thresholds for the onset of these modes corroborate the inferred equilibria.

  12. Microcalorimetric and SAXS Determination of PEO-SDS Interactions: The Effect of Cosolutes Formed by Ions

    E-print Network

    Aparecida Mageste Barbosa; Igor José Boggione Santos; Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira; Maria do Carmo Hespanhol da Silva; Alvaro Vianna Novaes de Carvalho Teixeira; Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva

    2014-08-30

    The effect of different ionic cosolutes (NaCl, Na$_2$SO$_4$, Li$_2$SO$_4$, NaSCN, Na$_2$[Fe(CN)5NO], and Na$_3$[Co(NO)$_6$]) on the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and isothermal titration calorimetric techniques. The critical aggregation concentration values (cac), the saturation concentration ($C_2$), the integral enthalpy change for aggregate formation ($\\Delta H_{\\mbox{agg}}$(int)) and the standard free energy change of micelle adsorption on the macromolecule chain ( $\\Delta\\Delta G_{\\mbox{agg}}$) were derived from the calorimetric titration curves. In the presence of 1.00 mmol L$^{-1}$ cosolute, no changes in the parameters were observed when compared with those obtained for SDS-PEO interactions in pure water. For NaCl, Na$_2$SO$_4$, Li$_2$SO$_4$, and NaSCN at 10.0 and 100 mmol L$^{-1}$, the cosolute presence lowered cac, increased $C_2$, and the PEO-SDS aggregate became more stable. In the presence of Na$_2$[Fe(CN)5NO], the calorimetric titration curves changed drastically, showing a possible reduction in the PEO-SDS degree of interaction, possibility disrupting the formed nanostructure; however, the SAXS data confirmed, independent of the small energy observed, the presence of aggregates adsorbed on the polymer chain.

  13. Globular Cluster Distance Determinations

    E-print Network

    Brian Chaboyer

    1998-08-19

    The present status of the distance scale to Galactic globular clusters is reviewed. Six distance determination techniques which are deemed to be most reliable are discussed in depth. These different techniques are used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars. The various calibrations fall into three groups. Main sequence fitting using Hipparcos parallaxes, theoretical HB models and the RR Lyrae in the LMC all favor a bright calibration, implying a `long' globular cluster distance scale. White dwarf fitting and the astrometric distances yield a somewhat fainter RR Lyrae calibration, while the statistical parallax solution yields faint RR Lyrae stars implying a `short' distance scale to globular clusters. Various secondary distance indicators discussed all favor the long distance scale. The `long' and `short' distance scales differ by (0.31+/-0.16) mag. Averaging together all of the different distance determinations yields Mv(RR) = (0.23+/-0.04)([Fe/H] + 1.6) + (0.56+/-0.12) mag.

  14. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  15. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  16. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Green, Abigail R; Lewis, Kevin M; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-06-19

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  17. 42 CFR 498.24 - Reconsidered determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Reconsidered determination. 498.24...PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINATIONS THAT AFFECT...PROGRAM AND FOR DETERMINATIONS THAT AFFECT...and Revised Determinations § 498.24 Reconsidered determination. When a...

  18. Determining a Blanket Balance NUFinancials

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Determining a Blanket Balance NUFinancials Purchasing FMS815 Determining a Blanket Balance 10 to determine the remaining balance of a Blanket Purchase Order. Step 1: Access NUFinancials 1. Log the amount of the PO which has not been received. #12;Determining a Blanket Balance NUFinancials Purchasing

  19. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal IIT Kanpur ICM 2006 Manindra Agrawal (IIT Kanpur) Determinant Versus Permanent ICM 2006 1 / 44 #12;Overview 1 Determinant and Permanent 2 Complexity Notions 3 Known Lower Bounds on Complexity of Permanent 4 Proving Strong Lower Bounds on Determinant Complexity 5

  20. Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Determinant Versus Permanent Manindra Agrawal IIT Kanpur IITK, 2/2007 Manindra Agrawal (IIT Kanpur) Determinant Versus Permanent IITK, 2/2007 1 / 39 #12;Overview 1 Determinant and Permanent 2 A Computational View 3 Known Lower Bounds on Complexity of Permanent 4 Proving Strong Lower Bounds on Determinant

  1. [Determining progesterone in saliva].

    PubMed

    Herges, H; Klinger, W; Gethmann, U; Knuppen, R

    1992-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the determination of progesterone in saliva using a 125J-labelled progesterone derivate has been developed. The assay is characterized by the excellent sensitivity of 3.12 pg progesterone/ml. During the menstrual cycle of normal women the biphasic rhythm of progesterone in saliva could not been clearly demonstrated. In the follicle phase high peaks of progesterone have been shown and even in the luteal phase individual low values have been observed. The circadian rhythms of progesterone in saliva are characterized by irregular oscillations. The saliva flow rate is not responsible for the progesterone concentration. The measurement of progesterone in serum seems to be more useful in the diagnosis of sterility. PMID:1481584

  2. Tracer for circulation determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

    1985-03-19

    An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

  3. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  4. Nanolabel for TNF-? determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, R?dvan; Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Çelik, Suzan; Ersöz, Arzu

    2013-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), also known as cachectin, is one of the most important regulatory cytokines and mediates a variety of cell functions, including the stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production which has been related to oxidative stress and diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, stroke, and chronic inflammation. Determination of TNF-? concentration in human serum might be helpful in the staging and prognosis of diseases. And it is also very important for the understanding of tumor biological processes, inherent mechanisms, and discovering drugs as well as having a therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases. So, in this study, sensor systems based on Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) have been prepared for selectively recognition and binding of TNF-? biomolecules. For this purpose, photosensitive nano structured TNF-? has been synthesized applying AmiNoAcid (monomer) Decorated and Light Underpining Conjugation Approach (ANADOLUCA) method using bis (2-2'-bipyridyl) MATyr-MATyr-ruthenium(II) (MATyr-Ru-MATyr) as a photosensitive monomer. Then, these photosensitive nano structured TNF-? have been used for TNF-? recognition as an alternative and unique sensor method. Also, the affinity constant of RIfS sensor has been calculated. The method has been showed high sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and suited for the detection of TNF-? from aqueous solution.

  5. ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C. KRATTENTHALERy

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C@pap.univie.ac.at WWW: http://radon.mat.univie.ac.at/People/kratt Dedicated to the pioneer of determinant for the case such a determinant should appear in her/his rese* *arch. Second, it lists a number

  6. ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C. KRATTENTHALER

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C. KRATTENTHALER Institut f¨ur Mathematik der Universit¨at Wien://radon.mat.univie.ac.at/People/kratt Dedicated to the pioneer of determinant evaluations (among many other things), George Andrews Abstract which should enable her/him to evaluate nontrivial de- terminants for the case such a determinant should

  7. DETERMINATION OF CALORIES BY NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine energy content of feeds, little is known about the capability of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the determination of available energy in foods for human consumption. Recent studies have been conducted to determine the utilizable energy in p...

  8. 20 CFR 410.627 - Reconsidered determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Reconsidered determination. 410.627 Section...BENEFITS (1969- ) Determinations of Disability, Other Determinations, Administrative Review...410.627 Reconsidered determination. When a request...

  9. 42 CFR 422.566 - Organization determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...making timely organization determinations (in accordance...standard procedure for making determinations, in accordance with...that are organization determinations. An organization determination is any...

  10. Chromatographic determination of plant saponins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A Oleszek

    2002-01-01

    The methods used for saponin determination in plant materials are presented. It is emphasised that the biological and spectrophotomeric methods still being used for saponin determination provide, to some extent, valuable results on saponin concentrations in plant material. However, since they are sensitive to the structural variation of individual saponins they should be standardized with saponin mixtures isolated from the

  11. Determining laboratory value: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Stein, P

    1996-03-01

    This article will describe how to determine a fair market value for a dental laboratory. Part one addresses how to define fair market value, how value is perceived and how to prepare for laboratory evaluation. Part two, to be printed in April, will address how to apply an appropriate valuation methodology to determine worth. PMID:9516267

  12. Determining laboratory value: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Stein, P

    1996-04-01

    This article describes how to determine a fair market value for a dental laboratory. Part one defined fair market value, addressed how value is perceived and how to prepare for laboratory evaluation. Part two addresses how to apply an appropriate valuation methodology to determine worth. PMID:9516270

  13. Orbit Determination in Satellite Geodesy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Beutler; U. Hugentobler; T. Schildknecht

    2002-01-01

    For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of the six Keplerian elements of a minor planet or a comet in the solar system based on a short time series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth surface. With the advent of the space age the problem

  14. Orbit determination in satellite geodesy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Beutler; T. Schildknecht; U. Hugentobler; W. Gurtner

    2003-01-01

    For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of six so-called Keplerian elements of the orbit of a minor planet or a comet based on a short series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth's surface. With the advent of the space age the problem changed considerably

  15. Self-Determination. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IMPACT, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the relevance of self-determination for persons with developmental disabilities across the life span, ways in which it is or can be expressed, and obstacles to its exercise. The articles show the futility of enhancing self-determination by teaching choice-making skills if environments offer no opportunities to exercise…

  16. Multiple Determinants and Effect Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Ahadi; Edward Diener

    1989-01-01

    Used a Monte Carlo study to investigate the magnitude of various relations among behaviors and traits in the context of a multiple-determinant framework. It was found that when only 3 traits determined each of 2 behaviors and the 2 behaviors were influenced by only 1 common trait, there was an upper bound correlation of about .30 between the 2 behaviors;

  17. Period Determination of Mira Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Benson; C. L. Ryan

    1999-01-01

    We have observed several Mira-type and suspected Mira variables for up to an eight-year span at Wellesley College's Whitin Observatory. Periods have been determined for 22 stars for which the period has not previously been determined. We note the presence of a rare \\

  18. Determinants of Levered Portfolio Performance

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert M.

    Determinants of Levered Portfolio Performance Robert M. Anderson Stephen W. Bianchi Lisa R Abstract The cumulative return to a levered strategy is determined by five elements that fit together to Lever." 1 #12;1 A Simple Two-Period Example In this paper, we show that there are five elements

  19. Determinants

    E-print Network

    1910-51-00

    change of two numbers is called a transposition. For example, to obtain ... the identity permutation (1, 2,...,n) is even (it is obtained using 0 transpositions), .... Your book has plenty of examples illustrating these formulas. They are convenient to ...

  20. Kinematic Precise Orbit Determination for Gravity Field Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Švehla; M. Rothacher

    In this paper we first present approaches and results in precise orbit determination (POD) for satellites in Low Earth Orbit\\u000a (LEO) based on one or two frequency GPS measurements and, secondly, we focus on the relations between kinematic POD and gravity\\u000a field determination. Using GPS measurements of the CHAMP satellite we show that it is possible to estimate kinematic positions

  1. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Thompson, Paul F.; Jefferson, David C.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Pelletier, Frederic J.; Ryne, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the orbit determination process, results and filter strategies used by the Mars Science Laboratory Navigation Team during cruise from Earth to Mars. The new atmospheric entry guidance system resulted in an orbit determination paradigm shift during final approach when compared to previous Mars lander missions. The evolving orbit determination filter strategies during cruise are presented. Furthermore, results of calibration activities of dynamical models are presented. The atmospheric entry interface trajectory knowledge was significantly better than the original requirements, which enabled the very precise landing in Gale Crater.

  3. Determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of grain boundaries using high temperature calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, C.D.; Chiang, Y.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Eastman, J.A.; Liao, Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    This work explores the use of high temperature differential scanning calorimetry as a novel way in which to measure thermodynamic and kinetic properties of grain boundaries in ceramics. A calorimetric study of grain growth has become practical only recently, with the development of processing methods for nanocrystalline materials (10--50 nm grain size) that have enough grain boundary area and thus grain boundary excess properties to be detected by commercial calorimeters. Here we report results from experiments on nanocrystalline silicon and titanium dioxide. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Method for Determining Artillery Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Johannes; Meuser, Wilfried

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for determinig artillery positions. Two groups of four closely spaced microphones are placed at known positions, and radio bearings are determined by projectile flight time differences of muzzle blasts. The advantages of the method are discussed.

  5. What Determines Gender in Humans?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Cooper

    In this activity students examine karyotypes from five individuals to try to identify which chromosomes determine gender in humans. This activity is also a good illustration of meiotic non-disjunction.

  6. Determination of plutonium metal origins

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or material smuggled from existing stockpiles. A list of signature elements and what can be determined from them have been developed. Work needs to be done in converting concentrations of signature species into a quantitative forensic analysis, particularly in regard to reactor performance, but this should require only a small effort. A radiochemical analysis scheme has been developed for measuring these nuclides; more work is needed, particularly for determining fission product concentrations. A sample of Pu metal has been analyzed and several parameters determined that are strong indicators of its point of origin.

  7. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    the dust for explosibility based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1226 to ensure proper regulation of facilities. Dusts found in cotton gins were tested to determine if they are explosible. Safety Consulting Engineers Inc. (SCE...

  8. Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From D.B. McWhorterand D. K. Sunda's 1977 Ground-Water Hydrology and Hydraulics, this two page excerpt outlines and details Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Here, visitors will find illustrations and formula to understand the concept.

  9. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  10. Determining a healthcare organization's value.

    PubMed

    Hahn, W

    1994-08-01

    As the consolidation activity among healthcare providers increases, it becomes more important than ever for healthcare financial managers to understand how to determine a healthcare organization's fair market value. There are many methods of determining an organization's value, but three general methods are the foundation of all others: the market comparable method, the underlying assets method, and the income, or cash flow, method. PMID:10146044

  11. Determinants of heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisako Tsuji; Ferdinand J. Venditti; Emily S. Manders; Jane C. Evans; Martin G. Larson; Charles L. Feldman; Daniel Levy

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to examine clinical determinants of heart rate variability and to report normative reference values for eight heart rate variability measures.Background. Although the clinical implications of heart rate variability have been described, clinical determinants and normative values of heart rate variability measures have not been studied systematically in a large community-based population.Methods. The first 2 h of

  12. 19 CFR 210.42 - Initial determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...effective date of the initial determination. The findings and recommendations...judge in the recommended determination issued pursuant to § 210...the Commission in reaching determinations on remedy and bonding by...a). (3) An initial determination filed pursuant to §...

  13. Method for determining artillery position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Johannes; Loges, Werner; Meuser, Wilfried

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the position of cannon from measurement sites whose distance from each other lies in the same order of magnitude as the distance between the cannons -- that distance being in the kilometer range -- with the help of the travel time evaluation of muzzle blasts received at the measurement sites. There are at least two measurement sites, consisting of a cruciform of four microphones each positioned so that one axis is oriented to an arbitrarily chosen reference direction with the microphones spaced closely together. In this arrangement of diametrically opposed microphones, the respective travel times are determined and placed in a relationship whose arctangent is a radio bearing to the reference direction in which radio bearings are determined with consideration of their position and their opposing distance from the cannon position.

  14. Determination of radium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Franklin Butt; Johnson, J.O.

    1964-01-01

    Radium isotopes are common radioactive constituents of natural waters. The concentration of radium-226 in potable water is of particular significance because this isotope is generally considered the most hazardous of all radionuclides with respect to ingestion. The approximate concentration of radium-226 is determined after coprecipitating radium with barium sulfate. The short-lived daughters of radium are allowed to grow for 10-12 days, then the alpha activity of the precipitate is measured and compared with that of a precipitate containing a known amount of radium-226. Concentrations of the individual alpha-emitting isotopes of radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226, are determined by coprecipitating radium first with lead sulfate, then with barium chloride, and finally with barium sulfate. This final precipitate is initially free of other alpha-emitting nuclides, thus permitting the isotopic composition to be determined by measuring the growth and decay of the alpha activity of the precipitate.

  15. A Predictive Attitude Determination Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from vector observations. The new algorithm, called the Predictive Attitude Determination (PAD) algorithm, is derived from a general nonlinear predictive filter approach. Traditional deterministic algorithms are shown to be suboptimal for anisotropic measurement errors. The major advantage of the PAD algorithm is that it can be easily applied to the case where anisotropic measurement errors exist. Also, an analytical expression is derived for the steady-state attitude error covariance, which is shown to be equivalent to the optimal covariance derived from maximum likelihood techniques. Simulation studies indicate that the new algorithm is able to accurately determine the attitude of a spacecraft, even for radically anisotropic measurement errors.

  16. Lessons for Inductive Germline Determination

    PubMed Central

    Seervai, Riyad N.H.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Formation of the germline in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential, yet the developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form differs wildly among species. In most animals, the germline is formed either by an inherited mechanism, in which maternal provisions within the oocyte drive localized germ-cell fate once acquired in the embryo, or an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs germ-cell fate. The inherited mechanism has been widely studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and Danio rerio. Given the rapid generation time and the effective adaptation for laboratory research of these organisms, it is not coincidental that research on these organisms has led the field in elucidating mechanisms for germline specification. The inductive mechanism, however, is less well understood and is studied primarily in the mouse (Mus musculus). In this review, we compare and contrast these two fundamental mechanisms for germline determination, beginning with the key molecular determinants that play a role in the formation of germ cells across all animal taxa. We next explore the current understanding of the inductive mechanism of germ-cell determination in mice, and evaluate the hypotheses for selective pressures on these contrasting mechanisms. We then discuss the hypothesis that the transition between these determination mechanisms, which has happened many times in phylogeny, is more of a continuum than a binary change. Finally, we propose an analogy between germline determination and sex determination in vertebrates—two of the milestones of reproduction and development—in which animals use contrasting strategies to activate similar pathways. PMID:23450642

  17. Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-11-15

    We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L.H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes` contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.

  18. Experimental Determination of Dawsonite Stability and Reactivity: Implications for Geological CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, Pascale [Laboratoire des Mecanismes et Transferts en Geologie, Toulouse, France; Palmer, Donald [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, a significant research effort has focused on determining the feasibility of sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2} in deep, permeable geologic formations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Most models indicate that injection of CO{sub 2} into deep sedimentary formations will lead to the formation of various carbonate minerals, including the common phases calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}), magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), as well as the far less common mineral, dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}). Nevertheless, the equilibrium and kinetics that control the precipitation of stable carbonate minerals are poorly understood and few experiments have been performed to validate computer codes that model CO{sub 2} sequestration. In order to reduce this uncertainty we measured the solubility of synthetic dawsonite according to the equilibrium: NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2(cr)} + 2H{sub 2}O{sub 1} {r_equilibrium}Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -} + HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Na{sup +} + H{sup +}, from under- and oversaturated solutions at 50-200 C in basic media at 1.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} NaCl. The solubility products (Q{sub s}) obtained were extrapolated to infinite dilution to obtain the solubility constants (K{sub s}{sup o}). Combining the fit of these logK{sub s}{sup o} values and fixing {Delta}C{sub pJ}{sup o} at -185.5J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 25 C, which was derived from the calorimetric data of Ferrante et al. [Ferrante, M.J., Stuve, J.M., and Richardson, D.W., 1976. Thermodynamic data for synthetic dawsonite. U.S. Bureau of Mines Report Investigation, 8129, Washington, D.C., 13p.], the following thermodynamic parameters for the dissolution of dawsonite were calculated at 25 C: {Delta}G{sub r}{sup o} = 102.1 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}H{sub r}{sup o} = 97.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Delta}s{sub r}{sup o} = -17.1 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}. Subsequently, we were able to derive values for the Gibbs energy of formation {Delta}{sub {line_integral}}G{sup 0}{sub 298.15} = -1782 {+-} 2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}), enthalpy of formation ({Delta}{sub {line_integral}}H{sup o}{sub 298.15} = -1960 {+-} 7 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}) and entropy (S{sup o}{sub 298.15} = 121 {+-} 2 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}) of dawsonite. These results are within the combined experimental uncertainties of the values reported by Ferrante et al. (1976). Predominance diagrams are presented for the dawsonite/boehmite and dawsonite/bayerite equilibria at 100 C in the presence of a saline solution with and without silica-containing minerals.

  19. Videos Determine the Moon's "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, J. R.; Hagen, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the acceleration of a free-falling object due to gravity is a standard experiment in physics. Different methods to do this have been developed over the years. This article discusses the use of video-analysis tools as another method. If there is a video available and a known scale it is possible to analyse the motion. The use of video…

  20. Analytical Techniques for Furosemide Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Berthod

    2006-01-01

    Due to the clinical importance of furosemide, a large number of analytical procedures to detect the presence of this drug in pharmaceutical and physiological samples has been developed. In this manuscript, a review of the most frequent analytical techniques described to determine furosemide is presented. Special attention has been paid to spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques, but also to relevant methods

  1. Performing Determinism: Disability Culture Poetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Kuppers

    2007-01-01

    “Performing Determinism” discusses the performance of disability through poetry: the instability of language, the ability of words to clasp both generic and specific meaning, and the gaps that surround the performances of self. Disability culture acts as a frame for the inquiry, as the essay discusses crip aesthetics, crip critical practice, and the embodiment of language. In the reading of

  2. Developmental Cell Determining Physical Principles

    E-print Network

    Needleman, Daniel

    Developmental Cell Forum Determining Physical Principles of Subcellular Organization Dan Needleman1 Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany 3Max Planck transformed our understanding of cell biology, but we are still unable to predict the behaviors

  3. Factors Determining Work-load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACQUES LEPLAT

    1978-01-01

    In this short introduction to the topic of the symposium, some analytical elements are suggested for the concept of work-load, the large variety or work-load categories is recalled, and mention is made of some factors determining work-load, which will be elaborated on in the papers presented by other authors.

  4. Spectrophometric Determination of Nelfinavir Mesylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. VANITHA PRAKASH; JANGALA VENKATESWARA RAO

    Two new simple, sensitive, rapid and economical Spectrophotometric Methods (A and B) have been developed for the determination of Nelfinavir Mesylate in pharmaceutical bulk and tablet dosage form. The method A is based on the reaction of Nelfinavir with ferric chloride, potassium ferricyanide and hydrochloric acid to form a bluish green colored chromogen. The Method B is based on the

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  6. [Determination of oligomycins hydrophobicity parameters].

    PubMed

    Danilenko, A N; Bibikova, M V; Spiridonova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of hydrophobicity of five oligomycins, i. e. A, B, C, F and SC-II were determined by HPLC. The location of the ascending hydrophobicity parameter was set: oligomycin B < oligomycin SC-II < oligomycin A < oligomycin F < oligomycin C. PMID:25300113

  7. RADARSAT elevation antenna pattern determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Lukowski; R. K. Hawkins; C. Cloutier; J. Wolfe; L. D. Teany; S. K. Srivastava; B. Banik; R. Jha; M. Adamovic

    1997-01-01

    The operations plan for RADARSAT is based on implicit calibration of the imagery products from this sensor system. The determination of the antenna gain patterns in elevation for RADARSAT is a critical step in the radiometric calibration of this imagery. The shapes of the antenna patterns in elevation were derived from imagery collected over the South American rain forests of

  8. Processing determinants of reading speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Jackson; James L. McClelland

    1979-01-01

    Tested 2 groups of undergraduates (24 Ss) differing in reading ability on a number of reaction-time (RT) tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several levels. Ss were given tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text. The groups did not differ on the sensory

  9. Self-Determination and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Abery, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting self-determination and choice opportunities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities has become best practice in the field. This article reviews the research and development activities conducted by the authors over the past several decades and provides a synthesis of the knowledge in the field pertaining to efforts to…

  10. Investigation of protein structure determination

    E-print Network

    Investigation of protein structure determination using X-ray free-electron lasers Dissertation zur sources, X-ray free-electron lasers (X- FEL's), several fields of research, including atomic and molecular Division in the Center for Free-electron Laser Science and graduate students of the Hamburg School

  11. National Mining Association Experimental Determination

    E-print Network

    Charcoal Canisters (LAACCs) Concluded that radon fluxes obeyed the Stagnant Film Model (SFM) and that flux with the dissolved Radium-226. A picture of the floating Large Area Activated Charcoal Canister (LAACC) used of determining Radon ­ 222 flux, specifically using Large Area Activated Charcoal Canisters (LAACCs) as described

  12. Ion chromatographic determination of acidity.

    PubMed

    De Borba, B M; Kinchin, C M; Sherman, D; Cook, T K; Dasgupta, P K; Srinivasan, K; Pohl, C A

    2000-01-01

    The practice of determining acid concentrations by titrations has remained unchanged for more than a century. We introduce a new approach to the determination of acid concentrations based on cation exchange chromatography. We demonstrate the ability of sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene based stationary phases to separate the hydrogen ion from other monovalent cations. The eluent is a dilute solution of a neutral salt, sometimes containing a small concentration of the corresponding acid, e.g., sodium ethanesulfonate, pH adjusted with ethanesulfonic acid. The high equivalent conductance (approximately 350 S.cm2/equiv) of H+ and relatively low eluent concentration allows sensitive conductometric detection of H+, down to the 50 microM level under favorable conditions. The conductometric response to H+ can be linear over a wide range of H+ concentrations, from sub-millimolar to several molar concentrations. The system allows the rapid quantitation of strong acids; weak acids can also be determined depending on pKa and injected concentration. The determinations of several strong and weak acids are presented along with factors that govern their chromatographic analysis. PMID:10655640

  13. Review Process to be determined

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    Chancellor VCAA Dean Review Process to be determined within each College Review by Campus-Wide Curriculum Review Body Review by Graduate Council Recommend Approval/Disapproval Refer for Revision Refer University of Hawaii at Hilo Curriculum Review Process New and Modified Programs and Courses, Program

  14. 43 CFR 11.81 - Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan...81 Damage determination phase—restoration and compensation determination plan...The authorized official shall develop a Restoration and Compensation Determination...

  15. 43 CFR 11.81 - Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... true Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan...81 Damage determination phase—restoration and compensation determination plan...The authorized official shall develop a Restoration and Compensation Determination...

  16. 43 CFR 11.81 - Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan...81 Damage determination phase—restoration and compensation determination plan...The authorized official shall develop a Restoration and Compensation Determination...

  17. 43 CFR 11.81 - Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan...81 Damage determination phase—restoration and compensation determination plan...The authorized official shall develop a Restoration and Compensation Determination...

  18. 43 CFR 11.81 - Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Damage determination phase-restoration and compensation determination plan...81 Damage determination phase—restoration and compensation determination plan...The authorized official shall develop a Restoration and Compensation Determination...

  19. Determination of radium in water

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL`s for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 {mu}Ci/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 {mu}Ci/mL (0. 1 pCi/L).

  20. Luminosity determination at proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafström, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminosity is a key parameter in any particle collider, and its precise determination has proven particularly challenging at hadron colliders. After introducing the concept of luminosity in its multiple incarnations and offering a brief survey of the pp and p p bar colliders built to date, this article outlines the various methods that have been developed for relative-luminosity monitoring, as well as the complementary approaches considered for establishing an absolute luminosity scale. This is followed by a survey, from both a historical and a technical perspective, of luminosity determination at the ISR, the S p p ¯ S, the Tevatron, RHIC and the LHC. For each of these, we first delineate the interplay between the experimental context, the specificities of the accelerator, and the precision targets suggested by the physics program. We then detail how the different methods were applied to specific experimental environments and how successfully they meet the precision goals.

  1. Determinants of skin sensitisation potential.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur O

    2008-04-01

    Skin sensitisation is an important toxicological endpoint. The possibility that chemicals used in the workplace and in consumer products might cause skin sensitisation is a major concern for individuals, for employers and for marketing. In European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) legislation, the sensitising potential should therefore be assessed for chemicals below the 10 ton threshold. Development of methods for prediction of skin sensitisation potential without animal testing has been an active research area for some time, but has received further impetus with the advent of REACH and the EU Cosmetics Directive (EU 2003). This paper addresses the issue of non-animal based prediction of sensitisation by a mechanistic approach. It is known that the sequence of molecular, biomolecular and cellular events between exposure to a skin sensitiser and development of the sensitised state involves several stages, in particular penetration through the stratum corneum, covalent binding to carrier protein, migration of Langerhans cells, presentation of the antigen to naïve T-cells. In this paper each of these stages is considered with respect to the extent to which it is dependent on the chemical properties of the sensitiser. The evidence suggests that, although penetration of the stratum corneum, stimulation of migration and maturation of Langerhans cells, and antigen recognition are important events in the induction of sensitisation, except in certain specific circumstances they can be taken for granted. They are not important factors in determining whether a compound will be a sensitiser or not, nor are they important factors in determining how potent one sensitiser will be relative to another. The ability to bind covalently to carrier protein is the major structure-dependent determinant of skin sensitisation potential. A chemistry-based prediction strategy is proposed involving reaction mechanistic domain assignment, reactivity and hydrophobicity determination, and application of quantitative mechanistic modelling (QMM) or read-across. PMID:17703504

  2. Geostar Radio Determination Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Robert T.

    The Geostar Radio Determination Satellite System is designed to provide accurate position information and ancillary message passing capability for land mobile, marine, and aeronautical users in the United States and eventually worldwide. The Geostar system is a random access spread spectrum system capable of high positioning accuracy. Geostar can support a large population of users operating inexpensive transceivers. This paper examines the Geostar system positioning technique, error sources, anticipated accuracy, and potential applications.

  3. Stellar Rotation and Age Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this preliminary analysis we discuss on a statistical inversion method applied to the measured stellar Vrot sin i. Our goal is to obtain the Vrot of the cluster stars which is a key parameter of stellar evolution computations. We estimate rotation impact on the age determination of cluster stars using the Maeder-Zahn's theory of stellar rotation in the Cesam2k code.

  4. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

  5. Determinism in synthesized chaotic waveforms.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Blakely, Jonathan N; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D

    2008-03-01

    The output of a linear filter driven by a randomly polarized square wave, when viewed backward in time, is shown to exhibit determinism at all times when embedded in a three-dimensional state space. Combined with previous results establishing exponential divergence equivalent to a positive Lyapunov exponent, this result rigorously shows that such reverse-time synthesized waveforms appear equally to have been produced by a deterministic chaotic system. PMID:18517561

  6. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  7. Relevance determination in reinforcement learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Tluk Von Toschanowitz; Barbara Hammer; Helge Ritter

    2005-01-01

    We propose relevance determination and minimisation schemes in reinforcement learning which are solely based on the Q-matrix and which can thus be applied during training without prior knowledge about the sys- tem dynamics. On the one hand, we judge the relevance of separate state space dimensions based on the variance in the Q-matrix. On the other hand, we perform Q-matrix

  8. Ultrasonic determination of chicken composition.

    PubMed

    Chanamai, R; McClements, D J

    1999-11-01

    An ultrasonic technique has been developed for measuring the composition of chicken meat. The relationship between the composition and ultrasonic velocity of chicken meat was determined using chicken analogues of different composition, prepared from dried chicken powder, corn oil, and distilled water. The ultrasonic velocity of chicken analogues was measured at temperatures from 5 to 35 degrees C using an ultrasonic spectrometer. The ultrasonic velocity increased with solids-nonfat (SNF) content at all temperatures but had a more complex dependence on fat content. Around 15 degrees C the ultrasonic velocity was independent of fat content; however, at lower temperatures it increased with fat content, and at higher temperatures it decreased. Semiempirical equations were developed to describe the relationship between ultrasonic velocity and chicken composition. To determine the usefulness of these equations, the ultrasonic velocities of various chicken meats were measured. The compositions of the chicken meats predicted on the basis of ultrasonic measurements were in good agreement with those determined by using standard methods (r(2) > 0. 97). The ultrasonic technique could also be used to measure the solid fat content of chicken fat. This study shows that ultrasonic velocity measurements can be used to characterize chicken composition. This method has great potential for application in the food industry because it is simple, fast, nondestructive, and reliable. PMID:10552873

  9. Determining boiler-water makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, J.; Herman, K. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Div.

    1995-10-01

    In boiler operations, it is desirable to determine blowdown--and, thus, the feedwater`s concentration cycles--because it enables operators to calculate the theoretical concentrations of iron, copper or dispersant in the system. These calculations are important for maintaining boiler cleanliness. In practice, however, it isn`t always feasible to determine blowdown. For example, if the steam, feedwater and blowdown flows are not measured in a system, or if the measurements are not accurate, the blowdown and feedwater concentration cycles cannot be accurately determined. Also, if demineralized makeup water with very-low silica concentrations is mixed with essentially silica-free condensate, the ratio of silica in the boiler water to the silica in the feedwater may not yield accurate values for the concentration cycle. This method for calculating concentration cycles is accurate to within 5%, when the accuracy of the parameters measured are within the following limits: steam flow (2%); phosphate, residual (5%); micro calcium (50%); micro iron (25%); and phosphate, feed (10%).

  10. Molecular conformations of cerebrosides in bilayers determined by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bunow, M R; Levin, I W

    1980-01-01

    Vibrational Raman spectra of the solid and gel phases of bovine brain cerebrosides and the component fractions, kerasin and phrenosin, provide conformational information for these glycosphingolipids in bilayer systems. The carbon-carbon stretching mode profiles (1,150-1,000 cm-1) indicate that at 22 degrees C the alkyl chains assume an almost all-trans arrangement. These spectral data, combined with those from the C-H stretching region (3,050-2,800 cm-1), show that phrenosin forms the most highly ordered polycrystalline solid and kerasin the most ordered gel phase. The conformation of the unsaturated, 24-carbon acyl chains is monitored independently by a skeletal stretching mode at 1,112 cm-1. The alkyl chains in the kerasin and phrenosin gels are sufficiently extended to allow interdigitation of the 24-carbon acyl chains across the midplane of the bilayer. The amide I vibrational mode occurs at a lower frequency in solid phrenosin than kerasin, a shift consistent with stronger hydrogen bounding. This band is broadened and shifted to higher frequencies, however, in the phrenosin gel phase. In both the solid and gel phases natural cerebroside exhibits a composite amide I mode. The disruptive effects on cerebroside chain packing and headgroup orientation arising from mixing with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine are examined. Vibrational data for cerebroside are also compared to those for ceramide, sphingosine, and distearoyl phosphatidylcholine structures. Spectral interpretations are discussed in terms of calorimetric and X-ray structural data. PMID:7260307

  11. 14 CFR 157.7 - FAA determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...issuing such a determination. (c) Determination void date. All work or action for which notice is required by this sub-part must be completed by the determination void date. Unless otherwise extended, revised, or terminated, an FAA...

  12. 78 FR 77481 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...FEMA-B-1352] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...These proposed flood hazard determinations...with the floodplain management criteria required...entities. These flood hazard determinations...meet the floodplain management requirements...

  13. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...FEMA-B-1351] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...These proposed flood hazard determinations...with the floodplain management criteria required...entities. These flood hazard determinations...meet the floodplain management requirements...

  14. 20 CFR 655.160 - Determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determinations. 655.160 Section 655.160 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.160 Determinations. Except as otherwise...

  15. 20 CFR 655.160 - Determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determinations. 655.160 Section 655.160 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.160 Determinations. Except as otherwise...

  16. 49 CFR 107.221 - Determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Preemption Waiver of Preemption Determinations § 107.221 Determination...determination. (b) The Chief Counsel may issue a waiver of preemption only on finding that the...

  17. 49 CFR 107.209 - Determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination. 107.209 Section 107.209 Transportation...PROGRAM PROCEDURES Preemption Preemption Determinations § 107.209 Determination. (a) Upon consideration of the...

  18. Soil carbon determination by thermogravimetrics

    PubMed Central

    Pallasser, Robert; McBratney, Alex B.

    2013-01-01

    Determination of soil constituents and structure has a vital role in agriculture generally. Methods for the determination of soil carbon have in particular gained greater currency in recent times because of the potential that soils offer in providing offsets for greenhouse gas (CO2-equivalent) emissions. Ideally, soil carbon which can also be quite diverse in its makeup and origin, should be measureable by readily accessible, affordable and reliable means. Loss-on-ignition is still a widely used method being suitably simple and available but may have limitations for soil C monitoring. How can these limitations be better defined and understood where such a method is required to detect relatively small changes during soil-C building? Thermogravimetric (TGA) instrumentation to measure carbonaceous components has become more interesting because of its potential to separate carbon and other components using very precise and variable heating programs. TGA related studies were undertaken to assist our understanding in the quantification of soil carbon when using methods such as loss-on-ignition. Combining instrumentation so that mass changes can be monitored by mass spectrometer ion currents has elucidated otherwise hidden features of thermal methods enabling the interpretation and evaluation of mass-loss patterns. Soil thermogravimetric work has indicated that loss-on-ignition methods are best constrained to temperatures from 200 to 430 °C for reliable determination for soil organic carbon especially where clay content is higher. In the absence of C-specific detection where mass only changes are relied upon, exceeding this temperature incurs increasing contributions from inorganic sources adding to mass losses with diminishing contributions related to organic matter. The smaller amounts of probably more recalcitrant organic matter released at the higher temperatures may represent mineral associated material and/or simply more refractory forms. PMID:23638398

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOEpatents

    Fortier, Nancy E. (Fairfield, OH); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  20. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  1. COBE ground segment attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

  2. State determination in continuous measurement

    E-print Network

    A. C. Doherty; S. M. Tan; A. S. Parkins; D. F. Walls

    1999-03-09

    The possibility of determining the state of a quantum system after a continuous measurement of position is discussed in the framework of quantum trajectory theory. Initial lack of knowledge of the system and external noises are accounted for by considering the evolution of conditioned density matrices under a stochastic master equation. It is shown that after a finite time the state of the system is a pure state and can be inferred from the measurement record alone. The relation to emerging possibilities for the continuous experimental observation of single quanta, as for example in cavity quantum electrodynamics, is discussed.

  3. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  4. Velocity determination from velocity spectra 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Sung Jin

    1973-01-01

    . on from Velocity Spectra (December 1973) Sung Jin Yang, B. S. Seoul National University; Korea Directed by: Dr. Anthony F. Gangi The reflected signals on the traces of a common-depth-point (CDP) gather appear along a hyperbolic curve which is a...VELOCITY DETERMINATION FRON VELOCITY SPECTRA A Thesis by SUNG JIN YANG Submutted to the Graduate C:lleEe of Texas ASM University in partial fulfill sent of requirement for the degree of EASTER GF SCIENCE December 1973 Naj or Subject...

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOEpatents

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  6. Determination of uranium in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Daniels, G.J.

    1959-01-01

    A routine fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in zircon. It employs the direct extraction of uranyl nitrate with ethyl acetate using phosphate as a retainer for zirconium. Submicrogram amounts or uranium are separated in the presence of 100,000 times the amount of zirconium. The modified procedure has been worked out using synthetic mixtures of known composition and zircon. Results of analyses have an accuracy of 97-98% of the contained uranium and a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. ?? 1959.

  7. Local determinants of contour interpolation.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Marianne; Shapley, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objects in our visual environment are perceived as integral wholes even when their retinal images are incomplete. We ask whether the perceptual precision of subjective interpolation between isolated image parts depends on the overall proportion of visible image information or rather on its geometrical arrangement. We used Varin-type subjective shapes that provide less physical stimulus information than Kanizsa-type figures because partially occluded solid inducers are replaced by partially occluded concentric arcs. We tested whether perceptual precision varies as a function of contour support, or alternatively, depends on the number of, and the distance between, line endings within the inducers. We measured performance in a probe localization task, where a small target is presented at different distances around a subjective boundary. Sensitivity, captured by the just noticeable position difference between in- and outside probes, crucially depended on the geometric arrangement of line ends in the Varin figures. This is objective evidence that the apparent subjective contour strength does not primarily depend on contour support but is determined by the number and the separation between inducers' line endings. The results suggest that neuronal mechanisms sensitive to highly localized 2D features are crucial for determining the perceived shape of visual objects. PMID:19146236

  8. Determination of a mutational spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA); Keohavong, Phouthone (Cambridge, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of resolving (physically separating) mutant DNA from nonmutant DNA and a method of defining or establishing a mutational spectrum or profile of alterations present in nucleic acid sequences from a sample to be analyzed, such as a tissue or body fluid. The present method is based on the fact that it is possible, through the use of DGGE, to separate nucleic acid sequences which differ by only a single base change and on the ability to detect the separate mutant molecules. The present invention, in another aspect, relates to a method for determining a mutational spectrum in a DNA sequence of interest present in a population of cells. The method of the present invention is useful as a diagnostic or analytical tool in forensic science in assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to potentially genetically toxic materials (also referred to as potential mutagens); in biotechnology, particularly in the study of the relationship between the amino acid sequence of enzymes and other biologically-active proteins or protein-containing substances and their respective functions; and in determining the effects of drugs, cosmetics and other chemicals for which toxicity data must be obtained.

  9. Precise orbit determination for GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Z.; Nagel, P.; Pastor, R.

    2003-04-01

    The twin, co-orbiting GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites were launched in March 2002. The primary objective of the GRACE mission is to determine the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations with unprecedented accuracy. To satisfy this objective as well as other applications (e.g. atmospheric profiling by radio occultation), accurate orbits for GRACE are required. This paper describes several results related to the use of the data collected by the GRACE GPS receiver, high precision accelerometer observations and precise attitude data from star trackers in the application of the GRACE Precise Orbit Determination (POD). The orbit accuracy is assessed using a number of tests, which include analysis of GPS tracking observation residuals, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals, K-Band Ranging (KBR) residuals and external orbit comparisons. The results show that an accuracy of better than 5 cm in each direction for GRACE orbits can be obtained. The relative accuracy of the two GRACE satellites is about 1 cm in position and 10 micrometers per second in velocity.

  10. Genetic determinants of cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Ali J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Cardiac hypertrophy is a common phenotypic response of the heart to stimulants. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in various cardiovascular disorders. Genetic factors are important determinants of phenotypic expression of cardiac hypertrophy, whether in single-gene disorders or in complex traits. We focus on the molecular genetics of cardiac hypertrophy in various conditions with an emphasis on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophic response. Recent findings The molecular genetic basis of cardiac hypertrophy in single-gene disorders has been partially elucidated. Likewise, the impact of genetics on the expression of cardiac hypertrophy in the general population has been demonstrated. Identification of mutations in the Z disk proteins has expanded the spectrum of causal mutations beyond the thin and thick filaments of the sarcomeres. In addition, modifier loci have been mapped and shown to impart considerable effects on the expression of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Elucidation of the molecular genetics of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and many of the phenocopies has highlighted the limitations of clinical diagnosis as a determinant of management and prognostic advice. The findings have raised the importance of diagnosis and treatment algorithms, which are based on both genotype and phenotype information. Summary Cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of the cause, is the phenotypic consequence of complex interactions between genetic and nongenetic factors. PMID:18382207

  11. Determination of Silicon in Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Mast, Dion; Greene, Ben; Maes, Miguel J.

    2006-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a highly sensitive technique sometimes used for the trace determination of silicon at a mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of 28, the most abundant natural isotope of silicon. Unfortunately, ICP-MS is unable to differentiate between other sources of m/z 28 and false positive results for silicon will result when other sources of m/z 28 are present. Nitrogen was a major source of m/z 28 and contributes to the m/z 28 signal when hydrazine sample or nitric acid preservative is introduced into the plasma. Accordingly, this work was performed to develop a sample preparation step coupled with an ICP-MS analysis that minimized non-silicon sources of m/z 28. In the preparatory step of this method, the hydrazine sample was first decomposed predominately to nitrogen gas and water with copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In the analysis step, ICP-MS was used without nitric acid preservative in samples or standards. Glass, a potential source of silicon contamination, was also avoided where possible. The method was sensitive, accurate, and reliable for the determination of silicon in monopropellant grade hydrazine (MPH) in AF-E-332 elastomer leaching tests. Results for silicon in MPH were comparable to those reported in the literature for other studies.

  12. Determinants of Outbreak Detection Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jafarpour, Nastaran; Precup, Doina; Buckeridge, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To predict the performance of outbreak detection algorithms under different circumstances which will guide the method selection and algorithm configuration in surveillance systems, to characterize the dependence of the performance of detection algorithms on the type and severity of outbreak, to develop quantitative evidence about determinants of detection performance. Introduction The choice of outbreak detection algorithm and its configuration can result in important variations in the performance of public health surveillance systems. Our work aims to characterize the performance of detectors based on outbreak types. We are using Bayesian networks (BN) to model the relationships between determinants of outbreak detection and the detection performance based on a significant study on simulated data. Methods The simulated surveillance data that we used was generated by Surveillance Lab of McGill University using Simulation Analysis Platform [1] considering surveillance in an urban area to detect waterborne outbreaks due to the failure of a water treatment plant. We focus on predicting the performance of the C-family of algorithms, because they are widely used, state-of-art outbreak detection algorithms [2]. We investigate the influence of algorithm characteristics and outbreak characteristics in determining outbreak detection performance. The C1, C2, and C3 are distinguished by the configuration of 2 parameters,the guardband and memory. Generally, gradually increasing outbreaks can bias the test statistic upward, so the detection algorithm will fail to flag the outbreak. To avoid this situation, the C2 and C3 use a 2-day gap, guardband, between the baseline interval and the test interval. The C3 includes 2 recent observations, called memory, in the computation of the test statistic. The W2 algorithm is a modified version of the C2 which takes weekly patterns of surveillance time series into account [3]. In the W2, the baseline data is stratified to 2 distinct baselines: one for weekdays, the other for weekends. The W3 includes 2 recent observations of each baseline while calculating the test statistic in the corresponding baseline. We ran the C1, C2, C3, W2, and W3 on 18k simulated time series and measured the sensitivity and specificity of detection. Then we created the training data set of 5400000 instances. Each instance was the result of performance evaluation of an outbreak detection algorithm with a specific setting of parameters. In order to investigate the determinants of detection performance and reveal their effects quantitatively, we used BN to predict the performance based on algorithm characteristics and outbreak characteristics. Results We developed 2 BN models in the Weka machine learning software [4] using 5-fold cross-validation. The first BN determines the effect of the guardband, memory, alerting threshold, and the weekly pattern indicator (0 for C-algorithms, 1 for W-algorithms) and outbreak characteristics (contamination level and duration) on the sensitivity of detection. The value of sensitivity was mapped to 4 classes: (0, 0.3], (0.3, 0.6], (0.6, 0.9], (0.9, 1]. The developed BN correctly classified 67.74% of instances. The misclassification error was 0.9407. The second BN for predicting the specificity of detection correctly classified 95.895% of instances in 10 classes and the misclassification error was 0.2975. Conclusions The contamination level and duration of outbreaks, alerting threshold, memory, guardband, and whether the weekly pattern was considered or not influence the sensitivity and specificity of outbreak detection and given the C-algorithm parameter settings, we can predict outbreak detection performance quantitatively. In future work, we plan to investigate other predictors of performance and study how these predictions can be used in algorithm and policy choices.

  13. 18 CFR 270.505 - Procedure for reopening determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROCEDURES GOVERNING DETERMINATIONS FOR TAX CREDIT PURPOSES DETERMINATION PROCEDURES...Jurisdictional Agency Determinations § 270.505...for reopening determinations. (a) Grounds...the time a determination...

  14. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion light years from Earth. These results do not rely on the traditional distance ladder. Bonamente and his colleagues find the Hubble constant to be 77 kilometers per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is equal to 3.26 million light years), with an uncertainty of about 15%. This result agrees with the values determined using other techniques. The Hubble constant had previously been found to be 72, give or take 8, kilometers per second per megaparsec based on Hubble Space Telescope observations. The new Chandra result is important because it offers the independent confirmation that scientists have been seeking and fixes the age of the Universe between 12 and 14 billion years. Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 "These new results are entirely independent of all previous methods of measuring the Hubble constant," said team member Marshall Joy also of MSFC. The astronomers used a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, where photons in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) interact with electrons in the hot gas that pervades the enormous galaxy clusters. The photons acquire energy from this interaction, which distorts the signal from the microwave background in the direction of the clusters. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the density and temperature of the hot electrons and the physical size of the cluster. Using radio telescopes to measure the distortion of the microwave background and Chandra to measure the properties of the hot gas, the physical size of the cluster can be determined. From this physical size and a simple measurement of the angle subtended by the cluster, the rules of geometry can be used to derive its distance. The Hubble constant is determined by dividing previously measured cluster speeds by these newly derived distances. Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 This project was championed by Chandra's telescope mirror designer, Leon Van Speybroeck, who passed away in 2002. The foundation was laid when team members John Carlstrom

  15. Improved Polynomial Matrix Determinant Computation \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Henrion, Didier

    Improved Polynomial Matrix Determinant Computation \\Lambda Didier Henrion yz Michael Ÿ Sebek x of the determinant of a polynomial matrix using numerically reliable techniques. This allows for accurate determinant zeroing and determinant interpolation, thus improving existing numerical methods for polynomial matrix

  16. TDRS orbit determination by radio interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Pavloff

    1994-01-01

    In support of a NASA study on the application of radio interferometry to satellite orbit determination, MITRE developed a simulation tool for assessing interferometry tracking accuracy. The Orbit Determination Accuracy Estimator (ODAE) models the general batch maximum likelihood orbit determination algorithms of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) with the group and phase delay measurements from radio interferometry. ODAE models

  17. Activity Summary: Determine a Blanket Balance

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Activity Summary: Determine a Blanket Balance NUFinancials Purchasing DetermineBlanketBalance This job aid describes how to determine the remaining balance of a Blanket purchase order. You can apply a Blanket Balance NUFinancials Purchasing DetermineBlanketBalance.doc Last Updated 3/7/2014 © 2014

  18. [Determination of isophorone in foods].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Tagata, Hajime; Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Nagasaki, Toshio; Nemoto, Satoru; Maitani, Tamio

    2005-02-01

    Isophorone (ISP) is used widely as a solvent of natural and synthetic resins, wax, printing ink, pesticides and paints. In this study, the level of ISP in various foods (93 samples) was analyzed. ISP was collected from samples by steam distillation after the addition of an internal standard, deuterium-labeled ISP, then extracted with dichloromethane, cleaned up on a silica gel column, and determined by GC/MS. ISP was barely detected in fish, meat and vegetable samples, but it was detected in rice, wheat, beans and their processed products, miso, soy sauce and fermented soybeans (natto). The maximum level was 8.9 ng/g in miso. The packaging materials of the foods contained little ISP, and so the source of ISP in the foods could not be clarified. PMID:15881252

  19. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, Donald O. (Goleta, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  20. T-Cell Lineage Determination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Bell, J. Jeremiah; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Summary T cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow but complete their development in the thymus. HSCs give rise to a variety of non-renewing hematopoietic progenitors, among which a rare subset migrates to the thymus via the bloodstream. The earliest T-cell progenitors identified in the thymus are not T-lineage restricted but possess the ability to give rise to cells of many different lineages. Alternative lineage potentials are gradually lost as progenitors progress towards later developmental stages. Here, we review the early developmental events that might be involved in T-cell lineage fate determination, including the properties of possible thymus settling progenitors, their homing into the thymus, and their T-cell lineage specification and commitment. PMID:20969581

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard; Gustafson, Eric; Jefferson, David; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Mottinger, Neil; Pelletier, Fred; Ryne, Mark; Thompson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Orbit Determination (OD) met all requirements with considerable margin, MSL OD team developed spin signature removal tool and successfully used the tool during cruise, A novel approach was used for the MSL solar radiation pressure model and resulted in a very accurate model during the approach phase, The change in velocity for Attitude Control System (ACS) turns was successfully calibrated and with appropriate scale factor resulted in improved change in velocity prediction for future turns, All Trajectory Correction Maneuvers were successfully reconstructed and execution errors were well below the assumed pre-fight execution errors, The official OD solutions were statistically consistent throughout cruise and for OD solutions with different arc lengths as well, Only EPU-1 was sent to MSL. All other Entry Parameter Updates were waived, EPU-1 solution was only 200 m separated from final trajectory reconstruction in the B-plane

  2. Novel gene complex structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Gatewood, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LORD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. `Operative` chromatin containing exclusively the minor hasten variants was successfully isolated. Linker hasten H1 is quantitatively missing from operative chromatin. One of the aims of this proposal was to determine the proteins responsible for stabilizing operative chromatin. This chromatin is stabilized by microtubule proteins tar and tubulin. Another goal of this project was the structural characterization of operate chromatin nucleosomes. Using solution scattering, nucleosomes containing the minor variants were shown to be structurally distinct from major variant containing nucleosomes. The unusual structure and stabilization of operative chromatin by microtubule proteins provides a possible mechanism for direct interaction of transcription machinery with specific chromatin domains.

  3. Perception determinants in learning mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Siti Fairus; Ali, Noor Rasidah; Rashid, Nurazlina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    This article described a statistical study of students' perception in mathematics. The objective of this study is to identify factors related to perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student. This study also determined the relationship between of these factors among non mathematics' student. 43 items questionnaires were distributed to one hundred students in UiTM Kedah who enrolled in the Business Mathematics course. These items were measured by using a semantic scale with the following anchors: 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. A factor analysis of respondents were identified into five factors that influencing the students' perception in mathematics. In my study, factors identified were attitude, interest, role of the teacher, role of peers and usefulness of mathematics that may relate to the perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student.

  4. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  5. Detecting determinism from point processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Mormann, Florian; Kreuz, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The detection of a nonrandom structure from experimental data can be crucial for the classification, understanding, and interpretation of the generating process. We here introduce a rank-based nonlinear predictability score to detect determinism from point process data. Thanks to its modular nature, this approach can be adapted to whatever signature in the data one considers indicative of deterministic structure. After validating our approach using point process signals from deterministic and stochastic model dynamics, we show an application to neuronal spike trains recorded in the brain of an epilepsy patient. While we illustrate our approach in the context of temporal point processes, it can be readily applied to spatial point processes as well.

  6. GRO attitude control and determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerkovsky, W.; Keranen, L.; Koehler, F.; Tung, F.; Ward, B.

    1986-01-01

    Design features of the attitude control and determination (ACAD) system for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) that will eventually be launched on the Shuttle are described. A tabulation of the ACAD system components is provided and the various standby and normal pointing operational modes of the system are summarized. The system software and sensors will maintain a quaternion model of the GRO attitude on the bases of kinematic equations and inertial data. The software is standardized and has previously been used on the Solar Maximum Mission and Landsat-D. Details of the processing components, redundant electronics for sensor processing, data handling and actuator control are outlined and illustrated with block diagrams. Tests applied to validate the ACAD design are outlined, as are ground support which will be implemented once the GRO is launched.

  7. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not. Another approach, in addition to differentiation between various cure conditions, may even provide information with respect to the bond strength. Several technical papers were published during the course of this research and a summary is presented in the Ph.D. dissertation of Tobias P. Berndt, a graduate student financially supported by this NASA Grant.

  8. Sensory determinants of thermal pain.

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Ohry, Avi; Blumen, Nava; Urca, Gideon

    2002-03-01

    It is still unclear whether the quality of painful thermal sensation is determined only by conduction in specific, dedicated nociceptive channels (i.e. C or Adelta nociceptors) or whether it is a result of integrated activity in both nociceptive and non-nociceptive systems. To evaluate this question, we conducted quantitative and qualitative somatosensory testing in spinal cord injury subjects who suffered from partial or complete loss of thermal sensibility. Testing was performed in skin areas, below the level of the lesion, which were either lacking any thermal sensibility, lacking only one thermal sensation (either heat or cold) or having normal thermal sensations. We found that, in areas lacking any thermal sensibility, warm and cold stimuli produced a sensation of pricking pain, which had no thermal quality and was detected at significantly higher thresholds than in normal controls (48.5 +/- 1.8 and 9.7 +/- 5.1 degrees C for noxious heat- and noxious cold-induced pricking pain, respectively). Normal thermal pain sensations, consisting of normal perception of thermal quality and normal mean pain thresholds, were present both in normal skin areas (42.1 +/- 1.9 and 27.6 +/- 2.25 degrees C for heat and cold pain, respectively) and in areas in which only one thermal modality remained intact, when tested for that modality. Thus, testing for heat pain in areas in which only warm sensation was intact, or cold pain when only cold was intact produced normal qualities and thresholds of pain (42.8 +/- 3.4 and 24.4 +/- 6.2 degrees C for heat and cold pain, respectively). No spatial summation of pricking pain was observed, in contrast to the marked summation of heat pain in normal areas. In areas with only a single intact thermal modality, the quality of the perceived non-painful sensation was not determined by the thermal stimulus but by the intact modality (paradoxical sensation). Cold stimuli were perceived as warm in areas in which only warm sensation was preserved, and vice versa. A similar pattern was also seen for pain perception in areas with intact warm sensation. In these areas, both noxious heat and cold elicited a sensation of heat pain. No consistent pattern of heat-elicited pain was observed in areas in which only cold sensation was intact. These data suggest that the integrity of non-noxious thermal systems is essential for the normal perception of thermal pain, and that the subjective sensation of pain depends on the integration of information from nociceptive and non-nociceptive channels. PMID:11872608

  9. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  10. Determinants of human population growth.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Qiang, Ren

    2002-01-01

    The 20th century has seen unprecedented growth of the human population on this planet. While at the beginning of the century the Earth had an estimated 1.6 billion inhabitants, this number grew to 6.1 billion by the end of the century, and further significant growth is a near certainty. This paper tries to summarize what factors lie behind this extraordinary expansion of the human population and what population growth we can expect for the future. It discusses the concept of demographic transition and the preconditions for a lasting secular fertility decline. Recent fertility declines in all parts of the world now make it likely that human population growth will come to an end over the course of this century, but in parts of the developing world significant population growth is still to be expected over the coming decades. The slowing of population growth through declining birth rates, together with still increasing life expectancy, will result in a strong ageing of population age structure. Finally, this paper presents a global level systematic analysis of the relationship between population density on the one hand, and growth and fertility rates on the other. This analysis indicates that in addition to the well-studied social and economic determinants, population density also presents a significant factor for the levels and trends of human birth rates. PMID:12396512

  11. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile.

  12. Determinants of children's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina

    2011-12-01

    Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441

  13. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  14. On Determining Extinction from Reddening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Marshall L.

    2004-11-01

    The influence of shifts in effective wavelengths on ratios of total to selective extinction is examined, primarily to determine how to evaluate the Galactic extinction of extragalactic bodies in a way that minimizes systematic errors. In the process, a new procedure is developed for evaluating the Galactic or extragalactic extinction of any source in any filter from any index of reddening. The amount of dust along a sightline is quantified by the optical depth at 1 ?m, which has the advantage of being roughly equal numerically to E(B-V). The optical depth can be derived iteratively from a color excess using an appropriate spectral energy distribution (SED) for the reddening probe, and a monochromatic law of reddening which delivers a value of AV/E(B-V) characteristic of the obscuring medium when applied to the spectrum of a reference source for which this ratio is known. Knowledge of the optical depth then facilitates the determination of the extinction of any source in any filter without concern as to the shape of the spectrum of the probe. The ratio of total to selective extinction for stars and galaxies is synthesized for a variety of filter combinations in order to examine variations with type, tilt, optical depth, and redshift. For this purpose, representative integrated SEDs spanning the space ultraviolet to the near-infrared are constructed for galaxy types E, Sab, Sbc, Scd, and Im, all at well-defined inclinations. In addition, an algorithm to adjust the shapes of the SEDs for tilt is developed. Along the main sequence, the classical ratio of total to selective extinction, AV/E(B-V), increases by 23% from O5 to M6. At late types, there are differences as high as 17% between evolved and unevolved stars. Along the Hubble sequence, AV/E(B-V) decreases by 5% from E to Im. The value for elliptical galaxies falls near the locus for the main sequence, not the giant branch. Correlated against B-I, AV/E(B-V) for star-forming galaxies is systematically lower than for stars of the same color by up to 5%. It increases much more rapidly with tilt than with the optical depth of Galactic dust, although neither dependence is strong. For both stars and galaxies, AV/E(B-V) varies dramatically with the redshift. Changes of 16% for a Type Ia supernovae and 22% for a Cepheid are seen out to z=0.4. For elliptical galaxies, a variation of 30% can be expected out to z=1, the precise form of which being dependent upon the ultraviolet excess. Even infrared ratios of total to selective extinction, such as AH/E(B-V), change significantly with color and redshift because of differential shifts in the effective wavelengths of B and V. As a gauge of reddening, E(V-I) is greatly preferable to E(B-V), because it is much less sensitive to color and redshift, yet more sensitive to the optical depth of dust. A demonstration is given on how to quantify upper limits to Galactic extinction which should be placed on studies of high-redshift supernovae, to reduce the redshift dependence of extinction corrections to a range that is insignificant compared with residuals supporting accelerated universal expansion. When the new technique for evaluating extinction corrections is applied to Cepheids in M31, distances for fields at different radii become less dispersed, confirming that the period-luminosity relation is not very sensitive to metallicity. However, the discrepancy between the Cepheid and maser distances to NGC 4258 cannot be attributed to the method of handling the extinction. Submission of the final version of this paper was held off until the techniques described herein could be made available through the World Wide Web. The York Extinction Solver (YES) can be accessed at http://cadcwww.hia.nrc.ca/yes.

  15. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  16. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...in which information within the class will be treated under one or...modified to reflect the fact that the class determination has made unnecessary...Moreover, in appropriate cases, action based on the class determination may be taken...

  17. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...in which information within the class will be treated under one or...modified to reflect the fact that the class determination has made unnecessary...Moreover, in appropriate cases, action based on the class determination may be taken...

  18. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...in which information within the class will be treated under one or...modified to reflect the fact that the class determination has made unnecessary...Moreover, in appropriate cases, action based on the class determination may be taken...

  19. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...in which information within the class will be treated under one or...modified to reflect the fact that the class determination has made unnecessary...Moreover, in appropriate cases, action based on the class determination may be taken...

  20. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...in which information within the class will be treated under one or...modified to reflect the fact that the class determination has made unnecessary...Moreover, in appropriate cases, action based on the class determination may be taken...

  1. 14 CFR 314.16 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.16 Final determination. The Department will publish in the Federal Register a summary of an order...

  2. 14 CFR 314.21 - Advance determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...person may consolidate an application under this section with an application under § 314.11 for determination of a qualifying dislocation. (c) The Department will terminate an advance determination of major contraction whenever it finds that the...

  3. A determinant of generalized Fibonacci numbers

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate a determinant of generalized Fibonacci numbers, thus providing a common generalization of several determinant evaluation results that have previously appeared in the literature, all of them extending Cassini's identity for Fibonacci numbers.

  4. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1292] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1261] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1276] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1259] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1304] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1342] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1345] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1254] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1258] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1266] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1332] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1312] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1301] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1256] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1339] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1321] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1282] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1243] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1326] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1267] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1330] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1307] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1343] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1323] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1236] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1344] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1340] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1309] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1272] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 29 CFR 500.145 - Registration determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Registration determinations. 500.145 Section 500.145 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Enforcement § 500.145 Registration determinations. Section...

  15. 11 CFR 9409.9 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    The General Counsel will make the final determination on demands and requests to employees for production of official records and information or testimony. All final determinations are within the sole discretion of the General...

  16. 11 CFR 9409.9 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    The General Counsel will make the final determination on demands and requests to employees for production of official records and information or testimony. All final determinations are within the sole discretion of the General...

  17. 11 CFR 9409.9 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    The General Counsel will make the final determination on demands and requests to employees for production of official records and information or testimony. All final determinations are within the sole discretion of the General...

  18. 11 CFR 9409.9 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    The General Counsel will make the final determination on demands and requests to employees for production of official records and information or testimony. All final determinations are within the sole discretion of the General...

  19. 11 CFR 9409.9 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    The General Counsel will make the final determination on demands and requests to employees for production of official records and information or testimony. All final determinations are within the sole discretion of the General...

  20. 14 CFR 157.7 - FAA determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS...will conduct an aeronautical study of an airport...regulation. Aeronautical studies and determinations will not...may, at least 15 days in advance of the determination...

  1. DETERMINING THE STABILITY OF TREATED MUNICIPAL SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential for further biological degradation biologically of municipal sludges which have undergone either little or major treatment. A literature survey was conducted to determine the most fruitful approaches, followed by labora...

  2. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...provide for determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring, weighing,...

  3. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  4. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  5. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  6. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  7. Hard Determinism and the Moral "Ought"

    E-print Network

    Kuo, Lenore

    HARD DETERMINISM AND THE MORAL 'OUGHT' LENORE KUO The University of Nebraska at Omaha Philosophers from Aristotle to vanlnwagen 1 have questioned the possibility of preserving ethics if hard determinism is true. Thus it has been argued that we... must reject hard determinism because of the apparent "violence" it does to our basic conception of morality. For example, Howard Hintz maintains that: [Hard determinism) destroys the foundations of all prescriptive ethics except on the arbitrary...

  8. Field determination of dispersivity of comingling plumes

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Van Alan

    1985-01-01

    landfill. . 60 27 Oouble source nature of the Babylon plume. . 62 28 Areal distribution of wells used to determine Y source dimension and dispersivity 66 29 Iteration diagrams used to determine the y dispersi- vity and the y source dimension from... Babylon plume one 67 30 Areal distribution of wells used to determine 2 source dimension and dispersivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Iteration diagrams used to determine the z dispersi- vity and the z source dimension from Babylon plume...

  9. ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C. KRATTENTHALER y

    E-print Network

    Krattenthaler, Christian

    ADVANCED DETERMINANT CALCULUS C. KRATTENTHALER y Institut f¨ur Mathematik der Universit¨at Wien://radon.mat.univie.ac.at/People/kratt Dedicated to the pioneer of determinant evaluations (among many other things), George Andrews Abstract which should enable her/him to evaluate nontrivial de­ terminants for the case such a determinant should

  10. Determining elasticity from single polymer Folarin Latinwoa

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles

    Determining elasticity from single polymer dynamics Folarin Latinwoa and Charles M. Schroeder*abc The ability to determine polymer elasticity and force­extension relations from polymer dynamics in flow has to far-from-equilibrium processes. In this work, we determine polymer elasticity from the dynamic

  11. Determination of Vcb and Vub Robert Kowalewski

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Determination of Vcb and Vub Robert Kowalewski University of Victoria, Canada Thomas Mannel University of Siegen, Germany INTRODUCTION Precision determinations of |Vub| and |Vcb| are central to testing to the ratio |Vub|/|Vcb|, making its determination a high priority of the heavy flavor physics program

  12. Universitat Regensburg On determinant functors and

    E-print Network

    Regensburg, Universität - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I

    Universit¨at Regensburg Mathematik On determinant functors and K-theory Fernando Muro, Andrew Tonks and Malte Witte Preprint Nr. 12/2010 #12;ON DETERMINANT FUNCTORS AND K-THEORY FERNANDO MURO, ANDREW TONKS, AND MALTE WITTE Abstract. In this paper we introduce a new approach to determinant functors which allows us

  13. Determining the number of interpretable factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. Crawford

    1975-01-01

    Argues that a major weakness of current methods of determining the number of factors is that they require this decision to be made before rotation; therefore, information on the possible interpretability of factors cannot be considered in determining the appropriate number. An objective, noninferential index for determining the number of interpretable factors is described. The effects of type of rotation,

  14. Self-Determination in Secondary Transition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sharon; Hoffman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Self-determination knowledge and skills are important life skills for success throughout one's life. Therefore, it is important to assess the component skills that lead to self-determination so that appropriate instructional programs, supports, and accommodations to increase student self-determination can be provided. By involving students and…

  15. ISO ground attitude determination using pattern recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Batten

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude determination algorithm developed for the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spacecraft ground control. The attitude determination task contains a star pattern recognition algorithm, using a star map generated by the spacecraft Star Tracker and requires no a priori attitude estimates. Derivation of the algorithms for the attitude determination task is given. The practical implementation of the

  16. Tritium Extraction Facility Stack Height Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simpkins

    1998-01-01

    A good engineering practice (GEP) stack height has been determined for the Tritium Extraction Facility. Stack heights between 50 and 120 ft were analyzed to determine if there were any increased concentrations downwind due to building wake effects. Using EPAs `2 1\\/2 times rule`, a stack height of 100 ft was determined to be in accordance with GEP. Further detailed

  17. Sex Determination in Flies, Fruitflies and Butterflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Saccone; A. Pane; L. C. Polito

    2002-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms, differing in their modality, are widely represented in all the various animal taxa, even at the intraspecific level. Within the highly diversified Class Insecta, Drosophila has been used to unravel the mechanistic molecular and genetic interactions that are involved in sex determination. Indeed, the molecularly characterized genes of the Drosophila sex determination hierarchy X:A> Sxl> tra> dsxhave

  18. 29 CFR 90.18 - Reconsideration of determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...determinations. (a) Determinations subject to reconsideration...aggrieved by a determination issued pursuant...submissions to show why the determination under reconsideration...modified. (g) Determinations on reconsideration...reaching an Affirmative Determination Regarding...

  19. Social determinants of human reproduction.

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    Developed countries have experienced both some population growth and unprecedented declines in fertility rates during the last half of the twentieth century. Couples now have fewer than two children on average in most European countries and they tend to postpone these births until a later age. A decline in male fertility has been suggested by some studies of semen quality, but there is contrasting evidence of shorter times to pregnancy for couples trying to conceive. An important economic factor is the income of young men relative to their parents' incomes, which determines how they rate the ability of their own earnings to support a family. Lower relative income in the 1970s was associated with a lower fertility rate. The decline in fertility in the USA may have been attenuated by the sharp rise in female income during the late 1960s and early 1970s, allowing women to take advantage of purchased child care, thus maintaining the relative family income. The level of demand for children does not appear to be set by known psychological factors, although explanations for the desire to reproduce have been sought in biological, psychoanalytical and socio-cultural research. Recent studies indicate that adults with secure attachment relationships are more interested in being parents. Possible epidemiological factors include age at first marriage, but in Eastern Europe, where age at first marriage is as low as 22 years, fecundity rates do not exceed 1.5. When mothers' age cohorts are analysed, the mean fecundity rate has been falling since the 1920s. Health factors affecting population trends include the change in contraceptive prevalence over the last 40 years. The prevalence of sub-fertility remains close to 10%, and studies from a number of countries indicate that approximately 50% of infertile couples make use of infertility services including IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection which are available in 45 countries covering 78% of the world's population. It is estimated that the level of service is sufficient for less than one-third of the need. PMID:11425841

  20. Gerhard Wider: Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules using NMR. Structure Determination of Biological

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    Gerhard Wider: Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules using NMR. -1- Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules in Solution Using NMR spectroscopy Gerhard Wider Institut fürTechniques 29, 1278­1294 (2000) #12;Gerhard Wider: Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules using

  1. 25 CFR 700.303 - Initial Commission determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Initial Commission determinations. 700.303 Section...RELOCATION PROCEDURES Determination of Eligibility, Hearing... Initial Commission determinations. (a) Initial Commission Determination concerning...

  2. 20 CFR 410.620 - Notice of initial determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Notice of initial determination. 410.620 Section...BENEFITS (1969- ) Determinations of Disability, Other Determinations, Administrative Review...620 Notice of initial determination. Written notice...

  3. 18 CFR 270.203 - Determinations by jurisdictional agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determinations by jurisdictional agencies. ...OF ENERGY PROCEDURES GOVERNING DETERMINATIONS FOR TAX CREDIT PURPOSES DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Determinations by Jurisdictional Agencies...

  4. Distribution of Canonical Determinants in QCD

    E-print Network

    Andrei Alexandru; C. Gattringer; H. -P. Schadler; K. Splittorff; J. J. M. Verbaarschot

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of canonical determinants in QCD is determined by means of chiral perturbation theory. For a non-zero quark charge the canonical determinants take complex values. In the dilute pion gas approximation, we compute all moments of the magnitude of the canonical determinants, as well as the first nonvanishing moments of the real and imaginary parts. The non-trivial cancellation between the real and the imaginary parts of the canonical determinants is derived and the signal to noise ratio is discussed. The analytical distributions are compared to lattice data. The average density of the magnitude of the canonical determinants is determined as well and is shown to be given by a variant of the log-normal distribution.

  5. Volume XVI, No. 5 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    inspections and inventory for the IMA SERO by Noel Potts 17 Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP Recycling is the key to quality-of-life programs by Claudette Roulo 24-25 Waterless urinals, garbage Program helps save energy, money by Bob Quick 27 Residents recycle with ease at underground depot by Lisa

  6. Mammalian Exocrine Secretions XVI. Constituents of Secretion of Supplementary Sacculi of Dwarf Hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Burger; D. Smit; H. S. C. Spies; C. Schmidt; U. Schmidt; A. Y. Telitsina

    2001-01-01

    As a first step in a study of the role of the secretion of the supplementary sacculi (buccal secretion) of the dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, almost complete chemical characterization of the secretion was achieved. The 35 compounds identified include carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, a large number of carboxylic acids (representing the bulk of the organic volatile fraction of the

  7. The Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. XVI. Cepheid Variables in an Inner Field of M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Peter B.; Saha, Abhijit; Ferrarese, Laura; Rawson, Daya M.; Ford, Holland C.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Gibson, Brad K.; Graham, John A.; Harding, Paul; Han, Mingsheng; Hill, Robert J.; Hoessel, John G.; Huchra, John P.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Madore, Barry F.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Phelps, Randy L.; Sakai, Shoko; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Turner, Anne

    1998-12-01

    We report on the identification of 255 candidate variable stars in a field located some 1.7 arcmin from the center of the late-type spiral galaxy M101 = NGC 5457, based on observations made with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Photometric measurements in the F555W and F814W filters--analyzed independently with the DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME and DoPHOT software suites--have been transformed to the Johnson V and Kron-Cousins I standard magnitude systems. Periods and intensity-averaged mean magnitudes for 61 carefully selected candidate Cepheid variables with periods in the range 10-48 days indicate a reddening-corrected mean distance modulus (m - M)0 = 29.05 +/- 0.14 (if the true modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud is 18.50 +/- 0.10, and if there is no dependence of the period-luminosity relation on metal abundance); results consistent with this are obtained whether or not the sample is expanded to include a larger fraction of the candidates. Applying a metallicity-dependent correction of +0.16 +/- 0.10 mag would increase this estimate to (m - M)0 = 29.21 +/- 0.17 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract No. NAS 5-26555.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVI, LEARNING ABOUT AC GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) PRINCIPLES (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE REVIEWING ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS, AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "AC GENERATORS…

  9. Exito para el XVI Festival Internacional de Teatro Hispano del Teatro Avante

    E-print Network

    Marrero, Marí a Teresa

    2002-04-01

    , Baldessare Galupi por Antonio Duque y Quirón por Miguel Ángel López. La dirección musical estuvo a cargo de Madga Zalles y el diseño de iluminación fue de Matías Gorlero. El escenario realmente no lució de adornos particulares, lo cual en algún momento me... simposium. En el 2000 fue tema del Congreso y Encuentro del Instituto Hemisférico de Performance y Política en Río de Janeiro (dirigido por Diana Taylor y auspiciado por New York University y la Universidade de Río de Janeiro en Río); fue el tema eje del...

  10. The Atmospheric electric field and condvctivity measuremfnts during the XVI Indian Antarctica expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G DESHPANDE; A K KAMRA

    Surface measurements of the atmospheric electric field and the conductiv- ity of both polarities made at Maitri (70° 46'S, 11° 44' E,) Antarctica and along the cruise track are reported. The 20 fair -weather days average diurnal variation curve of the atmospheric electric field is single periodic with the maximum at 1300 GMT, and the minimum at 0100 GMT. It

  11. The sub-micron aerosol size-distribution measurements during the XVI Indian Antarctica Expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. DESHPANDE; A K KAMRA

    Measurements of the size distribution of sub-micron aerosol particles in the range of 0.003 to 1\\/µm have been made with an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer over the Indian ocean and at Maitri during the sixteenth Indian expedition to Antarc- tica. Observations show that the high concentrations of aerosol particles observed over the Indian ocean in the northern hemisphere extend upto the

  12. i6e Anne (Tome XVI). Mars 1936. N 153 LE' LAITREVUE GNRALE DES QUESTIONS LAITIRES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mémoires originaux: TALCE-NIEDRA (Dagmara). - La catalase des bactéries d'acide lactique . . . . . 225 M . . .'. . .... 335 .Nécrologie, M. HÉNNE- BERG. . 335 l\\fÉl\\10IRES ORIGINAUX (1) LB LAIT, 1936 LA CATALASE DES Directeur Dr. A' KIRCHENSTEINS;, On se sert assez souvent de la réaction de la 'catalase pour déter- miner

  13. 20 CFR 416.1535 - Services in a proceeding under title XVI of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Act. 416.1535 Section 416.1535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1535 Services in a proceeding under...

  14. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults AGENCY: Social Security Administration...documenting and evaluating disability in young adults. DATES: Effective Date: September 12...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults Purpose: This SSR consolidates...

  15. 1st Edition., 2011, XVI, 460 p. 196 illus., 30 Printed book

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    .00 | $99.00 *85,55 (D) | 87,95 (A) | CHF 115.00 eBook Available from libraries offering Springer's eBookLink. springer.com/ebooks MyCopy Printed eBook exclusively available to patrons whose library offers Springer's eBook

  16. Raman spectra of gases. XVI - Torsional transitions in ethanol and ethanethiol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Bucy, W. E.; Wurrey, C. J.; Carreira, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Raman spectra of gaseous ethanol and ethanethiol have been investigated. Thiol torsional fundamentals for the gauche conformer of EtSH and EtSD have been observed and the asymmetric potential function for this vibration has been calculated. Methyl torsional transitions and overtones have also been observed for both of these molecules. Barriers to internal rotation for the methyl top are calculated to be 3.77 and 3.84 kcal/mol for the EtSH and EtSD compounds, respectively. Hydroxyl torsional fundamentals were observed at 207 and 170 per cm in the EtOH and EtOD spectra, respectively. Overtones of the methyl torsion in both molecules yield a barrier to internal rotation of 3.62 kcal/mol for the gauche conformer.

  17. Chinese-Mandarin: Basic Course. Volume XVI: Lessons 168-180.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the last of 16 volumes of audiolingual classroom instruction in Mandarin Chinese. The course is designed to train native English speakers to Level 3 Foreign Service Institute proficiency in comprehension and speaking, and to Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Mandarin. Facility in reading, writing, and translating texts written in…

  18. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Data Processing Program. Volume XVI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…

  19. An approach to autonomous, onboard orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, K. D.; Ryne, M. S.; Wood, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    An orbit determination subsystem that will operate as an integral part of an autonomous, onboard navigation system is presented and analyzed. The navigation system is required to interface solely with the downlink telemetry stream and uplink command stream of an existing class of geostationary satellites. In particular, the orbit will be determined from a set of onboard sensors, which previously were used only for attitude determination. The design of the orbit determination subsystem is described in detail. The rationale behind the choice of each component of the design is given. Finally, the performance of the orbit determination subsystem, under a variety of assumptions, is determined by a combination of numerical simulation and analytical methods.

  20. Precision attitude determination for multimission spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Attitude determination algorithms for a multimission spacecraft are derived and their performance analyzed. The attitude determination system is composed of a strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), two fixed head star trackers, and an onboard computer. IRU data is processed to maintain real-time knowledge of spacecraft attitude relative to an inertial reference frame. Star tracker data is processed using Kalman filtering techniques to estimate and correct the attitude determination errors and the gyro drift compensation errors. The results of a star availability analysis for stellar, solar and earth pointing missions are presented. Linear covariance analysis techniques are used to evaluate nominal attitude determination performance, the effects of sensor measurement accuracy variations, the effects of errors in knowledge of sensor measurement accuracy, and the effects of star tracker misalignment errors. Results of a nonlinear simulation analysis of attitude determination performance are also presented. These analyses show that precision attitude determination for stellar, solar and earth pointing missions is achieved.