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1

Quick detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli by PCR and necleotide sequence analysis of PCR amplicons from Chinese Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A quick polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the bacterial causal agent of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, in crude juice samples from stalks. After removal of abiotic impurities and large molecular weight microorgani...

2

Stability of the delta-endotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a recombinant strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis.  

PubMed Central

Deletion of chromosomally inserted gene sequences from Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis, a xylem-inhabiting endophyte, was studied in vitro and in planta. We found that nonreplicating plasmid pCG610, which conferred resistance to kanamycin and tetracycline and contained segments of C. xyli subsp. cynodontis genomic DNA, integrated into a homologous sequence in the bacterial chromosome. In addition, pCG610 contains two copies of the gene encoding the CryIA(c) insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73. Using drug resistance phenotypes and specific DNA probes, we found that the loss of all three genes arose both in vitro under nonselective conditions and in planta. The resulting segregants are probably formed by recombination between the repeated DNA sequences flanking pCG610 that resulted from the integration event into the chromosome. Eventually, segregants predominated in the bacterial population. The loss of the integrated plasmid from C. xyli subsp. cynodontis revealed a possible approach for decreasing the environmental consequences of recombinant bacteria for agricultural use. Images

Turner, J T; Lampel, J S; Stearman, R S; Sundin, G W; Gunyuzlu, P; Anderson, J J

1991-01-01

3

Construction of a stable expression vector for Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis and its application in studying the e¡ect of the bacterium as an endophytic bacterium in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possibility of utilizing genetically engineered Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis (Lxc) as an endophytic bacterium in rice, we constructed an Escherichia coli-Lxc shuttle vector, pLGUS, containing a b-glucuronidase reporter gene, which was stable both in vitro and in vivo. Lxc grows and expresses the b-glucuronidase reporter gene in all parts of rice, except for seed. A 2-year field

Tai-Yuan Li; Han-Lai Zeng; Yin Ping; Hui Lin; Xue-Lian Fan; Zhi-Gang Guo; Chu-Fu Zhang

4

COMPARISON OF CL AND CP GERMPLASM REACTIONS TO SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS, LEIFSONIA XYLI SUBSP. XYLI AND PUCCINIA MELANOCEPHALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, germplasm from the terminated US Sugar Corporation cultivar development program based in Clewiston, FL (CL) was donated to the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station based in Canal Point, FL (CP). The disease reactions of portions of these populations were evaluated to determine what the impact of CL germplasm may be on the future development of disease resistant cultivars at

J. C. Comstock; S. B. Milligan

5

Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov. Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 23 strains of coryneform bacteria that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease were examined. These included 17 sugarcane strains from Florida, Louisiana, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan and six Bermudagrass strains from Florida and Taiwan. The sugarcane and Bermudagrass strains contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, rhamnose, and fucose in their cell walls, suggesting a relationship

MICHAEL J. DAVIS; A. GRAVES GILLASPIE; ANNE K. VIDAVER; RUSSELL W. HARRIS

6

First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

7

COMPARISON OF YIELD PARAMETERS AND DISEASE INCIDENCE OF TRADITIONAL SEEDCANE SOURCES AND KLEENTEK, A COMMERCIAL TISSUE-CULTURE BASED SEEDCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yield parameters and incidence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. Xyli (Lxx), the causal agent of ratoon stunt and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), causal agent of yellow leaf were compared in tradition seedcane and Kleentek®, a commercial tissue-culture based seedcane. Two adjacent field sections locate...

8

Signature proteins that are distinctive characteristics of Actinobacteria and their subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Actinobacteria constitute one of the main phyla of Bacteria. Presently, no morphological and very few molecular characteristics are known which can distinguish species of this highly diverse group. In this work, we have analyzed the genomes of four actinobacteria (viz. Mycobacterium leprae TN, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli str. CTCB07, Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 and Thermobifida fusca YX) to search for

Beile Gao; Ragi Paramanathan; Radhey S. Gupta

2006-01-01

9

Interactions of plant-beneficial bacteria with the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the interactions between Coniochaeta ligniaria F\\/TGF15 obtained from torrefied grass fibers (TGF) and selected bacteria from the same substrate. Methods and Results: Upon coinoculation on potato dextrose agar, Pseudomonas putida 15\\/TGE5, Methylobacterium radiotolerans 56\\/TGF10, Serratia plymutica 23\\/TGE5, Pseudomonas corrugata 31\\/TGE5, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli 66\\/TGF10, Mycobacterium anthracenicum 70\\/TGF15 and Agromyces aurantiacus 95\\/TGF15 were translocated by C. ligniaria,

R. D. Trifonova; J. Postma; Elsas van J. D

2009-01-01

10

Characterization of guest molecules adsorbed on zeolites of known structure. Part III - Localization of the p-XYLI and p-XYLII species sorbed in a high coverage B. ZSM-5/p-XYLENE complex  

SciTech Connect

By combining full profile X-ray powder diffraction structure refinements, extraction of the integrated intensities and difference-Fourier synthesis, it has been possible to characterize and localize the two XYL I and XYL II species of p-xylene organic guest molecules adsorbed in a high coverage B.ZSM-5/p-xylene complex. The investigations have been performed on the calcined H/sub 1.40/AI/sub 0.02/B/sub 1.38/Si/sub 94.60/O/sub 192/ boralite phase which has been saturated with liquid p-xylene at room temperature. Interpretation of a difference-Fourier map reveals the presence of fixed sites at the channel intersections and in the sinusoidal channels. These sites correspond respectively to the XYL I and XYL II species. Most suprisingly, the distribution of these two species in the zeolitic framework corresponds to relatively high xylene/xylene or xylene/framework interactions in the high-coverage B.ZSM-5/nXYL complex (n up to approx. =8 p-xylene molecules/unit-cell).

Mentzen, B.F.; Bosselet, F.

1988-02-01

11

Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus subsp. nov. from Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a group of staphylococci that are closely related to Staphylococcus cupitis and constitute a separate subspecies, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ure- olyticus. S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus was originally consid- ered to be a possible rare biotype of Staphylococcus warneri or Staphy Zococcus hominis according to the classification system described by Kloos and Schleifer (8). S. warneri

TAMMY L. BANNERMAN; WESLEY E. KLOOS

1991-01-01

12

Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002–00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups.

Gyuranecz, Miklos; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Seibold, Erik; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Makrai, Laszlo; Fodor, Laszlo; Fabbi, Massimo; Vicari, Nadia; Johansson, Anders; Busch, Joseph D.; Vogler, Amy J.; Keim, Paul

2012-01-01

13

Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

14

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG CLAVIBACTER MICHIGANENSIS SUBSP. MICHIGANENSIS ND SUBSP. SEPEDONICUS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) and subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agents of bacterial canker of tomato and ring rot of potato, respectively, are present in the Russian Federation (RF) and Northern and Eastern Europe. The highly regulated Cms has been found in Denmark, Fin...

15

Phenotypic characterization of the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic position of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis, is controversial as this organism has also been described as ' Pasteurella piscicida'. To clarify the taxonomic position of the pathogen, a total of 113 P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains and 20 P. damselae subsp. damselae strains, isolated from different geographical areas and from the m

A. THYSSEN; L. GRISEZ; R. VAN HOUDT; F. OLLEVIER

1998-01-01

16

Laryngeal scleroma associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. PMID:16272528

De Champs, C; Vellin, J F; Diancourt, L; Brisse, S; Kemeny, J L; Gilain, L; Mom, T

2005-11-01

17

Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

De Champs, C.; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J. L.; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

2005-01-01

18

First isolation of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is the common causal agent of tularemia in the USA and Canada, while F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica (holarctica) occurs in Europe, Asia, and to a minor extent in North America. F. tularensis subsp. mediaasiatica was found only in central Asia in a part of the former Soviet Union. Of the total of 155 F. tularensis strains

Darina Gury?ová

1998-01-01

19

Description of Pseudomonas jessenii subsp. pseudoputida subsp. nov., amended description of Pseudomonas jessenii and description of Pseudomonas jessenii subsp. jessenii subsp. nov.  

PubMed

Fluorescent Pseudomonas putida CCM 3656 (ATCC 11250) was analysed according to the methods of polyphasic approach which were based on sequence analyses involving the rpoB and rrs genes, manual ribotyping using endonuclease HindIII, DNA base composition determination and DNA-DNA hybridization. The results obtained by these genotyping methods showed that the strain CCM 3656 is distant from P. putida taxon, which was supported with phenotype characterization represented by whole-cell protein profile analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling and extended biotyping. The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments performed between the strain CCM 3656 and the closest relatives revealed 77 % similarity with Pseudomonas jessenii. However, the outcomes of sequencing, ribotyping and phenotype characterization allow distinguishing the studied strain from P. jessenii. On the basis of the obtained taxonomic data, we suggest reclassifying strain CCM 3656 to a novel subspecies of P. jessenii and propose naming P. jessenii subsp. pseudoputida subsp. nov. with CCM 3656(T) as type strain. Furthermore, we present an amended description of P. jessenii and proposal of P. jessenii subsp. jessenii subsp. nov. PMID:23636777

Kosina, Marcel; Mašla?ová, Ivana; Pascutti-Vávrová, Andrea; Sedo, Ondrej; Lexa, Matej; Svec, Pavel; Sedlá?ek, Ivo

2013-05-02

20

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand  

PubMed Central

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA.

Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

2012-01-01

21

Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T) = DSM 25818(T) = SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T) = CCUG 62387(T) = DSM 25819(T)) are proposed. PMID:23223817

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kilian, Mogens

2012-12-07

22

Disparate host immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii, and M. bovis.  

PubMed

The cross-reactivity of mycobacterial antigens in immune-based diagnostic assays has been a major concern and a criticism of the current tests that are used for the detection of paratuberculosis. In the present study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins were evaluated for antigenic specificity compared to a whole-cell sonicate preparation (MPS). Measures of cell-mediated immunity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were compared in calves inoculated with live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium (M. avium), Mycobacterium kansasii, or Mycobacterium bovis. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses to MPS were observed in all calves that were exposed to mycobacteria compared to control calves at 4 months postinfection. Pooled recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins also elicited nonspecific IFN-? responses in inoculated calves, with the exception of calves infected with M. bovis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins failed to elicit antigen-specific responses for the majority of immune measures; however, the expression of CD25 and CD26 was upregulated on CD4, CD8, gamma/delta (??) T, and B cells for the calves that were inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium after antigen stimulation of the cells. Stimulation with MPS also resulted in the increased expression of CD26 on CD45RO(+) CD25(+) T cells from calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium. Although recombinant proteins failed to elicit specific responses for the calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the differences in immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were dependent upon mycobacterial exposure. The results demonstrated a close alignment in immune responses between calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and those inoculated with M. avium that were somewhat disparate from the responses in calves infected with M. bovis, suggesting that the biology of mycobacterial infection plays an important role in diagnosis. PMID:23554467

Stabel, J R; Waters, W R; Bannantine, J P; Palmer, M V

2013-04-03

23

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

24

Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Using Bacteriophage PP1.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot and stem rot diseases in several crops, including Chinese cabbage, potato, and tomato. To control this bacterium, we isolated a bacteriophage, PP1, with lytic activity against P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the PP1 phage belongs to the Podoviridae family of the order Caudovirales, which exhibit icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails. PP1 phage showed high specificity for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and several bacteria belonging to different species and phyla were resistant to PP1. This phage showed rapid and strong lytic activity against its host bacteria in liquid medium and was stable over a broad range of pH values. Disease caused by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was significantly reduced by PP1 treatment. Overall, PP1 bacteriophage effectively controls P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. PMID:23727798

Lim, Jeong-A; Jee, Samnyu; Lee, Dong Hwan; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Oh, Changsik; Heu, Sunggi

2013-08-28

25

Alkaloids from Narcissus angustifolius subsp. transcarpathicus (Amaryllidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alkaloids have been isolated from fresh bulbs of Narcissus angustifolius subsp. transcarpathicus (Amaryllidaceae). Nangustine, reported here for the first time, is the first 5,11-methanomorphanthridine alkaloid with a C-3\\/C-4 substitution. The structure and stereochemistry of this new alkaloid, as well as those previously known, have been determined by physical and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic data of pancracine have been completed. The

Josep Labraña; Alex King'ori Machocho; Vladimir Kricsfalusy; Reto Brun; Carles Codina; Francesc Viladomat; Jaume Bastida

2002-01-01

26

Efficient transformation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed

We used a modified version of the method of Hanahan (D. Hanahan, J. Mol. Biol. 166:557-580, 1983) to transform Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica with the plasmids pBR322, pBR325, and pAT153. The transformation frequency ranged from 1 X 10(2) to 4 X 10(4) colonies per micrograms of plasmid DNA. The nature of these transformants was confirmed by plasmid analysis. ColE1-based plasmids make potentially useful cloning vectors for the study of genes involved in the pathogenesis of this species. PMID:3968041

Hinton, J C; Perombelon, M C; Salmond, G P

1985-02-01

27

IMMUNOREACTIVITY OF THE MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS 19-KDA LIPOPROTEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background The Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein has been reported to stimulate both T and B cell responses as well as induce a number of Th1 cytokines. In order to evaluate the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) 19-kDa lipoprotein as an immun...

28

The pollination ecology of Pedicularis rex subsp . lipkyana and P. rex subsp. rex (Orobanchaceae) from Sichuan, southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedicularis is one of few genera for which pollination ecology has been studied extensively. Although over half of the species of Pedicularis are found in the mountains of southwestern China, pollination ecology has been studied there on a few species only. The present paper reports pollination ecology of Pedicularis rex subsp. lipskyana and P. rex subsp. rex from Sichuan, southwestern

Ya Tang; Jia-Sui Xie; Hui Sun

2007-01-01

29

Hypoglycemic constituents of Gynura divaricata subsp. formosana.  

PubMed

Gynura divaricata Kitam. subsp. formosana is a folk medicine used as a hypoglycemic agent for diabetes patients in Taiwan. Guided by the hexose transport assay, the hypoglycemic constituents of the aerial part of this plant were disclosed through chromatographic methods. They are fructooligosaccharides, including beta-D-fructofuranose, sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and 1(F)-beta-fructofuranosylnystose. The hexose transport assay indicated that nystose was the most potent among these compounds, showing a 46.7% difference from pinitol in the stimulation index at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. PMID:22474963

Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2012-02-01

30

Paired-End Sequence Mapping Detects Extensive Genomic Rearrangement and Translocation during Divergence of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica Populations† ‡  

PubMed Central

Comparative genome hybridization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica populations have shown that genome content is highly conserved, with relatively few genes in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome being absent in other F. tularensis subspecies. To determine if organization of the genome differs between global populations of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, we have used paired-end sequence mapping (PESM) to identify regions of the genome where synteny is broken. The PESM approach compares the physical distances between paired-end sequencing reads of a library of a wild-type reference F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain to the predicted lengths between the reads based on map coordinates of two different F. tularensis genome sequences. A total of 17 different continuous regions were identified in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genome (CRholarctica) which are noncontiguous in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome. Six of the 17 different CRholarctica are positioned as adjacent pairs in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome sequence but are translocated in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, implying that their arrangements are ancestral in F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and derived in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. PCR analysis of the CRholarctica in 88 additional F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates showed that the arrangements of the CRholarctica are highly conserved, particularly in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, consistent with the hypothesis that global populations of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica have recently experienced a periodic selection event or they have emerged from a recent clonal expansion. Two unique F. tularensis subsp. tularensis-like strains were also observed which likely are derived from evolutionary intermediates and may represent a new taxonomic unit.

Dempsey, Michael P.; Nietfeldt, Joseph; Ravel, Jacques; Hinrichs, Steven; Crawford, Robert; Benson, Andrew K.

2006-01-01

31

Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.  

PubMed

Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91?% of the genomes was 95.16?%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) (?=?BAA-2414(T)?=?DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. genome also encoded a putative mosquitocidal toxin. The presence of these genes suggests possible adaptation to an insect host, and further studies are needed to probe niche adaptation of Listeria fleischmannii. PMID:23524352

den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

2013-03-22

32

Serogrouping of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis by the agglutination test.  

PubMed Central

The agglutination technique was used to establish a serological classification scheme for 98 strains of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis isolated from clinical specimens and normal human feces. Absorbed antisera were prepared to seven strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis. These seven absorbed antisera were species as well as subspecies specific and provided the basis of the serological classification scheme. This scheme was composed of 21 serogroups; seven of these serogroups contained only one group component. There was a total of 45 serological patterns. This serological scheme may be used for the serological classification of strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis and to study the epidemiology of this organism.

Lambe, D W; Moroz, D A

1976-01-01

33

Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic and electrostatic cell surface properties of eight Lactobacillus strains were characterized by using the microbial adhesion to solvents method and microelectrophoresis, respectively. All strains appeared relatively hydrophilic. The strong microbial adhesion to chloroform, an acidic solvent, in comparison with microbial adhesion to hexadecane, an apolar n-alkane, demonstrated the particularity of lactobacilli to have an important electron donor and basic character and consequently their potential ability to generate Lewis acid-base interactions with a support. Regardless of their electrophoretic mobility (EM), strains were in general slightly negatively charged at alkaline pH. A pH-dependent behavior concerning cell surface charges was observed. The EM decreased progressively with more acidic pHs for the L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains until the isoelectric point (IEP), i.e., the pH value for which the EM is zero. On the other hand, the EM for the L. rhamnosus strains was stable from pH 8 to pH 3 to 4, at which point there was a shift near the IEP. Both L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains were characterized by an IEP of around 4, whereas L. rhamnosus strains possessed a markedly lower IEP of 2. The present study showed that the cell surface physicochemical properties of lactobacilli seem to be, at least in part and under certain experimental conditions, particular to the bacterial species. Such differences detected between species are likely to be accompanied by some particular changes in cell wall chemical composition. PMID:9143109

Pelletier, C; Bouley, C; Cayuela, C; Bouttier, S; Bourlioux, P; Bellon-Fontaine, M N

1997-05-01

34

Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop im- provement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Har- rington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent

I. Matus; A. Corey; T. Filichkin; P. M. Hayes; M. I. Vales; J. Kling; O. Riera-Lizarazu; K. Sato; W. Powell; R. Waugh

2003-01-01

35

Characterization of Genetic Differences between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Type I and Type II Isolates  

PubMed Central

A combination of representational difference analysis and comparative DNA sequencing revealed that four type I (sheep) isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were differentiated from nine type II (bovine) isolates by the presence of an 11-bp insertion in a novel M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific region of genomic DNA. Further, our studies show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I isolates contain three type-specific loci that are missing in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II but are present in M. avium subsp. avium. Taken together, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I strains are an evolutionary intermediate between M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates or share a subset of M. avium subsp. avium type-specific loci through horizontal transfer.

Dohmann, Karen; Strommenger, Birgit; Stevenson, Karen; de Juan, Lucia; Stratmann, Janin; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J.; Gerlach, Gerald-Friedrich

2003-01-01

36

Adsorption of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Soil Particles ?  

PubMed Central

Attachment of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles could increase their availability to farm animals, as well as influence the transportation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to water sources. To investigate the possibility of such attachment, we passed a known quantity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis through chromatography columns packed with clay soil, sandy soil, pure silica, clay-silica mixture, or clay-silica complexes and measured the organisms recovered in the eluent using culture or quantitative PCR. Experiments were repeated using buffer at a range of pH levels with pure silica to investigate the effect of pH on M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis attachment. Linear mixed-model analyses were conducted to compare the proportional recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the eluent between different substrates and pH levels. Of the organisms added to the columns, 83 to 100% were estimated to be retained in the columns after adjustment for those retained in empty control columns. The proportions recovered were significantly different across different substrates, with the retention being significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pure substrates (silica and clay-silica complexes) than in soil substrates (clay soil and sandy soil). However, there were no significant differences in the retention of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between silica and clay-silica complexes or between clay soil and sandy soil. The proportion retained decreased with increasing pH in one of the experiments, indicating greater adsorption of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles at an acidic pH (P < 0.05). The results suggest that under experimental conditions M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis adsorbs to a range of soil particles, and this attachment is influenced by soil pH.

Dhand, Navneet K.; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L.; Whittington, Richard J.

2009-01-01

37

Dihydrochalcones and coumarins of Esenbeckia grandiflora subsp. brevipetiolata.  

PubMed

Six furoquinolines and five coumarins have been isolated from the roots of Esenbeckia grandiflora subsp. brevipetiolata. The leaves yielded two dihydrochalcones and two flavonol rhamnosides. One of the coumarins (5-senecioyl-xanthotoxin) and the dihydrochalcones are novel compounds and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The comparison with the dihydrochalcones previously isolated from another subspecies, E. grandiflora subsp. grandiflora is also provided. PMID:14693231

Trani, M; Carbonetti, A; Delle Monache, G; Delle Monache, F

2004-01-01

38

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants known as Johne's disease. Economic losses to the cattle industry in the United States are staggering, reaching $1.5 billion annually. A potential pathogenic role in humans in the etiology of Crohn's disease is under investigation. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease control measures of this important veterinary pathogen. We emphasize molecular genetic aspects including the description of markers used for strain identification, diagnostics, and phylogenetic analysis. Recent important advances in the development of animal models and genetic systems to study M. paratuberculosis virulence determinants are also discussed. We conclude with proposals for the applications of these models and recombinant technology to the development of diagnostic, control, and therapeutic measures.

Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raul G.

2001-01-01

39

Sesquiterpenoids from Pilea cavaleriei subsp. crenata.  

PubMed

Three new humulane-type sesquiterpenes, 8-O-(p-coumaroyl)-5beta-hydroperoxy-1(10)E,4(15)-humuladien-8alpha-ol (1), 8-O-(3-nitro-p-coumaroyl)-1(10)E,4(15)-humuladien-5beta,8alpha-diol (2) and 8-O-(p-coumaroyl)-1(10)E,4(5)E-humuladien-8-ol (3), and a new copaborneol derivative, 1-O-p-coumaroyl-copaborneol (4), have been isolated from the methanol extract of Pileacavaleriei Lévl. subsp. crenata C. J. Chen. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. PMID:19700322

Tang, Gui-Hua; Sun, Chang-Song; Long, Chun-Lin; Li, Ma-Lin; Wang, Yue-Hu; Luo, Min; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Ya-Na

2009-08-06

40

Phenotypic characterization of the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis, is controversial as this organism has also been described as 'Pasteurella piscicida'. To clarify the taxonomic position of the pathogen, a total of 113 P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains and 20 P. damselae subsp. damselae strains, isolated from different geographical areas and from the main affected fish species, were analysed using 129 morphological and biochemical tests, including the commercial API 20E and API CH50 test systems. For comparison, the type strains of other Photobacterium species (i.e. Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium angustum) were included in the analyses. The results were statistically analysed by unweighted pair group average clustering and the distance between the different clusters was expressed as the percentage disagreement. The analyses showed that, based on morphological and biochemical identification tests, P. damselae subsp. piscicida is related to other Photobacterium species. However, it is clearly distinguishable from P. damselae subsp. damselae and no phenotypic evidence was found to include P. damselae subsp. piscicida as a subspecies in the species P. damselae. PMID:9828416

Thyssen, A; Grisez, L; van Houdt, R; Ollevier, F

1998-10-01

41

Variation of cultivated flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. usitatissimum ) and its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp. angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestication of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. subsp.usitatissimum) is briefly discussed.\\u000a \\u000a Using data documented as a matter of routine in genebank work, 63 accessions of cultivated flax from the flax germplasm collection\\u000a of the Gatersleben Genebank are compared with 73 accessions of its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp.angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.), which have been observed in systematic field trials. Range

A. Diederichsen; K. Hammer

1995-01-01

42

Purification, biochemical characterization and gene sequencing of a thermostable raw starch digesting ?-amylase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis subsp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the purification and biochemical characterization of a raw starch-digesting ?-amylase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis subsp. nov. (strain PizzoT). The molecular weight was estimated to be 58 kDa by SDS–PAGE. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from\\u000a 4.0–10.0. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 70°C. It showed extreme thermostability in the presence

Ilaria Finore; Ceyda Kasavi; Annarita Poli; Ida Romano; Ebru Toksoy Oner; Betul Kirdar; Laura Dipasquale; Barbara Nicolaus; Licia Lama

43

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Reveals Genomic Variability among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates  

PubMed Central

Ninety-six primer sets were used for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to characterize the genomes of 20 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates, 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ATCC 19698), and 2 M. avium subsp. avium isolates (ATCC 35716 and Mac 104). AFLP analysis revealed a high degree of genomic polymorphism among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates that may be used to establish diagnostic patterns useful for the epidemiological tracking of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions revealed by AFLP were cloned and sequenced. Primers were generated internal to these regions for use in PCR analysis and applied to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates. An appropriate PCR product was obtained in 79 of 80 reactions, while the M. avium subsp. avium isolates failed to act as templates for PCR amplification in seven of eight reactions. This work revealed the presence of extensive polymorphisms in the genomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, many of which are based on deletions. Of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequences studied, one revealed a 5,145-bp region with no homologue in the M. avium subsp. avium genome. Within this region are genes responsible for integrase-recombinase function. Three additional M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions were cloned, revealing a number of housekeeping genes; all were evaluated for their diagnostic and epidemiological value.

O'Shea, B.; Khare, S.; Bliss, K.; Klein, P.; Ficht, T. A.; Adams, L. G.; Rice-Ficht, A. C.

2004-01-01

44

Genome Sequence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia, the Agent of Astrakhan Fever  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia is the agent of Astrakhan fever, a spotted fever group rickettsiosis endemic to Astrakhan, Russia. The present study reports the draft genome of Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia strain A-167.

Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

45

Genome Sequence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the Agent of Israeli Spotted Fever  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis is the agent of Israeli spotted fever. The present study reports the draft genome of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis strain ISTT CDC1, isolated from a Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick collected in Israel.

Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

46

Defining the Stressome of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis In Vitro and in Naturally Infected Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes an enteric infection in cattle, with a great impact on the dairy industry in the United States and worldwide. Characterizing the gene expression profile of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to different stress conditions, or shed in cow feces, could improve our under- standing of the pathogenesis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In this report,

Chia-wei Wu; Shelly K. Schmoller; Sung Jae Shin; Adel M. Talaat

2007-01-01

47

Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of the Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2†  

PubMed Central

A functional pyc gene was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 and was found to complement a Pyc defect in L. lactis KB4. The deduced lactococcal Pyc protein was highly homologous to Pyc sequences of other bacteria. The pyc gene was also detected in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains.

Wang, H.; O'Sullivan, D. J.; Baldwin, K. A.; McKay, L. L.

2000-01-01

48

Spore-forming Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis subsp. nov., isolated from a domestic wastewater treatment tank.  

PubMed

A strain (KREDT) that formed endospores and produced the pigment prodigiosin was isolated from activated sludge. The presence of spores in cells of strain KREDT was evident upon electron microscopy examination, heat treatment and the detection of dipicolinic acid in the cells. Biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence and DNA-DNA homology data identified strain KREDT as Serratia marcescens. The major respiratory quinone of strain KREDT was found to be ubiquinone Q-8. The formation of endospores by Gram-negative bacteria has not been observed previously, and has never been reported in any species of Serratia. Here, it is shown that strain KREDT (JCM 11315T = CIP 107489T) represents a novel subspecies of S. marcescens, for which the name Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis is proposed. PMID:12656181

Ajithkumar, Bindu; Ajithkumar, Vasudevan P; Iriye, Ryozo; Doi, Yukio; Sakai, Tadashi

2003-01-01

49

Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi subsp. nov., isolated from bark canker of poplar trees.  

PubMed

Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus × euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (>98.3%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060(T) (=DSM 25466(T)=NCAIM B 02483(T)), is proposed. PMID:23159756

Tóth, Tímea; Lakatos, Tamás; Koltay, András

2012-11-16

50

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and ?-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey.  

PubMed

An ?-glucosidase producing, thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic, and endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain F84b(T) was isolated from a high temperature well-pipeline sediment sample in Kizilcahamam, Turkey. The growth occurred at temperatures, pH and salinities ranging from 45 to 69ºC (optimum 60ºC), 7.0 to 8.5 (optimum 8.0) and 0 to 5% (w/v) (optimum 3.5%), respectively. Strain F84b(T) was able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources. Starch and tyrosine utilization, amylase, catalase and oxidase activities, nitrate reduction, and gas production from nitrate were all positive. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.6 mol%. The menaquinone content was MK-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and C16:0. In phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain F84b(T) showed high sequence similarity to Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (99.8%) and to Geobacillus subterraneus (99.3%) with DNA hybridization values of 74.3% and 29.1%, respectively. In addition, the Rep-PCR and the intergenic 16S-23S rRNA gene fingerprinting profiles differentiated strain F84b(T) from the Geobacillus species studied. The results obtained from the physiological and biochemical characters, the menaquinone contents, the borderline DNA-DNA hybridization homology, and the genomic fingerprinting patterns had allowed phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic differentiation of strain F84b(T) from G. thermodenitrificans. Therefore, strain F84b(T) is assigned to be a new subspecies of G. thermodenitrificans, for which the name Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov. is proposed (The type strain F84b(T) = DSM 22629(T) = NCIMB 14582(T)). PMID:21606609

Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Ozcan, Birgul; Tekin, Nilgun; Cokmus, Cumhur

2011-01-01

51

Molecular Characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Genotype III?  

PubMed Central

The molecular characterization of a Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III strain (NCSU strain 06-CO1) isolated from the blood of a military working dog diagnosed with endocarditis is reported in this study. Several genes were amplified and sequenced for comparative sequence similarity with other strains.

Cadenas, Maria B.; Bradley, Julie; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Takara, Matt; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

2008-01-01

52

Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.  

PubMed Central

A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The soluble enzyme was purified approximately 160-fold, and the first 25 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by automated Edman degradation. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, greater than 97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be greater than 300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles. Images

Ingvorsen, K; H?jer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

1991-01-01

53

Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides  

PubMed Central

From July 2003 through October 2004, 42 patients became infected by strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (genotype 1) in different departments of Juan Canalejo Hospital in northwest Spain. During 2006, 6 inpatients, also in different departments of the hospital, became infected (genotypes 2–4). Parenteral nutrition was the likely source.

Saleta, Jesus Luis; Nieto, Juan Antonio Saez; Tomas, Mar; Valdezate, Silvia; Sousa, Dolores; Lueiro, Francisco; Villanueva, Rosa; Pereira, Maria Jose; Llinares, Pedro

2008-01-01

54

Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. fulgida subsp. nov., a fluorescent bacterium isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses; emended description of Pseudomonas cedrina and description of Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. cedrina subsp. nov.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of a group of four strains, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses, within the species Pseudomonas cedrina was investigated. The isolates formed a separate cluster through ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, which could be clearly differentiated from the type strain of P. cedrina. The differences found between the patterns of the type strain of P. cedrina and the novel isolates were more distinct than those between the type strain and recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas, which were phylogenetically related by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Physiological characterization also revealed significant differences between the novel grass isolates and the type strain of P. cedrina. Siderotyping of the pyoverdines revealed identical pyoverdine-isoelectrofocusing patterns for the novel isolates and the type strain of P. cedrina. However, pyoverdine-mediated (59)Fe cross uptake studies indicated differences in the siderotype. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies (reassociation value 76.4 %) supported the affiliation of the novel isolates to the species P. cedrina. As a consequence of these observations, the splitting of the species P. cedrina into two novel subspecies Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. cedrina subsp. nov. (type strain CFML 96-198(T)=CIP 105541(T)=DSM 17516(T)) and Pseudomonas cedrina subsp. fulgida subsp. nov. (type strain P 515/12(T)=DSM 14938(T)=LMG 21467(T)) is proposed. PMID:19502311

Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Ulrich, Andreas

2009-06-01

55

ESSENTIAL OILS FROM REGENERATED ARTEMISIA PETROSA SUBSP. ERIANTHA PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisia petrosa subsp. eriantha (alpine wormwood) of the Asteraceae family, is a Central Apennines' subendemic species which grows in rock crevices and on gravel slopes at altitudes between 2000 and 3100 m.(1). It is a protected species whose essential oil is of great interest mainly for liqueur industry; in fact, alpine wormwood possesses an hard aromatic scent and its aerial

56

Peritonitis in a llama caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed Central

A 7-month-old, male llama was diagnosed with peritonitis caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Clinical findings, medical treatment, and case outcome are described. Hematogenous dissemination from suspected pneumonia is proposed as the route of infection in this case. Possible transmission of the organism through contact with horses is discussed.

Hewson, J; Cebra, C K

2001-01-01

57

Bacteriophages and the control of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen bacteriophages of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of bacterial soft rot, were isolated from samples of fertilizer solutions taken from a greenhouse producing calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.). To avoid a single-host selection bias, a mixture of four bacterial hosts was used to enrich bacteriophages. Molecular characterization of the phages with restriction endonuclease digestions indicated that two distinct

M. Ravensdale; T. J. Blom; J. A. Gracia-Garza; A. M. Svircev; R. J. Smith

2007-01-01

58

Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium and Subsp. hominissuis Give Different Cytokine Responses after in vitro Stimulation of Human Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. It is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. Genetic typing of M. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy blood donors were stimulated in vitro with ten isolates of M. avium avium and 11 isolates of M. avium hominissuis followed by multiplex bead array quantification of cytokines in supernatants. M. avium hominissuis isolates induced significantly more IL-10 and significantly less IL-12p70, TNF, IFN-? and IL-17 when compared to M. avium avium isolates. All strains induced high levels of IL-17, but had very low levels of IL-12p70. Conclusion/Significance The strong association between M. avium subsp. hominissuis and disease in humans and the clear differences in the human immune response to M. avium subsp. hominissuis compared to M. avium subsp. avium isolates, as demonstrated in this study, suggest that genetic differences between M. avium isolates play an important role in the pathogenicity in humans.

Thegerstrom, Johanna; Jonsson, Bodil; Brudin, Lars; Olsen, Bjorn; Wold, Agnes E.; Ernerudh, Jan; Friman, Vanda

2012-01-01

59

Alcaligenes faecalis subsp . phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gram (?) coccobacillary bacterium, JT, was isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. 16S rRNA and biochemical analysis has revealed strain JT closely resembles Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750T and A. faecalis subsp. parafaecalis DSM 13975T, but is a distinct, previously uncharacterized isolate. Strain JT, along with the type strain of A. faecalis and its previously described subspecies share the ability to

Marc Rehfuss; James Urban

2005-01-01

60

Specific real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia are two severe respiratory infections of ruminants due to infection by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), respectively. They are included in the OIE list of notifiable diseases. Here we describe the development of rapid, sensitive, and specific real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of

Sophie Lorenzon; Lucía Manso-Silván; François Thiaucourt

2008-01-01

61

Thermosensitive plasmid replication, temperature-sensitive host growth, and chromosomal plasmid integration conferred by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris lactose plasmids in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented that lactose-fermenting ability (Lac+) in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM1, SK11, and ML1 is associated with plasmid DNA, even though these strains are difficult to cure of Lac plasmids. When the Lac plasmids from these strains were introduced into L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230, they appeared to replicate in a thermosensitive manner; inheritance of the plasmid was less efficient at 32 to 40 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. The stability of the L. lactis subsp. cremoris Lac plasmids in lactococci appeared to be a combination of both host and plasmid functions. Stabilized variants were isolated by growing the cultures at 32 to 40 degrees C; these variants contained the Lac plasmids integrated into the L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 chromosome. In addition, the presence of the L. lactis subsp. cremoris Lac plasmids in L. lactis subsp. lactis resulted in a temperature-sensitive growth response; growth of L. lactis subsp. lactis transformants was significantly inhibited at 38 to 40 degrees C, thereby resembling some L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains with respect to temperature sensitivity of growth. Images

Feirtag, J M; Petzel, J P; Pasalodos, E; Baldwin, K A; McKay, L L

1991-01-01

62

Construction of targeted insertion mutations in Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is one of the most deadly bacterial agents, yet most of the genetic determinants of pathogenesis are still unknown. We have developed an efficient targeted mutagenesis strategy in the model organism F. tularensis subsp. novicida by utilizing universal priming of optimized antibiotic resistance cassettes and splicing by overlap extension (SOE). This process enables fast and efficient construction of targeted insertion mutations in F. tularensis subsp. novicida that have characteristics of nonpolar mutations; optimized targeted mutagenesis strategies will promote the study of this mysterious bacterium and facilitate vaccine development against tularemia. Moreover the general strategy of gene disruption by PCR-based antibiotic resistance cassette insertion is broadly applicable to many bacterial species. PMID:18019340

Liu, Jirong; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Klose, Karl E

2007-10-01

63

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.  

PubMed

Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01). PMID:6799468

Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

1981-12-01

64

Genetic Basis of Tetracycline Resistance in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis?  

PubMed Central

All strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis described to date show medium level resistance to tetracycline. Screening of 26 strains from a variety of sources revealed the presence of tet(W) in all isolates. A transposase gene upstream of tet(W) was found in all strains, and both genes were cotranscribed in strain IPLAIC4. Mutants with increased tetracycline resistance as well as tetracycline-sensitive mutants of IPLAIC4 were isolated and genetically characterized. The native tet(W) gene was able to restore the resistance phenotype to a mutant with an alteration in tet(W) by functional complementation, indicating that tet(W) is necessary and sufficient for the tetracycline resistance seen in B. animalis subsp. lactis.

Gueimonde, Miguel; Florez, Ana Belen; van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Str?man, Per; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G.; Margolles, Abelardo

2010-01-01

65

Characterization of the new ?-glucuronidase from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a new gene encoding ?-glucuronidase from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. In this paper, the characterization of the enzyme is described. Specific enzyme activity was 120,000 U\\/mg purified protein\\u000a at 37°C and pH?=?7.0. The temperature and pH value, at which the enzyme has the highest specific activity, were determined\\u000a and were found to

Ján Krahulec; Jana Krahulcová

2007-01-01

66

Minireplicon from pBtoxis of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.2-kb fragment containing a replicon from pBtoxis, the large plasmid that encodes the insecticidal endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, was identified, cloned, and sequenced. This fragment contains cis elements, including iterons, found in replication origins of other large plasmids and suggests that pBtoxis replicates by a type A theta mechanism. Two genes, pBt156 and pBt157, encoding proteins of

Mujin Tang; Dennis K. Bideshi; Hyun-Woo Park; Brian A. Federici

2006-01-01

67

Comparison of pectic enzymes produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia spp. that cause soft-rot diseases in plants produce a variety of extracellular pectic enzymes. To assess the correlation between patterns of pectic enzyme production and taxonomic classification, we compared the enzymes from representative strains. Supernatants obtained from polygalacturonate-grown cultures of nine strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi, three strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and three strains of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica were concentrated and subjected to ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. Pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, and exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase activities were visualized by staining diagnostically buffered pectate-agarose overlays with ruthenium red after incubation of the overlays with the isoelectric focusing gels. The isoelectric focusing profiles of pectate lyase and polygalacturonase were nearly identical for strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, showing three pectate lyase isozymes with isoelectric points higher than 8.7 and a polygalacturonase with pI of ca. 10.2. Isoelectric focusing profiles of the E. chrysanthemi pectic enzymes were substantially different. Although there was considerable intraspecific heterogeneity, all strains produced at least four isozymes of pectate lyase, which could be divided into three groups: basic (pI, ca. 9.0 to 10.0), slightly basic (pI, ca. 7.0 to 8.5), and acidic (pI, ca. 4.0 to 5.0). Several strains of E. chrysanthemi also produced a single form of exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase (pI, ca. 8.0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images

Ried, J L; Collmer, A

1986-01-01

68

Molecular Fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby Isolated from Tropical Seafood in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella\\u000a enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella\\u000a enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains isolated from different seafood were genotyped by PCR-ribotyping and ERIC-PCR assays. This study has ascertained\\u000a the genetic relatedness among serovars prevalent in tropical seafood. PCR-ribotyping exhibited genetic variation in both Salmonella serovars, and ribotype profile (II) was most predominant, which was observed in 10\\/18 of Salmonella\\u000a enterica subsp.

Rakesh Kumar; P. K. Surendran; Nirmala Thampuran

2008-01-01

69

Staphylococcus condimenti sp. nov., from soy sauce mash, and Staphylococcus carnosus (Schleifer and Fischer 1982) subsp. utilis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

Based on the sequence data of 23S rRNA of Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, species-specific probes were constructed. Their application revealed a heterogeneity within 18 strains previously identified as S. carnosus. Strains of this group were selected, and their 23S rRNA sequence was determined. It was revealed that the strains of S. carnosus can be placed in at least three sub-groups. This grouping was supported by physiological data and DNA-DNA similarity studies. Based on these results, were propose the new species Staphylococcus condimenti sp. nov. The type strain is S. condimenti F-2T (=DSM 11674T). The phylogenetic position of the new species within the radiation of other staphylococcal strains is reflected by a 16S nRNA-based tree. Furthermore, it is proposed to designate the new subspecies of Staphylococcus carnosus Schleifer and Fischer 1982, Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. utilis subsp. nov. The type strain of S. carnosus subsp. utilis is SK 11T (= DSM 11676T). PMID:9734019

Probst, A J; Hertel, C; Richter, L; Wassill, L; Ludwig, W; Hammes, W P

1998-07-01

70

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

71

Identification of Plasmalogens in the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis  

PubMed Central

Plasmalogens are ether-linked lipids that may influence oxidative stress resistance of eukaryotic cell membranes. Since bacterial membrane composition can influence environmental stress resistance, we explored the prevalence of plasmalogens in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. Results showed plasmalogens are a major component of the B. animalis subsp. lactis membrane.

Oberg, Taylor S.; Ward, Robert E.; Steele, James L.

2012-01-01

72

Influence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on Colitis Development and Specific Immune Responses during Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulomatous and intramural inflammation observed in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and veterinary Johne's disease suggests that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a causative agent. However, an incomplete understanding of the immunological steps responsible for the pathologies of IBD makes this conclusion uncertain. Sera from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10\\/) mice with spontaneous colitis displayed signif- icantly higher M. avium subsp.

Udai P. Singh; Shailesh Singh; Rajesh Singh; Russell K. Karls; Frederick D. Quinn; Morris E. Potter; James W. Lillard

2007-01-01

73

Identification of plasmalogens in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed

Plasmalogens are ether-linked lipids that may influence oxidative stress resistance of eukaryotic cell membranes. Since bacterial membrane composition can influence environmental stress resistance, we explored the prevalence of plasmalogens in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. Results showed plasmalogens are a major component of the B. animalis subsp. lactis membrane. PMID:22138986

Oberg, Taylor S; Ward, Robert E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

2011-12-02

74

Application of AFLP for taxonomic and epidemiological studies of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 106 Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida strains and 19 Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae strains, including reference and type strains, were genetically characterized using AFLP. The total genomic DNA of each bacterial strain was digested using restriction endonucleases HindIII and TaqI. Using numerical analysis, six clusters were recognized. The largest cluster (n fl 106) contained the majority of the

A. Thyssen; S. Van Eygen; L. Hauben; J. Goris; J. Swings; F. Ollevier

75

Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the etiologic agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease of cattle that is of worldwide importance. The complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of the type strain C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T are reported.

Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Moore, Robert J.; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; de Resende, Vivian D'Afonseca da Silva; Ruy, Patricia de Cassia; Daher, Nesley; Resende, Daniela de Melo; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Soares, Siomar de Castro; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Rocha, Aryane Aparecida C. Magalhaes; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Costa, Danielle Fonseca; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Miyoshi, Anderson; de Lima, Alex Ranieri Jeronimo; Campos, Frederico Davi da Silva; de Sa, Pablo Gomes; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Rodrigues, Ryan Mauricio Araujo; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Leao, Thiago; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Juca; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.

2011-01-01

76

Complete Genome Sequence of the African Dairy Isolate Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius Strain CJ18  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex, is highly prevalent in artisanal dairy fermentations in Africa. Here the complete genome sequence of the dairy-adapted S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 strain—a strain predominant in traditionally fermented camel milk (suusac) from Kenya—is presented.

Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J. A.

2012-01-01

77

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF MEDICAGO SATIVA SUBSP. FALCATA GENOTYPES AND THEIR HYBRID PROGENY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Semi-hybrid alfalfa cultivars offer the possibility of capturing non-additive genetic variation. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and subsp. sativa have been shown to form a heterotic pattern for biomass yield. Objectives of this study were to examine morphological variation in a broad range of fal...

78

Preliminary investigation of a mice model of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae induced pneumonia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we comparatively assessed the pathophysiological mechanisms developed during lung infection of BALB/C female mice infected by an original wild type Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae strain (CH137) or by a referent subspecies K. pneumoniae. subsp. pneumoniae strain (ATCC10031). The mice infected with 2.10? CFU K. p. subsp. pneumoniae (n = 10) showed transient signs of infection and all of them recovered. All of those infected with 1.10? CFU K. p. subsp. ozaenae (n = 10) developed pneumonia within 24 h and died between 48 and 72 h. Few macrophages, numerous polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes were observed in their lungs in opposite to K. p. subsp. pneumoniae. In bronchoalveolar lavage, a significant increase in MIP-2, IL-6, KC and MCP-1 levels was only observed in K. p. subsp. ozaenae infected mice whereas high levels of TNF-? were evidenced with the two subspecies. Our findings indicated a lethal effect of a wild type K. p. subsp. ozaenae strain by acute pneumonia reflecting an insufficient alveolar macrophage response. This model might be of a major interest to comparatively explore the pathogenicity of K. p. subsp ozaenae strains and to further explore the physiopathological mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria induced human pneumonia. PMID:21723409

Renois, Fanny; Jacques, Jérôme; Guillard, Thomas; Moret, Hélène; Pluot, Michel; Andreoletti, Laurent; de Champs, Christophe

2011-06-30

79

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Synthetic Human Gastric Juice and Acidified Porcine Bile  

PubMed Central

The bactericidal activities of synthetic gastric juice and acidified porcine bile on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed using propidium monoazide (PMA)-mediated quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, which allowed rapid relative quantitative analysis of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells.

Dalton, J. P.

2013-01-01

80

Complete Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Strain J18, Isolated from Kimchi  

PubMed Central

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides is one of the most predominant lactic acid bacterial groups during kimchi fermentation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides J18, which was isolated from kimchi. The genome of the strain consists of a 1,896,561-bp chromosome and five plasmids.

Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Se Hee

2012-01-01

81

Peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

We report the third human case of peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and review the English literature regarding community-acquired and nonsocomial infection and colonization that results from this bacterium. The biochemical and genetic characteristics supporting the pathogenic potential of A. denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans are reviewed, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the organism is summarized.

Morrison, A J; Boyce, K

1986-01-01

82

Identification of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica with a Non-radioactive DNA Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-radioactive digoxigenin labelled DNA probe specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the causal agent of potato blackleg, has been developed. The probe is a randomly cloned 2100 bp fragment from a genomic library of one E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strain. In a dot-blot DNA hybridization system, the probe was tested against a collection of 70 E. carotovora strains from

Karin Hegart Helander; Paula Persson

1996-01-01

83

Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Strain ENHKU01  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01 is a Gram-negative endophyte isolated from a diseased pepper (Capsicum annuum) plant in Hong Kong. This is the first complete genome sequence report of a plant-endophytic strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae.

Liu, Wing-Yee; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Wong, Chi-Fat; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hi

2012-01-01

84

Complete genome sequence of the endophytic Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01.  

PubMed

Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01 is a Gram-negative endophyte isolated from a diseased pepper (Capsicum annuum) plant in Hong Kong. This is the first complete genome sequence report of a plant-endophytic strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae. PMID:23045485

Liu, Wing-Yee; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Wong, Chi-Fat; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hi; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

2012-11-01

85

Genome Differences between Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Strain Nichols and T. paraluiscuniculi Strain Cuniculi A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Treponema paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A was compared to the genome of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain Nichols using DNA microarray hybridization, whole-genome fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. A DNA microarray of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols containing all 1,039 predicted open reading frame PCR products was used to identify deletions and major sequence changes in

Michal Strouhal; D. Smajs; P. Matejkova; Erica Sodergren; Anita G. Amin; Jerrilyn K. Howell; Steven J. Norris; George M. Weinstock

2007-01-01

86

Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples collected on commercial Dutch dairy farms.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, was identified in settled-dust samples of Dutch commercial dairy farms, both in the dairy barn and in the young stock housing. Bioaerosols may play a role in within-farm M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission. PMID:20656861

Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Koets, Ad P; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Bouman, Marina; Heederik, Dick; Nielen, Mirjam

2010-07-23

87

Cloning and Localization of the Lepidopteran Protoxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. kurstaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki produces a proteinaceous crystalline inclusion that is toxic for lepidopteran larvae. There are several size classes of plasmids in this organism and the presence of one or more has been correlated with production of this protein, defined as a protoxin. DNA fragments of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, obtained by EcoRI digestion, were cloned into the vector

Gary A. Held; Lee A. Bulla; Eugenio Ferrari; James Hoch; Arthur I. Aronson; Scott A. Minnich

1982-01-01

88

TOLERANCIA A SEQUÍA EN LÍNEAS RECOMBINANTES CON SUSTITUCIÓN DE CROMOSOMAS (RCSLs) OBTENIDAS DE LA CRUZA Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (CAESAREA 26-24) × Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare CV. HARRINGTON Drought tolerance in recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) derived from the cross Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24) × Hordeum. vulgare subsp. vulgare cv. Harrington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Grain yield (RG) and drought tolerance of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) derived from the cross between Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell. and H. vulgare L. subsp. vulgare cv. Harrington, were studied in two contrasting environments, one with water stress (CEH) and other without water stress (SEH), during three

Luis Inostroza; Alejandro del Pozo; Iván Matus; Patrick Hayes

89

Genome Sequence of an Epidemic Isolate of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Multiple isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, collectively called BRA100, were associated with outbreaks of postsurgical skin infections across various regions of Brazil from 2003 to 2009. We announce the draft genome sequence of a newly sequenced BRA100 strain, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii CRM-0020, isolated from a patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23950125

Davidson, Rebecca M; Reynolds, Paul R; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

2013-08-15

90

In vitro susceptibility of ceftiofur against Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus and subsp equi isolated from horses with lower respiratory disease in Europe since 2002.  

PubMed

In vitro activity of ceftiofur and six other antimicrobial agents was evaluated against 79 Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus isolates collected from horses with respiratory disease in Europe during 2007 and 2008. In addition, the in vitro activity of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial drugs was assessed against 59 S. equi subsp zooepidemicus and 49 S. equi subsp equi isolates collected by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Europe from 2002 to 2006. The lowest concentration of ceftiofur that inhibited the growth of 90% of the isolates (MIC90) was 0.12 microg/ml, with the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved susceptible breakpoint set at ? 0.25 microg/ml for ceftiofur against S. equi subsp zooepidemicus. The MIC90 values remained consistent when comparing the isolates collected from diagnostic laboratories or from the field study. PMID:20425729

Bade, Donald; Portis, Ellen; Keane, Caroline; Hallberg, John; Bryson, Lawrence; Sweeney, Mike; Boner, Pamela

2009-01-01

91

The Ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Enter Bovine Epithelial Cells Is Influenced by Preexposure to a Hyperosmolar Environment and Intracellular Passage in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to establish infection. To examine the ability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to

Dilip Patel; Lia Danelishvili; Yoshitaka Yamazaki; Marta Alonso; Michael L. Paustian; John P. Bannantine; Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik; Luiz E. Bermudez

2006-01-01

92

Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle mortalities.

Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

2013-01-01

93

Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn resistance and bioaccumulation by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation and heavy metal resistance of Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) ions by thermophilic Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis were investigated. The metal resistance from the most resistant to the most sensitive was found as Mn > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd for both Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis and Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus. It was determined that the highest metal bioaccumulation was performed by Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus for Zn (36,496 ?g/g dry weight cell), and the lowest metal bioaccumulation was performed by Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus for Ni (660.3 ?g/g dry weight cell). Moreover, the dead cells were found to biosorbe more metal in their membranes compared to the live cells. In the presence of 7.32 mg/l Cd concentration, the levels of Cd absorbed in live and dead cell membranes were found as 17.44 and 46.2 mg/g membrane, respectively. PMID:22806791

Ozdemir, Sadin; Kilinc, Ersin; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara; Güven, Kemal

2011-06-10

94

Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax aspera subsp. mauritanica.  

PubMed

Two new steroidal saponins (1, 2) were isolated from the roots of Smilax aspera subsp. mauritanica (POIR.) ARCANG. (Liliaceae), together with the known curillin G (3), asparagoside E (4), asparoside A (5), asparoside B (6) and the phenolic compound resveratrol (7). Their structures were established mainly on the basis of 600 MHz 2D-NMR spectral data. 3 exhibited antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25, 25 and 50 microg/ml, respectively) whereas the other compounds were inactive. PMID:18758111

Belhouchet, Zineddine; Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2008-09-01

95

Relationship of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens clades associated with strains DSM 7T and FZB42T: a proposal for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens subsp. nov. and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum subsp. nov. based on complete genome sequence comparisons.  

PubMed

The whole-genome-sequenced rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42(T) (Chen et al., 2007) and other plant-associated strains of the genus Bacillus described as belonging to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens or Bacillus subtilis are used commercially to promote the growth and improve the health of crop plants. Previous investigations revealed that a group of strains represented a distinct ecotype related to B. amyloliquefaciens; however, the exact taxonomic position of this group remains elusive (Reva et al., 2004). In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of a group of Bacillus strains closely related to strain FZB42(T) to colonize Arabidopsis roots. On the basis of their phenotypic traits, the strains were similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 7(T) but differed considerably from this type strain in the DNA sequences of genes encoding 16S rRNA, gyrase subunit A (gyrA) and histidine kinase (cheA). Phylogenetic analysis performed with partial 16S rRNA, gyrA and cheA gene sequences revealed that the plant-associated strains of the genus Bacillus, including strain FZB42(T), formed a lineage, which could be distinguished from the cluster of strains closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens DSM 7(T). DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) performed with genomic DNA from strains DSM 7(T) and FZB42(T) yielded relatedness values of 63.7-71.2 %. Several methods of genomic analysis, such as direct whole-genome comparison, digital DDH and microarray-based comparative genomichybridization (M-CGH) were used as complementary tests. The group of plant-associated strains could be distinguished from strain DSM 7(T) and the type strain of B. subtilis by differences in the potential to synthesize non-ribosomal lipopeptides and polyketides. Based on the differences found in the marker gene sequences and the whole genomes of these strains, we propose two novel subspecies, designated B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum subsp. nov., with the type strain FZB42(T) (?= DSM 23117(T)?=?BGSC 10A6(T)), and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens subsp. nov., with the type strain DSM 7(T)(?=?ATCC 23350(T)?=?Fukumoto Strain F(T)), for plant-associated and non-plant-associated representatives, respecitvely. This is in agreement with results of DDH and M-CGH tests and the MALDI-TOF MS of cellular components, all of which suggested that the ecovars represent two different subspecies. PMID:20817842

Borriss, Rainer; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Rueckert, Christian; Blom, Jochen; Becker, Anke; Baumgarth, Birgit; Fan, Ben; Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Junge, Helmut; Vater, Joachim; Pühler, Alfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2010-09-03

96

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Retama raetam subsp. Gussonei.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of Retama raetam subsp. gussonei leaves and seeds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by means of two different tests: (1) bleaching of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical; and (2) lipid peroxidation of liposomes which were prepared from bovine brain extract. In both tests used leaves extract showed a significant antioxidant effect. The extract of leaves also demonstrated a good cytotoxic activity against COR-L23 (large cell carcinoma) cell line. PMID:15305322

Conforti, F; Statti, G; Tundis, R; Loizzo, M R; Bonesi, M; Menichini, F; Houghton, P J

2004-07-01

97

Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

2003-05-01

98

Nested PCR for ultrasensitive detection of the potato ring rot bacterium, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide primers derived from sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (CMR16F1, CMR16R1, CMR16F2, and CMR16R2) and insertion element IS1121 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (CMSIF1, CMSIR1, CMSIF2, and CMISR2) were used in nested PCR to detect the potato ring rot bacterium C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. Nested PCR with primer pair CMSIF1-CMSIR1 followed by primer pair CMSIF2-CMSIR2 specifically detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, while nested PCR with CMR16F1-CMR16R1 followed by CMR16F2-CMR16R2 detected C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the other C. michiganensis subspecies. In the latter case, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus can be differentiated from the other subspecies by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the nested PCR products (16S rDNA sequences). The nested PCR assays developed in this work allow ultrasensitive detection of very low titers of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus which may be present in symptomiess potato plants or tubers and which cannot be readily detected by direct PCR (single PCR amplification). RFLP analysis of PCR products provides for an unambiguous confirmation of the identify of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen, D E; Mogen, B; Davis, R E

1997-01-01

99

[Comparative characteristics of mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki].  

PubMed

A study of physiological and biochemical properties of 12 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was performed. The strains studied included natural isolates similar to the type strain in their properties, a Cry-Spo+ mutant, and also mutants assigned to C-1 or C-73 crystovar according to the properties of their parasporal crystals and the ability to hydrolyze esculin, generate acid from salicin, and exert urease activity. The crystals produced by C-1 crystovar cultures were three times larger than those formed by C-73 crystovar bacteria; their distinctive feature was pathogenicity for mosquito larvae, and their effect on other insects (gypsy moth and meadow moth) was on the average twofold greater than the effect of C-73 crystovar crystals. A study of the antibacterial action of delta-endotoxins of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki allowed us to more clearly elucidate the reasons for the differences in biological activity of C-1 and C-73 crystovars. Comparative analysis of the data obtained confirmed that the effect of delta-endotoxins, formed per unit volume of the culture liquid, on insects and microorganisms is an important characteristic of B. thuringiensis strains. Of all the strains studied, the Cry-Spo+ mutant was the most potent producer of proteases and lecithinase. PMID:8544785

Kalmykova, G V; Burtseva, L I; Iudina, T G

100

Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  

PubMed

Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

2001-10-01

101

Glycosylation of DsbA in Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis?†  

PubMed Central

In Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, DsbA has been shown to be an essential virulence factor and has been observed to migrate to multiple protein spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. In this work, we show that the protein is modified with a 1,156-Da glycan moiety in O-linkage. The results of mass spectrometry studies suggest that the glycan is a hexasaccharide, comprised of N-acetylhexosamines, hexoses, and an unknown monosaccharide. Disruption of two genes within the FTT0789-FTT0800 putative polysaccharide locus, including a galE homologue (FTT0791) and a putative glycosyltransferase (FTT0798), resulted in loss of glycan modification of DsbA. The F. tularensis subsp. tularensis ?FTT0798 and ?FTT0791::Cm mutants remained virulent in the murine model of subcutaneous tularemia. This indicates that glycosylation of DsbA does not play a major role in virulence under these conditions. This is the first report of the detailed characterization of the DsbA glycan and putative role of the FTT0789-FTT0800 gene cluster in glycan biosynthesis.

Thomas, Rebecca M.; Twine, Susan M.; Fulton, Kelly M.; Tessier, Luc; Kilmury, Sara L. N.; Ding, Wen; Harmer, Nicholas; Michell, Stephen L.; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Prior, Joann L.

2011-01-01

102

Bioluminescence Imaging of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Infection of Tomato Seeds and Plants ?  

PubMed Central

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis.

Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A.; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh

2010-01-01

103

Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.  

PubMed

Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov. (type strain LMG 25992(T)=CFBP 2051(T)), with the automatic creation of Dickeya dadantii subsp. dadantii subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 25991(T)=CFBP 1269(T)). PMID:21890733

Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

2011-09-02

104

One test microbial diagnostic microarray for identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and other Mycoplasma species.  

PubMed

The present study describes the use of microarray technology for rapid identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from other mycoplasmas that may be pathogenic to ruminants, including those of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, genetically and antigenically strictly correlated with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. A microarray containing genetic sequences of 55 different bacterial species from Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma and Ureaplasma genera was constructed. Sequences to genes of interest were collected in FASTA format from NCBI. The collected sequences were processed with OligoPicker software. Oligonucleotides were then checked for their selectivity with BLAST searches in GenBank. The microarray was tested with ATCC/NCTC strains of Mycoplasma spp. of veterinary importance in ruminants including Mycoplasma belonging to the mycoides cluster as well as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri field strains. The results showed that but one ATCC/NCTC reference strains hybridized with their species-specific sequences showed a profile/signature different and distinct from each other. The heat-map of the hybridization results for the nine genes interrogated for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides demonstrated that the reference strain Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides PG1 was positive for all of the gene sequences spotted on the microarray. CBPP field, vaccine and reference strains were all typed to be M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, and seven of the nine strains gave positive hybridization results for all of the nine genes. Two Italian strains were negative for some of the genes. Comparison with non-Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides reference strains showed some positive signals or considerable homology to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides genes. As expected, some correlations were observed between the strictly genetically and antigenically correlated Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri strains. Specifically, we observed that some Italian Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strains were positive for two out of the three Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri genes, differently from what has been observed for other European or African Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strains. This study highlighted the use of microarray technology as a simple and effective method for a single-step identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from other mycoplasmas that may be pathogenic to ruminants, including those of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, genetically and antigenically strictly correlated with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. The opportunity to discriminate several mycoplasmas in a single analysis enhances diagnostic rapidity and may represent a useful tool to screen occasionally mycoplasmas affecting animal farming in territories where diagnostic laboratory support is limited. The heat-map of the hybridization results of the comparative genomic hybridizations DNA-designed chip clearly indicates that the microarray performs well for the identification of the tested Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides reference and field strains, discriminating them from other mycoplasmas. PMID:22271459

Tonelli, A; Sacchini, F; Krasteva, I; Zilli, K; Scacchia, M; Beaurepaire, C; Nantel, A; Pini, A

2012-11-01

105

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

2012-01-01

106

Effects of Roundup(®) and glyphosate on three food microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.  

PubMed

Use of many pesticide products poses the problem of their effects on environment and health. Amongst them, the effects of glyphosate with its adjuvants and its by-products are regularly discussed. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the real impact on biodiversity and ecosystems of Roundup(®), a major herbicide used worldwide, and the glyphosate it contains, by the study of their effects on growth and viability of microbial models, namely, on three food microorganisms (Geotrichum candidum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) widely used as starters in traditional and industrial dairy technologies. The presented results evidence that Roundup(®) has an inhibitory effect on microbial growth and a microbicide effect at lower concentrations than those recommended in agriculture. Interestingly, glyphosate at these levels has no significant effect on the three studied microorganisms. Our work is consistent with previous studies which demonstrated that the toxic effect of glyphosate was amplified by its formulation adjuvants on different human cells and other eukaryotic models. Moreover, these results should be considered in the understanding of the loss of microbiodiversity and microbial concentration observed in raw milk for many years. PMID:22362186

Clair, Emilie; Linn, Laura; Travert, Carine; Amiel, Caroline; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Panoff, Jean-Michel

2012-02-24

107

A comparative study of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in experimentally infected pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) are opportunistic pathogens that may infect several species, including humans and pigs. Mah is however more frequently isolated from pigs than Maa, and it is unclear if this is due to difference in virulence or in exposure to the two organisms. Clinical isolates of each subspecies were administered perorally to ten domestic pigs, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at six and 12 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were recorded, and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture, IS1245 real time PCR and histopathological examination. Culturing was also performed on faecal samples collected at necropsy. Results Macroscopic and histopathological lesions were detected in pigs infected with each subspecies, and bacterial growth and histopathological changes were demonstrated, also in samples from organs without gross pathological lesions. Six weeks after inoculation, live Mah was detected in faeces, as opposed to Maa. The presence of live mycobacteria was also more pronounced in Mah infected tonsils. In comparison, the Maa isolate appeared to have a higher ability of intracellular replication in porcine macrophages compared to the Mah isolate. Conclusions The study shows that both subspecies were able to infect pigs. Additionally, the more extensive shedding of Mah might cause pig-to-pig transmission and contribute to the higher incidence of infection caused by this subspecies.

2012-01-01

108

Characterization of the Mammalian Toxicity of the Crystal Polypeptides of 'Bacillus thuringiensis' subsp. 'Israelensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilized crystal polypeptide preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (BTI) were fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography using a bound monoclonal antibody formed against the 28K crystal polypeptide. The 28K polypeptide was confir...

M. E. Mayes G. A. Held C. Lau J. C. Seely R. M. Roe

1989-01-01

109

Influence of Type of Culture Medium on Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 5 September 2007\\/Returned for modification 9 October 2007\\/Accepted 14 October 2007 We evaluated the effects of culture and\\/or enrichment methods on the selection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subtypes. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from bovine fecal samples processed using a centrifugation protocol were investigated in both liquid (MGIT ParaTb tubes) and solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium) culture media.

N. Cernicchiaro; S. J. Wells; H. Janagama; S. Sreevatsan

2008-01-01

110

Immunoreactivity of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein has been reported to stimulate both T and B cell responses as well as induce a number of Th1 cytokines. In order to evaluate the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) 19-kDa lipoprotein as an immunomodulator in cattle with Johne's disease, the gene encoding the 19-kDa protein (MAP0261c) was analyzed. RESULTS: MAP0261c

Jason FJ Huntley; Judith R Stabel; John P Bannantine

2005-01-01

111

The Citrate Transport System of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis Is Induced by Acid Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate transport in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis is catalyzed by citrate permease P (CitP), which is encoded by the plasmidic citP gene. We have shown previously that citP is included in the citQRP operon, which is mainly transcribed from the P1 promoter in L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Furthermore, transcription of citQRP and citrate transport are not

NIEVES GARCIA-QUINTANS; CHRISTIAN MAGNI; DIEGO DE MENDOZA; PALOMA LOPEZ

1998-01-01

112

Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoprotein LppQ, a predominant 48-kDa antigen, and its corresponding gene, lppQ, were characterized in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The lppQ gene is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and was found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccinal strains.

EL-MOSTAFA ABDO; JACQUES NICOLET; JOACHIM FREY

2000-01-01

113

Identification and Characterization of a Previously Undescribed cyt Gene in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains show as a common feature the presence of toxic proteins with cytolytic and hemolytic activities, Cyt1Aa1 being the characteristic cytolytic toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. We have detected the presence of another cyt gene in this subspecies, highly homologous to cyt2Aa1, coding for the 29-kDa cytolytic toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis. This gene, designated

ALEJANDRA GUERCHICOFF; RODOLFO A. UGALDE; CLARA P. RUBINSTEIN; F. Leloir

1997-01-01

114

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae str. RKS3027  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae serovar 16:z4, z32:-- str. RKS3027 was isolated from a human in Illinois, USA. S. enterica subsp. houtenae is a facultative aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 4,404,136 bp long genome (97 contigs) contains 4,335 protein-coding gene and 28 RNA genes.

Zhu, Songling; Wang, Hong-Liang; Wang, Chunxiao; Tang, Le; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Liu, Shu-Lin

2013-01-01

115

Immunological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in chickens  

PubMed Central

Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture are 2 common diagnostic tests for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Johne’s disease, but they are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, inhibitors can coextract with the target DNA and cause interference in PCR. Development of an immune capture assay followed by PCR amplification can alleviate this problem. In this study, we were able to induce an immune response in chickens using heat or formalin inactivated Map. The purified immunoglobulin (Ig)Y has a molecular weight of 160 kDa. The titers were at 1:6400 and 1:12 800 at weeks 5 to 6 and 8 to 9, respectively, as determined by the IDEXX modified ELISA kit for Johne’s disease. The IgY produced from inactivated bacterial cells had no effect on its ability to recognize live Map cells as illustrated by immunofluorescence assay and immune capture PCR results.

2004-01-01

116

Bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp hyicus isolated from pigs.  

PubMed

Four phages were isolated and used for typing Staphylococcus hyicus subsp hyicus isolated from pigs with or without exudative epidermatitis (EE) in Japan. Sixty-four (85.3%) of the 75 isolates examined were typeable at either routine test dilution (RTD) or 100 X RTD. Two or more kinds of phage patterns were present in the isolates from each pig with EE. All isolates from healthy pigs showed a single-phage pattern. Fourteen (32.6%) of 43 isolates and 7 (87.5%) of 8 isolates from pigs with EE in Belgium and Czechoslovakia, respectively, were typeable with the 4 phages. None of 180 isolates of S aureus, 7 (6.4%) of 110 isolates of S intermedius, and 2 (2.3%) of 86 isolates of S epidermidis were typeable. PMID:6226221

Kawano, J; Shimizu, A; Kimura, S

1983-08-01

117

Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments.

Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stephane; Despres, Laurence

2012-01-01

118

Decreased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquito larvae after contact with leaf litter.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

2012-05-18

119

[Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in food and its relationship with Crohn's disease].  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of the cattle and other small ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In Argentina, the strains were characterized in beef and dairy cattle and deer in different genetic patterns by molecular tools. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has been linked in men to a chronic inflammation of the intestine, named Crohn's disease. There is clinical and experimental evidence to link M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with Crohn's disease by PCR, positive bacteriological culture from mother milk, blood and affected tissues by in situ hybridization. The milk and sub-products might be one of the possible infection sources and it has been suggested that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis could resist pasteurization. Several works showed that this mycobacteria could be present in retail milk of countries such as United Kingdom, USA, Czech Republic, and recently in Argentina. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was associated with different dairy products and water for human consumption. Therefore, it is possible that these food sources may have a role for transmission. New investigations should emphasize the role of contaminated food and water in human infection around the world and determine the possible zoonotic role of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:17585661

Cirone, K; Morsella, C; Romano, M; Paolicchi, F

120

Tomato Fruit and Seed Colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through External and Internal Routes.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

2013-09-06

121

The role of complement opsonization in interactions between F. tularensis subsp. novicida and human neutrophils.  

PubMed

The remarkable infectiousness of Francisella tularensis suggests that the bacterium efficiently evades innate immune responses that typically protect the host during its continuous exposure to environmental and commensal microbes. In our studies of the innate immune response to F. tularensis, we have observed that, unlike the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, F. tularensis subsp. novicida U112 opsonized in pooled human serum activated the NADPH oxidase when incubated with human neutrophils. Given previous observations that F. tularensis fixes relatively small quantities of complement component C3 during incubation in human serum and the importance of C3 to neutrophil phagocytosis, we hypothesized that F. tularensis subsp. novicida may fix C3 in human serum more readily than would LVS. We now report that F. tularensis subsp. novicida fixed approximately six-fold more C3 than did LVS when incubated in 50% pooled human serum and that this complement opsonization was antibody-mediated. Furthermore, antibody-mediated C3 deposition enhanced bacterial uptake and was indispensable for the neutrophil oxidative response to F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Taken together, our results reveal important differences between these two strains of F. tularensis and may, in part, explain the low virulence of F. tularensis subsp. novicida for humans. PMID:19409509

Barker, Jason H; McCaffrey, Ramona L; Baman, Nicki K; Allen, Lee-Ann H; Weiss, Jerrold P; Nauseef, William M

2009-05-04

122

Adaptation and Response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Bile: a Proteomic and Physiological Approach?  

PubMed Central

Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology.

Sanchez, Borja; Champomier-Verges, Marie-Christine; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G.; Johansen, Eric; Zagorec, Monique; Margolles, Abelardo

2007-01-01

123

Improving the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai against Spodoptera exigua by chromosomal expression of a chitinase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transcriptionally fused gene comprising the P19 gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis fused with a chitinase gene ( chiBlA) from B. licheniformis was integrated into the B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai BTA1 genome by homologous recombination. The resulting B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain (INT1) showed growth and sporulation comparable with that of the wild-type strain. INT1 produced four chitinases of

S. Thamthiankul; W. J. Moar; M. E. Miller; W. Panbangred

2004-01-01

124

Altered Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Bovine Monocytes Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection changes the responsiveness of bovine monocytes to TLR9 stimulation. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis inhibits classical TLR9-mediated responses despite a 10-fold increase in TLR9 expression and maintained uptake of CpG ODNs. Other TLR9-mediated responses, such as oxidative burst, which occur through noncanonical signaling, remain functional. Kinome analysis verifies that classic TLR9 signaling is blocked by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and that signaling instead proceeds through a Pyk2-mediated mechanism. Pyk2-mediated signaling does not hinder infection, as CpG ODNs fail to promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. Indeed, Pyk2 signaling appears to be an important aspect of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, as Pyk2 inhibitors significantly reduce the number of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria. The actions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on TLR9 signaling may represent a strategy to generate a host environment which is better suited for infection, revealing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention.

Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Maattanen, Pekka; Scruten, Erin; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Kusalik, Anthony

2013-01-01

125

Broad Conservation of Milk Utilization Genes in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis as Revealed by Comparative Genomic Hybridization ? †  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third-largest solid component of milk. Their structural complexity renders them nondigestible to the host but liable to hydrolytic enzymes of the infant colonic microbiota. Bifidobacteria and, frequently, Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate the colonic microbiota of exclusively breast-fed infants. Among the three recognized subspecies of B. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis achieves high levels of cell growth on HMOs and is associated with early colonization of the infant gut. The B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 genome features five distinct gene clusters with the predicted capacity to bind, cleave, and import milk oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic hybridizations (CGHs) were used to associate genotypic biomarkers among 15 B. longum strains exhibiting various HMO utilization phenotypes and host associations. Multilocus sequence typing provided taxonomic subspecies designations and grouped the strains between B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum. CGH analysis determined that HMO utilization gene regions are exclusively conserved across all B. longum subsp. infantis strains capable of growth on HMOs and have diverged in B. longum subsp. longum strains that cannot grow on HMOs. These regions contain fucosidases, sialidases, glycosyl hydrolases, ABC transporters, and family 1 solute binding proteins and are likely needed for efficient metabolism of HMOs. Urea metabolism genes and their activity were exclusively conserved in B. longum subsp. infantis. These results imply that the B. longum has at least two distinct subspecies: B. longum subsp. infantis, specialized to utilize milk carbon, and B. longum subsp. longum, specialized for plant-derived carbon metabolism.

LoCascio, Riccardo G.; Desai, Prerak; Sela, David A.; Weimer, Bart; Mills, David A.

2010-01-01

126

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies.  

PubMed

Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains. PMID:23995933

Loquasto, Joseph R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun; Roberts, Robert F

2013-08-30

127

Characterization of an ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin (AexT) from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida  

PubMed Central

An ADP-ribosylating toxin named Aeromonas salmonicida exoenzyme T (AexT) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, was characterized. Gene aexT, encoding toxin AexT, was cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. AexT shows significant sequence similarity to the ExoS and ExoT exotoxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to the YopE cytotoxin of different Yersinia species. The aexT gene was detected in all of the 12 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains tested but was absent from all other Aeromonas species. Recombinant AexT produced in Escherichia coli possesses enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against purified recombinant AexT detected the toxin produced by A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and cross-reacted with ExoS and ExoT of P. aeruginosa. AexT toxin could be detected in a wild type (wt) strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida freshly isolated from a fish with furunculosis; however, its expression required contact with RTG-2 rainbow trout gonad cells. Under these conditions, the AexT protein was found to be intracellular or tightly cell associated. No AexT was found when A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was incubated in cell culture medium in the absence of RTG-2 cells. Upon infection with wt A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the fish gonad RTG-2 cells rapidly underwent significant morphological changes. These changes were demonstrated to constitute cell rounding, which accompanied induction of production of AexT and which led to cell lysis after extended incubation. An aexT mutant which was constructed from the wt strain with an insertionally inactivated aexT gene by allelic exchange had no toxic effect on RTG-2 cells and was devoid of AexT production. Hence AexT is directly involved in the toxicity of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida for RTG-2 fish cells.

Braun, Martin; Stuber, Katja; Schlatter, Yvonne; Wahli, Thomas; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

2002-01-01

128

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ??????????????????????????? Efficacy of Medicinal Plant Crude Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the Vegetable Soft Rot Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy test of medicinal plant crude extracts on growth inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the causal agent of vegetable soft rot was conducted. Fourteen kinds of medicinal plant were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol. Plant crude extracts at the concentration of 100,000 ppm were tested by Paper disc diffusion method on double layer nutrient glucose agar (NGA). It was

Sasitorn Vudhivanich

129

Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. enzymogenes Christensen and Cook 1978, L. enzymogenes subsp. cookii Christensen 1978 and Streptococcus casseliflavus (Mundt and Graham 1968) Vaughan et al. 1978 should have been cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion.  

PubMed

Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. enzymogenes Christensen and Cook 1978, L. enzymogenes subsp. cookii Christensen 1978 and Streptococcus casseliflavus (Mundt and Graham 1968) Vaughan et al. 1978 were inadvertently omitted from the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. According to Rule 24a, Note 1, the authors request that these names be considered as included in these Lists. PMID:17082416

Tindall, B J; Euzéby, J P

2006-11-01

130

Detection and Verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fresh Ileocolonic Mucosal Biopsy Specimens from Individuals with and without Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere. Water supplies are also at risk. The involvement of M. avium subsp.

Tim J. Bull; Elizabeth J. McMinn; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Angela Skull; Damien Durkin; Penny Neild; Glenn Rhodes; Roger Pickup; John Hermon-Taylor

2003-01-01

131

Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in Urban Environments following Spraying?†‡  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki is applied extensively in North America to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Since B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki shares many physical and biological properties with Bacillus anthracis, it is a reasonable surrogate for biodefense studies. A key question in biodefense is how long a biothreat agent will persist in the environment. There is some information in the literature on the persistence of Bacillus anthracis in laboratories and historical testing areas and for Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural settings, but there is no information on the persistence of Bacillus spp. in the type of environment that would be encountered in a city or on a military installation. Since it is not feasible to release B. anthracis in a developed area, the controlled release of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki for pest control was used to gain insight into the potential persistence of Bacillus spp. in outdoor urban environments. Persistence was evaluated in two locations: Fairfax County, VA, and Seattle, WA. Environmental samples were collected from multiple matrices and evaluated for the presence of viable B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki at times ranging from less than 1 day to 4 years after spraying. Real-time PCR and culture were used for analysis. B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was found to persist in urban environments for at least 4 years. It was most frequently detected in soils and less frequently detected in wipes, grass, foliage, and water. The collective results indicate that certain species of Bacillus may persist for years following their dispersal in urban environments.

Van Cuyk, Sheila; Deshpande, Alina; Hollander, Attelia; Duval, Nathan; Ticknor, Lawrence; Layshock, Julie; Gallegos-Graves, LaVerne; Omberg, Kristin M.

2011-01-01

132

Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in Urban Environments following Spraying.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki is applied extensively in North America to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Since B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki shares many physical and biological properties with Bacillus anthracis, it is a reasonable surrogate for biodefense studies. A key question in biodefense is how long a biothreat agent will persist in the environment. There is some information in the literature on the persistence of Bacillus anthracis in laboratories and historical testing areas and for Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural settings, but there is no information on the persistence of Bacillus spp. in the type of environment that would be encountered in a city or on a military installation. Since it is not feasible to release B. anthracis in a developed area, the controlled release of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki for pest control was used to gain insight into the potential persistence of Bacillus spp. in outdoor urban environments. Persistence was evaluated in two locations: Fairfax County, VA, and Seattle, WA. Environmental samples were collected from multiple matrices and evaluated for the presence of viable B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki at times ranging from less than 1 day to 4 years after spraying. Real-time PCR and culture were used for analysis. B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was found to persist in urban environments for at least 4 years. It was most frequently detected in soils and less frequently detected in wipes, grass, foliage, and water. The collective results indicate that certain species of Bacillus may persist for years following their dispersal in urban environments. PMID:21926205

Van Cuyk, Sheila; Deshpande, Alina; Hollander, Attelia; Duval, Nathan; Ticknor, Lawrence; Layshock, Julie; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Omberg, Kristin M

2011-09-16

133

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Results in Rapid Interleukin-1? Release and Macrophage Transepithelial Migration  

PubMed Central

Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1? abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1? processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1? processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage.

Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten

2012-01-01

134

Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk  

PubMed Central

Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plating out homogenized cheese samples onto 7H10-PANTA agar. In both the hard and the semihard cheeses, counts decreased steadily but slowly during cheese ripening. Nevertheless, viable cells could still be detected in 120-day cheese. D values were calculated at 27.8 days for hard and 45.5 days for semihard cheese. The most important factors responsible for the death of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cheese were the temperatures applied during cheese manufacture and the low pH at the early stages of cheese ripening. Since the ripening period for these raw milk cheeses lasts at least 90 to 120 days, the D values found indicate that 103 to 104 cells of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per g will be inactivated.

Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

2001-01-01

135

Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-02-15

136

Uptake and Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Human Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a bacterium sometimes found in human blood and tissue samples that may have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease in humans. To date, however, there have been few studies examining the interactions of these bacteria with human cells. Using the THP-1 human monocytic cell line, this study shows that the uptake and trafficking of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in human cells are cholesterol dependent and that these bacteria localize to cholesterol-rich compartments that are slow to acidify. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria containing phagosomes stain for the late endosomal marker Rab7, but recruitment of the Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein that regulates the fusion of bacterium-containing phagosomes with lysosomal compartments and facilitates subsequent bacterial clearance is significantly reduced. Disruption of phagosome acidification via this mechanism may contribute to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistence in human cells, but there was no evidence that internalized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also affects the survival of bacteria taken up during a secondary phagocytic event.

Keown, Dayle A.; Collings, David A.

2012-01-01

137

Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Growth Parameters: Strain Characterization and Comparison of Methods?  

PubMed Central

The growth rate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was assessed by different methods in 7H9 medium supplemented with OADC (oleic acid, albumin, dextrose, catalase), Tween 80, and mycobactin J. Generation times and maximum specific growth rates were determined by wet weight, turbidometric measurement, viable count, and quantitative PCR (ParaTB-Kuanti; F57 gene) for 8 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains (K10, 2E, 316F, 81, 445, 764, 22G, and OVICAP 49). Strain-to-strain differences were observed in growth curves and calculated parameters. The quantification methods gave different results for each strain at specific time points. Generation times ranged from an average of 1.4 days for viable count and qPCR to approximately 10 days for wet weight and turbidometry. The wet-weight, turbidometry, and ParaTB-Kuanti qPCR methods correlated best with each other. Generally, viability has been assessed by viable count as a reference method; however, due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clumping problems and the presence of noncultivable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells, we conclude that qPCR of a single-copy gene may be used reliably for rapid estimation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacterial numbers in a sample.

Elguezabal, Natalia; Bastida, Felix; Sevilla, Iker A.; Gonzalez, Nuria; Molina, Elena; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.

2011-01-01

138

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

139

The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide

Michael E Reith; Rama K Singh; Bruce Curtis; Jessica M Boyd; Anne Bouevitch; Jennifer Kimball; Janet Munholland; Colleen Murphy; Darren Sarty; Jason Williams; John HE Nash; Stewart C Johnson; Laura L Brown

2008-01-01

140

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†  

PubMed Central

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment.

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Luthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-01-01

141

A Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infections (Johne's Disease) in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, were developed using whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde (called WELISA) or surface antigens obtained by treatment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli with formaldehyde and then brief sonication (called SELISA). ELISA plates were coated with either whole bacilli or sonicated antigens and tested

C. A. Speer; M. Cathy Scott; John P. Bannantine; W. Ray Waters; Yasuyuki Mori; Robert H. Whitlock; Shigetoshi Eda

2006-01-01

142

Acquisition of Plasmin Activity by Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum and Potential Contribution to Tissue Destruction during Periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum has been associated with a variety of oral and nonoral infections such as periodontitis, pericarditis, bone infections, and brain abscesses. Several studies have shown the role of plasmin, a plasma serine protease, in increasing the invasive capacity of microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the binding of human plasminogen to F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, and its

H. DARENFED; D. GRENIER; D. MAYRAND

143

Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.  

PubMed

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce. PMID:23908278

Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

2013-08-01

144

Rapid and Sensitive Method To Identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cow's Milk by DNA Methylase Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time.

Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico Jose

2013-01-01

145

Oral Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum binds to human salivary ?-amylase.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. In this study, we showed that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum can bind to a salivary component with a molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa and identified the protein and another major factor of 55 kDa, as salivary ?-amylase by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immuno-reactions. Salivary ?-amylase is present in both monomeric and dimeric forms and we found that formation of the dimer depends on copper ions. The F. nucleatum adhered to both monomeric and dimeric salivary ?-amylases, but the numbers of bacteria bound to the dimeric form were more than those bound to the monomeric form. The degree of adherence of F. nucleatum to four ?-amylases from different sources was almost the same, however its binding to ?-amylase was considerably decreased. Among four ?-amylase inhibitors tested, acarbose and type 1 and 3 inhibitors derived from wheat flour showed significant activity against the adhesion of F.nucleatum to monomeric and dimeric amylases, however voglibose had little effect. Moreover F. nucleatum cells inhibited the enzymatic activity of salivary ?-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that F. nucleatum plays more important and positive role as an early colonizer for maturation of oral microbial colonization. PMID:23906425

Zulfiqar, M; Yamaguchi, T; Sato, S; Oho, T

2013-07-30

146

Host responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a complex arsenal.  

PubMed

The immune system is not always successful in recognizing and destroying pathogens it may encounter. Host immunity to mycobacteria is characterized by a very complex series of events, designed to clear the infection. The first line of defense is uptake and processing of the pathogen by macrophages, followed by the initiation of cell-mediated immunity. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma is credited with containment of mycobacterial infections. Yet it is clear that activated T-cells may contain but fail to clear the infection in some hosts. Further, it is recognized that if infection progresses to a more clinical state, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is suppressed and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines is increased. It is unclear what defines a host that can successfully contain the infection versus one that succumbs to severe immunopathologic disease. This review will address some of the key elements in host immunity to mycobacterial pathogens, with an emphasis on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), in an attempt to understand the dialogue between immune cells and their mediators during infection and what causes this discourse to go awry. PMID:17389054

Stabel, J R

147

Glutamate Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118  

PubMed Central

Unlike other lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 was able to grow in a medium lacking glutamate and the amino acids of the glutamate family. Growth in such a medium proceeded after a lag phase of about 2 days and with a reduced growth rate (0.11 h?1) compared to that in the reference medium containing glutamate (0.16 h?1). The enzymatic studies showed that a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was present, while the malic enzyme and the enzymes of the glyoxylic shunt were not detected. As in most anaerobic bacteria, no ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity could be detected, and the citric acid cycle was restricted to a reductive pathway leading to succinate formation and an oxidative branch enabling the synthesis of ?-ketoglutarate. The metabolic bottleneck responsible for the limited growth rate was located in this latter pathway. As regards the synthesis of glutamate from ?-ketoglutarate, no glutamate dehydrogenase was detected. While the glutamate synthase-glutamine synthetase system was detected at a low level, high transaminase activity was measured. The conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to glutamate by the transaminase, the reverse of the normal physiological direction, operated with different amino acids as nitrogen donor. All of the enzymes assayed were shown to be constitutive.

Lapujade, P.; Cocaign-Bousquet, M.; Loubiere, P.

1998-01-01

148

Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: current issues.  

PubMed

Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Proposed causes include bacterial or viral infection, diet or exposure to tobacco smoke, genetic abnormality, and immune dysfunction. The bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has received much research attention as a potential cause of the disease. Map causes Johne's disease in ruminants. The pathology of Johne's disease superficially resembles that of Crohn's disease in humans. Some researchers have shown evidence of Map in intestinal tissues of Crohn's disease patients. Studies are in progress to investigate the possibility that Map exists in milk from infected cows and survives pasteurization. This is a controversial subject with the potential for media attention and public outcry. We examined the current literature and concluded that insufficient evidence exists at this time to implicate any one factor, including Map in milk, as the definitive cause of Crohn's disease. The high degree of uncertainty in this issue requires regulators to recognize the need for effective risk communication as ongoing research provides additional information about the disease. PMID:11770646

Harris, J E; Lammerding, A M

2001-12-01

149

Virulence Differences Among Francisella tularensis Subsp. tularensis Clades in Mice  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs.

Molins, Claudia R.; Delorey, Mark J.; Yockey, Brook M.; Young, John W.; Sheldon, Sarah W.; Reese, Sara M.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Petersen, Jeannine M.

2010-01-01

150

[Phenolic acid derivatives from Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of Bauhinia glauca subsp. pernervosa, eleven phenolic acids were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, MCI, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. By spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, these compounds were identified as isopropyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (1), ethyl O-beta-(6'-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), gallic acid (5), methyl gallate (6), ethyl gallate (7), protocatechuic acid (8), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (9), erigeside C (10) and glucosyringic acid (11). Among them, compound 1 is a new polyhydroxyl compound; compounds 2, 10, and 11 were isolated from the genus Bauhinia for the first time, and the other compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Compounds 6 and 8 showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity in vitro with the IC50 values of 72.3 and 54.1 micromol x L(-1), respectively. PMID:22007520

Zhao, Qiao-Li; Wu, Zeng-Bao; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Lu, Xin-Hua; Liang, Hong; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Ying

2011-08-01

151

Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing. PMID:23793639

Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P

2013-06-21

152

Complete genome sequence of phytopathogenic Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage PP1.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a phytopathogen causing soft rot disease on diverse plant species. To control this plant pathogen, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage PP1 was isolated and its genome was completely sequenced to develop a novel biocontrol agent. Interestingly, the 44,400-bp genome sequence does not encode any gene involved in the formation of lysogen, suggesting that this phage may be very useful as a biocontrol agent because it does not make lysogen after host infection. This is the first report on the complete genome sequence of the P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum-targeting bacteriophage, and it will enhance our understanding of the interaction between phytopathogens and their targeting bacteriophages. PMID:22843859

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ji, Samnyu; Malhotra, Shweta; Kumar, Mukesh; Ryu, Sangryeol; Heu, Sunggi

2012-08-01

153

Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

2011-01-01

154

Complete genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage My1.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is an important plant-pathogenic bacterium causing significant economic losses worldwide. P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage My1 was isolated from a soil sample. Its genome was completely sequenced and analyzed for the development of an effective biological control agent. Sequence and morphological analyses revealed that phage My1 is a T5-like bacteriophage and belongs to the family Siphoviridae. To date, there is no report of a Pectobacterium-targeting siphovirus genome sequence. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of phage My1 and report the results of our analysis. PMID:22997426

Lee, Dong Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ji, Samnyu; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Jaehyuk; Heu, Sunggi

2012-10-01

155

Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ?  

PubMed Central

Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

2011-01-01

156

Complete Genome Sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Bacteriophage My1  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is an important plant-pathogenic bacterium causing significant economic losses worldwide. P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage My1 was isolated from a soil sample. Its genome was completely sequenced and analyzed for the development of an effective biological control agent. Sequence and morphological analyses revealed that phage My1 is a T5-like bacteriophage and belongs to the family Siphoviridae. To date, there is no report of a Pectobacterium-targeting siphovirus genome sequence. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of phage My1 and report the results of our analysis.

Lee, Dong Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ji, Samnyu; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Jaehyuk

2012-01-01

157

Identification of an Essential Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Virulence Factor?  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis, the highly virulent etiologic agent of tularemia, is a low-dose intracellular pathogen that is able to escape from the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol. Although there has been progress in identifying loci involved in the pathogenicity of this organism, analysis of the genome sequence has revealed few obvious virulence factors. We previously reported isolation of an F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 transposon insertion mutant with a mutation in a predicted hypothetical lipoprotein, FTT1103, that was deficient in intracellular replication in HepG2 cells. In this study, a mutant with a defined nonpolar deletion in FTT1103 was created, and its phenotype, virulence, and vaccine potential were characterized. A phagosomal integrity assay and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 colocalization revealed that ?FTT1103 mutant bacteria were defective in phagosomal escape. FTT1103 mutant bacteria were maximally attenuated in the mouse model; mice survived, without visible signs of illness, challenge by more than 1010 CFU when the intranasal route was used and challenge by 106 CFU when the intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intravenous route was used. The FTT1103 mutant bacteria exhibited dissemination defects. Mice that were infected by the intranasal route had low levels of bacteria in their livers and spleens, and these bacteria were cleared by 3 days postinfection. Mutant bacteria inoculated by the subcutaneous route failed to disseminate to the lungs. BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice that were intranasally vaccinated with 108 CFU of FTT1103 mutant bacteria were protected against subsequent challenge with wild-type strain Schu S4. These experiments identified the FTT1103 protein as an essential virulence factor and also demonstrated the feasibility of creating defined attenuated vaccines based on a type A strain.

Qin, Aiping; Scott, David W.; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Mann, Barbara J.

2009-01-01

158

Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to assess spontaneous selfing, self-compatibility and effects of pollen source (hermaphroditic vs. male flowers). Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth and reproductive success was assessed by fruit, seed and seedling numbers and characteristics. The pollinator guild was surveyed and the pollination distance determined both by direct observations and by indirect fluorescent dye dispersal. Key Results The species is probably pollinated by several Hymenoptera, principally by Hypotrigona para. Pollinator flight distances varied from 25 to 69 cm. No evidence for apomixis or spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of insect visitors was found. The self-fertility index (SFI = 0) indicated a total dependence on pollinators for reproductive success. The effects of hand pollination on fruit set, seed number and seedling fitness differed among years. Pollen tube growth and reproductive success did not differ between self- and cross-pollinations. Accordingly, a high self-compatibility index for the fruit set (SCI = 1·00) and the seed number (SCI = 0·98) and a low inbreeding depression at all developmental stages (cumulative ? = 0·126) suggest a high selfing ability. Finally, pollen origin had no effect on fruit and seed sets. Conclusions This andromonoecious species has the potential for a mixed mating system with high dependence on insect-mediated pollination. The selfing rate through geitonogamy should be important.

Kouonon, Leonie C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, Arsene I.; Bertin, Pierre; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Yao

2009-01-01

159

Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs. PMID:20419133

Molins, Claudia R; Delorey, Mark J; Yockey, Brook M; Young, John W; Sheldon, Sarah W; Reese, Sara M; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

2010-04-16

160

Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. as a new species designation for Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, and reclassification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC as a serovar of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.  

PubMed

The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of six pathogenic mycoplasmas causing disease in ruminants, which share many genotypic and phenotypic traits. The M. mycoides cluster comprises five recognized taxa: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony (MmmLC), M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). The group of strains known as Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach (MBG7) has remained unassigned, due to conflicting data obtained by different classification methods. In the present paper, all available data, including recent phylogenetic analyses, have been reviewed, resulting in a proposal for an emended taxonomy of this cluster: (i) the MBG7 strains, although related phylogenetically to M. capricolum, hold sufficient characteristic traits to be assigned as a separate species, i.e. Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. (type strain, PG50(T) = N29(T) = NCTC 10133(T) = DSM 21131(T)); (ii) MmmLC and Mmc, which can only be distinguished by serological methods and are related more distantly to MmmSC, should be combined into a single subspecies, i.e. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, leaving M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (MmmSC) as the exclusive designation for the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A taxonomic description of M. leachii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides and M. mycoides subsp. capri are presented. As a result of these emendments, the M. mycoides cluster will hereafter be composed of five taxa comprising three subclusters, which correspond to the M. mycoides subspecies, the M. capricolum subspecies and the novel species M. leachii. PMID:19502315

Manso-Silván, L; Vilei, E M; Sachse, K; Djordjevic, S P; Thiaucourt, F; Frey, J

2009-06-01

161

Specific Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus by Amplification of Three Unique DNA Sequences Isolated by Subtraction Hybridization.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Three single-copy, unique DNA fragments, designated Cms50, Cms72, and Cms85, were isolated from strain CS3 of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus by subtraction hybridization using driver DNA from C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, and Rhodococcus facians. Radio-labeled probes made of these fragments and used in Southern blot analysis revealed each to be absolutely specific to all North American C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus strains tested, including plasmidless and nonmucoid strains. The probes have no homology with genomic DNA from related C. michiganensis subspecies insidiosus, michiganensis, and tessellarius, nor with DNA from 11 additional bacterial species and three unidentified strains, some of which have been previously reported to display cross-reactivity with C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus-specific antisera. The three fragments shared no homology, and they appeared to be separated from each other by at least 20 kbp in the CS3 genome. Internal primer sets permitted amplification of each fragment by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only from C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus DNA. In a PCR-based sensitivity assay using a primer set that amplifies Cms85, the lowest level of detection of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus was 100 CFU per milliliter when cells were added to potato core fluid. Erroneous results that may arise from PCR artifacts and mutational events are, therefore, minimized by the redundancy of the primer sets, and the products should be verifiable with unique capture probes in sequence-based detection systems. PMID:18945054

Mills, D; Russell, B W; Hanus, J W

1997-08-01

162

Specific real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.  

PubMed

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia are two severe respiratory infections of ruminants due to infection by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), respectively. They are included in the OIE list of notifiable diseases. Here we describe the development of rapid, sensitive, and specific real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of MmmSC and Mccp DNA. MmmSC PCR primers were designed after whole genome comparisons between the published sequence of MmmSC strain type PG1(T) and the sequence of an M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony strain. For Mccp, previously published conventional PCR primers were applied. SYBR green was used as a detection agent for both assays. The assays specifically detected the targeted species in both cultures and clinical samples, and no cross-amplifications were obtained from either heterologous mycoplasma strain cultures or European field samples. The sensitivity of these new assays was estimated at 3-80 colony forming units per reaction and 4-80fg of DNA, representing a 2-3log increase in sensitivity compared to established conventional PCR tests. These new real-time PCR assays will be invaluable for application in various fields such as direct detection in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:18678244

Lorenzon, Sophie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François

2008-07-17

163

Fully assembled genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Javiana CFSAN001992.  

PubMed

We report a closed genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Javiana (S. Javiana). This serotype is a common food-borne pathogen and is often associated with fresh-cut produce. Complete (finished) genome assemblies will support pilot studies testing the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in public health laboratories. PMID:23516208

Allard, Marc W; Muruvanda, Tim; Strain, Errol; Timme, Ruth; Luo, Yan; Wang, Charles; Keys, Christine E; Payne, Justin; Cooper, Tony; Luong, Khai; Song, Yi; Chin, Chen-Shan; Korlach, Jonas; Roberts, Rich J; Evans, Peter; Musser, Steven M; Brown, Eric W

2013-03-21

164

Otitis Media and Otomastoiditis Caused by Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii)  

PubMed Central

We describe two patients with otologic infections caused by Mycobacterium massiliense (M. abscessus subsp. bolletti) which were identified using erm(41) PCR, 23S rRNA, and rpoB gene sequence analysis. They were middle-aged adults with underlying otologic diseases and were treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimens for 3 and 9 months, respectively.

Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Cheng, Aristine; Liu, Chia-Ying; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lee, Li-Na

2012-01-01

165

Effect of bulb weight on the growth and fl owering of Herbertia lahue subsp. lahue (Iridaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

P. Morales, F. Schiappacasse, P. Peñailillo, and P. Yañez. 2009. Effect of bulb weight on growth and fl owering of Herbertia lahue subsp. lahue (Iridaceae). Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(2):259- 266. Bulb weight or size is one of the critical factors affecting the vegetative growth and fl owering of bulbous species. This study assessed the effect of bulb weight on the

Pamela Morales; Flavia Schiappacasse; Patricio Peñailillo

166

Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB. PMID:18943044

Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

2005-04-01

167

Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of the watermelon pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial blight and fruit blotch of watermelon and other cucurbits, has caused great damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the USA. Understanding the origin of this emerging disease is important for controlling outbrea...

168

Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

169

Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Against Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus French & French increased the mortality of 3rd-instar gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (L.), caused by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner. B. cereus did not cause mortality of L. dispar when applied alone. The activity of various B. cereus strains was correlated positively with their accumulation of zwittermicin A, an aminopolyol antibiotic, in culture. When a constant dose of

Nichole A. Broderick; Robert M. Goodman; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jo Handelsman

2000-01-01

170

Persistence of toxins and cells of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki introduced in sprays to Sardinia soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprays of commercial insecticidal preparations of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), usually a mixture of cells, spores and parasporal crystals, have been used for the last 10 yr in Sardinia (Italy) to protect cork oak forests against the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). Until now, the protective antilepidopteran efficacies of each of the various spray treatments rather than

C. Vettori; D. Paffetti; D. Saxena; G. Stotzky; R. Giannini

2003-01-01

171

Immunologic responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois protein cocktail vaccines in a mouse model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis characterized by severe diarrhea, wasting and a decline in milk production caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois (MAP). The vaccine currently on the market has some limitations including a severe injection site reactio...

172

Immunlogic responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis protein cocktail vaccines in a mouse model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis characterized by severe diarrhea, wasting, and a decline in milk production caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The vaccine currently on the market has some limitations including a severe injection site react...

173

Antioxidant acitivity in vitro and in vivo of the capsule polysaccharides from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude capsule polysaccharides (CCP) were prepared from the culture of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus C55129 and were partially purified through an anion-exchange column chromatography to afford partially purified capsule polysaccharides (PCP). The main component of CCP and PCP was hyaluronic acid. In vitro antioxidant assay, the capsule polysaccharides showed strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and

Chunlin Ke; Deliang Qiao; Dan Gan; Yi Sun; Hong Ye; Xiaoxiong Zeng

2009-01-01

174

Influence of the carbon source on nisin production in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nisin production by Lactucmcus lrrctis subsp. lactis NIZO 22186 was studied in batch fermentation using a complex medium. Nisin production showed primary metabolite kinetics: nisin biosynthesis took place during the active growth phase and completely stopped when cells entered the stationary phase. A stringent correlation could be observed between the expression of the prenisin gene (nisA) and the synthesis of

LUC DE VUYST; ERICK J. VANDAMME

1992-01-01

175

Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves after Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the infection process to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is tantamount to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for the control of this disease in the field. The current study compared the effectiveness of oral and intraperitoneal methods of experimental in...

176

EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF THE CYTOLYTIC FACTOR OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' ON MOSQUITO TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Solubilized crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was fractionated by affinity chromotography using a monoclonal antibody directed against the crystal's 28 kDa peptide. The 28 kDa peptide ws found to be relatively nontoxic to mosquito larvae although it doe...

177

Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Longitudinal Study of Three Dairy Herds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were passive shedding animals or whether they were truly infected with MAP. We also evaluated whether these MAP-infected animals could have been infected as adults by ...

178

In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida to 15 different antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro susceptibilities of 145 Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida strains, isolated from different geographical regions, against 15 major fish farming antimicrobial agents were assessed using a disc diffusion method. Ninety-nine percent of all isolates were sensitive to florfenicol and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole; 93% of the strains were resistant to erythromycin. Based on the antimicrobial susceptibility, the P. damselae subp. piscicida isolates

A. Thyssen; F. Ollevier

2001-01-01

179

Physiological response of hybrid striped bass subjected to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study consisted in the analysis of the physiological response through metabolic, immune and molecular indicators over time in the hybrid striped bass (HSB) affected by pasteurellosis, a bacterial infection caused by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (PDP). Affected fish showed statistically lower hematocrit, glucose values tended to increase and lactate levels decreased, compared to control values. Regarding the immunological parameters

L. Acerete; E. Espinosa; A. Josa; L. Tort

2009-01-01

180

Invasion and Replication of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in Fish Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida to invade and replicate within different fish cell lines. Channel catfish ovary (CCO), fathead minnow (FHM), and epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell lines were all susceptible to invasion and supported replication of P. damselae in an in vitro invasion assay in which extracellular growth was

Ahmad A. Elkamel; Ronald L. Thune

2003-01-01

181

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida Is Capable of Replicating in Hybrid Striped Bass Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to use an in vitro assay to evaluate the ability of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida to survive and replicate within macrophages obtained from hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis × white bass M. chrysops). The results indicated that the number of bacteria recovered from macrophages after 3, 6, 12, and 18 h of

Ahmad A. Elkamel; John P. Hawke; William G. Henk; Ronald L. Thune

2003-01-01

182

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida : an integrated view of a bacterial fish pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Pasteurellosis, or pseudotuberculosis, is a bacterial septicaemia caused by the halophilic bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida). Although this disease was first described in wild populations of white perch and striped bass, currently the natural hosts\\u000a of the pathogen are a wide variety of marine fish. The disease has great economic impact both in Japan, where it

Jesús L. Romalde

2002-01-01

183

INGESTION AND ADSORPTION OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' BY 'GAMMARUS LACUSTRIS' IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-hour periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. The experiments verified that traditional exp...

184

Rhizosphere Microbial Densities and Trace Metal Tolerance of the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum Serpyllifolium Subsp. Lusitanicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we determine culturable microbial densities (total heterotrophs, ammonifiers, amylolytics and cellulolytics) and bacterial resistance to Co, Cr, and Ni in bulk and rhizosphere soils of three populations of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and the excluder Dactylis glomerata from ultramafic sites (two populations in Northeast (NE) Portugal (Samil (S), Morais (M)) and one population in Northwest

C. Becerra-Castro; C. Monterroso; M. García-Lestón; A. Prieto-Fernández; M. J. Acea; P. S. Kidd

2009-01-01

185

Genome Sequence of the Cheese-Starter Strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.  

PubMed

We report the genome sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (1,911,137 bp, GC 49.7%), a proteolytic strain isolated from a homemade Argentinian hard cheese which has a key role in bacterial nutrition and releases bioactive health-beneficial peptides from milk proteins. PMID:23929489

Hebert, Elvira María; Raya, Raúl R; Brown, Lucía; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Taranto, María Pía

2013-08-08

186

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS AND FATHEAD MINNOWS, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS RAFINESQUE, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were studied in laboratory exposures to two commercial formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack. ortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 x 10 6 to 6.5 x 10 6 CFU/ml with bo...

187

Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at

Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi; Ernani S. Sant; Luiz H. Beirão

188

Conditioned food aversion for control of poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conditioned food aversion is a technique that can be used to train livestock to avoid ingestion of poisonous plants. This study tested the efficacy and durability of conditioned food aversion to eliminate goat’s consumption of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. We used 14 young Moxotó goats, which wer...

189

Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...

190

Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused byCorynebacterium afermentans subsp.lipophilum(CDC Coryneform Group ANF1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corynebacteria are important causes of endocarditis in individuals with valvular prostheses. We report the first published case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by the newly defined species Corynebacterium afermentans subsp. lipophilum (former CDC coryneform group ANF-1). The isolate was recovered from a perivalvular abscess specimen and 5 of 15 Bactec blood cultures after 7 to 15 days of incubation. The

DAVID L. SEWELL; MARIE B. COYLE; ANDGUIDO FUNKE

191

An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

192

Otitis media and otomastoiditis caused by Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii).  

PubMed

We describe two patients with otologic infections caused by Mycobacterium massiliense (M. abscessus subsp. bolletti) which were identified using erm(41) PCR, 23S rRNA, and rpoB gene sequence analysis. They were middle-aged adults with underlying otologic diseases and were treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimens for 3 and 9 months, respectively. PMID:22933592

Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Cheng, Aristine; Liu, Chia-Ying; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lee, Li-Na; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2012-08-29

193

Effective Heat Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Raw Milk Contaminated with Naturally Infected Feces?  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 102 to 3.5 × 105 cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90°C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72°C and a holding time of 6 s, 70°C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an Ea of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk0 of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72°C and a Z value of 7.7°C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at ?72°C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Rademaker, Jan L. W.; Vissers, Marc M. M.; te Giffel, Meike C.

2007-01-01

194

Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Major Membrane Protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c has been shown to play a role in invasion of epithelial cells and is an important membrane antigen recognized by cattle with Johne’s disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to p...

195

No Holes Barred: Invasion of the Intestinal Mucosa by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcriptional response. Recent details have given a new appreciation for the dynamic interplay between the host and bacterium that occurs at the outset of infection. An initial look at the global expression pathways of the host has shown a circumvention of the cell communication pathway by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which loosens the integrity of the tight junctions. We now know that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis activates the epithelial layer and also actively recruits macrophages to the site of infection. These notable findings are summarized along with added mechanistic details of the early infection model. We conclude by proposing critical next steps to further elucidate the process of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invasion. PMID:23940208

Bannantine, John P; Bermudez, Luiz E

2013-08-12

196

Genome Sequence of the Invasive Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Enteritidis Strain LA5  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in humans due to consumption of poultry derivatives. Here we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation, including the virulence plasmid, of S. Enteritidis LA5, which is a chicken isolate used by numerous laboratories in virulence studies.

Rossignol, Aurore; Loux, Valentin; Chiapello, Helene; Gendrault, Annie; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Velge, Philippe; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle

2012-01-01

197

Genome Sequence of the Persistent Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Senftenberg Strain SS209  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Senftenberg is an emerging serotype in poultry production which has been found to persist in animals and the farm environment. We report the genome sequence and annotation of the SS209 strain of S. Senftenberg, isolated from a hatchery, which was identified as persistent in broiler chickens.

Boumart, Zineb; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Loux, Valentin; Chiapello, Helene; Gendrault, Annie; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Chemaly, Marianne; Velge, Philippe

2012-01-01

198

Multiplex PCR-Based Method for Identification of Common Clinical Serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR method has been developed to differentiate between the most common clinical serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica encountered in Washington State and the United States in general. Six genetic loci from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and four from S. enterica serovar Typhi were used to create an assay consisting of two five-plex PCRs. The assays gave reproducible

Seonghan Kim; Jonathan G. Frye; Jinxin Hu; Paula J. Fedorka-Cray; Romesh Gautom; David S. Boyle

2006-01-01

199

Genome Sequence of the "Indian Bison Type" Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5  

PubMed Central

We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the “Indian Bison Type” biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India.

Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Shree Narayan; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Singh, Brajesh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Nitu; Kumar, Shailesh; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh

2013-01-01

200

Genetic diversity in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa subsp rapa L. from northwestern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Galicia (northwestern Spain), Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. includes turnips, turnip greens, and turnip tops. The objectives of this study are (i) to determine the genetic diversity and morphological resemblances among the B. rapa landraces of northwestern Spain in order to have information relative to the resources preserved, and (ii) to evaluate their agronomic characteristics, considering the three potential

Guillermo Padilla; María Elena Cartea; Víctor Manuel Rodríguez; Amando Ordás

2005-01-01

201

Interactions between endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates and human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infective endocarditis (IE) but the knowledge on virulence factors is limited and the pathogenesis of the infection is poorly understood. In the present study, we established an experimental in vitro IE cell culture model using EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells to investigate the adhesion and invasion characteristics of 23 Streptococcus

Tanja Vollmer; Dennis Hinse; Knut Kleesiek; Jens Dreier

2010-01-01

202

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance.

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

203

Identification of Four Phage Resistance Plasmids from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteriophage-host sensitivity patterns of 16 strains of Lactococcus lactis originally isolated from a mixed strain Cheddar cheese starter culture were determined. Using phages obtained from cheese factory whey, four of the strains were found to be highly phage resistant. One of these isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HO2, was studied in detail to determine the mechanisms responsible for the

AMANDA FORDE; CHARLES DALY; GERALD F. FITZGERALD

204

Intrauterine infection and post-partum bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.  

PubMed

The case is presented of a woman with intrauterine infection and post-partum bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, who delivered an infant via Caesarean section. Furthermore, we comment on the possibility of vaginal colonization of this organism as a portal of entry in cases of maternal and neonatal infections. PMID:23861295

Binghuai, Lu; Wenjun, Sui; Xinxin, Lu

2013-07-16

205

Ecotypic variation in plant characteristics for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw. is a polymorphic taxon with respect to essential oil production and glandular trichome density. Here it is examined whether the natural populations that are indigenous in continental Greece may be considered as different ecotypes (i.e. populations with different genetic variation) and whether evidence regarding a fitness cost from essential oil production could be

Nikolaos P. Gavalas; Kiriaki L. Kalburtji; Stella Kokkini; Andreas P. Mamolos; Demetrios S. Veresoglou

2011-01-01

206

GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF ERWINIA CAROTOVORA SUBSP. CAROTOVORA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH VIRULENCE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) potato isolates representing multiple serogroups was assessed by I-CeuI-PFGE fingerprinting in combination with phenotypic analysis. All the Ecc strains examined, except one, contained seven I-CeuI fragments and at least 26 pulsotypes were ...

207

Expression Cloning of Gamma Interferon-Inducing Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma interferon (IFN-) assay, which detects the cell- mediated immunity (CMI) response by measuring IFN- re- lease from sensitized lymphocytes, has been used as an early diagnostic test for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculo- sis infection (11, 13). Although the IFN- assay is considered to be a sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of paratu- berculosis, the antigen preparation usually

Reiko Nagata; Yoshihiro Muneta; Kazuhiro Yoshihara; Yuichi Yokomizo; Yasuyuki Mori

2005-01-01

208

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the

Cindy Fevre; Virginie Passet; Alexis Deletoile; Valérie Barbe; Lionel Frangeul; Ana S. Almeida; Philippe Sansonetti; Régis Tournebize; Sylvain Brisse

2011-01-01

209

Identification of resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli among melon (Cucumis spp.) Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) is a seed-borne disease that threatens most cucurbit crops. Although, limited resistance has been found in a small number of Plant Introductions (PI) in watermelon (Citrullus spp.), no significant activity ...

210

Essential oils composition of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae – Periplocoideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 86 volatile compounds. Branches showed the higher diversity with 57 compounds followed by fruits with 33, roots with 23, flowers with 16 and

P. Zito; M. Sajeva; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; A. Maggio; F. Senatore

2012-01-01

211

Antigen heterogeneity among Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC isolates: discrimination of major surface proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein and antigen profiles of 60 isolates, strains and the type strain PG1 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC were compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis. Analysis using contagious bovine pleuropneumonia antisera and hyperimmune rabbit sera against several representative strains revealed some differences in protein profiles and variability in antigens among strains from different

Rosário Gonçalves; José Regalla; Jacques Nicolet; Joachim Frey; Robin Nicholas; John Bashiruddin; Paola de Santis; Aires Penha Gonçalves

1998-01-01

212

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms by Quantitative PCR ? †  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis has a role in Crohn's disease. The organism may be acquired but is difficult to culture from the environment. We describe a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in drinking water and the results of its application to drinking water and faucet biofilm samples collected in the United States.

Beumer, Amy; King, Dawn; Donohue, Maura; Mistry, Jatin; Covert, Terry; Pfaller, Stacy

2010-01-01

213

The cytotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. coreanensis A1519 strain against the human leukemic T cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel cytotoxic protein was isolated from the crystal produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. coreanensis A1519 strain. Upon treatment of the crystal proteins by proteinase K, the significant cytotoxicity toward the leukemic T cell, MOLT-4, was exhibited. The microscopic observation indicated that the cell death was accompanied by no extensive rupture of the cell membrane. It was, therefore, suggested that

Akitoshi Namba; Masashi Yamagiwa; Hiromi Amano; Tetsuyuki Akao; Eiichi Mizuki; Michio Ohba; Hiroshi Sakai

2003-01-01

214

Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis Strain Si3 Produces a Broad-Spectrum Proteinaceous Antifungal Compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity spectrum of Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain Si3 was investigated. The strain had strong inhibitory activity in dual-culture agar plate assays against the molds Aspergillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor hiemalis, Talaromyces flavus, Fusarium poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. sporotrichoides. A weaker activity was observed against the yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces

JESPER MAGNUSSON; JOHAN SCHNURER

2001-01-01

215

Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes.

Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C.

2013-01-01

216

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COMMON AND DWARF BUNT RESISTANCE IN LANDRACES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM SUBSP. AESTIVUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landrace accessions of cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) (TAA) from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) have been tested systematically for the past 25 years for disease resistance. We analyzed the resistance of 10759 TAA accessions to common bunt (CB), c...

217

A MULTI-FACTED APPROACH TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS RESEARCH IN THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic, progressive enteric disease of ruminants caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses are estimated to be $200/infected cow/year and are the result of animal culling, reduced milk production, poor reproductive ...

218

Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted

Christopher P. Bickford; Thomas E. Kolb; Brian W. Geils

2005-01-01

219

VERTEBRATE TOXICOLOGY OF THE SOLUBILIZED PROTEINS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review summarizes the studies done with the mammalian toxic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) 28 kDa cytA protein. The data is relevant to hazard identification studies with bacterial pesticides. The data shows that cytA produces lethal physiological changes in...

220

Surface Proteome of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection  

PubMed Central

“Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease.

McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

221

Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is part of a commercialized fermented dairy product with documented health benefits revealed by multiple randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which has a circular genome of 1,943,113 bp with 1,660 open reading frames and 4 ribosomal operons.

Chervaux, Christian; Grimaldi, Christine; Bolotin, Alexander; Quinquis, Benoit; Legrain-Raspaud, Sophie; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Denariaz, Gerard; Smokvina, Tamara

2011-01-01

222

Fully Assembled Genome Sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Javiana CFSAN001992  

PubMed Central

We report a closed genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Javiana (S. Javiana). This serotype is a common food-borne pathogen and is often associated with fresh-cut produce. Complete (finished) genome assemblies will support pilot studies testing the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in public health laboratories.

Muruvanda, Tim; Strain, Errol; Timme, Ruth; Luo, Yan; Wang, Charles; Keys, Christine E.; Payne, Justin; Cooper, Tony; Luong, Khai; Song, Yi; Chin, Chen-Shan; Korlach, Jonas; Roberts, Rich J.; Evans, Peter; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

2013-01-01

223

Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. We report the genome sequence of a plant pathogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043, the causative agent of soft rot and blackleg potato diseases. Approximately 33% of Eca genes are not

K. S. Bell; M. Sebaihia; L. Pritchard; M. T. G. Holden; L. J. Hyman; M. C. Holeva; N. R. Thomson; S. D. Bentley; L. J. C. Churcher; K. Mungall; R. Atkin; N. Bason; K. Brooks; T. Chillingworth; K. Clark; J. Doggett; A. Fraser; Z. Hance; H. Hauser; K. Jagels; S. Moule; H. Norbertczak; D. Ormond; C. Price; M. A. Quail; M. Sanders; D. Walker; S. Whitehead; G. P. C. Salmond; P. R. J. Birch; J. Parkhill; I. K. Toth

2004-01-01

224

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis

Chuanfu An; Zhonglin Mou

2012-01-01

225

Immunogenicity of Proteome-Determined Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Proteins in Sheep with Paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Detecting animals with paratuberculosis infections is difficult because the currently available tools have low sensitivity and lack specificity; these tools are prone to generating spurious positive test results caused by exposure to environmental M. avium complex organisms. To generate candidate antigens for incorporation into a specific test for paratuberculosis, subspecies-specific

Valerie Hughes; John P. Bannantine; Susan Denham; Stuart Smith; Alfredo Garcia-Sanchez; Jill Sales; Michael L. Paustian; Kevin Mclean; Karen Stevenson

2010-01-01

226

Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).  

PubMed

The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

2012-05-30

227

Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU–VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolates using PCR-based methods detecting genetic elements called Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive

K. J. E. van Hulzen; H. C. M. Heuven; M. Nielen; J. Hoeboer; W. J. Santema; A. P. Koets

2011-01-01

228

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. CITRULLI IN CHINA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of watermelon fruit blotch, was identified in watermelon in China in 2000 (T. Zhao et al., Acta Phytopathol. Sinica 4: 357-64. 2002). Although a considerable amount of watermelon and melon seed is produced in China, no information is availabl...

229

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases.

2011-01-01

230

Exopolysaccharide Expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352: Evidence for Novel Gene Organization?  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 produces two distinct heteropolysaccharides, phenotypically described as ropy and mucoid, when cultured in nonfat milk. One exopolysaccharide precipitated with 50% ethanol as a series of elongated threads and was composed of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3:2. The second exopolysaccharide precipitated with 75% ethanol as a fine flocculant and consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose with a molar ratio of 67:21:12. A mutant strain, L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240, lacking the ropy phenotype did not produce the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 50% ethanol; however, it produced the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 75% ethanol, indicating that the former exopolysaccharide is essential for the ropy phenotype. Cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 in 10% nonfat milk reached a viscosity of 25 Pa-s after 24 h, while those of the nonropy L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240 mutant did not change. A mutation abolishing ropy exopolysaccharide expression mapped to a region on a plasmid containing two open reading frames, epsM and epsN, encoding novel glycosyltransferases bordered by ISS1 elements oriented in the same direction. Sequencing of this plasmid revealed two other regions involved in exopolysaccharide expression, an operon located between partial IS981 and IS982 elements, and an independent gene, epsU. Two and possibly three of these regions are involved in L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 exopolysaccharide expression and are arranged in a novel fashion different from that of typical lactococcal exopolysaccharide loci, and this provides genetic evidence for exopolysaccharide gene reorganization and evolution in Lactococcus.

Knoshaug, Eric P.; Ahlgren, Jeff A.; Trempy, Janine E.

2007-01-01

231

Variable Cross-Resistance to Cry11B from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Resistant to Single or Multiple Toxins of Bacillus thuringienisis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, and one of its toxins, Cry11B, in a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain were evaluated for cross-resistance with strains of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that are resistant to single and multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The levels of cross-resistance (resistance ratios (RR)) at concentrations which caused 95% mortality (LC95) between B.

MARGARET C. WIRTH; ARMELLE DELECLUSE; BRIAN A. FEDERICI; WILLIAM E. WALTON

1998-01-01

232

Isolation and characterization of salt-sensitive mutants of the moderately halophilic bacterium Salinivibrio costicola subsp. yaniae.  

PubMed

Salinivibrio costicola subsp. yaniae is a moderately halophilic bacterium which can grow over a wide range of salinity. In response to external osmotic stress (1-3 M NaCl), S. costicola subsp. yaniae can accumulate ectoine, glycine betaine, and glutamate as compatible solutes. We used suicide plasmids pSUP101 to introduce transposon Tn1732 into S. costicola subsp. yaniae via Escherichia coli SM10 mediated by conjugation. One Tn1732-induced mutant, MU1, which was very sensitive to the external salt concentration, was isolated. Mutant MU1 did not grow above 1.5 M NaCl and did not synthesize ectoine, but accumulated Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate, an ectoine precursor, as confirmed by (1)H-NMR analysis. From these data, we concluded that ectoine performs a key role in osmotic adaptation towards high salinity environments in strain S. costicola subsp. yaniae. PMID:18685202

Zhu, Daochen; Cui, Shunyan; Nagata, Shinichi

2008-08-07

233

Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2, Isolated from a French Smear-Ripened Cheese  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococcus group and is frequently isolated from fermented food products and from food-processing environments. It contributes to the formation of aroma compounds during the ripening of fermented foods, especially cheeses and sausages. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum Mu2 to provide insights into its physiology and compare it with other Staphylococcus species.

Loux, Valentin; Bento, Pascal; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Straub, Cecile; Bonnarme, Pascal; Landaud, Sophie; Monnet, Christophe

2012-01-01

234

The immune response of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae subsp . damselae under temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater and 26 °C seawater were injected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae grown in TSB at a dose of 8.48×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 22, 26 (control), 30 and 34 °C. Over 24–96 h, the cumulative mortalities of P. damselae subsp. damselae-injected shrimp held in 22 and 34 °C

Feng-I Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

2006-01-01

235

The spiFEG Locus in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102 Confers Protection against Nisin U  

PubMed Central

Nisin U is a member of the extended nisin family of lantibiotics. Here we identify the presence of nisin U immunity gene homologues in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102. Heterologous expression of these genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP confers protection to nisin U and other members of the nisin family, thereby establishing that the recently identified phenomenon of resistance through immune mimicry also occurs with respect to nisin.

Draper, Lorraine A.; Tagg, John R.; Ross, R. Paul

2012-01-01

236

Development of a recombinant strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 that produces the endochitinase ChiA74  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 was transformed with the homologous endochitinase gene chiA74 of B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae LBIT-82 under the regulation of its own promoter and Shine–Dalgarno sequence. The plasmid, pEHchiA74, which harbors chiA74, was detected by southern blot analysis and showed high segregational stability when the recombinant strain was grown in\\u000a a medium without antibiotic. The recombinant bacterium

Gabriela Casique-Arroyo; Dennis Bideshi; Rubén Salcedo-Hernández; José Eleazar Barboza-Corona

2007-01-01

237

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

238

Genetic and biochemical characterization of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produces exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which play a role in the rheological properties of fermented food products. Lb. bulgaricus Lfi5 produces a high-molecular-weight EPS composed of galactose, glucose, and rhamnose in the molar ratio 5:1:1. An 18-kb DNA region containing 14 genes, designated epsA to epsN, was isolated by genomic DNA library screening and inverted PCR. The predicted

Gilbert Thierry Lamothe; Laure Jolly; Beat Mollet; Francesca Stingele

2002-01-01

239

Identification and partial characterization of tochicin, a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp tochigiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis   subsp tochigiensis HD868 was identified as a bacteriocin producer which exhibited a bactericidal effect against closely related species. This\\u000a bacteriocin designated as tochicin, was partially purified by 75% ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by subsequent\\u000a dialysis. This partially purified tochicin showed a narrow antibacterial spectrum of activity against most of 20 typical\\u000a B. thuringiensis strains and a strain of

H D Paik; S S Bae; S H Park; J G Pan

1997-01-01

240

Invasive infection caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis : characteristics of strains and clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among clinically isolated ?-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes and S. agalactiae were considered the main pathogens in humans until recently. In 1996, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was proposed as a novel taxon among human-derived streptococcal isolates. SDSE has Lancefield group C or G antigens,\\u000a exhibits strong ?-hemolysis, and exerts streptokinase activity upon human plasminogen and proteolytic activity upon human\\u000a fibrin.

Takashi Takahashi; Kimiko Ubukata; Haruo Watanabe

2011-01-01

241

A biosensor assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, membrane-strip-based lateral-flow (LF) biosensor assay and a high-throughput microtiter plate assay have been combined with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of a small number (ten) of viable Mycobacterium (M.) avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells in fecal samples. The assays are based on the identification of the RNA of the IS900 element of MAP.

Vijayarani Kumanan; Sam R. Nugen; Antje J. Baeumner; Yung-Fu Chang

2009-01-01

242

High frequency in vitro propagation of Trichopus zeylanicus subsp. travancoricus using branch–petiole explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichopus zeylanicus subsp. travancoricus (known as Arogyapacha), an endangered ethnomedicinal plant of the Western Ghats of South India, serves as the major source\\u000a of the commercial drug Jeevani. The present study established a long-term high frequency in vitro propagation protocol for Arogyapacha. Callus obtained from\\u000a the branch–petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 4.5 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid upon

Kottackal Poulose MartinA; A. K. Pradeep; Joseph Madassery

2011-01-01

243

Utilization of citrate by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.cremoris was grown in continuous culture in lactose medium with varying citrate concentrations. All citrate (10, 25, 50 and 75 mMol\\/l) was used and lactose consumption increased with increasing initial citrate concentrations correlate with an increase of dry cell weight. Citrate lead to an increase of acetate and could be a source of ATPvia acetate kinase pathway.

P. Schmitt; C. Diviès; C. Merlot

1990-01-01

244

Isolation of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp hyicus from a pig with septic polyarthritis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus hyicus subsp hyicus (coagulase-positive) was isolated in pure culture from the left coxafemoral and right shoulder joints of a 4-week-old pig with septic polyarthritis. Present taxonomic criteria and DNA-DNA hybridization studies with reference strains were utilized to identify the isolate. There were no clinical signs or generalized skin lesions of porcine exudative epidermitis noticed in this pig. PMID:7369600

Phillips, W E; King, R E; Kloos, W E

1980-02-01

245

Detection of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in a European brown hare ( Lepus europaeus) in Thuringia, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica biovar II (strain 06T0001) from a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) from Thuringia, Germany, is described for the first time. Identification of the microorganism was carried out by phenotypic characterisation, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and specific PCR using the primers TUL4-435\\/TUL4-863 and FtC1\\/FtC4. The epidemiology of tularemia in Germany is

W. Müller; H. Bocklisch; G. Schüler; H. Hotzel; H. Neubauer; P. Otto

2007-01-01

246

Alkaline serine protease produced from citric acid by Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. halodurans KP 1239  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum production of alkaline serine protease by Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. halodurans KP 1239 was achieved after 24 h cultivation, at an initial pH of 7.6, on a medium containing 1.0% sodium citrate, 0.3% yeast extract, and 0.3% KH2PO4. The enzyme was purified to crystalline form from culture broth. The enzyme was most active at 60° C and at pH 11.5.

Yukio Takii; Naohiro Kuriyama; Yuzuru Suzuki

1990-01-01

247

Survival of fish-virulent strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae in seawater under starvation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of fish-virulent strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae in seawater microcosms, with and without sediment, was investigated. The strains survived as culturable bacteria at 14 and 22°C for at least 1 year, and infectivity for fish was maintained. At 5°C, cells lost culturability on solid media, but this was recovered when the temperature was increased to 22°C. Finally,

B Fouz; A. E Toranzo; E Marco-Noales; C Amaro

1998-01-01

248

Toxicity of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulent strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Pdp) were grown in media with or without glucose supplementation (to enhance polysaccharide capsule formation) and the bactericidal action of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrites was evaluated in a cell-free assay. Treatment with the NO-donor S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) induced a dose-and time-dependent decrease in Pdp survival. This effect was greater for strains grown without

F Acosta; F Real; C. M Ruiz de Galarreta; R D??az; D Padilla; A. E Ellis

2003-01-01

249

In Vitro Cellular Immune Responses to Recombinant Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five recombinant antigens (Ags; 85A, 85B, 85C, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 35-kDa protein) were purified from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and evaluated for their ability to stimulate periph- eral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) from fecal-culture-positive cows (low and medium shedders) and culture-negative healthy cows. Recombinant Ags 85A, 85B, and 85C induced significant lymphocyte prolifer- ation as well as the production

Sung Jae Shin; Chao-Fu Chang; Ching-Dong Chang; Sean P. McDonough; Belinda Thompson; Han Sang Yoo; Yung-Fu Chang

2005-01-01

250

Cloning and Characterization of a Novel tuf Promoter from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) requires a reliable gene expression system. Especially, a stable promoter\\u000a is an important genetic element to induce gene expression in such a system. We report on a novel tuf promoter (Ptuf) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 that was screened and selected through analysis of previously published microarray data. Ptuf activity was examined

Eun Bae Kim; Da Chuan Piao; Jee Soo Son; Yun Jaie Choi

2009-01-01

251

Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica infection promotes verticillium wilt development in potato in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The interaction betweenErwinia carotovora subsp.atroseptica (Eca) andVerticillium dahliae and its effect on symptom development in potato cultivars showing different degrees of resistance to them was examined over\\u000a two seasons in irrigated fields in a hot, dry climate. Four cultivars were used: Cara, highly resistant to blackleg and tolerant\\u000a to Verticillium wilt; Pentland Crown also resistant to blackleg but susceptible to

Leah Lahkim Tsror; A. Nachmias; L. Livescu; M. C. M. Perombelon; Z. Barak

1990-01-01

252

PepR1, a CcpA-like transcription regulator of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PepR1 protein from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290 shares extensive homology with catabolite-control proteins from various Gram- positive bacteria. Expression of the subcloned pepR1 gene allowed for partial complementation of a ccpA defect in Staphylococcus xylosus. The influence of PepR1 on transcription of the prolidase gene pepQ, which is located adjacent to pepR1, was examined by use of

Joachim Schick; Beate Weber; R. Klein; Bernhard Henrich; Fachbereich Biologie

253

New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Johne's disease, a serious chronic form of enteritis in ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). As the organism is very slow-growing and fastidious, several PCR-based methods for detection have been developed, based mainly on the MAP-specific gene IS900. However, because this gene is similar to genes in other mycobacteria, there is a need for sensitive and

David Herthnek; Göran Bölske

2006-01-01

254

Inhibition of polygalacturonase and polygalacturonic acid lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by phenolics in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The phenolic acids benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic and vanillic\\u000a together with vanillin, were tested for their ability to inhibit polygalacturonic acid lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG)\\u000a in culture filtrates ofErwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora. None of the compounds inhibited PL at 200 ?g\\/ml, although syringic and sinapic acids caused a 54% and 43% reduction respectively\\u000a at 400

G. D. Lyon; Fiona M. McGill

1989-01-01

255

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract and fractions from Senecio gibbosus subsp. gibbosus (GUSS) DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of Senecio gibbosus subsp. gibbosus aerial parts. The antioxidant activity was assessed by means of two different tests: (1) bleaching of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical; and (2) lipid peroxidation of liposomes which were prepared from bovine brain extract.

F. Conforti; M. Marrelli; G. Statti; F. Menichini

2006-01-01

256

Characterization of the Highly Autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Strains CO and 2250  

PubMed Central

Two highly autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (CO and 2250) were selected and analyzed for their autolytic properties. Both strains showed maximum lysis when grown in M17 broth containing a limiting concentration of glucose (0.4 to 0.5%) as the carbohydrate source. Lysis did not vary greatly with pH or temperature but was reduced when strains were grown on lactose or galactose. Growth in M17 containing excess glucose (1%) prevented autolysis, although rapid lysis of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CO did occur in the presence of 1% glucose if sodium fluoride (an inhibitor of glycolysis) was added to the medium. Maximum cell lysis in a buffer system was observed early in the stationary phase, and for CO, two pH optima were observed for log-phase and stationary-phase cells (6.5 and 8.5, respectively). Autolysins were extracted from the cell wall fraction of each strain by using either 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, or 4 M lithium chloride, and their activities were analyzed by renaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on gels containing Micrococcus luteus or L. lactis subsp. cremoris CO cells as the substrate. More than one lytic band was observed on each substrate, with the major band having an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa for CO. Each lytic band was present throughout growth and lysis. These results suggest that at least two different autolytic enzymes are present in the autolytic L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains. The presence of the lactococcal cell wall hydrolase gene, acmA (G. Buist, J. Kok, K. J. Leenhouts, M. Dabrowska, G. Venema, and A. J. Haandrikman, J. Bacteriol. 177:1554-1563, 1995), in strains 2250 and CO was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Analysis of an acmA deletion mutant of 2250 confirmed that the gene was involved in cell separation and had a role in cell lysis.

Riepe, H. R.; Pillidge, C. J.; Gopal, P. K.; Mckay, L. L.

1997-01-01

257

Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

2013-10-10

258

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104)

Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Craig Altier

259

Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of endemic Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the aerial parts of Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa was evaluated against microorganisms, including multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, using the paper disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the chloroform extract of this plant was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chloroform extract exhibited significant

Aysel Ugur; Nurdan Sarac; Ozgur Ceylan; M. Emin Duru

2010-01-01

260

Characterization of the Highly Autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Strains CO and 2250  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two highly autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (CO and 2250) were selected and analyzed for their autolytic properties. Both strains showed maximum lysis when grown in M17 broth containing a limiting concentration of glucose (0.4 to 0.5%) as the carbohydrate source. Lysis did not vary greatly with pH or temperature but was reduced when strains were grown on lactose

HEIDI R. RIEPE; CHRISTOPHER J. PILLIDGE; PRAMOD K. GOPAL; LARRY L. MCKAY

261

Complete Genome Sequence of the Prototype Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactococcus lactis is of great importance for the nutrition of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This paper describes the genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, the lactococcal strain most intensively studied throughout the world. The 2,529,478-bp genome contains 81 pseudogenes and encodes 2,436 proteins. Of the 530 unique proteins, 47 belong to the COG (clusters of orthologous

Udo Wegmann; Mary O’Connell-Motherway; Aldert Zomer; Girbe Buist; Claire Shearman; Carlos Canchaya; Marco Ventura; Alexander Goesmann; Michael J. Gasson; Oscar P. Kuipers; Douwe van Sinderen; Jan Kok

2007-01-01

262

Introduction of Peptidase Genes from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis into Lactococcus lactis and Controlled Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidases PepI, PepL, PepW, and PepG from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, which have no counterparts in Lactococcus lactis, and peptidase PepQ were examined to determine their potential to confer new peptidolytic properties to lactococci. Controllable expression of the corresponding genes (pep genes) was achieved by constructing translational fusions with the promoter of the nisA gene (PnisA). A suitable host strain,

U. Wegmann; J. R. Klein; I. Drumm; O. P. Kuipers; B. Henrich

1999-01-01

263

Batch cultures of recombinant Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a stirred fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plasmid introduction into Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL2661 on the growth of this strain and on plasmid stability was studied in pure batch cultures. The plasmids used (coding for erythromycin or chloramphenicol resistance) were the following: pIL205 (42 kb), pIL252 (4.6 kb, 6–9 copies), pIL253 (4.8 kb, 45–85 copies) and pE194 (inserted in the chromosome). Growth and

Najat El Alami; Clair-Yves Boquien; Georges Corrieu

1992-01-01

264

Citrate Cycle Intermediates in the Metabolism of Aspartate and Lactate by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii  

PubMed Central

Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii metabolized 7 mol of aspartate to 6 mol of succinate, 4 mol of CO2, and 7 mol of ammonia. When lactate, sparged with 100% CO2, was fermented at pH 5.5, unexpectedly high ratios of propionate to acetate were obtained (i.e., 3.2 to 3.8:1). Citrate cycle intermediates may be involved in these fermentations.

Crow, Vaughan L.

1987-01-01

265

Diacetyl production by different strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc spp. were compared for product formation from citrate in milk cultures. Most strains produced acetoin and butanediol. Some strains derived from buffer starter cultures produced, in addition, a-acetolactate. Lactococcus lactis strain C17, which produced acetoin and butanediol but no a-acetolactate in culture, was compared physiologically with L. lactis strain

Jeroen Hugenholtz; Marjo J. C. Starrenburg

1992-01-01

266

Identification and characterization of a mosquito pupicidal metabolite of a Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture supernatant of a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis isolated from mangrove forests of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India was found to kill larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes.\\u000a A chloroform extract of the culture supernatant of the bacterium showed pupicidal effects at an LC50 dose of 1 µg\\/ml. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) produced by this strain were purified by

I. Geetha; A. M. Manonmani; K. P. Paily

2010-01-01

267

The B-chromosome system of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans subsp. plorans (Charpentier)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernumerary chromosomes of two types have been observed in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans subsp. plorans. One of these (the B-type) is similar in size to an S autosome; the other is smaller (B'-type). Both are telocentric and mitotically stable. The frequencies of individuals with the B-type supernumeraries in five natural populations were 56, 56, 70, 71 and 30 per cent

Juan Pedro M. Camacho; Antonio R. Carballo; Josefa Cabrero

1980-01-01

268

Cytotoxicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type to Bovine Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicities of various strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC), the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were measured in vitro using embryonic calf nasal epithelial (ECaNEp) cells. Strains isolated from acute cases of CBPP induced high cytotoxicity in the presence of glycerol, concomitant with the release of large amounts of toxic H2O2 that were found

Daniela F. Bischof; Carole Janis; Edy M. Vilei; Giuseppe Bertoni; Joachim Frey

2008-01-01

269

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA Is an Endogenous Tyrosine Phosphatase Secreted during Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive gene expression in prokaryotes is mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. These regulatory proteins mediate phosphorylation of histidine or aspartate in two-component systems and serine\\/threonine or tyrosine in eukaryotic and eukaryote-like protein kinase systems. The genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, does not possess a defined tyrosine kinase. Nevertheless, it encodes for

Horacio Bach; Jim Sun; Zakaria Hmama; Yossef Av-Gay

2006-01-01

270

Genetic Basis for Alkaline Activation of Germination in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis?  

PubMed Central

Differences in activation between spores from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with and without the toxin-encoding plasmid pBtoxis are demonstrated. Following alkaline activation, the strain bearing pBtoxis shows a significantly greater germination rate. Expression of just three genes constituting a previously identified, putative ger operon from this plasmid is sufficient to produce the same phenotype and characterizes this operon as a genetic determinant of alkaline activation.

Abdoarrahem, M. M.; Gammon, K.; Dancer, B. N.; Berry, C.

2009-01-01

271

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil

B. Marongiu; A. Piras; S. Porcedda; D. Falconieri; A. Maxia; M. J. Gonçalves; C. Cavaleiro; L. Salgueiro

2010-01-01

272

A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production

S. B. von Bodman; D R Majerczak; D L Coplin

1998-01-01

273

A Negative Regulator Mediates Quorum-Sensing Control of Exopolysaccharide Production in Pantoea stewartii Subsp. stewartii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production

Susanne Beck von Bodman; Doris R. Majerczak; David L. Coplin

1998-01-01

274

Purification, properties and DNA sequence of the D-lactate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-ldh) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, cloned in Escherichia coli, were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homologies with all members of the D-specific-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. Furthermore, the essential residues detected so far as being involved in catalysis were also conserved. Purification of the enzyme revealed physico-chemical properties corresponding to those

V Dartois; V Phalip; P Schmitt; C Diviès

1995-01-01

275

Lack of mosquitocidal activity by the cytolytic protein of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis parasporal crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25,000-dalton cytolytic protein was isolated from the parasporal crystal ofBacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis. Hemolytic activity of this protein decreased with increasing pHs and was totally inhibited at pH 10.0. No mosquito larvacidal activity was observed with this protein either in the solubilized form or when the protein was adsorbed to latex beads.

Peter Y. K. Cheung; Dan Buster; Bruce D. Hammock

1987-01-01

276

Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.  

PubMed Central

Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic.

Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

1983-01-01

277

Unmarked insertional mutagenesis in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) is the aetiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease causing important losses in cattle production. The publication of the genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC should facilitate the identification of putative virulence factors. However, real progress in the study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity also requires efficient molecular tools for gene inactivation. In the present study, we have developed a transposon-based approach for the random mutagenesis of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. A PCR-based screening assay enabled the characterization of several mutants with knockouts of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity. The initial transposon was further improved by combining it with the transposon ?? TnpR/res recombination system to allow the production of unmarked mutations. Using this approach, we isolated a mutant free of antibiotic-resistance genes, in which the gene encoding the main lipoprotein LppQ was disrupted. The mutant was found to express only residual amounts of the truncated N-terminal end of LppQ. This approach opens the way to study virulence factors and pathogen-host interactions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and to develop new, genetically defined vaccine strains.

Janis, Carole; Bischof, Daniela; Gourgues, Geraldine; Frey, Joachim; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2009-01-01

278

PCR-based identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the agent of rhinoscleroma.  

PubMed

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma. PMID:21629720

Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valérie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Régis; Brisse, Sylvain

2011-05-24

279

Expression and characterization of the periplasmic cobalamin-binding protein of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

Abstract Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) is an essential cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions and most prokaryotes contain transport systems to import vitamin B(12). A gene coding for a periplasmic cobalamin-binding protein of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida was identified by in silico analysis of sequences from a genomic library. The open reading frame was composed of 834 bp encoding a protein of 277 amino acids. The protein showed 61% identity with the vitamin B(12)-binding protein precursor of P. profundum, 53% identity with the corresponding protein of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 43% identity with the periplasmic binding protein BtuF of Escherichia coli. The expression of the native protein was investigated in P. damselae subsp. piscicida, but BtuF was weakly expressed under normal conditions. To characterize the BtuF of P. damselae subsp. piscicida, the recombinant protein was expressed with a C-terminal His(6)-tag and purified; the molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 30 kDa. The protein does not contain any free thiol group, consistent with the view that the two cysteine residues are involved in a disulphide bond. The purified BtuF binds cyanocobalamin with an affinity constant of 6 +/- 2 microm. PMID:19490395

Boiani, R; Andreoni, F; Serafini, G; Bianconi, I; Pierleoni, R; Dominici, S; Gorini, F; Magnani, M

2009-05-28

280

Isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Gunther) in China.  

PubMed

During the summer of 2006, an epizootic occurred among cultured tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Gunther) in a fish farm in Qingdao, China. The diseased tongue sole exhibited haemorrhaging of the basal fin, yellowed kidney and ulceration of the body surface. A Gram-negative,rod shaped bacterium (designated strain WY06) was isolated from the gall bladder of diseased fish. Pathogenicity assays revealed that WY06 was virulent to tongue sole and zebrafish (Danio rerio) by intraperitoneal injection challenge, with the LD50 being calculated as 5.5 x 10(3) cfu/g of fish (5.2 x 10(5) cfu/fish) and 1.9 x 10(3) cfu/g of fish (8.9 x 10(2) cfu/fish) respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain WY06 demonstrated high similarity (99%) with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear association of strain WY06 with P. damselae subsp. piscicida. Additional evidence of the identification included in morphological, physiological and biochemical data. The pathogen was sensitive to cifuroxime (30 microg) and ceftriaxone sodium (30 microg). Present study describes P. damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased fish for the first time in China. PMID:18062245

Wang, Yan; Han, Yin; Li, Yun; Chen, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

2007-10-01

281

Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment.  

PubMed

The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals. PMID:15128561

Whittington, Richard J; Marshall, D Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J; Marsh, Ian B; Reddacliff, Leslie A

2004-05-01

282

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

PubMed Central

Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the upper airways caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its diagnosis remains difficult. As a consequence, and despite available antibiotherapy, some patients evolve advanced stages that can lead to disfiguration, severe respiratory impairment and death by anoxia. Because identification of the etiologic agent is crucial for the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the aim of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis isolates are (i) of capsular serotype K3; and (ii) belong to a single clone with diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The complete sequence of the genomic region comprising the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster was determined. Putative functions of the 21 genes identified were consistent with the structure of the K3 antigen. The K3-specific sequence of gene Kr11509 (wzy) was exploited to set up a PCR test, which was positive for 40 K3 strains but negative when assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis from other K3 Klebsiella strains, a specific PCR assay was developed based on diagnostic SNPs in the phosphate porin gene phoE. This work provides rapid and simple molecular tools to confirm the diagnostic of rhinoscleroma, which should improve patient care as well as knowledge on the prevalence and epidemiology of rhinoscleroma.

Fevre, Cindy; Passet, Virginie; Deletoile, Alexis; Barbe, Valerie; Frangeul, Lionel; Almeida, Ana S.; Sansonetti, Philippe; Tournebize, Regis; Brisse, Sylvain

2011-01-01

283

Identification and characterization of a mosquito pupicidal metabolite of a Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain.  

PubMed

The culture supernatant of a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis isolated from mangrove forests of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India was found to kill larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. A chloroform extract of the culture supernatant of the bacterium showed pupicidal effects at an LC(50) dose of 1 microg/ml. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) produced by this strain were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The purified fraction was subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The FTIR spectrum of active fraction/CHCl3 residue showed strong band characteristic of peptides. MALDI-TOF spectrum of the sample showed well-resolved group of peaks at m/z values 1,030.6, 1,046.7, 1,044.6, 1,060.5, 1,058.6, 1,058.7, and 1,074.6. The results indicated production of different isoforms of surfactin, ranging from C13-C15. Further, the sfp gene responsible for the production of surfactin was amplified and sequenced. In conclusion, this study showed that the mosquito pupicidal metabolite(s), produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis is the cyclic lipopeptide, surfactin. The mode of action of surfactin on pupae of mosquitoes is discussed. This is the first report on the mosquito pupicidal activity of surfactin produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis. PMID:20130853

Geetha, I; Manonmani, A M; Paily, K P

2010-02-04

284

The first structure of a mycobacteriophage, the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii phage Araucaria.  

PubMed

The unique characteristics of the waxy mycobacterial cell wall raise questions about specific structural features of their bacteriophages. No structure of any mycobacteriophage is available, although ?3,500 have been described to date. To fill this gap, we embarked in a genomic and structural study of a bacteriophage from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, a member of the Mycobacterium abscessus group. This opportunistic pathogen is responsible for respiratory tract infections in patients with lung disorders, particularly cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus subsp. bolletii was isolated from respiratory tract specimens, and bacteriophages were observed in the cultures. We report here the genome annotation and characterization of the M. abscessus subsp. bolletii prophage Araucaria, as well as the first single-particle electron microscopy reconstruction of the whole virion. Araucaria belongs to Siphoviridae and possesses a 64-kb genome containing 89 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 27 could be annotated with certainty. Although its capsid and connector share close similarity with those of several phages from Gram-negative (Gram(-)) or Gram(+) bacteria, its most distinctive characteristic is the helical tail decorated by radial spikes, possibly host adhesion devices, according to which the phage name was chosen. Its host adsorption device, at the tail tip, assembles features observed in phages binding to protein receptors, such as phage SPP1. All together, these results suggest that Araucaria may infect its mycobacterial host using a mechanism involving adhesion to cell wall saccharides and protein, a feature that remains to be further explored. PMID:23678183

Sassi, Mohamed; Bebeacua, Cecilia; Drancourt, Michel; Cambillau, Christian

2013-05-15

285

Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein LppQ, a predominant 48-kDa antigen, and its corresponding gene, lppQ, were characterized in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The lppQ gene is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and was found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccinal strains. LppQ is encoded as a precursor with a consensus sequence for prokaryotic signal peptidase II and a lipid attachment site. The leader sequence shows significant prominent transmembrane helix structure with a predicted outside-to-inside helix formation capacity. The N-terminal domain of the mature LppQ was shown to be surface exposed. It induced a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. The C-terminal domain of LppQ possesses an integral membrane structure built up of repeated units, rich in hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids, which have a pore formation potential. A recombinant peptide representing the N-terminal domain of LppQ was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of nine Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons into universal TGG (Trp) codons and expression in Escherichia coli hosts. It was used for serodetection of cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, in which it was detected postinfection for significantly longer than conventional serological test reactions.

Abdo, El-Mostafa; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

2000-01-01

286

Biochemical properties of a novel metalloprotease from Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus involved in extracellular lipase processing.  

PubMed Central

Two extracellular proteases from Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus, ShpI and ShpII, have been characterized. ShpI is a neutral metalloprotease with broad substrate specificity; the gene has been cloned and sequenced. ShpII, characterized here, is mainly produced in the late logarithmic growth phase in contrast to ShpI, which is mainly produced in the late stationary growth phase. ShpII was purified from culture medium of S. hyicus by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The molecular mass, estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 34 kDa. The temperature optimum of ShpII was 55 degrees C, and the pH optimum was 7.4. ShpII, a neutral metalloprotease, was strongly inhibited by zinc and calcium chelators. The amino-terminal sequence of the active enzyme was similar to the corresponding region of a Staphylococcus epidermidis metalloprotease. The substrate specificity of ShpII was similar to that of thermolysin-like proteases, with the exception that ShpII also recognized aromatic amino acids. We demonstrated in vitro that ShpII, but not ShpI, cleaved the 86-kDa S. hyicus subsp. hyicus prolipase between Thr-245 and Val-246 to generate the mature 46-kDa lipase. Results of additional in vivo experiments supported the model that ShpII is necessary for the extracellular processing and maturation of S. hyicus subsp. hyicus lipase. Images

Ayora, S; Lindgren, P E; Gotz, F

1994-01-01

287

Survival and Dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the Environment  

PubMed Central

The survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was studied by culture of fecal material sampled at intervals for up to 117 weeks from soil and grass in pasture plots and boxes. Survival for up to 55 weeks was observed in a dry fully shaded environment, with much shorter survival times in unshaded locations. Moisture and application of lime to soil did not affect survival. UV radiation was an unlikely factor, but infrared wavelengths leading to diurnal temperature flux may be the significant detrimental component that is correlated with lack of shade. The organism survived for up to 24 weeks on grass that germinated through infected fecal material applied to the soil surface in completely shaded boxes and for up to 9 weeks on grass in 70% shade. The observed patterns of recovery in three of four experiments and changes in viable counts were indicative of dormancy, a hitherto unreported property of this taxon. A dps-like genetic element and relA, which are involved in dormancy responses in other mycobacteria, are present in the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome sequence, providing indirect evidence for the existence of physiological mechanisms enabling dormancy. However, survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment is finite, consistent with its taxonomic description as an obligate parasite of animals.

Whittington, Richard J.; Marshall, D. Jeff; Nicholls, Paul J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Reddacliff, Leslie A.

2004-01-01

288

[The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. PMID:7335487

Rosef, O

1981-12-01

289

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 ?g/g extract and 12644 ?g/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 ?g/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23603383

Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ay?egül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

2013-04-18

290

Mannosylated Lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Alters the Inflammatory Response by Bovine Macrophages and Suppresses Killing of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Avium Organisms  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-?. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-?. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages.

Souza, Cleverson; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten M.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Weiss, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

291

Effect of soil slope on the appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water running off grassland soil after application of contaminated slurry.  

PubMed

The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m(2) were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

Salgado, M; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Troncoso, E; Mitchell, R M; Ramirez, L; Naguil, A; Zamorano, P; Collins, M T

2013-03-29

292

Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

Lefrancois, Louise H; Bodier, Christelle C; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A; Locht, Camille; Biet, Franck

2013-08-23

293

Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.  

PubMed

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels. PMID:19589067

Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

2009-08-01

294

Prevalence and Acquisition of the Genes for Zoocin A and Zoocin A Resistance in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

PubMed Central

Zoocin A is a streptococcolytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain 4881. The zoocin A gene (zooA) and the gene specifying resistance to zoocin A (zif) are adjacent on the chromosome and are divergently transcribed. Twenty-four S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains were analyzed to determine the genetic difference between three previously characterized as zoocin A producers (strains 4881, 9g and 9h) and the twenty-one non-producers. LT-PCR and Southern hybridization studies revealed that none of the non-producer strains possessed zooA or zif. RAPD and PFGE showed that the 24 strains were a genetically diverse population with 8 RAPD profiles. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains 9g and 9h appeared genetically identical to each other, but quite different from 4881. Sequences derived from 4881 and 9g showed that zooA and zif were integrated into the chromosome adjacent to the gene flaR. A comparison of these sequences with the genome sequences of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains H70 and MGCS10565 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047 suggests that flaR flanks a region of genome plasticity in this species.

O'Rourke, Anna-Lee D.; Simmonds, Robin S.; Gargis, Amy S.; Sloan, Gary L.

2009-01-01

295

Effect of Host Diet and Insect Source on Synergy of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Mortality to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki by Zwittermicin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zwittermicin A acts synergistically with the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) larvae. The objective of this study was to assess the inßuence of insect source and diet on this synergy. Zwittermicin A increased the mortality caused by B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in gypsy moths collected from four population sources feeding on

N. A. Broderick; R. M. Goodman; J. Handelsman; K. F. Raffa

2003-01-01

296

Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strain Aw12879, a Restricted-Host-Range Citrus Canker-Causing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.

Jalan, Neha; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2013-01-01

297

Comprehensive Study of Strains Previously Designated Streptococcus bovis Consecutively Isolated from Human Blood Cultures and Emended Description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli?  

PubMed Central

Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were investigated by studying the patients' records. Published phenotypic characteristics of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius were not unequivocal and did not allow an unambiguous phenotypic differentiation of the 58 clinical isolates. However, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly assigned the strains to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (n = 29), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (n = 12), and S. infantarius subsp. coli (n = 17). Only 28% of the patients with available records presented with endocarditis and 7% presented with colon carcinoma, whereas 37% of the patients had altered liver parenchyma and 28% had gall bladder disease as underlying diseases. Detailed antimicrobial susceptibility data on both S. gallolyticus subspecies and S. infantarius subsp. coli are given for the first time. As a result of the extensive characterization of the largest number of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius human clinical isolates published so far, emended species descriptions are given. It is recommended that both clinical microbiologists and infectious disease specialists avoid the designation S. bovis for true S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius strains in the future in order to get a clearer picture of the possible disease associations of these species.

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-01-01

298

Highly Specific and Quick Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Feces and Gut Tissue of Cattle and Humans by Multiple Real-Time PCR Assays?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle and may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. It is the slowest growing of the cultivable mycobacteria, and culture from clinical, veterinary, food, or environmental specimens can take 4 months or even longer. Currently, the insertion element IS900 is used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA. However, closely related IS900 elements are also present in other mycobacteria, thus limiting its specificity as a target. Here we describe the use of novel primer sets derived from the sequences of two highly specific single copy genes, MAP2765c and MAP0865, for the quantitative detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within 6 h by using real-time PCR. Specificity of the target was established using 40 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 67 different bacterial species, and two intestinal parasites. Using the probes and methods described, we detected 27 (2.09%) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive stool specimens from 1,293 individual stool samples by the use of either IS900 or probes deriving from the MAP2765c and MAP0865 genes described here. In general, bacterial load due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was uniformly low in these samples and we estimated 500 to 5,000 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria per gram of stool in assay-positive samples. Thus, the methods described here are useful for rapid and specific detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples.

Imirzalioglu, Can; Dahmen, Heinrich; Hain, Torsten; Billion, Andre; Kuenne, Carsten; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domann, Eugen

2011-01-01

299

Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes AS03, an Atypical Strain Isolated from Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

We present the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strain AS03, an atypical A. salmonicida strain that causes erythrodermatitis in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This is the first genome sequence report of A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, one of the four subspecies of atypical A. salmonicida.

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Chai, Ji Young

2013-01-01

300

Persistence and Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii Spores on Corroded Iron in a Model Drinking Water System?  

PubMed Central

Persistence of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron coupons in drinking water was studied using a biofilm annular reactor. Spores were inoculated at 106 CFU/ml in the dechlorinated reactor bulk water. The dechlorination allowed for observation of the effects of hydraulic shear and biofilm sloughing on persistence. Approximately 50% of the spores initially adhered to the corroded iron surface were not detected after 1 month. Addition of a stable 10 mg/liter free chlorine residual after 1 month led to a 2-log10 reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii, but levels on the coupons quickly stabilized thereafter. Increasing the free chlorine concentration to 25 or 70 mg/liter had no additional effect on inactivation. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores injected in the presence of a typical distribution system chlorine residual (?0.75 mg/liter) resulted in a steady reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii over 1 month, but levels on the coupons eventually stabilized. Adding elevated chlorine levels (10, 25, and 70 mg/liter) after 1 month had no effect on the rate of inactivation. Decontamination with elevated free chlorine levels immediately after spore injection resulted in a 3-log10 reduction within 2 weeks, but the rate of inactivation leveled off afterward. This indicates that free chlorine did not reach portions of the corroded iron surface where B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores had adhered. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores are capable of persisting for an extended time in the presence of high levels of free chlorine.

Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Rice, Eugene W.; Bishop, Paul L.

2007-01-01

301

Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd  

PubMed Central

Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability.

2011-01-01

302

Continuous D-lactic acid production by a novel thermotolerant Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized a D-lactic acid-producing lactic acid bacterium (D-LAB), identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41. When compared to Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens JCM 1166?(T) and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis JCM 1248?(T), which are also known as D-LAB, the QU 41 strain exhibited a high thermotolerance and produced D-lactic acid at temperatures of 50 °C and higher. In order to optimize the culture conditions of the QU 41 strain, we examined the effects of pH control, temperature, neutralizing reagent, and initial glucose concentration on D-lactic acid production in batch cultures. It was found that the optimal production of 20.1 g/l D-lactic acid was acquired with high optical purity (>99.9% of D-lactic acid) in a pH 6.0-controlled batch culture, by adding ammonium hydroxide as a neutralizing reagent, at 43 °C in MRS medium containing 20 g/l glucose. As a result of product inhibition and low cell density, continuous cultures were investigated using a microfiltration membrane module to recycle flow-through cells in order to improve D-lactic acid productivity. At a dilution rate of 0.87 h(-1), the high cell density continuous culture exhibited the highest D-lactic acid productivity of 18.0 g/l/h with a high yield (ca. 1.0 g/g consumed glucose) and a low residual glucose (<0.1 g/l) in comparison with systems published to date. PMID:21165615

Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kaneko, Wataru; Sun, Yanqi; Shibata, Keisuke; Inokuma, Kentaro; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

2010-12-17

303

Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 enhances systemic immunity in elderly subjects.  

PubMed

Throughout life, there is an aging of the immune system that causes impairment of its defense capability. Prevention or delay of this deterioration is considered crucial to maintain general health and increase longevity. We evaluated whether dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could enhance the immune response in the elderly. This multi-center, double-blind, and placebo controlled study enrolled 61 elderly volunteers who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or probiotics. Each capsule of probiotics contained at least 3?×?10(7)? L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481. Individuals in the study were administered three capsules per day for 6 months. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (time 0), end of month 3, and month 6. We characterized cell subpopulations, measured cytokines by flow cytometry, quantified T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and determined human ?-defensin-2 (hBD-2) concentrations and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Elderly responded to the intake of probiotic with an increase in the percentage of NK cells, an improvement in the parameters defining the immune risk profile (IRP), and an increase in the T cell subsets that are less differentiated. The probiotic group also showed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 but increased antimicrobial peptide hBD-2. These effects disappeared within 6 months of stopping the probiotic intake. Immunomodulation induced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could favor the maintenance of an adequate immune response, mainly by slowing the aging of the T cell subpopulations and increasing the number of immature T cells which are potential responders to new antigens. PMID:22645023

Moro-García, Marco Antonio; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca; Baltadjieva, Maria; Fernández Benítez, Carlos; Fernández Barrial, Manuel Amadeo; Díaz Ruisánchez, Enrique; Alonso Santos, Ricardo; Alvarez Sánchez, Magdalena; Saavedra Miján, Juan; López-Larrea, Carlos

2012-05-30

304

Identification of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus isolates from veterinary clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Coagulase-positive isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius from dogs and coagulase-positive isolates of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus from a pig and cows were identified initially by a simplified scheme which can be readily performed in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Characters tested in the scheme included coagulase activity, colony pigment, and aerobic acid production from maltose. The identity of these isolates was confirmed by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization experiments. The strains of S. hyicus subsp. hyicus isolated from porcine sources were positive for protein A, whereas the strains recovered from bovine mastitic milk were negative for protein A.

Phillips, W E; Kloos, W E

1981-01-01

305

Effect of salinity on the immune response of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of NaCl at 2.5% to tryptic soy broth (TSB) significantly increased the growth of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae. Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater were injected with P. damsela subsp. damselae grown in TSB containing NaCl at 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% at a dose of 8.48×104colony-forming units (cfu)shrimp?1. Over 24–96h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher

Feng-I Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

2006-01-01

306

The bioactive essential oil of Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Heracleum sphondylium L subsp. ternatun (Velen.) Brummit (Umbelliferae) was isolated from crushed seeds by means of hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Major components were identified as 1-octanol (50.3%), octyl butyrate (24.6%), and octyl acetate (7.3%). Furthermore, antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using microdilution broth and agar diffusion methods. The bioactive constituent of the essential oil was determined as 1-octanol by using a bioautography assay. PMID:12710728

I?can, Gökalp; Demirci, Fatih; Kürkçüo?lu, Mine; Kivanç, Merih; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

307

Detection of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Thuringia, Germany.  

PubMed

The isolation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica biovar II (strain 06T0001) from a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) from Thuringia, Germany, is described for the first time. Identification of the microorganism was carried out by phenotypic characterisation, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and specific PCR using the primers TUL4-435/TUL4-863 and FtC1/FtC4. The epidemiology of tularemia in Germany is discussed and a risk assessment for humans is made. PMID:17482385

Müller, W; Bocklisch, H; Schüler, G; Hotzel, H; Neubauer, H; Otto, P

2007-03-30

308

Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Doxycycline Resistance in Kennelled Dogs  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of 38 Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates were determined from a kennelled canine population during two outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia (1999 to 2002 and 2007 to 2010). Analysis of the szp gene hypervariable region and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) indicated a predominant tetO-positive, doxycycline-resistant ST-10 strain during 1999 to 2002 and a predominant tetM-positive doxycycline-resistant ST-62 strain during 2007 to 2010.

Chalker, Victoria J.; Waller, Andrew; Webb, Katy; Spearing, Emma; Crosse, Patricia; Brownlie, Joe

2012-01-01

309

Intraspecific chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica.  

PubMed

The composition of 50 samples of essential oil of individual plants of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica was investigated by GC, GC-MS and 13C NMR. alpha-Pinene, beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpinyl acetate, Delta-3-carene, myrcene and alpha-phellandrene were found to be the main constituents. The results were submitted to cluster analysis and discriminant analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be distinguished with respect to the content of alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene and alpha-terpinyl acetate. PMID:11106846

Rezzi; Cavaleiro; Bighelli; Salgueiro; da Cunha AP; Casanova

2001-02-01

310

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle?  

PubMed Central

In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk.

Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

2011-01-01

311

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

312

Assessment of Dietzia subsp. C79793-74 for treatment of cattle with evidence of paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether the bacterium Dietzia subsp. C79793-74, previously shown to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis under in vitro culture conditions, has therapeutic value as a probiotic for adult cattle with paratuberculosis. Animals were obtained from several herds with evidence of disease based on seropositivity and/or fecal shedding. Sixty-eight cows with initial evidence of Stage II or III paratuberculosis and two with an initial Stage IV disease were evaluated longitudinally. Animals were either treated daily with variable, disease-dependent doses of Dietzia (n = 48) or left untreated (n = 22). Clinical aspects of disease (diarrhea, emaciated, cachectic and appetite) were recorded until the animal recovered or required euthanasia due to advanced clinical paratuberculosis or other severe conditions. Paratuberculosis parameters—antibody serology (ELISA, AGID) and fecal culture—were longitudinally monitored over the lifetime of each animal. The results indicated that daily treatment with Dietzia was therapeutic for paratuberculosis cows based on: (a) longitudinal decline in ELISA values only occurred in animals that were treated; (b) prolonged survival was dependant upon treatment—the length being directly associated with low initial ELISA values; and (c) treated animals were the only ones cured of disease. Further investigations are envisaged to determine optimal, long-term dosages that may result in even better therapeutic outcomes as well as to evaluate potential application for therapy of the Johne disease, human-counterpart, Crohn disease.

Kampen, Craig L Van

2010-01-01

313

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice.

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

314

Identification and partial characterization of tochicin, a bacteriocin offduced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp tochigiensis.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp tochigiensis HD868 was identified as a bacteriocin producer which exhibited a bactericidal effect against closely related species. This bacteriocin designated as tochicin, was partially purified by 75% ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by subsequent dialysis. This partially purified tochicin showed a narrow antibacterial spectrum of activity against most of 20 typical B. thuringiensis strains and a strain of B. cereus, but not against other bacteria and yeasts tested. The antibacterial activity of tochicin on sensitive indicator cells disappeared completely by proteinase K treatment (1 mg ml-1), which indicates its proteinaceous nature. Tochicin was very stable throughout the range of pH 3.0-9.0 and was relatively heat-stable at 90 degrees C, but bacteriocin activity was not detected after boiling for 30 min. The relationship between cell growth and bacteriocin production was studied in a semi-defined medium. Tochicin activity was detected at the mid-log growth phase, reached the maximum at the early stationary phase, but decreased after the stationary phase. Direct detection of tochicin activity on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested it has an apparent molecular mass of about 10.5 kDa. Tochicin exhibited a bactericidal activity against B. thuringiensis subsp thompsoni HD522 in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). PMID:9439004

Paik, H D; Bae, S S; Park, S H; Pan, J G

1997-10-01

315

Cloning and characterization of the thymidylate synthase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed Central

The thymidylate synthase (thyA) gene has been isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cloned gene was strongly expressed in Escherichia coli both in vivo and in vitro (maxicells and cell-free transcription and translation systems) and complemented E. coli thyA mutants. DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrated that the thyA gene is encoded by the chromosome of L. lactis subsp. lactis. By sequential deletion of DNA outside the complementing region, the thyA gene was localized to a 1.1-kilobase DNA fragment. The nucleotide sequence of the lactococcal thyA gene was determined by the dideoxy-chain termination technique. The derived amino acid sequence indicated a protein size of 32,580 daltons, which is in good agreement with results obtained from maxicell and in vitro transcription and translation experiments. The primary sequence is homologous to 12 other thyA proteins from a variety of other organisms. Upstream from the structural gene, -10 and -35 promoter sequences which were almost canonical sigma-70 promoter sequences were identified, which may explain the strong expression of the thyA gene observed in E. coli. An A-T-rich sequence characteristic of gram-positive promoters was also noted adjacent to the -35 region. The thyA gene has potential as a marker for plasmid maintenance and selection in food systems. Images

Ross, P; O'Gara, F; Condon, S

1990-01-01

316

Effects of carbon source and growth rate on cell wall composition of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger.  

PubMed Central

A study was made to determine whether factors other than the availability of phosphorus were involved in the regulation of synthesis of teichoic and teichuronic acids in Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger WM. First, the nature of the carbon source was varied while the dilution rate was maintained at about 0.3 h-1. Irrespective of whether the carbon source was glucose, glycerol, galactose, or malate, teichoic acid was the main anionic wall polymer whenever phosphorus was present in excess of the growth requirement, and teichuronic acid predominated in the walls of phosphate-limited cells. The effect of growth rate was studied by varying the dilution rate. However, only under phosphate limitation did the wall composition change with the growth rate: walls prepared from cells grown at dilution rates above 0.5 h-1 contained teichoic as well as teichuronic acid, despite the culture still being phosphate limited. The wall content of the cells did not vary with the nature of the growth limitation, but a correlation was observed between the growth rate and wall content. No indications were obtained that the composition of the peptidoglycan of B. subtilis subsp. niger WM was phenotypically variable.

Kruyssen, F J; de Boer, W R; Wouters, J T

1980-01-01

317

Stabilization of Frozen Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Glycerol Suspensions: Freezing Kinetics and Storage Temperature Effects  

PubMed Central

The interactions between freezing kinetics and subsequent storage temperatures and their effects on the biological activity of lactic acid bacteria have not been examined in studies to date. This paper investigates the effects of three freezing protocols and two storage temperatures on the viability and acidification activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1 in the presence of glycerol. Samples were examined at ?196°C and ?20°C by freeze fracture and freeze substitution electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure proportions of ice and glass transition temperatures for each freezing condition tested. Following storage at low temperatures (?196°C and ?80°C), the viability and acidification activity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus decreased after freezing and were strongly dependent on freezing kinetics. High cooling rates obtained by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen resulted in the minimum loss of acidification activity and viability. The amount of ice formed in the freeze-concentrated matrix was determined by the freezing protocol, but no intracellular ice was observed in cells suspended in glycerol at any cooling rate. For samples stored at ?20°C, the maximum loss of viability and acidification activity was observed with rapidly cooled cells. By scanning electron microscopy, these cells were not observed to contain intracellular ice, and they were observed to be plasmolyzed. It is suggested that the cell damage which occurs in rapidly cooled cells during storage at high subzero temperatures is caused by an osmotic imbalance during warming, not the formation of intracellular ice.

Fonseca, F.; Marin, M.; Morris, G. J.

2006-01-01

318

Accumulation and role of compatible solutes in fast-growing Salinivibrio costicola subsp. yaniae.  

PubMed

The moderately halophilic bacterium Salinivibrio costicola subsp. yaniae showed an extremely fast growth rate. Optimal growth was observed in artificial seawater containing 1.4 mol/L NaCl and in MM63 media containing 0.6 mol/L NaCl. We analyzed a variety of compatible solutes that had accumulated in this strain grown in the media. The supplementation effect of the compatible solutes glycine betaine, glutamate, and ectoine to the growth of S. costicola subsp. yaniae was examined. Glycine betaine and glutamate had no supplementation effect on the fast growth rate. Growth of salt-sensitive mutants MU1 and MU2, both of which were defective in the ability to synthesize ectoine, was not observed in MM63 medium in the presence of more than 1.0 mol/L NaCl. From these data, we conclude that ectoine was the predominant compatible solute synthesized in this bacterium that effected an extremely fast growth rate. PMID:21164572

Zhu, Daochen; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Qingbo; Nagata, Shinichi

2010-12-01

319

Cytotoxicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type to bovine epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicities of various strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC), the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), were measured in vitro using embryonic calf nasal epithelial (ECaNEp) cells. Strains isolated from acute cases of CBPP induced high cytotoxicity in the presence of glycerol, concomitant with the release of large amounts of toxic H2O2 that were found to be translocated into the cytoplasms of the host cells by close contact of the Mycoplasma strains with the host cells. Currently used vaccine strains also showed high cytotoxicity and high H2O2 release, indicating that they are attenuated in another virulence attribute. Strains isolated from recent European outbreaks of CBPP with mild clinical signs, which are characterized by a defect in the glycerol uptake system, released small amounts of H2O2 and showed low cytotoxicity to ECaNEp cells. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strain PG1 released large amounts of H2O2 but was only slightly cytotoxic. PG1 was found to have a reduced capacity to bind to ECaNEp cells and was unable to translocate H2O2 into the bovine cells, in contrast to virulent strains that release large amounts of H2O2. Thus, an efficient translocation of H2O2 into host cells is a prerequisite for the cytotoxic effect and requires an intact adhesion mechanism to ensure a close contact between mycoplasmas and host cells. PMID:17998309

Bischof, Daniela F; Janis, Carole; Vilei, Edy M; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Frey, Joachim

2007-11-12

320

Virulence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum.  

PubMed

An outbreak of serious mortality among the cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum (weighing 3 kg) characterized by the presence of whitish granulomatous deposits on the kidney, liver and spleen occurred in July of 2000 in Taiwan. A non-motile strain CP1 was isolated from kidney and/or liver on tryptic soy agar and/or brain heart infusion agar plates (both supplemented with 1% NaCl, w/v). This strain was characterized and identified as Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida using biochemical characteristics and Bionor mono-Pp tests. The bacterium and its extracellular products (ECP) were lethal to the cobia (weighing 10 g) with LD50 values of 1.03 x 10(4) colony forming units and 1.26 microg protein/g fish body weight, respectively. All the moribund/dead fish exhibited darkness in color with no gross or internal leasions. However, the bacteria could be reisolated from kidney and liver after bacterial challenge. The present results reveal that Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida is the causative agent of fish photobacteriosis in the cobia and the bacterium isolated from sub-adult cobia (chronic form) is virulent to young cobia causing acute form of the disease. PMID:14625900

Liu, Ping-Chung; Lin, Ji-Yang; Lee, Kuo-Kau

2003-01-01

321

Organization of the genes encoding [Fe] hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello.  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding the periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello were cloned by exploiting their homology with the hydAB genes from D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, in which this enzyme is present as a heterologous dimer of alpha and beta subunits. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the enzyme is encoded by an operon in which the gene for the 46-kilodalton (kDa) alpha subunit precedes that of the 13.5-kDa beta subunit, exactly as in the Hildenborough strain. The pairs of hydA and hydB genes are highly homologous; both alpha subunits (420 amino acid residues) share 79% sequence identity, while the unprocessed beta subunits (124 and 123 amino acid residues, respectively) share 71% sequence identity. In contrast, there appears to be no sequence homology outside these coding regions, with the exception of a possible promoter element, which was found approximately 90 base pairs upstream from the translational start of the hydA gene. The recently discovered hydC gene, which may code for a 65.8-kDa fusion protein (gamma) of the alpha and beta subunits and is present immediately downstream from the hydAB genes in the Hildenborough strain, was found to be absent from the Monticello strain. The implication of this result for the possible function of the hydC gene product in Desulfovibrio species is discussed. Images

Voordouw, G; Strang, J D; Wilson, F R

1989-01-01

322

Complete Genome Sequence of the Prototype Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363?  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is of great importance for the nutrition of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This paper describes the genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363, the lactococcal strain most intensively studied throughout the world. The 2,529,478-bp genome contains 81 pseudogenes and encodes 2,436 proteins. Of the 530 unique proteins, 47 belong to the COG (clusters of orthologous groups) functional category “carbohydrate metabolism and transport,” by far the largest category of novel proteins in comparison with L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403. Nearly one-fifth of the 71 insertion elements are concentrated in a specific 56-kb region. This integration hot-spot region carries genes that are typically associated with lactococcal plasmids and a repeat sequence specifically found on plasmids and in the “lateral gene transfer hot spot” in the genome of Streptococcus thermophilus. Although the parent of L. lactis MG1363 was used to demonstrate lysogeny in Lactococcus, L. lactis MG1363 carries four remnant/satellite phages and two apparently complete prophages. The availability of the L. lactis MG1363 genome sequence will reinforce its status as the prototype among lactic acid bacteria through facilitation of further applied and fundamental research.

Wegmann, Udo; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Buist, Girbe; Shearman, Claire; Canchaya, Carlos; Ventura, Marco; Goesmann, Alexander; Gasson, Michael J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Kok, Jan

2007-01-01

323

A new selective medium for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis from tomato plants and seed.  

PubMed

A new selective and highly sensitive medium was developed for isolation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, from seed and latently infected plants. The new medium (BCT) proved to be superior to all published semiselective media for Cmm and is denoted as selective medium because of (i) its mean plating efficiency, amounting to ?89% within 7 days for all 30 Cmm strains from different sources tested; (ii) the high selectivity, because accompanying bacterial species occurring on tomato plants and seed or bacteria obtained from culture collections were inhibited to an extent of 98 to 100%; and (iii) the remarkable detection sensitivity. Thus, 8 CFU of Cmm in field plant homogenates containing 12,750 CFU of accompanying saprophytes were detected on BCT. Under these extreme conditions, all of the published semiselective media (D2, KBT, D2ANX, SCM, mSCM, CMM1, mCNS, and EPPO) gave false-negative results. Either some media were rather toxic and Cmm growth was also inhibited or the other, less toxic media allowed growth of high numbers of saprophytes, so that Cmm growth was suppressed. Exclusively, BCT also supported growth of the closely related C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, nebraskensis, and tessellarius. The new medium is recommended for Cmm detection in tomato seed, and in symptomless tomato plantlets, to improve disease control of bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:21999159

Ftayeh, Radwan M; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Rudolph, Klaus W E

2011-11-01

324

Response of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Potato Plants to Infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica  

PubMed Central

The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the ?, ?, and ? subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease.

Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

2002-01-01

325

Culture- and quantitative IS900 real-time PCR-based analysis of the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a controlled dairy cow farm environment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 10(3) were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 10(2) after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable. PMID:22773642

Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Kralova, A; Pavlik, I; Slana, I

2012-07-06

326

Culture- and Quantitative IS900 Real-Time PCR-Based Analysis of the Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Controlled Dairy Cow Farm Environment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 103 were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 102 after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable.

Moravkova, M.; Babak, V.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

2012-01-01

327

Draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1, a fecal bacterium of giant pandas.  

PubMed

Enterobacter cloacae, a common pathogenic bacterium, is a Gram-negative bacillus. We analyzed the draft genome of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1 from the feces of a giant panda in China. Genes encoding a ?-lactamase and efflux pumps, as well as other factors, have been found in the genome. PMID:23209197

Yan, Yue; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-He; Pan, Guang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Wang; Ma, Qing-Yi; Hou, Rong; Tan, Xue-Mei

2012-12-01

328

Genome Sequence of the Melanin-Producing Extremophile Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica Strain 34melT.  

PubMed

The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strain 34mel(T), isolated from a heavily polluted river, contains several genomic islands and putative virulence genes. The identification of genes involved in resistance to different kinds of stress sheds light on the mechanisms used by this strain to thrive in an extreme environment. PMID:24029754

Pavan, M Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E; López, Nancy I; Levin, Laura; Pettinari, M Julia

2013-09-12

329

Evaluation of two mutants of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for Johne's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we used targeted gene disruption to develop candidate mutants with impaired capacity to survive ex vivo and in vivo to test as a vaccine. We selected relA and pknG, genes known to be important virulence

Kun Taek Park; Andrew J. Allen; John P. Bannantine; Keun Seok Seo; Mary J. Hamilton; Gaber S. Abdellrazeq; Heba M. Rihan; Amanda Grimm; William C. Davis

2011-01-01

330

Micro-lipid-droplet encapsulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis delta-endotoxin for control of mosquito larvae.  

PubMed Central

The crystal delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is less toxic to larvae of Anopheles freeborni than to larvae of Aedes aegypti. However, when solubilized crystal was used, larvae from both species showed similar sensitivities. This effect presumably was due to the differences in feeding behavior between the two mosquito larvae when crystal preparations are used. A procedure is described whereby both crystal and solubilized B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxin were emulsified with Freund incomplete adjuvant, with retention of toxicity. The use of Freund incomplete adjuvant also allowed one to assay the solubilized toxin at a low nanogram level. Furthermore, coating the toxin with lipophilic material altered the buoyancy of the toxin and reversed the sensitivities of the two mosquito larvae toward the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxin. This difference in buoyancy was determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was specific for the toxic peptides. These data indicate that economically feasible buoyant formulations for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystal can be developed. Images

Cheung, P Y; Hammock, B D

1985-01-01

331

Complete Genome Sequence of a Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica Strain from Germany Causing Lethal Infection in Common Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain F92, belonging to the Franco-Iberian subgroup. This strain represents the first-time isolate of this subgroup in Germany and was obtained from naturally infected marmosets.

Schacht, E.; Kaysser, P.; Splettstoesser, W. D.

2013-01-01

332

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1 and midgut bacteria in larvae of gypsy moth and spruce budworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Foray 48B) and larval midgut bacteria in two lepidopteran hosts, Lymantria dispar and Choristoneura fumiferana. The pathogen multiplied in either moribund (C. fumiferana) or dead (L. dispar) larvae, regardless of the presence of midgut bacteria. Inoculation of L. dispar resulted in a pronounced proliferation of enteric bacteria, which did not contribute

Kees van Frankenhuyzen; Yuehong Liu; Amanda Tonon

2010-01-01

333

COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATIONS REVEAL GENETIC REGIONS WITHIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX MYCOBACTERIA THAT ARE DIVERGENT FROM MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS ISOLATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is genetically similar to other members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), some of which are non-pathogenic and widespread in the environment. Despite their genetic relatedness, MAC bacteria are capable of infecting a wide ran...

334

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures. PMID:24179246

Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W

2013-11-01

335

Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida Isolated from Hybrid Striped Bass Cultured in Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobacteriosis, which is caused by the bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida) was found to be a primary cause of mortality in hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis × white bass M. chrysops) cultured in brackish water in southern Louisiana. The disease was diagnosed on 50 occasions from 1990 through 2000 by the Louisiana Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory,

John P. Hawke; Ronald L. Thune; Richard K. Cooper; Erika Judice; Maria Kelly-Smith

2003-01-01

336

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolated from sheep abortions in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To genotype Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolates cultured from sheep abortions submitted to diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand during the year 2000 breeding season. To compare the types found nationally with those found in the Hawke' Bay region in 1999, and strains held in the New Zealand Reference Culture Collection, Medical Section (NZRM) from a study published in 1987.METHODS:

SA Mannering; SG Fenwick; RM Marchant; NR Perkins; K OConnell

2004-01-01

337

Influence of vaccination on the nitric oxide response of gilthead seabream following infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitric oxide (NO) response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated juvenile gilthead seabream was studied in vivo and the NO response of isolated kidney macrophages of fish was studied in vitro. Fish were vaccinated with formalin-killed Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Pdp) with or without Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) and control fish received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Thirty days later, fish were

F. Acosta; F. Real; A. E. Ellis; C. Tabraue; D. Padilla; C. M. Ruiz de Galarreta

2005-01-01

338

Invasion of fish epithelial cells by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida: evidence for receptor specificity, and effect of capsule and serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is a fish pathogen which causes serious disease in commercial warmwater fish species. Because information on the initial stages of the infection is scarce, an investigation of the invasion ability of this pathogen was undertaken utilizing a fish epithelial cell line (epithelioma papillosum carpio, EPC), a virulent capsulated strain of P. damselae (MT1415), an avirulent non-capsulated

M. Victoria; Andrew C. Barnes; Anthony E. Ellis

339

Broyler ?ç Organlarõndan Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis 'in ?zolasyonu vezole Edilen Sularõn Antibiyotiklere Duyarlõlõklarõnõn Belirlenmesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The aim of the present study was to isolate Salmonella strains, to serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates from the internal organs (intestine, liver, heart and ovary) of the total of 422 broilers and broiler breeders brought from broiler enterprises in Aydin and Izmir to a private laboratory. It

Ayelknur ORAL; Süheyla TÜRKYILMAZ; Alp Hindi; Adnan Menderes

2008-01-01

340

Specific Gravity and Equilibrium of Moisture Content Changes in Heat Treated Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf.) Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the change of specific gravity of fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf.) wood after heat treatment under different temperatures and durations. For this study 3 different temperatures and 3 different durations were carried out. The temperatures were 170, 190 and 210 oC and the durations were 4,8 and 12 hours. Moreover, the

G. Gündüz; P. Niemz; D. Aydemir

341

Changes in Specific Gravity and Equilibrium Moisture Content in Heat-Treated Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf.) Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine the changes in specific gravity and equilibrium moisture content of fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf.) wood after heat treatment at different temperatures and durations. In this study, the effects of three different temperatures and three different durations were investigated. The temperatures were 170, 190, and 210°C, and the durations were 4,

G. Gündüz; P. Niemz; D. Aydemir

2008-01-01

342

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

343

Ecology and social structure of the Gobi khulan Equus hemionus subsp. in the Gobi B National Park, Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the Gobi khulan Equus hemionus subsp. is recorded as “insufficiently known” in the Species Survival Commission's Equid Action Plan. Recent counts confirm that Mongolia holds the most important population of the whole species. Since 1953, the animals have benefited from a protected status, but this is now challenged. A 5-year study in the B part of the

C. Feh; B. Munkhtuya; S. Enkhbold; T. Sukhbaatar

2001-01-01

344

Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

345

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

346

Complete Genome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC509.9, Host for a Model Lactococcal P335 Bacteriophage  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the complete genome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC509.9, an Irish dairy starter. The circular chromosome of L. lactis UC509.9 represents the smallest among those of the sequenced lactococcal strains, while its large complement of eight plasmids appears to be a reflection of its adaptation to the dairy environment.

Ainsworth, Stuart; Zomer, Aldert; de Jager, Victor; Bottacini, Francesca; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Mahony, Jennifer

2013-01-01

347

Catalase deficiency in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is associated with natural loss-of-function mutations within the structural gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on internal peptide sequences obtained by HPLC from purified Staphylococcus aureus catalase were used to locate the S. aureus and S. aureus subsp. anaerobius kat regions by PCR. Southern hybridization analysis with a probe derived from a 1<1 kb PCR- amplified fragment showed that a single copy of the putative catalase gene was present in the

Rosario Sanz; Irma Mari; Jose A. Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria; Jose A. Orden; Dolores Cid; Rosa M. Diez; K. Souad Silhadi; Ricardo Amils; Ricardo de la Fuente

348

Duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Stenocarpella maydis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of two seedborne maize pathogens in a single assay. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) (syn. Erwinia stewartii) is the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize. Stewart's wilt i...

349

MLST-v, multilocus sequence typing based on virulence genes, for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the main causative agents of food-borne disease in man, and can also be the cause of serious systemic illness. Organisms belonging to this genus have traditionally been classified on the basis of the antigenic properties of the cell-surface lipopolysaccharide and of the phase 1 and phase 2 flagellar proteins. Primary isolation, biochemical identification,

B. Tankouo-Sandjong; A. Sessitsch; E. Liebana; C. Kornschober; F. Allerberger; H. Hächler; L. Bodrossy

2007-01-01

350

Expression of Staphylococcus aureus Clumping Factor A in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Using a New Shuttle Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus harbors redundant adhesins mediating tissue colonization and infection. To evaluate their intrinsic role outside of the staphylococcal background, a system was designed to express them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 1363. This bacterium is devoid of virulence factors and has a known genetic background. A new Escherichia coli-L. lactis shuttle and expression vector was constructed for this purpose.

YOK-AI QUE; JACQUES-ANTOINE HAEFLIGER; PATRICK FRANCIOLI; P. Moreillon

2000-01-01

351

Construction of a Lactococcal Expression Vector: Expression of Hen Egg White Lysozyme in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of vectors for expression of heterologous genes in Lactococcus lactis was constructed. In addition to an origin of replication that has a broad host range, these vectors contain a multiple cloning site flanked by gene expression signals originating from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The two vectors, about 3.7 kilobase pairs in size, differ only in the type

Maarten van de Guchte; Jos M. B. M. van der Vossen; Jan Kok; Gerard Venema

1989-01-01

352

Metabolism associated with raised metabolic flux to sugar nucleotide precursors of exopolysaccharides in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) metabolism was studied in a galactose-negative strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, using two different approaches. Firstly, using both the parent strain and a chemically induced mutant with higher yield and specific productivity of EPS than the parent, comparative information was obtained relating to enzyme activities and metabolite levels associated with EPS formation when grown on lactose. Under

A. D. Welman; I. S. Maddox; R. H. Archer

2006-01-01

353

Parturition Invokes Changes in Peripheral blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is estimated to infect more than 22% of US dairy herds. Once infected, cows may remain in the asymptomatic subclinical state until a period of stress, such as parturition. Parturition has a major impact on the number of ...

354

Complete Genome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC509.9, Host for a Model Lactococcal P335 Bacteriophage.  

PubMed

Here, we report the complete genome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC509.9, an Irish dairy starter. The circular chromosome of L. lactis UC509.9 represents the smallest among those of the sequenced lactococcal strains, while its large complement of eight plasmids appears to be a reflection of its adaptation to the dairy environment. PMID:23405300

Ainsworth, Stuart; Zomer, Aldert; de Jager, Victor; Bottacini, Francesca; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Mahony, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe

2013-01-31

355

Use of seedling progeny tests for genetical studies as part of a potato ( Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum ) breeding programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diallel set of crosses, including selfs and some reciprocal crosses, was made between 15 parents chosen for their male fertility from those included in a tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) breeding programme at the Scottish Crop Research Institute. Seedling progeny tests were used to evaluate the progenies for non-race-specific resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in both foliage

J. E. Bradshaw; H. E. Stewart; R. L. Wastie; M. F. B. Dale; M. S. Phillips

1995-01-01

356

ISOLATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP PARATUBERCULOSIS (MAP) FROM FERAL CATS ON A DAIRY FARM WITH MAP-INFECTED CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cross sectional study was done to examine non-ruminant, non-domestic animals for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) around a midwestern dairy with known MAP-infected cattle. Twenty-five feral cats, 9 mice, 8 rabbits, 6 raccoons and 3 opossums were trapped and euthana...

357

Evaluation of seed treatments for the eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from melon and watermelon seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seed-borne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several treatments to eradicate it from seeds, healthy triploid watermelon seed lots were spiked with naturally infected watermelon and melon seeds harvested from three separate diseased fruits. Of the eight treatments studied, only the use

Jianjun Feng; Jianqiang Li; Parmjit Randhawa; Morris Bonde; Norman W. Schaad

2009-01-01

358

Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Evaluation of Their Efficiency Against Bacterial Canker of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.

E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

2001-01-01

359

Phytochemical composition of polar fraction of Stachys germanica L. subsp. salviifolia (Ten.) Gams, a typical plant of Majella National Park.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the isolation and identification of several compounds present in the polar fraction of Stachys germanica L. subsp. salviifolia (Ten.) Gams, collected in the protected area of Majella National Park. In particular, we have isolated and identified harpagide, 7-?-hydroxy-harpagide, ajugol, 5-allosyloxy-aucubin, verbascoside and, for the first time in this genus, arbutin. PMID:22372659

Venditti, A; Serrilli, A M; Di Cecco, M; Ciaschetti, G; Andrisano, T; Bianco, A

2012-02-29

360

Genome Sequence of the Melanin-Producing Extremophile Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica Strain 34melT  

PubMed Central

The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strain 34melT, isolated from a heavily polluted river, contains several genomic islands and putative virulence genes. The identification of genes involved in resistance to different kinds of stress sheds light on the mechanisms used by this strain to thrive in an extreme environment.

Pavan, M. Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; Lopez, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura

2013-01-01

361

Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni Strains Isolated from Humans in 1998 to 2001 in Montreal, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of resistance of 51 to 72 human strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated annually from 1998 to 2001 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, varied from 1 to 12% for erythromycin, 43 to 68% for tetracycline, and 10 to 47% for ciprofloxacin. In the last years of the study, there was a significant increase in the rate of resistance

Christiane Gaudreau; Huguette Gilbert

2003-01-01

362

Evaluation of survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in ciliates isolated from Johne’s positive cow.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in farm environments is not well understood. Previously we examined the ability of amoebae from a cow’s watering trough to sequester and enhance growth of Map and found that one amoeba species released vesicles containin...

363

Effects of Orally Administered Viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS on Mouse Lymphocyte Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunomodulation by probiotics is a subject of growing interest, but the knowledge of dose response and time profile relationships is minimal. In this study we examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS (PJS) on the proliferative activity of murine lymphocytes ex vivo. Dose dependency was assessed by treating animals perorally with a low

PIRKKA V. KIRJAVAINEN; HANI S. ELNEZAMI; SEPPO J. SALMINEN; JORMA T. AHOKAS; PAUL F. A. WRIGHT

1999-01-01

364

Genome Sequence of Halanaerobium saccharolyticum subsp. saccharolyticum Strain DSM 6643T, a Halophilic Hydrogen-Producing Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Halanaerobium saccharolyticum is a halophilic anaerobic fermentative bacterium capable of producing hydrogen, a potential future energy carrier molecule. The high-quality draft genome of H. saccharolyticum subsp. saccharolyticum strain DSM 6643T consists of 24 contigs for 2,873,865 bp with a G+C content of 32.3%.

Larjo, Antti; Ciranna, Alessandro; Santala, Ville; Roos, Christophe; Karp, Matti

2013-01-01

365

Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro  

PubMed Central

The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR-), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR-)] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR- or GRM+ IR- when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight.

Thompson, Kim D.; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A.

2007-01-01

366

Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro.  

PubMed

The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR(-)), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR(-))] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR(-) or GRM+ IR(-) when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight. PMID:17679772

Jung, Tae S; Thompson, Kim D; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A

2007-09-01

367

In Silico Identification of Epitopes in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Proteins That Were Upregulated under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease in ruminants is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is difficult, especially in the early stages. To date, ideal antigen candidates are not available for efficient immunization or immunodiagnosis. This study reports the in silico selection and subsequent analysis of epitopes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins that were found to be upregulated under stress conditions as a means to identify immunogenic candidate proteins. Previous studies have reported differential regulation of proteins when M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is exposed to stressors which induce a response similar to dormancy. Dormancy may be involved in evading host defense mechanisms, and the host may also mount an immune response against these proteins. Twenty-five M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins that were previously identified as being upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were analyzed for B and T cell epitopes by use of the prediction tools at the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource. Major histocompatibility complex class I T cell epitopes were predicted using an artificial neural network method, and class II T cell epitopes were predicted using the consensus method. Conformational B cell epitopes were predicted from the relevant three-dimensional structure template for each protein. Based on the greatest number of predicted epitopes, eight proteins (MAP2698c [encoded by desA2], MAP2312c [encoded by fadE19], MAP3651c [encoded by fadE3_2], MAP2872c [encoded by fabG5_2], MAP3523c [encoded by oxcA], MAP0187c [encoded by sodA], and the hypothetical proteins MAP3567 and MAP1168c) were identified as potential candidates for study of antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses within infected hosts.

Gurung, Ratna B.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.

2012-01-01

368

Suspicion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Transmission between Cattle and Wild-Living Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) by Multitarget Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Multitarget genotyping of the etiologic agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is necessary for epidemiological tracing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). The study was undertaken to assess the informative value of different typing techniques and individual genome markers by investigation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between wild-living red deer and farmed cattle with known shared habitats. Fifty-three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates were differentiated by short sequence repeat analysis (SSR; 4 loci), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR; 8 loci), and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on IS900 (IS900-RFLP) using BstEII and PstI digestion. Isolates originated from free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Eifel National Park (n = 13), six cattle herds living in the area of this park (n = 23), and five cattle herds without any contact with these red deer (n = 17). Data based on individual herds and genotypes verified that SSR G2 repeats did not exhibit sufficient stability for epidemiological studies. Two common SSR profiles (without G2 repeats), nine MIRU-VNTR patterns, and nine IS900-RFLP patterns were detected, resulting in 17 genotypes when combined. A high genetic variability was found for red deer and cattle isolates within and outside Eifel National Park, but it was revealed only by combination of different typing techniques. Results imply that within this restricted area, wild-living and farmed animals maintain a reservoir for specific M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes. No host relation of genotypes was obtained. Results suggested that four genotypes had been transmitted between and within species and that one genotype had been transmitted between cattle herds only. Use of multitarget genotyping for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains and sufficiently stable genetic markers is essential for reliable interpretations of epidemiological studies on paratuberculosis.

Fritsch, Isabel; Luyven, Gabriele; Kohler, Heike; Lutz, Walburga

2012-01-01

369

Large crystal toxin formation in chromosomally engineered Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai due to ?E accumulation.  

PubMed

Seven distinct Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants were constructed that carried the chitinase (chiBlA) gene from B. licheniformis under the control of the cry11Aa promoter and terminator with and without p19 and p20 genes. The toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants against second-instar Spodoptera litura larvae was increased 1.8- to 4.6-fold compared to that of the wild-type strain (BTA1). Surprisingly, the enhanced toxicity in some strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai integrants (BtaP19CS, BtaP19CSter, and BtaCAT) correlated with an increase in toxin formation. To investigate the role of these genes in toxin production, the expression profiles of the toxin genes, cry1Aa and chiBlA, as well as their transcriptional regulators (sigK and sigE), were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) from BTA1, BtaP19CS, and BtaCAT. Expression levels of cry1Aa in these two integrants increased about 2- to 3-fold compared to those of BTA1. The expression of the transcription factor sigK also was prolonged in the integrants compared to that of the wild type; however, sigE expression was unchanged. Western blot analysis of ?(E) and ?(K) showed the prolonged accumulation of ?(E) in the integrants compared to that of BTA1, resulting in the increased synthesis of pro-?(K) up to T(17) after the onset of sporulation in both BtaP19CS and BtaCAT compared to that of T(13) in BTA1. The results from qPCR indicate clearly that the cry1Aa promoter activity was influenced most strongly by ?(E), whereas cry11Aa depended mostly on ?(K). These results on large-crystal toxin formation with enhanced toxicity should provide useful information for the generation of strains with improved insecticidal activity. PMID:22267677

Buasri, Wasin; Panbangred, Watanalai

2012-01-20

370

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis 167 Carrying Lancefield Group C Antigen and Comparative Genomics of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Strains  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is an emerging human pathogen that causes life-threatening invasive infections such as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Recent epidemiological studies reveal that invasive SDSE infections have been increasing in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Almost all SDSE carry Lancefield group G or C antigen. We have determined the complete genome sequence of a human group C SDSE 167 strain. A comparison of its sequence with that of four SDSE strains, three in Lancefield group G and one in Lancefield group A, showed approximately 90% coverage. Most regions showing little or no homology were located in the prophages. There was no evidence of massive rearrangement in the genome of SDSE 167. Bayesian phylogeny using entire genome sequences showed that the most recent common ancestor of the five SDSE strains appeared 446 years ago. Interestingly, we found that SDSE 167 harbors sugar metabolizing enzymes in a unique region and streptodornase in the phage region, which presumably contribute to the degradation of host tissues and the prompted covRS mutation, respectively. A comparison of these five SDSE strains, which differ in Lancefield group antigens, revealed a gene cluster presumably responsible for the synthesis of the antigenic determinant. These results may provide the basis for molecular epidemiological research of SDSE.

Watanabe, Shinya; Kirikae, Teruo; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

2013-01-01

371

Strain-dependent effects of inoculation of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum on fermentation quality of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) silage.  

PubMed

Paddy rice has been of particular interest as a forage crop in Japan. In this study, the isolated strains TO1000, TO1001, TO1002, and TO1003 were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic approaches. These strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum by species-specific PCR. Phenotypic characteristics varied among different strains of the same subspecies, and the strains represented unique and diverse phenotypes related to fermentation factors, such as carbohydrate assimilation and range of pH and temperature allowing growth. PCR analysis revealed that the patterns of presence/absence of known plantaricin genes differed in a strain-specific manner. Using these strains as inoculants for preparation of whole crop paddy rice silage, fermentation quality was significantly improved, as shown by lower pH, higher lactic acid content, and inhibition of the growth of undesirable microorganisms such as molds, coliform bacteria, and clostridia, after 30 and 60 days of storage, with effectiveness differing from strain to strain. These observations suggest that suitable candidates for bacterial inoculants in silage preparation should be screened at the strain level. Strain TO1002 may be useful for producing silage inoculants for the production of well-preserved whole crop paddy rice silage. PMID:23003205

Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Uegaki, Ryuichi

2012-10-15

372

Novel quorum-sensing-controlled genes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: identification of a fungal elicitor homologue in a soft-rotting bacterium.  

PubMed

Seven new genes controlled by the quorum-sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) have been identified in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Using TnphoA as a mutagen, we enriched for mutants defective in proteins that could play a role in the interaction between E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and its plant hosts, and identified NipEcc and its counterpart in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. These are members of a growing family of proteins related to Nep1 from Fusarium oxysporum which can induce necrotic responses in a variety of dicotyledonous plants. NipEcc produced necrosis in tobacco, NipEca affected potato stem rot, and both affected virulence in potato tubers. In E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, nip was shown to be subject to weak repression by the LuxR family regulator, EccR, and may be regulated by the negative global regulator RsmA. PMID:15828686

Pemberton, C L; Whitehead, N A; Sebaihia, M; Bell, K S; Hyman, L J; Harris, S J; Matlin, A J; Robson, N D; Birch, P R J; Carr, J P; Toth, I K; Salmond, G P C

2005-04-01

373

Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Nyman and Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench (Labiatae).  

PubMed

The two studied Calamintha species showed different polyphenolic content and sterol composition. Calamintha grandiflora possessed twice the polyphenolic content of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa, while the latter contained a higher number of sterols. Among them, stigmast-5-en-3?-ol was found to be the major constituent. The methanolic extract of C. grandiflora was more potent than the C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa methanolic extract in a DPPH assay, while the activity of the C. grandiflora EtOAc fraction was weaker than its C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa counterpart. Fractions of C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa showed higher activity using a ?-carotene bleaching test. The petrol ether fraction of C. grandiflora showed significant inhibition of NO production. PMID:21861645

Conforti, Filomena; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Federica; Uzunov, Dimitar; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

2011-08-23

374

Novel Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and the Diversity of epsE Genes in the Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Gene Clusters.  

PubMed

To characterize novel variations of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by dairy strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris, the EPSs of five dairy strains of L. lactis were purified. Sugar composition analysis showed two novel EPSs produced by strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis. One strain produced EPS lacking galactose, and the other produced EPS containing fucose. Among the eps gene clusters of these strains, the highly conserved epsD and its neighboring epsE were sequenced. Sequence and PCR analysis revealed that epsE genes were strain-specific. By Southern blot analysis using epsD, the eps gene cluster in each strain was found to locate to the chromosome or a very large plasmid. This is the first report on the identification of two novel EPSs in L. lactis subsp. lactis. The strains can be detected among other strains by using epsE genes specific to them. PMID:24096663

Suzuki, Chise; Kobayashi, Miho; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi

2013-10-07

375

Application of a Peptide-Mediated Magnetic Separation-Phage Assay for Detection of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Bovine Bulk Tank Milk and Feces Samples?†  

PubMed Central

Naturally contaminated bovine bulk tank milk (n = 44) and feces (n = 39) were tested for the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a novel peptide-mediated magnetic separation-phage (PMS-phage) assay. Counts of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells ranging from 1 to 110 PFU/50 ml of milk and 6 to 41,111 PFU/g of feces were indicated by the PMS-phage assay.

Foddai, Antonio; Strain, Samuel; Whitlock, Robert H.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Grant, Irene R.

2011-01-01

376

The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing system affects growth rate, swimming motility and virulence in Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is a Gram-negative bacterium and is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) in cucurbits. In this study, the role\\u000a played by the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing (QS) system in growth, swimming motility and virulence was\\u000a characterized in A.\\u000a avenae subsp. citrulli strain XJL12. The AHL synthase gene of the QS system from strain

Jiaqin Fan; Guoliang Qian; Tao Chen; Yuqiang Zhao; Fengquan Liu; Ron R. Walcott; Baishi Hu

2011-01-01

377

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Inhibits Gamma Interferon-Induced Signaling in Bovine Monocytes: Insights into the Cellular Mechanisms of Johne's Disease  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and may have implications for human health. Establishment of chronic infection by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis depends on its subversion of host immune responses. This includes blocking the ability of infected macrophages to be activated by gamma interferon (IFN-?) for clearance of this intracellular pathogen. To define the mechanism by which M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis subverts this critical host cell function, patterns of signal transduction to IFN-? stimulation of uninfected and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes were determined through bovine-specific peptide arrays for kinome analysis. Pathway analysis of the kinome data indicated activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, a hallmark of IFN-? signaling, in uninfected monocytes. In contrast, IFN-? stimulation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes failed to induce patterns of peptide phosphorylation consistent with JAK-STAT activation. The inability of IFN-? to induce differential phosphorylation of peptides corresponding to early JAK-STAT intermediates in infected monocytes indicates that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis blocks responsiveness at, or near, the IFN-? receptor. Consistent with this hypothesis, increased expression of negative regulators of the IFN-? receptors SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well as decreased expression of IFN-? receptor chains 1 and 2 is observed in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes. These patterns of expression are functionally consistent with the kinome data and offer a mechanistic explanation for this critical M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis behavior. Understanding this mechanism may contribute to the rational design of more effective vaccines and/or therapeutics for Johne's disease.

Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Bell, Kelli; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip J.; Kusalik, Anthony

2012-01-01

378

The chromosome map of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 is highly similar to that of the Bacillus cereus type strain ATCC 14579  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical map of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 chromosome based on AscI, NotI, and SfiI restriction sites has been established. The chromosome map of 4.3 Mb was similar to a revised map of the chromosome of the B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579, except that the B. thuringiensis subsp. canadensis HD224 chromosome lacked a NotI site and had

Cathrine Rein Carlson; Trine Johansen; Anne-Brit Kolstø

1996-01-01

379

A molecular beacon-based real-time NASBA assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular beacon-based real-time NASBA assay for detection and identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has been developed. It targets and amplifies sequences from the dnaA gene which are specific for this bacterium. The assay includes an internal amplification control, to allow identification of inhibited reactions. The assay was tested against 18 isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, 17 other

David Rodr??guez-Lázaro; Joy Lloyd; Arnold Herrewegh; John Ikonomopoulos; Martin D'Agostino; Maria Pla; Nigel Cook

2004-01-01

380

Molecular cloning and expression of a proteinase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H2 and construction of a new lactococcal vector pFX1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 6.5 kb HindIII DNA fragment of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H2 plasmid pDI21 was cloned into Escherichia coli POP13 with ?NM1149, and also directly into Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 4125 using a newly-constructed broad host-range vector pFX1. Proteinase was experessed in both transformed organisms. The proteinase resembles a PI type since it preferentially degraded ?-casein. The restriction map

Feng-Feng Xu; Lindsay E. Pearce; Pak-Lam Yu

1990-01-01

381

Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5 Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5 Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3 minor groove binder- DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with

Lyle McMillen; Geoffry Fordyce; Vivienne J. Doogan; Ala E. Lew

382

Key role for the alternative sigma factor, SigH, in the intracellular life of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during macrophage stress.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, an enteric infection in cattle and other ruminants, greatly afflicting the dairy industry worldwide. Once inside the cell, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is known to survive harsh microenvironments, especially those inside activated macrophages. To improve our understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we examined phagosome maturation associated with transcriptional responses of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis during macrophage infection. Monitoring cellular markers, only live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were able to prevent phagosome maturation and reduce its acidification. On the transcriptional level, over 300 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes were significantly and differentially regulated in both naive and IFN-?-activated macrophages. These genes include the sigma factor H (sigH) that was shown to be important for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival inside gamma interferon (IFN-?)-activated bovine macrophages. Interestingly, an sigH-knockout mutant showed increased sensitivity to a sustained level of thiol-specific oxidative stress. Large-scale RNA sequence analysis revealed that a large number of genes belong to the sigH regulon, especially following diamide stress. Genes involved in oxidative stress and virulence were among the induced genes in the sigH regulon with a putative consensus sequence for SigH binding that was recognized in a subset of these genes (n = 30), suggesting direct regulation by SigH. Finally, mice infections showed a significant attenuation of the ?sigH mutant compared to its parental strain, suggesting a role for sigH in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence. Such analysis could identify potential targets for further testing as vaccine candidates against Johne's disease. PMID:23569115

Ghosh, Pallab; Wu, Chia-wei; Talaat, Adel M

2013-04-08

383

Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp . mycoides small colony type isolated in China between 1953 and 1960 show close similarity to strains of the Africa\\/Australia cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, six Chinese strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) isolated between 1953–1960 were analysed and their molecular characteristics compared to those of the African PG1 and Afade strains, the European C305 and 138\\/5 strains and the closely related caprine M. mycoides subsp.mycoides large colony type Y-goat strain. PCR amplification of long DNA fragments showed

Yuan Li; Jiuqing Xin; Yulong Gao; Jianhua Zhang; Robin A. J. Nicholas; Yiqing Lin

2009-01-01

384

Isolation of High-Affinity Single-Chain Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Surface Proteins from Sheep with Johne's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johne's disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools—necessary to understand disease processes and to identify subclinical infection—are much sought after. Here, we describe the production of single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) were generated from

Sven Berger; Dominik Hinz; John P. Bannantine; J. F. T. Griffin

2006-01-01

385

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection causes suppression of RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in peripheral blood of experimentally infected cattle.  

PubMed

Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-alpha, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection. PMID:14638822

Buza, Joram J; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M; Hikono, Hirokazu; Aodon-geril; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

2003-12-01

386

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle  

PubMed Central

Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-?, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.

Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

2003-01-01

387

Homodimeric ?-galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and biochemical characterization.  

PubMed

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ~170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS. PMID:22283494

Nguyen, Tien-Thanh; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Mlynek, Georg; Djinovi?-Carugo, Kristina; Mathiesen, Geir; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Haltrich, Dietmar

2012-02-09

388

A model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in whey.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038) is a bacterium that is used as a starter for dairy products by Meiji Co., Ltd of Japan. Culturing L. bulgaricus 2038 with whey as the sole nitrogen source results in a shorter lag phase than other milk proteins under the same conditions (carbon source, minerals, and vitamins). Microarray results of gene expression revealed characteristics of amino acid anabolism with whey as the nitrogen source and established a model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for L. bulgaricus. Whey peptides and free amino acids are readily metabolized, enabling rapid entry into the logarithmic growth phase. The oligopeptide transport system is the primary pathway for obtaining amino acids. Amino acid biosynthesis maintains the balance between amino acids required for cell growth and the amount obtained from environment. The interconversion of amino acids is also important for L. bulgaricus 2038 growth. PMID:22986815

Liu, Enuo; Zheng, Huajun; Hao, Pei; Konno, Tomonobu; Yu, Yao; Kume, Hisae; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

2012-09-18

389

Antioxidant activity of polyphenol and ultrasonic extracts from fruits of Crataegus pentagyna subsp. elburensis.  

PubMed

The effects of two extracting methods on the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Crataegus pentagyna subsp. elburensis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd fruit extracts were investigated. Antioxidant activities of polyphenol (PP) fraction and ultrasonic (US) extraction were evaluated with four different in vitro antioxidant tests. IC(50) for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 32.2 ± 1.6 for PP fraction and 36.7 ± 1.5 µg mL(-1) for US extract. Reducing powers of extracts increased with the increase of their concentrations. PP fraction exhibited high reducing power at 2-32 µg mL(-1). Extracts exhibited good H(2)O(2) radical scavenging and Fe(2+) chelating ability. Their high phenolic and flavonoid contents could be responsible for their antioxidant activity and pharmacologic actions. PMID:22428996

Rabiei, Kh; Bekhradnia, S; Nabavi, S M; Nabavi, S F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A

2012-03-19

390

Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.  

PubMed

Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques. PMID:22312731

Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

2011-12-01

391

Alkaline serine protease produced from citric acid by Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. halodurans KP 1239.  

PubMed

Maximum production of alkaline serine protease by Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. halodurans KP 1239 was achieved after 24 h cultivation, at an initial pH of 7.6, on a medium containing 1.0% sodium citrate, 0.3% yeast extract, and 0.3% KH2PO4. The enzyme was purified to crystalline form from culture broth. The enzyme was most active at 60 degrees C and at pH 11.5. The molecular weight, isoelectric point and sedimentation coefficient in water at 20 degrees C were estimated as 29,000, 8.8 and 3.3S, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was Ala-Gln-Ser-Val-Pro-Trp-Gly-Ile-Ser-Arg-Val-Gln-Ala-Pro-Ala-Ala- His-Asn-Arg-Gly-. The enzyme shared its antigenic determinants with B. alcalophilus ATCC 21522 serine protease, but not with the subtilisins Carlsberg and BPN'. PMID:1370021

Takii, Y; Kuriyama, N; Suzuki, Y

1990-10-01

392

Optimization of medium composition for the production of mosquitocidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed

Optimization of chicken feather (CF) based culture medium for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) biomass in combination with the agro industrial by-product (coconut cake, CC) and manganese chloride (MnCl2) has been evaluated. The biomass yield of Bti spore/crystal toxin was highest (12.06 g/L) from the test medium (CF+CC+MnCl2) compared to the reference medium (Luria Bertani, LB). Toxicity assay with Bti produced from the test medium against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) was also satisfactory and results were comparable with bacteria produced from LB. The results suggest that Bti can be produced to the maximum extent possible as a potential mosquitocidal activity as suggested by the test medium (CF+CC+MnCl2). PMID:22279944

Poopathi, Subbiah; Archana, B

2012-01-01

393

Complete genome sequence of the strong mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Heidelberg strain B182.  

PubMed

In bacteria, normal mutation frequencies are mostly around 10(-10) per base pair. However, there exists natural isolates, called "mutators," that exhibit permanent mutation occurrences up to 1,000-fold greater than usual. As mutations play essential roles, particularly in the evolution of antibiotic resistance, bacteria showing elevated mutation rates could have an important responsibility in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially in the clinical background. In this announcement, we report the first complete genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Heidelberg B182 mutator strain, isolated from bovine feces (France), which consists of a 4,750,465-bp circular chromosome (cB182_4750; GC, 52.2%) and one circular plasmid of 37,581 bp (pB182_37; GC, 42.8%). PMID:22689230

Le Bars, Hervé; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique

2012-07-01

394

Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.  

PubMed

Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients. PMID:20437392

Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

395

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of selenium exopolysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated and purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis culture broth. Selenium chloride oxide (SeCl(2)O) was added to the EPS to synthesize selenium-exopolysaccharide (Se-EPS). The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of EPS and Se-EPS were compared. EPS and Se-EPS scavenged superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. They also increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, while decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum and in the livers of mice. Se-EPS showed stronger in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity than were shown by EPS. The in vivo immunoenhancement activity of EPS and Se-EPS induced by cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment in immunosuppressed mice was researched. EPS and Se-EPS treatments increased macrophage phagocytosis, spleen and thymus indices and haemolytic complement activity (HC(50)). Se-EPS showed stronger immunomodulatory activity than did EPS. PMID:23265459

Guo, Yuxing; Pan, Daodong; Li, Hua; Sun, Yangying; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Yan, Bingxiang

2012-11-02

396

A novel cryptic plasmid pBMB175 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis YBT-1765.  

PubMed

A new cryptic plasmid pBMB175 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis YBT-1765 was isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that pBMB175 (14,841 bp and 31% GC content) contained at least eighteen putative open reading frames (ORFs), among which nine ORFs displayed the homology with the hypothetical proteins in rolling-circle replication plasmid pGI3. Deletion analysis revealed that the pBMB175 minireplicon located in a novel 1,151 bp fragment. This fragment contains ORF7 coding sequence, which encodes a protein (Rep175, 149 amino acids [aa]) indispensable for plasmid replication. Rep175 has no significant homology with known function proteins. Furthermore, a putative double-strand origin (dso), having no DNA similarity with characterized dso of other replicon so far, was identified in this minireplicon fragment. These features showed that pBMB175 could be placed into a new plasmid family. PMID:17310366

Huang, Junyan; Han, Dongmei; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

2007-02-20

397

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson essential oil.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of the essential oil of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson. Analysis of the oil composition revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.3%) dominate, cis-?-guaiene, ?-selinene and (E)-caryophyllene being the most representative. Significant values of antioxidant activity were found using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The essential oil revealed antiproliferative activity as evaluated on human glioblastoma (T98G), human prostatic adenocarcinoma (PC3), human squamous carcinoma (A431) and mouse melanoma (B16-F1) tumour cell lines by MTT assay. PMID:22480321

Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo; Sagratini, Gianni; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo

2012-04-05

398

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 ?-Fucosidases Are Active on Fucosylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 utilizes several small-mass neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), several of which are fucosylated. Whereas previous studies focused on endpoint consumption, a temporal glycan consumption profile revealed a time-dependent effect. Specifically, among preferred HMOs, tetraose was favored early in fermentation, with other oligosaccharides consumed slightly later. In order to utilize fucosylated oligosaccharides, ATCC 15697 possesses several fucosidases, implicating GH29 and GH95 ?-l-fucosidases in a gene cluster dedicated to HMO metabolism. Evaluation of the biochemical kinetics demonstrated that ATCC 15697 expresses three fucosidases with a high turnover rate. Moreover, several ATCC 15697 fucosidases are active on the linkages inherent to the HMO molecule. Finally, the HMO cluster GH29 ?-l-fucosidase possesses a crystal structure that is similar to previously characterized fucosidases.

Sela, David A.; Garrido, Daniel; Lerno, Larry; Wu, Shuai; Tan, Kemin; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

2012-01-01

399

The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. Sativa (Haw.) Celak.  

PubMed

Many ethnic groups have used different species of Portulaca oleracea L., a member of the Family Portulacaceae, as vegetable and also herbal medicine against several diseases for many centuries. A review of the records in both folkloric and scientific literature indicates that Portulaca has many medicinal uses. After our previous preliminary screening of three species of the family for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. sativa (Haw.) Celak. (a cultivar) was chosen for further work due to its abundant availability from reliable sources. The 10% ethanolic extract of the aerial parts (dried leaves and stem) showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic after intraperitoneal and topical but not oral administration when compared with the synthetic drug, diclofenac sodium as the active control. Results indicate this cultivar species of Portulaca also possesses some of the claimed traditional uses of the wild species in the relief of pain and inflammation. PMID:11090998

Chan, K; Islam, M W; Kamil, M; Radhakrishnan, R; Zakaria, M N; Habibullah, M; Attas, A

2000-12-01

400

Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of endemic Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the aerial parts of Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa was evaluated against microorganisms, including multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, using the paper disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the chloroform extract of this plant was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chloroform extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity for all bacteria tested, which are important pathogens. The major compounds of the chloroform extract were caryophyllene oxide (20.79%), spathulenol (14.73%), beta-eudesmol (9.27%), beta-caryophyllene (6.84%), n-cetylalcohol (6.27%), cubenol (5.23%) and cis-alpha-santalol (4.67%), respectively. PMID:20461631

Ugur, Aysel; Sarac, Nurdan; Ceylan, Ozgur; Emin Duru, M

2010-05-01

401

Proteotyping of Holm Oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) Provenances Through Proteomic Analysis of Acorn Flour.  

PubMed

Proteomics has become a powerful tool to characterize biodiversity and natural variability in plant species, as well as to catalogue and establish phylogenetic relationships and distances among populations, provenances or ecotypes. In this chapter, we describe the standard proteomics workflow that we currently use in cataloguing Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) populations. Proteins are extracted from acorn flour or pollen by TCA/acetone or TCA/acetone-phenol methods, resolved by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and gel images are captured and analyzed by appropriate software and statistical packages. Quantitative or qualitative variable bands or spots are subjected to MS analysis in order to identify them and correlate differences in the protein profile with the phenotypes or environmental conditions. PMID:24136558

Galván, José Valero; Fernández, Raquel González; Valledor, Luis; Cerrillo, Rafael Ma Navarro; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

2014-01-01

402

[Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].  

PubMed

The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids. PMID:20695226

Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

403

In vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of extracts of Galium tricornutum subsp. longipedunculatum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts and fractions of the ariel parts and the fruits of Galium tricornutum subsp. longipedunculatum, traditionally used in northern areas of Pakistan for treating microbial infections of skin. Extracts and their fractions were tested against six bacteria and six fungal strains using the hole diffusion method and macrodilution method. All extracts and fractions possessed significant antimicrobial effect. Four fungal strains, Candida albicans, Trichophyton longifusus, Fusarium.solani and Candida glabrata, showed interesting susceptibility profiles when evaluated using the extracts and fractions with MICs ranging from 0.18 to 200 mg/mL. In case of bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi were significantly susceptible to the extracts and fractions with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 200 mg/mL. Comparative results were carried out using imepenem, miconazole and amphotericin B as standard antibiotics. PMID:18608788

Khaliq Jan, Abdul; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Anis, Itrat; Khan Marwat, Inamullah

2009-02-01

404

Cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed

Cyt1Aa is the major and most active component of the parasporal crystal of the Gram-positive soil entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cyt1Aa protoxin exhibits some hemolytic and cytolytic activity. However, highly active 22-25 kDa toxins are obtained after proteolysis of Cyt1Aa from both the N- and the C-termini. As shown in this study, preliminary binding of the protoxin to polylamellary liposomes or partial denaturation of Cyt1Aa and further processing by several exogenous proteases yielded short 4.9-11.5 kDa cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa. The shortest 51 amino acid peptide was obtained after pre-incubation of Cyt1Aa with SDS and proteolysis with proteinase K. This peptide was purified, identified as the Ile87-Asp137 fragment of Cyt1Aa and was shown to exhibit more than 30 % hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes. PMID:22875467

Nisnevitch, Marina; Nikonov, Svetlana; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

2013-03-01

405

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method  

PubMed Central

In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection.

Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernandez-Pando, R.; Romano, Maria Isabel

2011-01-01

406

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method.  

PubMed

In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection. PMID:21772965

Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernández-Pando, R; Romano, María Isabel

2011-06-16

407

Identification and characterization of three previously undescribed crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed

The total protoxin complement in the parasporal body of mosquitocidal strain, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan 367, was determined by use of a polyacrylamide gel block coupled to mass spectrometry. A total of eight protoxins were identified from this strain, including five reported protoxins (Cry11Ba, Cry19Aa, Cry24Aa, Cry25Aa, and Cyt2Bb), as well as three previously undescribed (Cry30Ca, Cry60Aa, and Cry60Ba) in this isolate. It was interesting that the encoding genes of three new protoxins existed as cry30Ca-gap-orf2 and cry60Ba-gap-cry60Aa. The cry30Ca and a downstream orf2 gene were oriented in the same direction and separated by 114 bp, and cry60Ba was located 156 bp upstream from and in the same orientation to cry60Aa. The three new protoxin genes were cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and expressed in an acrystalliferous strain under the control of cyt1A gene promoters and the STAB-SD stabilizer sequence. Recombinant strain containing only cry30Ca did not produce visible inclusion under microscope observation, while that containing both cry30Ca and orf2 could produce large inclusions. Cry60Aa and Cry60Ba synthesized either alone or together in the acrystalliferous host could yield large inclusions. In bioassays using the fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Cry60Aa and Cry60Ba alone or together had estimated 50% lethal concentrations of 2.9 to 7.9 ?g/ml; however, Cry30Ca with or without ORF2 was not toxic to this mosquito. PMID:23524673

Sun, Yunjun; Zhao, Qiang; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Hu, Quanfang; Federici, Brian A; Park, Hyun-Woo

2013-03-22

408

In vivo morphological and antigenic characteristics of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to examine the morphology and antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida by culturing the bacterium in vivo in the peritoneal cavity of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) within dialysis bags with either a low molecular weight (LMW) cut-off of 25 kDa or a high molecular weight (HMW) cut-off of 300 kDa. Differences were observed in the growth rate between the bacteria cultured in vivo or in vitro. Bacteria cultured in vivo were smaller and produced a capsular layer, which was more prominent in bacteria cultured in the HMW bag. Antigenicity was examined by Western blot analysis using sera from sea bass injected with live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera recognised bands at 45 and 20 kDa in bacteria cultured in vivo in the LMW bag. Bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag did not express the 45 kDa band when whole cell extracts were examined, although the antigen was present in their extracellular products. In addition, these bacteria had a band at 18 kDa rather than 20 kDa. Differences in glycoprotein were also evident between bacteria cultured in vitro and in vivo. Bacteria cultured in vitro in LMW and HMW bags displayed a single 26 kDa band. Bacteria cultured in the LMW bag in vivo displayed bands at 26 and 27 kDa, while bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag possessed only the 27 kDa band. These bands may represent sialic acid. The significance of the changes observed in the bacterium's structure and antigenicity when cultured in vivo is discussed. PMID:18487938

Jung, Tae S; Thompson, Kim D; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A

2008-06-01

409

Genome and transcriptome scale portrait of sigma factors in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic gastroenteritis of ruminants and other animals, including primates. Many evidences suggested association of MAP to Crohn's disease, a chronic granulomatous gastrointestinal disease of humans with strong similarities with JD. The present study attempts to evaluate global gene regulation in MAP, which has not been addressed previously, despite the availability of MAP genome sequence. For this purpose, we investigated: (i) the presence of sigma factors and their relationship to sigma factors of other mycobacteria (M. avium subsp.avium, M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. leprae and M. smegmatis), and (ii) their expression during different growth conditions and in vitro infection of intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. MAP genome contains 19 putative sigma factor, but only 12 belong to gene families common to other mycobacteria. Gene expression was evaluated with Real-Time PCR during growth in 7H9 medium and mycobactin J, in 7H9 medium plus mycobactin J and lisozyme, and during infection of Caco2 cells: very different expression patterns were observed and, on the whole, only 7 sigma factors were found to be expressed. sigJ was upregulated during the infection of Caco2 cells. Even if only few sigma factors were expressed in the three conditions tested, the overall high numbers of MAP sigma factors suggests a noteworthy flexibility of this pathogen. Thus, this first report on expression of MAP sigma factors opens the way to an extensive characterization of global gene regulation, as a key to understand strategies of survival and mechanisms of infections used by this organism. PMID:17292677

Sechi, Leonardo A; Felis, Giovanna E; Ahmed, Niyaz; Paccagnini, Daniela; Usai, Donatella; Ortu, Silvia; Molicotti, Paola; Zanetti, Stefania

2007-01-12

410

Antibody response to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium in small holder dairy goats in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), an Office International des Epizooties listed disease, can cause significant levels of morbidity and mortality in goats in Africa, the Middle East, and Western Asia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of CCPP, in two contrasting administrative districts of northern Tanzania, namely, Babati and Arumeru. A total of 337 serum samples were collected from January to July 2010, from apparently clinically healthy unvaccinated dairy goats breeds of different ages and sexes. Samples were subjected to monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the specific measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium. The overall animal flock and village-level seroprevalence of CCPP was found to be 3.3 % [95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.6-5.8], 9.6 % (95 % CI?=?4.7-16.9), and 31.5 % (95 % CI?=?15.6-56.5), respectively. There was no evidence (p?=?0.659) of differences in seroprevalence between samples from the two administrative locations. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) in seropositivity between sex and age and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p?subsp. capripneumoniae, although at a low prevalence. It is therefore advisable to include CCPP serology in the seromonitoring program so as to give a better indication of flock immunity. This should lead to the establishment of appropriate CCPP control measures in smallholder dairy goat flocks, which are increasingly being recognized for their value as a vital source of livelihood for resource poor livestock keepers in Tanzania. PMID:23558376

Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kaaya, Jackson Eliona; Noah, Elly Yesse

2013-04-05

411

Genome-Wide DNA Microarray Analysis of Francisella tularensis Strains Demonstrates Extensive Genetic Conservation within the Species but Identifies Regions That Are Unique to the Highly Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies.

Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Par; Johansson, Anders; Bystrom, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G.; Sjostedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W.; Forsman, Mats

2003-01-01

412

Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n=754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10(6)-10(8)CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa. PMID:24131584

Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-09-21

413

Syntrophomonas erecta subsp. sporosyntropha subsp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium that degrades short chain fatty acids in co-culture with methanogens.  

PubMed

Two obligate anaerobic bacterial strains (5-3-Z(T) and Y4-1) were isolated from river sediment and rice field mud, respectively. They degraded straight-chain fatty acids with 4-8 carbon atoms in syntrophic association with methanogens, however, neither tested branch-chain fatty acids nor could benzoate be degraded. The strains formed spores when cocultured with methanogens on butyrate, or when grew on butyrate plus dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in pure culture. The cells were slightly curved rods with Gram-negative cell wall structure, and contained small amount of poly beta-hydroxyalkanoate. The strains could not degrade butyrate alone, nor could use fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur or nitrate as electron acceptors except DMSO for butyrate degradation. The generation time of strain 5-3-Z(T) was about 12h when growing on crotonate at 37 degrees C. The growth of the new strains occurred in the range of pH 5.5-8.4, and of temperature 20-48 degrees C, and at NaCl concentration of 0-700 mM. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5-3-Z(T) was 40.6mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the two strains to be a member of species Syntrophomonas erecta (98.4-98.9% sequence similarity), however they differed from the existing strains in both phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Therefore, a new subspecies of S. erecta, S. erecta subsp. sporosyntropha was proposed. The type strain was 5-3-Z(T) (=CGMCC1.5032(T)=JCM13344(T)). PMID:16455220

Wu, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Xiuzhu

2006-02-07

414

Cell-Wall-Bound Proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178: Characterization and Specificity for ?-Casein  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178, which was isolated from Greek Kasseri cheese, produces a cell-wall-bound proteinase. The proteinase was removed from the cell envelope by washing the cells with a Ca2+-free buffer. The crude proteinase extract shows its highest activity at pH 6.0 and 40°C. It is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, showing that the enzyme is a serine-type proteinase. Considering the substrate specificity, the enzyme is similar to the lactococcal PI-type proteinases, since it hydrolyzes ?-casein mainly and ?- and ?-caseins to a much lesser extent. The cell-wall-bound proteinase from L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178 liberates four main peptides from ?-casein, which have been identified.

Tsakalidou, E.; Anastasiou, R.; Vandenberghe, I.; van Beeumen, J.; Kalantzopoulos, G.

1999-01-01

415

Genomic differences between type strain PG1 and field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type.  

PubMed

The recently accomplished complete genomic sequence analysis of the type strain PG1 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type revealed four large repeated segments of 24, 13, 12, and 8 kb that are flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements. Genetic analysis of type strain PG1 and African, European, and Australian field and vaccine strains revealed that the 24-kb genetic locus is repeated only in PG1 and not in other M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains. In contrast, the 13-kb genetic locus was found duplicated in some strains originating from Africa and Australia but not in strains that were isolated from the European outbreaks. The 12- and 8-kb genetic loci were found in two and three copies, respectively, in all 28 strains analyzed. The flanking IS elements are assumed to lead to these tandem duplications, thus contributing to genomic plasticity. This aspect must be considered when designing novel diagnostic approaches and recombinant vaccines. PMID:16919417

Bischof, Daniela F; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim

2006-08-17

416

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 Degrades Inulin-Type Fructans Exhibiting Different Degrees of Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten strains of lactobacilli were assessed for their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans, which are well-known prebiotics. Both oligofructose and inulin were tested. The dairy isolate Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 degraded only oligofructose. The human isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei 8700:2 degraded oligofructose and long-chain inulin and grew rapidly on both energy sources. In both cases, fractions of different degrees

Lefteris Makras; Gerald Van Acker; Luc De Vuyst

2005-01-01

417

A protein complex from Choristoneura fumiferana gut-juice involved in the precipitation of ?-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp, sotto  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 75 kDa protein from spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) gut-juice has been isolated and shown to cause a specific precipitation of the ?-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. sotto. This 75 kDa protein, separated by either column chromatography or SDS-PAGE, caused precipitation of the sotto toxin in both agarose diffusion gels and the PAGE gels. The precipitation event leads to limited

R. E. Milne; A. S. D. Pang; H. Kaplan

1995-01-01

418

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis Strain IS5056, an Isolate Highly Toxic to Trichoplusia ni  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis strain IS5056 was determined. The chromosome is composed of 5,491,935 bp. In addition, IS5056 harbors 14 plasmids ranging from 6,880 to 328,151 bp, four of which contain nine insecticidal protein genes, cry1Aa3, cry1Ab21, cry1Ba1, cry1Ia14, cry2Aa9, cry2Ab1, vip1, vip2, and vip3Aa10.

Murawska, Emilia; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Bideshi, Dennis K.

2013-01-01

419

Allozyme Diversity and Geographic Variation among Populations of the Locally Endangered Taxon Carex magellanica subsp. irrigua (Cyperaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex magellanica subsp. irrigua is a wet habitat taxon that is extinct or declining in the Baltic States and Central Europe, but still quite common in northern\\u000a areas, in Fennoscandia and Alaska. We investigated the extent of genetic variation within and among populations and geographic\\u000a regions of this subspecies. Isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels was applied to characterize genetic diversity

Thea Kull; Tatjana Oja

2010-01-01

420

Time-dependent persistence of enhanced immune response by a potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible time-dependent role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in immunomodulation was investigated in BALB\\/c mice fed daily with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (108 colony forming units) for 3, 6, and 9 weeks, and following feeding with Lactobacillus-free food for a further 7 days. We observed up-regulation of the antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells, and expression of natural killer group-2

Yueh-Ting Tsai; Po-Ching Cheng; Chia-Kwung Fan; Tzu-Ming Pan

2008-01-01

421

Kinetic of production and mode of action of the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei anti-listerial bacteriocin, an Algerian isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei was isolated in our laboratory from breast-fed newborn faeces and identified phenotypically and genotypically. The strain was able to produce a bacteriocin-like substance active towards listerial strains (Listeria innocua CLIP 74915 and Listeria monocytogenes EGDe). The maximum production of the substance by producing strain was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (14h in MRS and

Farida Bendali; Brigitte Gaillard-Martinie; Michel Hebraud; Djamila Sadoun

2008-01-01

422

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

2003-01-01

423

Characterization of two nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation.  

PubMed Central

Two Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains, NCK400 and LJH80, isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation were shown to produce nisin. LJH80 was morphologically unstable and gave rise to two stable, nisin-producing (Nip+) derivatives, NCK318-2 and NCK318-3. NCK400 and derivatives of LJH80 exhibited identical morphological and metabolic characteristics, but could be distinguished on the basis of plasmid profiles and genomic hybridization patterns to a DNA probe specific for the iso-ISS1 element, IS946. NCK318-2 and NCK318-3 harbored two and three plasmids, respectively, which hybridized with IS946. Plasmid DNA was not detected in NCK400, and DNA from this strain failed to hybridize with IS946. Despite the absence of detectable plasmid DNA in NCK400, nisin-negative derivatives (NCK402 and NCK403) were isolated after repeated transfer in broth at 37 degrees C. Nisin-negative derivatives concurrently lost the ability to ferment sucrose and became sensitive to nisin. A 4-kbp HindIII fragment containing the structural gene for nisin (spaN), cloned from L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, was used to probe genomic DNA of NCK318-2, NCK318-3, NCK400, and NCK402 digested with EcoRI or HindIII. The spaN probe hybridized to an 8.8-kbp EcoRI fragment and a 10-kbp HindIII fragment in the Nip+ sauerkraut isolates, but did not hybridize to the Nip- derivative, NCK402. A different hybridization pattern was observed when the same probe was used against Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 and ATCC 7962. These phenotypic and genetic data confirmed that unique Nip+ L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were isolated from fermenting sauerkraut. Images

Harris, L J; Fleming, H P; Klaenhammer, T R

1992-01-01

424

Activation of the nitric oxide response in gilthead seabream after experimental infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of small gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) (30–75 g body weight) with a sublethal dose of different Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Pdp) strains (DI-21 and 94\\/99) induced an increase in serum concentrations of stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolites lasting from 6 h to six days post-infection, with a peak at 24 h. In contrast, no such response was detected in

F. Acosta; C. M. Ruiz de Galarreta; A. E. Ellis; R. D??az; V. Gómez; D. Padilla; F. Real

2004-01-01

425

Molecular fingerprinting of strains of Yersinia ruckeri serovar O1 and Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida isolated in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the ribotypes, patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and interspersed repeated sequences (IRS)-PCR of 30 strains of Yersiniaruckeri O1 and 20 strains of Photobacteriumdamsela subsp. piscicida isolated from apparently unrelated epizootic outbreaks occurring on Italian fish farms between 1993 and 1999. All of the Y.ruckeri O1 strains had similar profiles, as demonstrated by all three typing methods, thus

C Lucangeli; S Morabito; A Caprioli; L Achene; L Busani; E Mazzolini; A Fabris

2000-01-01

426

Apoptosis of sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.) neutrophils and macrophages induced by experimental infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the agent of fish pasteurellosis Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida resulted in the apoptosis of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages. All the eight virulent and none of the two non-virulent strains tested exhibited apoptogenic activity. A secreted bacterial protein(s) is a likely candidate as the factor(s) responsible for this

Ana do Vale; Fernanda Marques; Manuel T Silva

2003-01-01

427

Characterization of a prolidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 with an unusual regulation of biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacihs delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 (tb. bulgaricus) is characterized by a high level of peptidase activities specific to proline- containing peptides. A prolidase (PepQ, EC 3.4.13.9) was purified to homogeneity and characterized as a strict dipeptidase active on X-Pro dipeptides, except Gly-Pro and Pro-Pro. The values for Km and Vmpx were, respectively, 2.2 mM and 0.33 mmol min'l mg-l,

F. Morel; J. Frot-Coutaz; D. Aubel; R. Portalier; D. Atlan

1999-01-01

428

Transgenic Sweet Orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Expressing the attacin A Gene for Resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation with genes that code for antimicrobial peptides has been an important strategy used to control bacterial\\u000a diseases in fruit crops, including apples, pears, and citrus. Asian citrus canker (ACC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Schaad et al. (Xcc) is a very destructive disease, which affects the citrus industry in most citrus-producing areas of the world. Here, we

Suane Coutinho Cardoso; Janaynna Magalhães Barbosa-Mendes; Raquel Luciana Boscariol-Camargo; Rock Seille Carlos Christiano; Armando Bergamin Filho; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho

2010-01-01

429

Complete Sequence and Organization of pBtoxis, the Toxin-Coding Plasmid of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire 127,923-bp sequence of the toxin-encoding plasmid pBtoxis from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is presented and analyzed. In addition to the four known Cry and two known Cyt toxins, a third Cyt-type sequence was found with an additional C-terminal domain previously unseen in such proteins. Many plasmid-encoded genes could be involved in several functions other than toxin production. The

Colin Berry; Susan O'Neil; Eitan Ben-Dov; Andrew F. Jones; Lee Murphy; Michael A. Quail; Mathew T. G. Holden; David Harris; Arieh Zaritsky; Julian Parkhill

2002-01-01

430

The aggregation-mediated conjugation system of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis : Host range and kinetics of transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregation-mediated conjugation system in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis encoded on the plasmid pXO16 is characterized by the formation of aggregates when Agr+ and Agr- cells are socialized in exponential growth. Using the aggregation phenotypes, we have identified potential recipients of\\u000a the aggregation-plasmid pXO16 among Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus sphaericus, and 24 subspecies of B. thuringiensis. We

Gert B. Jensen; Lars Andrup; Andrea Wilcks; Lasse Smidt; Otto M. Poulsen

1996-01-01

431

Screening for fluorescent pseudomonades, isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato, for antagonistic activity toward Clavibacter michiganensis subsp . michiganensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial canker of tomato, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, continues to be a problem for tomato growers in the Souss-Massa Draa valley, South of Morocco. Assuming that biological\\u000a control is an alternative for the management of this disease, a total of 303 fluorescent pseudomonads strains isolated from\\u000a roots and rhizospheric soil of tomato plants were in vitro tested against

N. Amkraz; E. H. Boudyach; H. Boubaker; B. Bouizgarne; A. Ait Ben Aoumar

2010-01-01

432

New Triplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a robust TaqMan real-time PCR amplifying the F57 and the ISMav2 sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples was developed and validated. The validation was based on the recommendations of International Organization for Standardization protocols for PCR and real-time PCR methods. For specificity testing, 205 bacterial strains were selected, including 105 M. avium

H. Schonenbrucher; A. Abdulmawjood; K. Failing; M. Bulte

2008-01-01

433

Influence of pH on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 140NWC during batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pH?on growth, and lactic acid and bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 140 NWC was studied during batch fermentation in a lactose-based complex medium. Growth and lactic acid production were modelled using a simple logistic equation while substrate consumption was found to be a function of growth and lactic acid production rate. The optimal pH?for growth

E. Parente; A. Ricciardi; G. Addario

1994-01-01

434

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of an Endochitinase (ChiA-HD73) from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endochitinase gene (chiA-HD73) from the insecticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5?F?. The chitinase activity of the encoded protein was studied in assays with different fluorogenic substrates. The chiA-HD73 gene contained an open-reading frame that encoded an endochitinase with a deduced molecular weight and an isoelectric\\u000a point of, respectively, 74.5 kDa

J. Eleazar Barboza-Corona; Dora M. Reyes-Rios; Rubén Salcedo-Hernández; Dennis K. Bideshi

2008-01-01

435

Proteomic analysis of antibody response in a case of laboratory-acquired infection with Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoproteomic analysis was applied to study the immunoreactivity of serum samples collected at different time points from\\u000a a laboratory assistant accidentally infected with highly virulent strain ofFrancisella tularensis subsp.tularensis. Immunoblotting showed that the spectrum ofF. tularensis antigens recognized specifically by immune sera remained with the exception for 1 antigen stable for up to 16 years after\\u000a infection. Using immunoproteomics approach

S. Janovská; I. Pávková; M. Reichelová; M. Hubálek; J. Stulík; A. Macela

2007-01-01

436

Classification of virulent bacteriophages of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus isolated from yoghurt and Swiss-type cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve isometric-headed bacteriophages virulent against Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus were differentiated into three subgroups by analysis of the phage genomes and the structural proteins. Subgroup I is composed of two phages (P6 and P8) with a genome size of 41.2 and 44.2 kb pairs, respectively, complete DNA homology, and identical protein composition (main proteins of sizes 39.8, 24.0, 14.8 kilodaltons

Horst Neve; Uli Krusch; Michael Teuber

1989-01-01

437

Effects of High Pressure on the Viability, Morphology, Lysis, and Cell Wall Hydrolase Activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability, morphology, lysis, and cell wall hydrolase activity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 and SK11 were determined after exposure to pressure. Both strains were completely inactivated at pressures of 400 to 800 MPa but unaffected at 100 and 200 MPa. At 300 MPa, the MG1363 and SK11 populations decreased by 7.3 and 2.5 log cycles, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy

A. S. Malone; T. H. Shellhammer; P. D. Courtney

2002-01-01

438

Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Chromosomal Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Gene Cluster from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SMQ-461  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exopolysaccharide (EPS) capsule-forming strain SMQ-461 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, isolated from raw milk, produces EPS with an apparent molecular mass of >1.6 106 Da. The EPS biosynthetic genes are located on the chromosome in a 13.2-kb region consisting of 15 open reading frames. This region is flanked by three IS1077-related tnp genes (L. lactis) at the 5 end

N. Dabour; G. LaPointe

2005-01-01

439

Effect of protein supplementation on the rheological characteristics of milk permeates fermented with exopolysaccharide-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research studied the effect of addition of whey proteins on the rheological properties of ultrafiltration permeate fermented with the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1. Milk permeates containing 8% solids and various levels of added whey proteins (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) were fermented for 12h at 30°C. The rheological properties of the fermented samples were

I. Ayala-Hernández; A. N. Hassan; H. D. Goff; M. Corredig

2009-01-01

440

l(+)Lactic acid production from starch by a novel amylolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B84  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B84, capable of utilizing starch as a sole carbon source and producing l(+)-lactate, was isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough. Aiming at maximum lactic acid productivity, the components of the media and the cultivation conditions were varied. In MRS-starch medium (with absence of yeast and meat extracts), at 33°C, agitation 200rpm and pH 6.0

Kaloyan Petrov; Zoltan Urshev; Penka Petrova

2008-01-01

441

A comparison of the properties of bacteriocins formed by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains of diverse origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins formed by four strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis have been studied and compared: 729 (a natural strain isolated from milk), 1605 (a mutant of strain 729), F-116 (a recombinant\\u000a obtained by fusing of protoplasts of the two related strain 729 and 1605), and a nisin-forming strain obtained by adaptive\\u000a selection at Moscow State University. Antimicrobial activity studies revealed

L. G. Stoyanova; N. S. Egorov; G. B. Fedorova; G. S. Katrukha; A. I. Netrusov

2007-01-01

442

Diacetyl and acetoin production from the co-metabolism of citrate and xylose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-metabolism of citrate plus xylose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides results in a growth stimulation, an increase in d-lactate and acetate production and repression of ethanol production. This correlated well with the levels of key enzymes\\u000a involved. A partial repression of alcohol dehydrogenase and a marked stimulation of acetate kinase were observed. High citrate\\u000a bioconversion yields in diacetyl plus

P. Schmitt; C. Vasseur; V. Phalip; D. Q. Huang; C. Diviès; H. Prévost

1997-01-01

443

Isolation and Properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 Mutants Producing Diacetyl and Acetoin from Glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following treatment with the mutagen N-methyl-N*-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, three mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of these mutants was strongly attenuated, and the mutants produced less lactate than the parental strain. The kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase of strain CNRZ 483 and the mutants revealed

HASSINA BOUMERDASSI; CHRISTOPHE MONNET; MICHEL DESMAZEAUD; GEORGES CORRIEU

1997-01-01

444

Association of microsatellite polymorphisms with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine in Merino sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study the association of polymorphisms at five micro-satellite loci with immune responses to a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) vaccine.METHODS: Merino sheep (504 vaccinates and 430 unvaccinated controls) from a long-term Johne's vaccine trial undertaken on three different properties in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, were genotyped for five micro-satellite markers located in three

VSR Dukkipati; HT Blair; DJ Garrick; N Lopez-Villalobos; RJ Whittington; LA Reddacliff; J Eppleston; P Windsor; A Murray

2010-01-01

445

Proteomic analysis of antibody response in a case of laboratory-acquired infection with Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis.  

PubMed

Immunoproteomic analysis was applied to study the immunoreactivity of serum samples collected at different time points from a laboratory assistant accidentally infected with highly virulent strain of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Immunoblotting showed that the spectrum of F. tularensis antigens recognized specifically by immune sera remained with the exception for 1 antigen stable for up to 16 years after infection. Using immunoproteomics approach 10 immunoreactive antigens were successfully identified. Several new immunogenic F. tularensis proteins were described for the first time. PMID:17575919

Janovská, S; Pávková, I; Reichelová, M; Hubáleka, M; Stulík, J; Macela, A

2007-01-01

446

The effect of decontamination protocols on the numbers of sheep strain Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from tissues and faeces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of decontamination protocols on the numbers of sheep strain Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated in BACTEC cultures from clinical samples was assessed by spiking tissues and faeces at various points during the decontamination procedure. Routine protocols in the laboratory were shown to decrease the number of organisms isolated per sample by about 2.7log10 and 3.1log10 for faeces and

L. A Reddacliff; A Vadali; R. J Whittington

2003-01-01

447

Genomic differences between type strain PG1 and field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently accomplished complete genomic sequence analysis of the type strain PG1 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type revealed four large repeated segments of 24, 13, 12, and 8 kb that are flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements. Genetic analysis of type strain PG1 and African, European, and Australian field and vaccine strains revealed that the 24-kb genetic locus is

Daniela F. Bischof; Edy M. Vilei; Joachim Frey

2006-01-01

448

The polygalacturonase gene PdPG1 is developmentally regulated in reproductive organs of Prunus domestica L. subsp. insititia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a complete cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase (Pd-PG1) has been identified by screening a cDNA library constructed from the ripe mesocarp of Prunus domestica L. subsp. insititia (damson plum). According to similarity in the amino-acid sequence and the absence of pro-sequence, Pd-PG1 belongs to a group of PGs that are expressed in fruit and\\/or abscission zones. The level

R. Iglesias-Fernández; A. J. Matilla; M. C. Rodríguez-Gacio; C. Fernández-Otero; F. de la Torre

2007-01-01

449

Transcriptome analysis approaches for the isolation of trichome-specific genes from the medicinal plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a plant of intrinsic scientific interest due to the distinctive pharmaceutical properties of its resin. Labdane-type diterpenes,\\u000a the main constituents of the resin, exhibit considerable antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In this study chemical analysis\\u000a of isolated trichomes from different developmental stages revealed that young leaves of 1–2 cm length displayed the highest\\u000a content of labdane-type diterpenes

Vasiliki Falara; Vasileios Fotopoulos; Thanasis Margaritis; Thalia Anastasaki; Irene Pateraki; Artemios M. Bosabalidis; Dimitris Kafetzopoulos; Costas Demetzos; Eran Pichersky; Angelos K. Kanellis

2008-01-01

450

Multi-locus sequence typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains in Japan between 1973 and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) was responsible for a worldwide pandemic during the 1980s and 1990s; however, changes in the dominant lineage\\u000a before and after this event remain unknown. This study determined S. Enteritidis lineages before and after this pandemic event in Japan using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Thirty S. Enteritidis strains were collected in Japan between

Tamie Noda; Koichi Murakami; Tetsuo Asai; Yoshiki Etoh; Tomoe Ishihara; Toshiro Kuroki; Kazumi Horikawa; Shuji Fujimoto

2011-01-01

451

Absence of geographical structure of morphological variation in Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus in the Balkan Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined leaf and mature seed cone variation of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus in 12 natural populations across the species range in the Balkan Peninsula. We measured 10 morphological traits from a minimum\\u000a of 100 leaves in each of 190 individuals, and two morphological traits from 30–50 seed cones in each of 94 females. High phenotypic\\u000a variation was found,

Robert Brus; Dalibor Ballian; Peter Zhelev; Marija Pandža; Martin Bobinac; Jane Acevski; Yannis Raftoyannis; Kristjan Jarni

2011-01-01

452

Mutations in the Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type III secretion system affect Atlantic salmon leucocyte activation and downstream immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletion mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were used to determine the effect of the type three secretion system (TTSS) on Atlantic salmon anterior head kidney leucocytes (AHKL). One strain had a deletion in the outer membrane pore gene, ascC; and the other in three effector genes: aopO, aopH and aexT (we call this strain ?aop3). Host cell invasion success

Mark D. Fast; Brenda Tse; Jessica M. Boyd; Stewart C. Johnson

2009-01-01

453

Formation of polysaccharide depolymerase and glycoside hydrolase enzymes by Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. ruminicola grown in batch and continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of ten polysaccharide depolymerase and glycoside hydrolase enzymes was monitored inBacteroides ruminicola subsp.ruminicola throughout the growth cycle and over a range of dilution rates in carbon-limited continuous (chemostat) culture. The enzymes were principally cell associated, and the specific activities increased throughout the growth cycle to reach maximum levels in the late exponential and stationary growth phases. In chemostat-grown

Alan G. Williams; Susan E. Withers

1985-01-01

454

Complete genome sequence of Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus type strain (QLW-P1DMWA-1(T)).  

PubMed

Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus strain QLW-P1DMWA-1(T) is a planktonic freshwater bacterium affiliated with the family Burkholderiaceae (class Betaproteobacteria). This strain is of interest because it represents a subspecies with cosmopolitan and ubiquitous distribution in standing freshwater systems. The 16S-23S ITS genotype represented by the sequenced strain comprised on average more than 10% of bacterioplankton in its home habitat. While all strains of the subspecies P. necessarius asymbioticus are free-living freshwater bacteria, strains belonging to the only other subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius are obligate endosymbionts of the ciliate Euplotes aediculatus. The two subspecies of P. necessarius are the instances of two closely related subspecies that differ in their lifestyle (free-living vs. obligate endosymbiont), and they are the only members of the genus Polynucleobacter with completely sequenced genomes. Here we describe the features of P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,159,490 bp long chromosome with a total of 2,088 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Polynucleobacter to be published and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2006. PMID:22675600

Meincke, Linda; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Kerrie W; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Hammon, Nancy; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Detter, John C; Schmutz, Jeremy; Brettin, Thomas; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Wu, Qinglong L; Pöckl, Matthias; Hahn, Martin W; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2012-03-05

455

Lactococcin A, a new bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris: isolation and characterization of the protein and its gene.  

PubMed Central

A new bacteriocin, termed lactococcin A (LCN-A), from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LMG 2130 was purified and sequenced. The polypeptide contained no unusual amino acids and showed no significant sequence similarity to other known proteins. Only lactococci were killed by the bacteriocin. Of more than 120 L. lactis strains tested, only 1 was found resistant to LCN-A. The most sensitive strain tested, L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 1198, was inhibited by 7 pM LCN-A. By use of a synthetic DNA probe, lcnA was found to be located on a 55-kb plasmid. The lcnA gene was cloned and sequenced. The sequence data revealed that LCN-A is ribosomally synthesized as a 75-amino-acid precursor including a 21-amino-acid N-terminal extension. An open reading frame encoding a 98-amino-acid polypeptide was found downstream of and in the same operon as lcnA. We propose that this open reading frame encodes an immunity function for LCN-A. In Escherichia coli lcnA did not cause an LCN-A+ phenotype. L. lactis subsp. lactis IL 1403 produced small amounts of the bacteriocin and became resistant to LCN-A after transformation with a recombinant plasmid carrying lcnA. The other lactococcal strains transformed with the same recombinant plasmid became resistant to LCN-A but did not produce any detectable amount of the bacteriocin. Images

Holo, H; Nilssen, O; Nes, I F

1991-01-01

456

The Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae hemolysins damselysin and HlyA are encoded within a new virulence plasmid.  

PubMed

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a marine bacterium that causes infections and fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals and in humans. Highly hemolytic strains produce damselysin (Dly), a cytolysin encoded by the dly gene that is lethal for mice and has hemolytic activity. We found that Dly is encoded in the highly hemolytic strain RM-71 within a 153,429-bp conjugative plasmid that we dubbed pPHDD1. In addition to Dly, pPHDD1 also encodes a homologue of the pore-forming toxin HlyA. We found a direct correlation between presence of pPHDD1 and a strong hemolytic phenotype in a collection of P. damselae subsp. damselae isolates. Hemolysis was strongly reduced in a double dly hlyA mutant, demonstrating the role of the two pPHDD1-encoded genes in hemolysis. Interestingly, although single hlyA and dly mutants showed different levels of hemolysis reduction depending on the erythrocyte source, hemolysis was not abolished in any of the single mutants, suggesting that the hemolytic phenotype is the result of the additive effect of Dly and HlyA. We found that pPHDD1-encoded dly and hlyA genes are necessary for full virulence for mice and fish. Our results suggest that pPHDD1 can be considered as a driving force for the emergence of a highly hemolytic lineage of P. damselae subsp. damselae. PMID:21875966

Rivas, Amable J; Balado, Miguel; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

2011-08-29

457

Complete genome sequence of Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus type strain (QLW-P1DMWA-1T)  

PubMed Central

Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus strain QLW-P1DMWA-1T is a planktonic freshwater bacterium affiliated with the family Burkholderiaceae (class Betaproteobacteria). This strain is of interest because it represents a subspecies with cosmopolitan and ubiquitous distribution in standing freshwater systems. The 16S-23S ITS genotype represented by the sequenced strain comprised on average more than 10% of bacterioplankton in its home habitat. While all strains of the subspecies P. necessarius asymbioticus are free-living freshwater bacteria, strains belonging to the only other subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius are obligate endosymbionts of the ciliate Euplotes aediculatus. The two subspecies of P. necessarius are the instances of two closely related subspecies that differ in their lifestyle (free-living vs. obligate endosymbiont), and they are the only members of the genus Polynucleobacter with completely sequenced genomes. Here we describe the features of P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,159,490 bp long chromosome with a total of 2,088 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Polynucleobacter to be published and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2006.

Meincke, Linda; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Kerrie W.; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Hammon, Nancy; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Detter, John C.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Brettin, Thomas; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Wu, Qinglong L.; Pockl, Matthias; Hahn, Martin W.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

458

The Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Hemolysins Damselysin and HlyA Are Encoded within a New Virulence Plasmid ?  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a marine bacterium that causes infections and fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals and in humans. Highly hemolytic strains produce damselysin (Dly), a cytolysin encoded by the dly gene that is lethal for mice and has hemolytic activity. We found that Dly is encoded in the highly hemolytic strain RM-71 within a 153,429-bp conjugative plasmid that we dubbed pPHDD1. In addition to Dly, pPHDD1 also encodes a homologue of the pore-forming toxin HlyA. We found a direct correlation between presence of pPHDD1 and a strong hemolytic phenotype in a collection of P. damselae subsp. damselae isolates. Hemolysis was strongly reduced in a double dly hlyA mutant, demonstrating the role of the two pPHDD1-encoded genes in hemolysis. Interestingly, although single hlyA and dly mutants showed different levels of hemolysis reduction depending on the erythrocyte source, hemolysis was not abolished in any of the single mutants, suggesting that the hemolytic phenotype is the result of the additive effect of Dly and HlyA. We found that pPHDD1-encoded dly and hlyA genes are necessary for full virulence for mice and fish. Our results suggest that pPHDD1 can be considered as a driving force for the emergence of a highly hemolytic lineage of P. damselae subsp. damselae.

Rivas, Amable J.; Balado, Miguel; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2011-01-01

459

Improved trehalose production from biodiesel waste using parent and osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Trehalose is an important nutraceutical of wide commercial interest in the food processing industry. Recently, crude glycerol was reported to be suitable for the production of trehalose using a food microbe, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, under static flask conditions. Similarly, enhanced trehalose yield was reported in an osmotically sens