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1

Quick detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli by PCR and necleotide sequence analysis of PCR amplicons from Chinese Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A quick polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the bacterial causal agent of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, in crude juice samples from stalks. After removal of abiotic impurities and large molecular weight microorgani...

2

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. We developed a diag...

3

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-planting countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. Based on loop-mediat...

4

Complete Genome Sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis Strain DSM46306, a Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen of Grasses  

PubMed Central

We announce the complete genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis, a vascular pathogen of Bermuda grass. The species also comprises Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, a sugarcane pathogen. Since these two subspecies have genome sequences available, a comparative analysis will contribute to our understanding of the differences in their biology and host specificity. PMID:24201198

Zerillo, Marcelo Marques; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Kitajima, João Paulo

2013-01-01

5

First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

6

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

7

Effect of Ratoon Stunting Disease on Yield of Sugarcane Cultivars Recently Released in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of six recently released Louisiana cultivars to infection by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the causal bacterium of ratoon stunting disease, varied in field trials conducted between 2001 and 2005. Sugar yields were compared to LCP 85-384, the leading Louisiana cultivar released in 1...

8

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

9

Impact of sugarcane diseases on yield and control practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane diseases reduce yields and cause the withdrawal of cultivars from production. Three diseases, ratoon stunt, yellow leaf and smut are discussed to demonstrate methods of spread and control practices required. Ratoon stunt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli, is im...

10

RATING SUGARCANE VARIETIES FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RSD WITH REAL-TIME PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tissue-blot enzyme immunoassay (TB-EIA) is commonly used to rank sugarcane varieties for susceptibility to infection by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the bacterium that causes ratoon stunting disease. The ranking is based on the number of vascular bundles in the stalk that are colonized (CVB) with th...

11

Paenibacillus sp. strain HC1 xylanases responsible for degradation of rice bran hemicellulose.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus sp. strain HC1 is the first bacterium capable of growing on rice bran hemicellulose as a sole carbon source. Two xylanases (Xyl-I and -II) were purified from the bacterial culture fluid and enzymatically characterized. Xyl-I and -II showed monomer forms with molecular masses of 30 and 18kDa, respectively, and were most active at around pH 5.0 and 45 degrees C. Xylooligosaccharides were degraded to xylobiose and xylose by Xyl-I, but not by Xyl-II, suggesting that Xyl-I plays an important role in complete depolymerization of xylan. Both enzymes acted endolytically on rice bran hemicellulose, indicating that Xyl-I and -II contribute to the structure determination and practical use of the polysaccharide, an unutilized biomass in technology. PMID:16829064

Harada, Karen Mine; Tanaka, Keiko; Fukuda, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

2008-01-01

12

Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum, photographed on the Silversword Loop Trail in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. The silverswords in Haleakala National Park grow in the largest number on these cinder cones in the caldera of Haleakala, but since goats have been removed from the National Park, silverswords are colonizing other areas of alpine lava. Photo credit: Sherwin Carlquist (1966).

Carlquist, Sherwin

2004-03-09

13

Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum.  

PubMed

This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that improves plant growth. TGF and torrefied grass extracts (TGE) were inoculated with a suspension of microorganisms obtained from soil. Sequential microbial enrichment steps were then performed in both substrates. The microbial communities developing in the substrates were assessed using cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approaches. Thus, bacterial isolates were obtained, and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses for bacterial communities were performed. Partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from isolates and bands from DGGE gels showed diverse communities after enrichment in TGE and TGF. Bacterial isolates affiliated with representatives of the alpha-proteobacteria (Methylobacterium radiotolerans, Rhizobium radiobacter), gamma-proteobacteria (Serratia plymuthica, Pseudomonas putida), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group (Flavobacterium denitrificans), beta-proteobacteria (Ralstonia campinensis), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas parahominis, Leifsonia poae, L. xyli subsp. xyli, and Mycobacterium anthracenicum), and the firmicutes (Bacillus megaterium) were found. In TGE, gamma-proteobacteria were dominant (61.5% of the culturable community), and 20% belonged to the CFB group, whereas actinobacteria (67.4%) and alpha-proteobacteria (21.7%) were prevalent in TGF. A germination assay with lettuce seeds showed that the phytotoxicity of TGF and TGE decreased due to the microbial enrichment. PMID:18368438

Trifonova, R; Postma, J; Ketelaars, J J M H; van Elsas, J D

2008-10-01

14

Comparison of extracellular enzymes of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme.  

PubMed Central

A total of 10 strains each of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme were tested for the production of 13 extracellular enzymes. DNase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase were predominantly associated with all the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, with DNase not detected in any of the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. In addition, the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum were generally more hemolytic than those of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Lecithinase, beta-lactamase, elastase, hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulfatase, and coagulase were not detected in any of the strains. DNase may be used to differentiate between the two subspecies. PMID:8370761

Amoako, K K; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T

1993-01-01

15

Isoquinoline alkaloids from Berberis Vulgaris subsp. Australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Berberis vulgaris subsp. australis. In addition to quaternary protoberberines and bisbenzylisoquinolines, a new seco-bisbenzylisoquinoline, (-)-tejedine, is reported.

Rafael Suau; Rodrigo Rico; J. Manuel López-Romero; Francisco Nájera; Ana Cuevas

1998-01-01

16

Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices.  

PubMed

Fourteen strains isolated from vegetable sources and identified as belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum presented an atypical pattern of amplification with a species-specific multiplex-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of two protein-encoding genes, recA (encoding the recombinase A protein) and cpn60 (encoding the GroEL chaperonin), as well as phenotypic and genomic traits revealed a homogeneous group of very closely related strains for which subspecies status is proposed, with the name Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis. The type strain is DKO 22(T) (=CIP 108320(T)=DSM 16365(T)). PMID:16014493

Bringel, Françoise; Castioni, Anna; Olukoya, Daniel K; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

2005-07-01

17

Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Isolated From Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...

18

Structural relatedness between mosquitocidal endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed Central

A mosquitocidal toxin gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, was introduced into mutant crystal-negative B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cells. Partial toxicity to mosquitos was restored. The 58-kilodalton cloned gene product is a minor protein component of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystals and is structurally related to a major, 135-kilodalton crystal toxin. Images PMID:2894201

Garduno, F; Thorne, L; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

1988-01-01

19

Genome Sequences of the Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii Type Strain and Two Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis Strains.  

PubMed

We present the complete genomes of Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii WSLC 3010 (ATCC 19119(T)), Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30151 (SLCC 8854), and Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30167 (SLCC 6032), representing the type strain of the species and two strains of the same serovar but different properties, respectively. PMID:25614561

Hupfeld, Mario; Fouts, Derrick E; Loessner, Martin J; Klumpp, Jochen

2015-01-01

20

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are gram-positive, acid- fast organisms that include a number of significant human and animal pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiological agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants, known as Johne’s disease. H. A. Johne and L. Frothingham initially reported the disease in Germany in 1894. However, it was not until

N. Beth Harris; Raul G. Barletta

2001-01-01

21

Disparate Host Immunity to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antigens in Calves Inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium, M. kansasii, and M. bovis  

PubMed Central

The cross-reactivity of mycobacterial antigens in immune-based diagnostic assays has been a major concern and a criticism of the current tests that are used for the detection of paratuberculosis. In the present study, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins were evaluated for antigenic specificity compared to a whole-cell sonicate preparation (MPS). Measures of cell-mediated immunity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were compared in calves inoculated with live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, M. avium subsp. avium (M. avium), Mycobacterium kansasii, or Mycobacterium bovis. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses to MPS were observed in all calves that were exposed to mycobacteria compared to control calves at 4 months postinfection. Pooled recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins also elicited nonspecific IFN-? responses in inoculated calves, with the exception of calves infected with M. bovis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins failed to elicit antigen-specific responses for the majority of immune measures; however, the expression of CD25 and CD26 was upregulated on CD4, CD8, gamma/delta (??) T, and B cells for the calves that were inoculated with either M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium after antigen stimulation of the cells. Stimulation with MPS also resulted in the increased expression of CD26 on CD45RO+ CD25+ T cells from calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium. Although recombinant proteins failed to elicit specific responses for the calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the differences in immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens were dependent upon mycobacterial exposure. The results demonstrated a close alignment in immune responses between calves inoculated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and those inoculated with M. avium that were somewhat disparate from the responses in calves infected with M. bovis, suggesting that the biology of mycobacterial infection plays an important role in diagnosis. PMID:23554467

Waters, W. R.; Bannantine, J. P.; Palmer, M. V.

2013-01-01

22

Genome Scale Comparison of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Reveals Potential Diagnostic Sequences  

PubMed Central

The genetic similarity between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other mycobacterial species has confounded the development of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific diagnostic reagents. Random shotgun sequencing of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome in our laboratories has shown >98% sequence identity with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in some regions. However, an in silico comparison of the largest annotated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contigs, totaling 2,658,271 bp, with the unfinished M. avium subsp. avium genome has revealed 27 predicted M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis coding sequences that do not align with M. avium subsp. avium sequences. BLASTP analysis of the 27 predicted coding sequences (genes) shows that 24 do not match sequences in public sequence databases, such as GenBank. These novel sequences were examined by PCR amplification with genomic DNA from eight mycobacterial species and ten independent isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. From these analyses, 21 genes were found to be present in all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and absent from all other mycobacterial species tested. One region of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome contains a cluster of eight genes, arranged in tandem, that is absent in other mycobacterial species. This region spans 4.4 kb and is separated from other predicted coding regions by 1,408 bp upstream and 1,092 bp downstream. The gene upstream of this eight-gene cluster has strong similarity to mycobacteriophage integrase sequences. The GC content of this 4.4-kb region is 66%, which is similar to the rest of the genome, indicating that this region was not horizontally acquired recently. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that this gene cluster is present only in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Collectively, these studies suggest that a genomics approach will help in identifying novel M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes as candidate diagnostic sequences. PMID:11923349

Bannantine, John P.; Baechler, Emily; Zhang, Qing; Li, LingLing; Kapur, Vivek

2002-01-01

23

The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

24

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations were performed on strains of Lactobacillus casei. Our results indicate that this species as presently constituted is genomically very heterogeneous. The majority of strains designated L. casei subsp. casei, together with members of L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, and L. casei subsp. tolerans, exhibited high levels of DNA relatedness with each other but

MATTHEW D. COLLINS; BRIAN A. PHILLIPS; PAOLO ZANONI

25

Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I C; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Bolzani, V S; Belasque, J; Sacramento, L V S; Ferreira, H

2013-01-01

26

Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

2013-01-01

27

Use of PCR-Based Methods for Rapid Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two PCR-based methods, specific PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), were used for rapid and reliable differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. PCR with a single combination of primers which targeted the proline iminopeptidase (pepIP) gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allowed amplification of genomic fragments specific for the two subspecies when either

SANDRA TORRIANI; GIACOMO ZAPPAROLI; FRANCO DELLAGLIO

1999-01-01

28

Cytolytic activity and immunological similarity of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni isolate PG-14 toxins.  

PubMed Central

The parasporal bodies of the mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni isolate PG-14 were compared with regard to their hemolytic and cytolytic activities and the immunological relatedness of the 28- and 65-kilodalton (kDa) proteins that occur in both subspecies. The alkali-solubilized parasporal bodies of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis caused 50% lysis of human erythrocytes at 1.14 micrograms/ml, whereas those of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni caused similar lysis at 1.84 micrograms/ml. Preincubation of solubilized parasporal bodies with dioleolyl phosphatidylcholine significantly inhibited the hemolytic activity of both supspecies. In cytolytic assays against Aedes albopictus cells, the toxin concentrations causing 50% lysis for B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni were 1.87 and 11.98 micrograms/ml, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised separately against the 25-kDa protein (a tryptic digest of the 28-kDa protein) or the 65-kDa protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cross-reacted, respectively, with the 28- and the 65-kDa proteins of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni. However, neither of these antibodies cross-reacted with the 135-kDa protein of either subspecies. These results indicate that the mosquitocidal and hemolytic properties of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni isolate PG-14 are probably due to the biologically related proteins that are present in the parasporal bodies of both subspecies. The lower hemolytic activity of the B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni may be due to the presence of lower levels of the 28-kDa protein in that subspecies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3300548

Gill, S S; Hornung, J M; Ibarra, J E; Singh, G J; Federici, B A

1987-01-01

29

The ethnobotany and pharmacognosy of Olea europaea subsp. africana (Oleaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnobotanical uses of wild olive, O. europaea subsp. africana (sometimes referred to as subsp. cuspidata) in southern Africa and in other parts of Africa are reviewed. Chromatographic analyses of secoiridoids (oleuropein and other oleuropeosides) in 25 wild olive leaf samples from 10 localities in South Africa showed substantial amounts of oleuropein (up to 110mg\\/g dry weight) and not trace

H. S. Long; P. M. Tilney; B.-E. Van Wyk

2010-01-01

30

Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue Displays Pathogenic Properties Different from Those of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum  

PubMed Central

The present study described the susceptibility of C4D guinea pigs to cutaneous infection with Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue Haiti B strain. The general manifestations of the disease in adults and neonates differ, to a certain degree, from those induced by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols strain. Noticeable differences between the infections were reflected in the character of the skin lesions, their onset and persistence, and the kinetics of the humoral response. The incidence and dissemination of cutaneous yaws lesions in very young guinea pigs were remarkably different from the low frequency observed in a similar age group of syphilis infection, 100 versus 17%, respectively. Moreover, as opposed to T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue does not cross the placenta. Offspring born to yaws-infected mothers did not produce immunoglobulin M antibodies and their organs, examined by PCR and rabbit infectivity test (RIT), were all negative. Examination of a large number of tissues and organs in adult, neonate, and maternal yaws by PCR and RIT clearly demonstrated that, unlike syphilis, there was a low incidence and short persistence of the yaws pathogen in internal organs. These findings stress the dermotropic rather than the organotropic character of yaws and provide further evidence of distinctive biological and pathological differences between yaws and venereal syphilis. PMID:10816466

Wicher, Konrad; Wicher, Victoria; Abbruscato, Frank; Baughn, Robert E.

2000-01-01

31

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus lung disease: ‘trouble ahead, trouble behind…’  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus is the most common respiratory pathogen among the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and is also the most feared due to its well-deserved reputation for being refractory to antibiotic therapy. M. abscessus subsp abscessus has multiple innate antibiotic resistance mechanisms, but the most important one described so far is an inducible erythromycin methylase (erm) gene. M. abscessus subsp abscessus isolates may appear macrolide susceptible on initial in vitro testing but become macrolide resistant after exposure to macrolide. It is therefore very important to test clinically significant M. abscessus subsp abscessus isolates for erm gene activity. Remarkably, controversy still exists about the taxonomy and nomenclature of M. abscessus subspecies including subsp abscessus, subsp massiliense and subsp bolletii. Identification of these subspecies is not moot as M. abscessus subsp massiliense does not have an active erm gene resulting in both in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to macrolide. It is imperative from the clinician's perspective that mycobacterial laboratories correctly and rapidly identify M. abscessus to the subspecies level. Unfortunately, there are no reliably or predictably effective treatment regimens for M. abscessus subsp abscessus and better, more effective antimicrobial agents are badly needed. Surgical resection of involved lung tissue as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy is beneficial in selected patients but cannot be broadly applied. Overall, M. abscessus subsp abscessus remains a formidable respiratory mycobacterial pathogen, one that we are only beginning to understand microbiologically and one that as yet consistently evades our best efforts at successful therapeutic outcomes. ‘trouble ahead, trouble behind, and you know that notion just crossed my mind’. Casey Jones, Grateful Dead (1970) PMID:25580261

2014-01-01

32

Discrimination of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus in Clinical Isolates by Multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

The rapidly growing mycobacterium M. abscessus sensu lato is the causative agent of emerging pulmonary and skin diseases and of infections following cosmetic surgery and postsurgical procedures. M. abscessus sensu lato can be divided into at least three subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. Clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria were previously identified as M. abscessus by DNA-DNA hybridization. More than 30% of these 117 clinical isolates were differentiated as M. abscessus subsp. massiliense using combinations of multilocus genotyping analyses. A much more cost-effective technique to distinguish M. abscessus subsp. massiliense from M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, a multiplex PCR assay, was developed using the whole-genome sequence of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense JCM15300 as a reference. Several primer sets were designed for single PCR to discriminate between the strains based on amplicons of different sizes. Two of these single-PCR target sites were chosen for development of the multiplex PCR assay. Multiplex PCR was successful in distinguishing clinical isolates of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense from samples previously identified as M. abscessus. This approach, which spans whole-genome sequencing and clinical diagnosis, will facilitate the acquisition of more-precise information about bacterial genomes, aid in the choice of more relevant therapies, and promote the advancement of novel discrimination and differential diagnostic assays. PMID:24197885

Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Fukano, Hanako; Sakakibara, Yumi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wada, Shinpei; Ishii, Norihisa; Makino, Masahiko; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

33

Reclassification of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum as Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum comb. nov., description of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. aenigmaticum subsp. nov., designation of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gelidum subsp. nov. and emended description of Leuconostoc gelidum.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated the taxonomic status of 20 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) originating from packaged meat. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these strains were shown to belong to the genus Leuconostoc with Leuconostoc gelidum, Leuconostoc inhae and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The novel strains shared more than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness with type and reference strains of both L. gelidum and L. gasicomitatum. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between L. gelidum type and reference strains and L. gasicomitatum type and reference strains were also above 70?%, showing that all these strains belonged to the same species. Sequence analyses of concatenated atpA, pheS, and rpoA genes demonstrated that the novel strains as well as type and reference strains of L. gelidum and L. gasicomitatum are phylogenetically closely related, but form three clearly separated subgroups. Numerical analysis of HindIII ribopatterns and phenotypic tests supported this subdivision. Based on the data presented in this study, we propose to reclassify Leuconostoc gasicomitatum as Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum comb. nov. (type strain, LMG 18811(T)?=?DSM 15947(T)). The novel strains isolated in the present study represent a novel subspecies, for which the name Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. aenigmaticum subsp. nov. is proposed, with POUF4d(T) (?=?LMG 27840(T)?=?DSM 19375(T)) as the type strain. The proposal of these two novel subspecies automatically creates the subspecies Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gelidum subsp. nov. (type strain, NCFB 2775(T)?=?DSM 5578(T)). An emended description of Leuconostoc gelidum is also provided. PMID:24431060

Rahkila, Riitta; De Bruyne, Katrien; Johansson, Per; Vandamme, Peter; Björkroth, Johanna

2014-04-01

34

Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-01-01

35

Leifsonia kribbensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A yellow-pigmented actinobacterium, designated strain MSL-13T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Bigeum Island, Republic of Korea, and its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Strain MSL-13T showed phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Leifsonia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain MSL-13T with sequences from Leifsonia naganoensis DB103T, Leifsonia aquatica DSM 20146T, Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis JCM 9733T, Leifsonia poae VKM Ac-1401T and Leifsonia shinshuensis DB102T revealed similarities of 96.22, 96.19, 95.77, 95.44 and 95.37 %, respectively, with differences of 39-65 nt among 1483 total nucleotides aligned. Based on differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain MSL-13T (=KCTC 19267T =DSM 19272T) is designated as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the name Leifsonia kribbensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:19126716

Dastager, Syed G; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon-Jung; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Jin

2009-01-01

36

Leifsonia soli sp. nov., a yellow-pigmented actinobacterium isolated from teak rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Two yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, motile, short rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from natural teak tree rhizosphere soil and their taxonomic positions were determined by using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strains TG-S248(T) and TG-S240 formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Leifsonia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain TG-S248(T) with sequences from Leifsonia shinshuensis DB 102(T), L. poae VKM Ac-1401(T), L. naganoensis DB 103(T), L. aquatica DSM 20146(T) and L. xyli subsp. cynodontis JCM 9733(T) revealed pairwise similarities ranging from 98.7 to 99.1 %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 69.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (32 % or less) between strain TG-S248(T) and its closest relatives. Based on differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG-S248(T) (=LMG 24767(T) =JCM 15679(T)) is designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the name Leifsonia soli sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:19667370

Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Lee, Jung-Sook; Senthilkumar, Murugaiyan; Lee, Keun Chul; Sundaram, Subbiah

2010-06-01

37

Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei subsp. nov., a dominant isolate from a surface ripened cheese.  

PubMed

A new subspecies of the species Staphylococcus succinus, isolated from a Swiss surface ripened cheese, is described. This subspecies is differentiated from the species Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337T on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridisation, cell wall composition and phenotypic characteristics. Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei could be distinguished among other things by its ability to reduce nitrate, form acid from D-mannose and D-melezitose, ferment adenosine, inosine, D-sorbitol, and 2,3-butanediol, but not D-alanine. The type strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. casei is DSM 15096 (CIP no. pending). The GenBank accession numbers for the reference sequences of the 16S rDNA and the hsp60 gene used in this study are AJ320272 and AF527482, respectively. PMID:12421073

Place, Raymond B E; Hiestand, Daniel; Burri, Sandra; Teuber, Michael

2002-10-01

38

Comparisons of genetic and morphological distance with heterosis between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass yield heterosis has been shown to exist between Medicago sativasubsp. sativa and Medica gosativa subsp. falcata. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of what morphological and genetic factors were most highly\\u000a correlated with total biomass yield heterosis. We calculated genetic distances among nine sativa and five falcate genotypes\\u000a based on amplified fragment length polymorphism

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer; T. Austin Campbell; Diane Luth; Patricia M. Cazcarro

2003-01-01

39

Characterization of Genetic Differences between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Type I and Type II Isolates  

PubMed Central

A combination of representational difference analysis and comparative DNA sequencing revealed that four type I (sheep) isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were differentiated from nine type II (bovine) isolates by the presence of an 11-bp insertion in a novel M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific region of genomic DNA. Further, our studies show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I isolates contain three type-specific loci that are missing in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II but are present in M. avium subsp. avium. Taken together, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I strains are an evolutionary intermediate between M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates or share a subset of M. avium subsp. avium type-specific loci through horizontal transfer. PMID:14605167

Dohmann, Karen; Strommenger, Birgit; Stevenson, Karen; de Juan, Lucía; Stratmann, Janin; Kapur, Vivek; Bull, Tim J.; Gerlach, Gerald-Friedrich

2003-01-01

40

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki resistance are discussed. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, zwittermicin A, Lymantria dispar widely used biopesti- cide is Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, a bacterium that kills insect larvae

Goodman, Robert M.

41

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.  

PubMed

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

Rantala, S

2014-08-01

42

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the etiologic agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants known as Johne's disease. Economic losses to the cattle industry in the United States are staggering, reaching $1.5 billion annually. A potential pathogenic role in humans in the etiology of Crohn's disease is under investigation. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease control measures of this important veterinary pathogen. We emphasize molecular genetic aspects including the description of markers used for strain identification, diagnostics, and phylogenetic analysis. Recent important advances in the development of animal models and genetic systems to study M. paratuberculosis virulence determinants are also discussed. We conclude with proposals for the applications of these models and recombinant technology to the development of diagnostic, control, and therapeutic measures. PMID:11432810

Harris, N. Beth; Barletta, Raúl G.

2001-01-01

43

Phenotypic characterization of the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis, is controversial as this organism has also been described as 'Pasteurella piscicida'. To clarify the taxonomic position of the pathogen, a total of 113 P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains and 20 P. damselae subsp. damselae strains, isolated from different geographical areas and from the main affected fish species, were analysed using 129 morphological and biochemical tests, including the commercial API 20E and API CH50 test systems. For comparison, the type strains of other Photobacterium species (i.e. Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium angustum) were included in the analyses. The results were statistically analysed by unweighted pair group average clustering and the distance between the different clusters was expressed as the percentage disagreement. The analyses showed that, based on morphological and biochemical identification tests, P. damselae subsp. piscicida is related to other Photobacterium species. However, it is clearly distinguishable from P. damselae subsp. damselae and no phenotypic evidence was found to include P. damselae subsp. piscicida as a subspecies in the species P. damselae. PMID:9828416

Thyssen, A; Grisez, L; van Houdt, R; Ollevier, F

1998-10-01

44

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Reveals Genomic Variability among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates  

PubMed Central

Ninety-six primer sets were used for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to characterize the genomes of 20 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates, 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ATCC 19698), and 2 M. avium subsp. avium isolates (ATCC 35716 and Mac 104). AFLP analysis revealed a high degree of genomic polymorphism among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates that may be used to establish diagnostic patterns useful for the epidemiological tracking of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates. Four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions revealed by AFLP were cloned and sequenced. Primers were generated internal to these regions for use in PCR analysis and applied to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates. An appropriate PCR product was obtained in 79 of 80 reactions, while the M. avium subsp. avium isolates failed to act as templates for PCR amplification in seven of eight reactions. This work revealed the presence of extensive polymorphisms in the genomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, many of which are based on deletions. Of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequences studied, one revealed a 5,145-bp region with no homologue in the M. avium subsp. avium genome. Within this region are genes responsible for integrase-recombinase function. Three additional M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-polymorphic regions were cloned, revealing a number of housekeeping genes; all were evaluated for their diagnostic and epidemiological value. PMID:15297504

O'Shea, B.; Khare, S.; Bliss, K.; Klein, P.; Ficht, T. A.; Adams, L. G.; Rice-Ficht, A. C.

2004-01-01

45

Outer membrane proteins of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum, classified into subsp. necrophorum (Fnn) and subsp. funduliforme (Fnf), is frequently associated with necrotic infections of animals and humans. The outer membrane proteins (OMP) of many Gram negative bacteria play an important role in bacterial adhesion and establishment of infection. The OMP profile of F. necrophorum has not been well characterized. We analyzed OMP of bovine strains of Fnn and Fnf and human strains of F. necrophorum. Electrophoretic separations of extracted OMP of Fnn and Fnf strains of cattle showed a total of 19 and 20 protein bands, respectively. The most prominent protein band was 40?kDa in Fnn and 37.5?kDa in Fnf. The four human clinical strains examined had more heterogeneous banding patterns and had different profiles than those of bovine Fnf strains. A total of 11 protein bands in Fnn and 13 protein bands in Fnf were recognized by sera from cattle with liver abscesses. The intensities of many of the bands in Fnn were higher than that of Fnf. We conclude that the two subspecies of F. necrophorum differ in their OMP profiles and the difference may account for differences in their virulence and involvement in the pathogenesis of necrotic infections. PMID:23712857

Kumar, Amit; Peterson, Greg; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

2014-08-01

46

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

47

Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

E-print Network

and the regulatory P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were introduced into the nitrogen by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Mosquitocidal Anabaena; N-Endotoxin; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 1. Introduction The entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp

Zaritsky, Arieh

48

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from migratory waterfowl.  

PubMed Central

Since the sources from which humans acquire Campylobacter enteritis are only partially known, we studied the frequency of carriage of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in migratory waterfowl. Cecal contents of various species of wild ducks were cultured on selective media that contained antibiotics to inhibit normal flora. Thirty-five percent of the 445 ducks cultured harbored C. fetus subsp. jejuni. Migratory waterfowl are yet another reservoir for this enteric pathogen and may be of public health importance for humans in the contamination of water or when used as food. PMID:7217334

Luechtefeld, N A; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B; Wang, W L

1980-01-01

49

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius strain ST1464 genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is responsible for Morel's disease in animals and a cause of abscess in humans. It is characterized by a microaerophilic growth, contrary to the other strains of S. aureus. The 2,604,446-bp genome (32.7% GC content) of S. anaerobius ST1464 comprises one chromosome and no plasmids. The chromosome contains 2,660 open reading frames (ORFs), 49 tRNAs and three complete rRNAs, forming one complete operon. The size of ORFs ranges between 100 to 4,600 bp except for two ORFs of 6,417 and 7,173 bp encoding segregation ATPase and non-ribosomal peptide synthase, respectively. The chromosome harbors Staphylococcus phage 2638A genome and incomplete Staphylococcus phage genome PT1028, but no detectable CRISPRS. The antibiotic resistance gene for tetracycline was found although Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is susceptible to tetracycline in-vitro. Intact oxygen detoxification genes encode superoxide dismutase and cytochrome quinol oxidase whereas the catalase gene is impaired by a stop codon. Based on the genome, in-silico multilocus sequence typing indicates that S. aureus subsp. anaerobius emerged as a clone separated from all other S. aureus strains, illustrating host-adaptation linked to missing functions. Availability of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius genome could prompt the development of post-genomic tools for its rapid discrimination from S. aureus. PMID:24501641

Elbir, Haitham; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Ti Thien; Gimenez, Grégory; El Sanousi, Sulieman M.; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

50

Heat Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pasteurization and the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk have been identified in quantitative risk analysis as the most critical factors influencing the potential presence of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in dairy products. A quantitative assessment of the lethality of pasteurization was undertaken using an industrial pasteurizer designed for research purposes with a validated Reynolds

Wendy L. McDonald; Kimberly J. O'Riley; Christopher J. Schroen; Robin J. Condron

2005-01-01

51

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

2015-01-01

52

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

Gruszynski, Karen; Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J; Garvin, Joseph P; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E; Murphy, Julia M; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

2015-01-01

53

Description and history of Syringa oblata subsp. oblata 'Frank Meyer'  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An accession of Syringa oblata subsp. oblata (PI 23031) collected in China by Frank Meyer in 1908was given the name ‘Frank Meyer’ by Father Fiala in 1988. To be established according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, a new cultivar name must be accompanied by a descrip...

54

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov., isolated from dolo wort, an alcoholic fermented beverage in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into five subspecies based on phenotypic and genotypic differences. A novel isolate, designated ZN7a-9(T), was isolated from malted sorghum wort used for making an alcoholic beverage (dolo) in Burkina Faso. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization and peptidoglycan cell-wall structure type analyses indicated that it belongs to the species L. delbrueckii. The genome sequence of isolate ZN7a-9(T) was determined by Illumina-based sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and split-decomposition analyses were performed on seven concatenated housekeeping genes obtained from the genome sequence of strain ZN7a-9(T) together with 41 additional L. delbrueckii strains. The results of the MLST and split-decomposition analyses could not establish the exact subspecies of L. delbrueckii represented by strain ZN7a-9(T) as it clustered with L. delbrueckii strains unassigned to any of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii. Strain ZN7a-9(T) additionally differed from the recognized type strains of the subspecies of L. delbrueckii with respect to its carbohydrate fermentation profile. In conclusion, the cumulative results indicate that strain ZN7a-9(T) represents a novel subspecies of L. delbrueckii closely related to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZN7a-9(T)?=?DSM 26046(T)?=?LMG 27067(T). PMID:23645015

Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Vogensen, Finn K; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

2013-10-01

55

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.  

PubMed

Ten monoclonal antibodies were produced against a k-1-type crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Eight of the antibodies belong to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) subclass, with pI values ranging from 5.5 to 8.6, one could be assigned to the IgG2b subclass, and one could be assigned to the IgM class. Competitive antibody-binding assays and analysis of antibody specificity indicated that the 10 antibodies recognized at least nine distinct antigenic determinants. Eight antibodies bound to both protoxin and toxin, whereas the other two interacted with protoxin only. One antibody completely inhibited the biological activity of the delta-endotoxin, five antibodies reduced it by 15 to 82%, and four antibodies did not affect it at all. Based on cross-reaction studies, homologies and differences in the crystal protein structures of different B. thuringiensis subspecies were revealed. All of the monoclonal antibodies strongly cross-reacted with crystal proteins from strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi, B. thuringiensis subsp. galleriae, B. thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus, B. thuringiensis subsp. sotto, and B. thuringiensis subsp. subtoxicus. Some antibodies interacted only weakly with crystal proteins from strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni and B. thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus, and some of these did not interact with B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae and B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. No cross-reaction was found with the parasporal inclusion protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Studies with the monoclonal antibodies also disclosed that crystal proteins from strains of the same subspecies can exhibit substantial differences in antigenic structure. In particular, striking strain-specific differences in the protoxins of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis were observed. PMID:3759236

Huber-Lukac, M; Jaquet, F; Luethy, P; Huetter, R; Braun, D G

1986-10-01

56

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) reveals no genetic divergence of the Eastern Alpine endemic Oxytropis campestris subsp. tiroliensis (Fabaceae) from widespread subsp. campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, we explored genetic differences between widespread Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris and O. campestris subsp. tiroliensis, a presumed glacial relict restricted to a small area along the main chain of the Eastern Alps. We could not find genetic differences between the two “taxa”. Neither do the morphological characters given in the literature discriminate between them. Therefore

Peter Schönswetter; Andreas Tribsch; Harald Niklfeld

2004-01-01

57

Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae: gene cloning and characterization and comparison with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CryIA(c) toxins.  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding insecticidal crystal proteins were cloned from three strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae and two strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Characterization of the B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae toxin genes showed that they are most closely related to cryIA(c) from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The cloned genes were introduced into Bacillus host strains, and the spectra of insecticidal activities of each Cry protein were determined for six pest lepidopteran insects. CryIA(c) proteins from B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae are as active as CryIA(c) proteins from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki against Trichoplusia ni, Lymantria dispar, Heliothis zea, and H. virescens but are significantly less active against Plutella xylostella and, in some cases, Ostrinia nubilalis. The sequence of a cryIA(c) gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae was determined (GenBank M35524) and compared with that of cryIA(c) from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The two genes are more than 99% identical and show seven amino acid differences among the predicted sequences of 1,177 amino acids. Images PMID:2014985

Von Tersch, M A; Robbins, H L; Jany, C S; Johnson, T B

1991-01-01

58

Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation. PMID:24786958

Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C

2014-01-01

59

Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation. PMID:24786958

Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.

2014-01-01

60

Colonization patterns of an mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a newly identified member of the potato soft rot enterobacteriaceae. The pathogenesis of this pathogen is still poorly understood. In this study, an mCherry-P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-tagged strain was generated to study P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-potato plant interactions. Prior to use, the tagged strain was evaluated for in vitro growth, plasmid stability, and virulence on potato tubers and shown to be similar to the wild type. Four potato cultivars were evaluated for stem-based resistance against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vitro viable cell counts showed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is able to penetrate roots of a susceptible potato cultivar as early as 12 h postinoculation and migrate upward into aerial stem parts. Due to the phenotypic differences observed between tolerant and susceptible cultivars, a comparison of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense colonization patterns in these cultivars was undertaken. In the susceptible cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense cells colonized the xylem tissue, forming "biofilm-like" aggregates that led to occlusion of some of the vessels. In contrast, in the tolerant cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense appeared as free-swimming planktonic cells with no specific tissue localization. This suggests that there are resistance mechanisms in the tolerant cultivar that limit aggregation of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in planta and, hence, the lack of symptom development in this cultivar. PMID:23758294

Kubheka, Gugulethu C; Coutinho, Teresa A; Moleleki, Ntsane; Moleleki, Lucy N

2013-12-01

61

Chromones and flavanones from artemisia campestris subsp. maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the acetone extract of Artemisia campestris subsp. maritima six flavanones, two chromones and the coumarin scopoletin were isolated. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxychromone and 5,7-dimethoxychromone are new compounds, while the flavanone eriodictyol-7,3?-dimethyl ether is reported for the first time in this species. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The unequivocal assignments of carbon resonances, mainly made by using 1D

João M. J. Vasconcelos; Artur M. S. Silva; José A. S. Cavaleiro

1998-01-01

62

Production of ?-galactosidase by Streptococcus salivarius subsp thermophilus 11F  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The production of ?-galactosidase by an autolytic strain of Streptococcus salivarius subsp thermophilus 11F was investigated in batch and fed-batch 2-L working volume stirred tank bioreactors. ?-Galactosidase was released into\\u000a the medium upon cell lysis within 1–2 h after the maximum biomass quantity was reached. In batch fermentations the highest\\u000a ?-galactosidase activity of 69 U ml?1 was obtained when the

S Linko; S Enwald; Y-H Zhu; A Mäyrä-Mäkinen

1998-01-01

63

Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C labels of [C]carbon dioxide and D-[C6]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH2CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-C2]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M?+?1] ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-C2]Pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric

Tsunashi Kamo; Ryohei Kasahara; Shun Abe; Mitsuru Hirota; Mami Sugano; Hiroko Yamaya; Syuntaro Hiradate; Yoshiharu Fujii

2010-01-01

64

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I, United States.  

PubMed

We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

Birdsell, Dawn N; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

2014-05-01

65

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States  

PubMed Central

We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

2014-01-01

66

Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens to Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.  

PubMed

A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359, was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive staining, non-motile rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 ?m long and 0.4-0.5 ?m wide. Growth occurred in the pH range of 5.8-9.0 with optimum growth range at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew from 0-37?C and optimal growth occurred at 25?C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0% and 8.8% (1.5 M) NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5%. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides. The major metabolic end product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86% L-lactate :14% D-lactate. Strain WN1359 was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin, and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. Fatty acid composition was predominantly unsaturated (70.9%), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7%) and saturated (12.5%). G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7% sequence similarity between strain WN1359 and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359 belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359 represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed The type strain is WN1359T (=ATCC BAA-2557T, =DSM27470T). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is automatically created. An emended description of C. inhibens is also provided. PMID:25392348

Nicholson, Wayne L; Zhalnina, Kateryna; Oliveira, Rafael R; Triplett, Eric W

2014-11-12

67

Proposal for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anemia or splenomegaly in rodents. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes rnpB and dnaK in M. haemomuris strains detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpB nucleotide sequences in M. haemomuris strains isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89% sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnaK had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 84% between the subgroups. These results support the classification of M. haemomuris into two genetically distinct subgroups. Here we propose the establishment of these subgroups as 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi', detected in small field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 'Candidatus M. haemomuris subsp. ratti', detected in black rats (Rattus rattus). PMID:25406232

Harasawa, Ryo; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Ando, Shuji; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2014-11-18

68

Desulfotomaculum thermobenzoicum subsp. thermosyntrophicum subsp. nov., a thermophilic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing, spore-forming bacterium.  

PubMed

From granular sludge from a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55 degrees C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed, a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, syntrophic, spore-forming bacterium, strain TPO, was enriched on propionate in co-culture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245. The axenic culture was obtained by using pyruvate as the sole source of carbon and energy. The cells were straight rods with pointed ends and became lens-shaped when sporulation started. The cells were slightly motile. The optimum growth temperature was 55 degrees C and growth was possible between 45 and 62 degrees C. The pH range for growth of strain TPO was 6-8, with an optimum at pH 7-7.5. Propionate was converted to acetate, CO2 and CH4 by a co-culture of strain TPO with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245. In pure culture, strain TPO could grow fermentatively on benzoate, fumarate, H2/CO2, pyruvate and lactate. Sulphate could serve as inorganic electron acceptor when strain TPO was grown on propionate, lactate, pyruvate and H2/CO2. The G+C content was 53.7 mol%. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that strain TPO is related to Desulfotomaculum thermobenzoicum (98%) and Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans (98%). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed 88.2% reassociation between strain TPO and D. thermobenzoicum and 83.8% between strain TPO and D. thermoacetoxidans. However, both organisms differ physiologically from strain TPO and are not capable of syntrophic propionate oxidation. It is proposed that strain TPO should be classified as new subspecies of D. thermobenzoicum as D. thermobenzoicum subsp. thermosyntrophicum. PMID:11931147

Plugge, Caroline M; Balk, Melike; Stams, Alfons J M

2002-03-01

69

Refined, Circular Restriction Map of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Plasmid Carrying the Mosquito Larvicidal Genes1  

E-print Network

Refined, Circular Restriction Map of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Plasmid Carrying, 1999 All the genetic elements responsible for the mosquito larval toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Press The mosquito larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is included

Zaritsky, Arieh

70

PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

71

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

72

A17, the First Sequenced Strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris with Potential Immunomodulatory Functions  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A17, isolated from Taiwan fermented cabbage, is the first sequenced strain of L. lactis subsp. cremoris with immunomodulatory activity and antiallergic functions. The resulting A17 draft genome contains 2,679,936 bp and indicates that A17 is a potential exopolysaccharide-producing strain without any known virulence gene. PMID:25676767

Yang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Chien-Chen; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Chung, Ming-Chuan

2015-01-01

73

SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS: PREVALENCE,  

E-print Network

SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) CHICKS FROM CENTRAL TEXAS% to 95%. Seventeen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes were isolated, of which the 4,5,12:i of Salmonella, but provided no evidence of transmission between these two species. Similar conclusions were

Mora, Miguel A.

74

Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

75

A Gene Specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, But Only at the Transcription-translation Level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is no known antibody that detects M. avium subsp paratuberculosis and does not cross react with other M. avium subspecies. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody was identified from mice immunized with a cell membrane fraction of M. avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K-10. This antibod...

76

Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the etiologic agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease of cattle that is of worldwide importance. The complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of the type strain C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T are reported. PMID:21952544

Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Moore, Robert J.; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; de Resende, Vivian D'Afonseca da Silva; Ruy, Patricia de Cássia; Daher, Nesley; Resende, Daniela de Melo; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Soares, Siomar de Castro; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Rocha, Aryane Aparecida C. Magalhães; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Costa, Danielle Fonseca; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Miyoshi, Anderson; de Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Campos, Frederico Davi da Silva; de Sá, Pablo Gomes; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Rodrigues, Ryan Mauricio Araujo; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Leão, Thiago; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Ruiz, Jerônimo C.

2011-01-01

77

First isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp Paratuberculosis from commercial pasteurized milk in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis was isolated from two out of seventy samples (2.86 %) of pasteurized and ultra-pasteurized milk. The isolates were positives to IS900 PCR and showed a C17 RFLP pattern, the most prevalent in Argentina. The present study is the first report of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis culture from pasteurized milk in Argentina. PMID:24031925

Paolicchi, Fernando; Cirone, Karina; Morsella, Claudia; Gioffré, Andrea

2012-01-01

78

First Closed Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of C. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. We report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar. PMID:24503995

Yee, Emma; Bono, James L.; Rijnsburger, Martine; Campero, Carlos; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

2014-01-01

79

A17, the First Sequenced Strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris with Potential Immunomodulatory Functions.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A17, isolated from Taiwan fermented cabbage, is the first sequenced strain of L. lactis subsp. cremoris with immunomodulatory activity and antiallergic functions. The resulting A17 draft genome contains 2,679,936 bp and indicates that A17 is a potential exopolysaccharide-producing strain without any known virulence gene. PMID:25676767

Yang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Chien-Chen; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Chung, Ming-Chuan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

2015-01-01

80

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

E-print Network

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. The disease is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but its of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Lack of Cross-Resistance to Cry19A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Resistant to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with high levels of resistance to single or multiple toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were tested for cross-resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan polypeptide Cry19A. No cross-resistance was detected in mosquitoes that had been selected with the Cry11A, Cry4A and Cry4B, or Cry4A, Cry4B, Cry11A, and CytA toxins. A low but statistically significant level of

MARGARET C. WIRTH; ARMELLE DELECLUSE; WILLIAM E. WALTON

2001-01-01

82

Volatile Leaf Oil of the Curry Plant [Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subsp. italicum] and Dwarf Curry Plant [subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman] in the North American Herb Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves and stems of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don subsp. italicum, examined by GC\\/MS, is dominated by neryl acetate (16.60±2.01%) and ?-curcumene (15.98±1.44%). The essential oil of the leaves and stems of H. italicum subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman is dominated by neryl acetate (38.60±15.11%), linalool (17.28±7.75%), nerol (14.55±8.71%), and limonene (10.73±4.56%).

Arthur O. Tucker; Michael J. Maciarello; Denys J. Charles; James E. Simon

1997-01-01

83

Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle mortalities. PMID:23503307

Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

2013-01-01

84

Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax aspera subsp. mauritanica.  

PubMed

Two new steroidal saponins (1, 2) were isolated from the roots of Smilax aspera subsp. mauritanica (POIR.) ARCANG. (Liliaceae), together with the known curillin G (3), asparagoside E (4), asparoside A (5), asparoside B (6) and the phenolic compound resveratrol (7). Their structures were established mainly on the basis of 600 MHz 2D-NMR spectral data. 3 exhibited antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25, 25 and 50 microg/ml, respectively) whereas the other compounds were inactive. PMID:18758111

Belhouchet, Zineddine; Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2008-09-01

85

Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two organisms and plays a major role in shaping the population structure of SDSE. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HGT and recombination in the evolution of SDSE. PMID:25566202

McNeilly, Celia L.; McMillan, David J.

2014-01-01

86

Lipase and Esterase Activities of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii  

PubMed Central

The lipase and esterase activities of eight strains of dairy Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii were studied. A lipase activity was detected on whole cells and in the culture supernatant. The highest activity was expressed at 45°C and pH 6.8. An esterase activity was also detected in the culture medium. The electrophoresis of the intracellular fractions of the cells revealed from three to six different esterase activities. Two esterases were common to all the strains. The substrate specificity was dependent on each esterase, but no activity was revealed, in our experimental conditions, on ester substrates with a chain length longer than that of butyrate. PMID:16349102

Dupuis, C.; Corre, C.; Boyaval, P.

1993-01-01

87

Update on bacterial vaccines: Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis in wild and farmed marine fish worldwide. Although serologically homogeneous, recent molecular advances have led to the discovery of distinct genetic clades, depending on geographical origin. Further details of the strategies for host colonisation have arisen including information on the role of capsule, susceptibility to oxidative stress, confirmation of intracellular survival in host epithelial cells, and induced apoptosis of host macrophages. This improved understanding has given rise to new ideas and advances in vaccine technologies, which are reviewed in this paper. PMID:15962471

Barnes, A C; dos Santos, N M S; Ellis, A E

2005-01-01

88

Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  

PubMed

Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

2001-10-01

89

Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis.  

PubMed

Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni has been one of the most important diseases of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years. The emergence of P. alni subsp. alni -the pathogen responsible for the epidemic-is linked to an interspecific hybridization event between two parental species: P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis. One of the parental species, P. alni subsp. uniformis, has been isolated in several European countries and, recently, in North America. The objective of this work was to assess the level of genetic diversity, the population genetic structure, and the putative reproduction mode and mating system of P. alni subsp. uniformis. Five new polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to contrast both geographical populations. The study comprised 71 isolates of P. alni subsp. uniformis collected from eight European countries and 10 locations in North America. Our results revealed strong differences between continental populations (Fst = 0.88; Rst = 0.74), with no evidence for gene flow. European isolates showed extremely low genetic diversity compared with the North American collection. Selfing appears to be the predominant mating system in both continental collections. The results suggest that the European P. alni subsp. uniformis population is most likely alien and derives from the introduction of a few individuals, whereas the North American population probably is an indigenous population. PMID:23095465

Aguayo, Jaime; Adams, Gerard C; Halkett, Fabien; Catal, Mursel; Husson, Claude; Nagy, Zoltán Á; Hansen, Everett M; Marçais, Benoît; Frey, Pascal

2013-02-01

90

High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales, class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes. The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genome sequence of the species Staphylococcus cohnii. PMID:25197460

Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

2014-01-01

91

A comparative study of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in experimentally infected pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) are opportunistic pathogens that may infect several species, including humans and pigs. Mah is however more frequently isolated from pigs than Maa, and it is unclear if this is due to difference in virulence or in exposure to the two organisms. Clinical isolates of each subspecies were administered perorally to ten domestic pigs, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at six and 12 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were recorded, and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture, IS1245 real time PCR and histopathological examination. Culturing was also performed on faecal samples collected at necropsy. Results Macroscopic and histopathological lesions were detected in pigs infected with each subspecies, and bacterial growth and histopathological changes were demonstrated, also in samples from organs without gross pathological lesions. Six weeks after inoculation, live Mah was detected in faeces, as opposed to Maa. The presence of live mycobacteria was also more pronounced in Mah infected tonsils. In comparison, the Maa isolate appeared to have a higher ability of intracellular replication in porcine macrophages compared to the Mah isolate. Conclusions The study shows that both subspecies were able to infect pigs. Additionally, the more extensive shedding of Mah might cause pig-to-pig transmission and contribute to the higher incidence of infection caused by this subspecies. PMID:22284630

2012-01-01

92

Identification of an outer membrane protein of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum that binds with high affinity to bovine endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is the primary etiologic agent of liver abscesses in cattle. There are two subspecies; subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme, which differ in morphological, biochemical, molecular characteristics, and virulence. The subsp. necrophorum, which is more virulent, occurs more frequently in liver abscesses than the subsp. funduliforme. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is critical to the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections, and in F. necrophorum, outer membrane proteins (OMP) have been shown to mediate adhesion to bovine endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to identify potential adhesins that are involved in adhesion of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to the host cells. An OMP of 42.4kDa, which binds with high affinity to the bovine endothelial cells and is recognized by the sera from cattle with liver abscesses, was identified. N-terminal sequencing of the protein showed 96% homology to the FomA protein of F. nucleatum. The PCR analysis showed that this fomA gene was present in several strains of subsp. necrophorum, subsp. funduliforme of bovine and subsp. funduliforme of human origin. The purified native and recombinantly expressed protein when preincubated with the endothelial cells, prevented the attachment of subsp. necrophorum significantly. In addition, the polyclonal antibody produced against the protein prevented the binding of subsp. necrophorum to bovine endothelial cells. PMID:25601800

Kumar, Amit; Menon, Sailesh; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

2015-03-23

93

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals.  

PubMed Central

We report the first description, confirmed by bacteriologic and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) analysis, of an infection in animals caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, affecting waterfowl. PMID:11747704

Goyache, J.; Vela, A. I.; Gibello, A.; Blanco, M. M.; Briones, V.; González, S.; Téllez, S.; Ballesteros, C.; Domínguez, L.; Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.

2001-01-01

94

Experimental Paratuberculosis in Calves following Inoculation with a Rabbit Isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The role of wildlife species in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis has been the subject of increased research efforts following the discovery of natural paratuberculosis in free-living rabbits from farms in east Scotland. This paper describes the experimental inoculation of young calves with an isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from a free-living rabbit. After a 6-month incubation period, all eight calves inoculated with the rabbit isolate had developed histopathological and/or microbiological evidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Similar results were obtained from a group of calves infected with a bovine isolate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The virulence of the rabbit isolate for calves demonstrated in this study suggests that rabbits are capable of passing paratuberculosis to domestic ruminants and that wildlife reservoirs of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis should therefore be considered when formulating control plans for the disease. PMID:11526132

Beard, P. M.; Stevenson, K.; Pirie, A.; Rudge, K.; Buxton, D.; Rhind, S. M.; Sinclair, M. C.; Wildblood, L. A.; Jones, D. G.; Sharp, J. M.

2001-01-01

95

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

2014-01-01

96

Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

97

Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia.  

PubMed

The ¹³C labels of [¹³C]carbon dioxide and D-[¹³C?]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH?CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-¹³C?]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M + 1]+ ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-¹³C?]pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric acid cycle, such as succinate and fumarate, confirming that the shoots absorbed and metabolised it. These observations demonstrated that the carbon atom of cyanamide is derived from any of the carbohydrates that are present upstream of pyruvate in the metabolic pathway. PMID:20954091

Kamo, Tsunashi; Kasahara, Ryohei; Abe, Shun; Hirota, Mitsuru; Sugano, Mami; Yamaya, Hiroko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

2010-10-01

98

Antimicrobial phenolics and unusual glycerides from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum.  

PubMed

During a large-scale isolation campaign for the heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (1a) from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, several new phenolics as well as an unusual class of lipids named santinols (5a-c, 6-8) have been characterized. Santinols are angeloylated glycerides characterized by the presence of branched acyl- or keto-acyl chains and represent a hitherto unreported class of plant lipids. The antibacterial activity of arzanol and of a selection of Helichrysum phenolics that includes coumarates, benzofurans, pyrones, and heterodimeric phloroglucinols was evaluated, showing that only the heterodimers showed potent antibacterial action against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These observations validate the topical use of Helichrysum extracts to prevent wound infections, a practice firmly established in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean area. PMID:23265253

Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Chianese, Giuseppina; Minassi, Alberto; Gibbons, Simon; Arunotayanun, Warunya; Mabebie, Blessing; Ballero, Mauro; Appendino, Giovanni

2013-03-22

99

[Further Helenanolides from the Flowers of Arnica chamissonis subsp. foliosa].  

PubMed

A phytochemical study of the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less. subsp. FOLIOSA (Nutt.) Maguire (Asteraceae) has resulted in the identification of a further 23 helenanolides. Six of them, 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-angelicoyl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin ( 3B), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-senecioyl-2, 3-dihydrohelenalin ( 3C), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-tigloyl-2,3,11alpha,13-tetrahydrohelenalin ( 4A), 2alpha-hydroxy-6- O-isovaleryl-2, 3,11alpha,13-tetrahydrohelenalin ( 4D), 6- O-acetylchamissonolide ( 5C), and 4,6-di- O-acetylchamissonolide ( 5D), were isolated for the first time as natural compounds. Their structures were established by GLC-MS studies and IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17221381

Willuhn, G; Kresken, J; Leven, W

1990-02-01

100

Capsular exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.  

PubMed

In the dairy industry, exopolysaccharides (EPS) contribute to improving the texture and viscosity of cheese and yoghurt and also receive increasing attention because of their beneficial properties for health. For lactic acid bacteria, the production of EPS is well studied. However, for dairy propionibacteria the biosynthesis of EPS is poorly documented. A polysaccharide synthase-encoding gene was identified in the genome of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii TL 34 (CIP 103027). This gene best aligns with Tts, the polysaccharide synthase gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37 that is responsible for the production of a beta-glucan capsular polysaccharide. PCR amplification showed the presence of an internal fragment of this gene in twelve strains of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii with a ropy phenotype in YEL+ medium. The gene sequence is highly conserved, as less than 1% of nucleotides differed among the 10 strains containing the complete gtf gene. The same primers failed to detect the gene in Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain TL 47, which is known to excrete exopolysaccharides in milk. The presence of (1-->3, 1-->2)-beta-d-glucan capsule was demonstrated for 7 out of 12 strains by agglutination with a S. pneumoniae-type 37-specific antiserum. The presence of mRNA corresponding to the gene was detected by RT-PCR in three strains at both exponential and stationary growth phases. This work represents the first identification of a polysaccharide synthase gene of P. freudenreichii, and further studies will be undertaken to elucidate the role of capsular EPS. PMID:18524407

Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Falentin, Hélène; Dols-Lafargue, Marguerite; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

2008-07-31

101

Two antigenotoxic chalcone glycosides from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mentha L. (Labiatae) species (mint) with their flavoring properties have been used in food industries for centuries. Besides they have a great importance in drug development and medicinal applications due to various bioactive compounds of several members of the genus. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate bioactive compounds with antimutagenic potential by bio-guided fractionation and determine their structures by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done based on spectroscopic methods, including MALDI-MS, UV, IR, and 2D NMR experiments, and the bio-guided fractionation process was done by using the Ames/Salmonella test system. Henceforth, solely genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the new compounds were also confirmed up to 2?µM/plate by using the same test system. Results: Two new chalcone glycosides: (?R)-?,3,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone and (?R)-?,4,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone, were isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia, together with known six flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid. According to the antimutagenicity results, both new test compounds significantly inhibited the mutagenic activity of 9-aminoacridine in a dose-dependent manner at the tested concentrations from 0.8 to 2?µM/plate. (?R)-?,4,2',6'-Tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone showed the maximum inhibition rate as 75.94% at 2?µM/plate concentration. Conclusions: This is the first report that two new chalcone glycosides were isolated from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia and their antimutagenic potentials by using mutant bacterial tester strains. In conclusion, the two new chalcone glycosides showed a significant antigenotoxic effect on 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenesis at tested concentrations. PMID:25429992

Guvenalp, Zuhal; Ozbek, Hilal; Karadayi, Mehmet; Gulluce, Medine; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Salih, Bekir; Demirezer, Omur

2014-11-28

102

Domain analysis of lipoprotein LppQ in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipoprotein LppQ is the most prominent antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) during infection of cattle. This pathogen causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a devastating\\u000a disease of considerable socio-economic importance in many countries worldwide. The dominant antigenicity and high specificity\\u000a for M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC of lipoprotein LppQ have been exploited for serological diagnosis

Laetitia Bonvin-Klotz; Edy M. Vilei; Kathrin Kühni-Boghenbor; Nadine Kapp; Joachim Frey; Michael H. Stoffel

2008-01-01

103

Alfalfa Subsp. Sativa by Falcata Intersubspecific Semi-Hybrid Seed Production Using Alfalfa Leafcutter Bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry-matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator preference for purple-flowered subsp. sativa plants over the yellow-flowered subsp. falcata plants. This study was conducted to quantify

Heathcliffe Riday

2008-01-01

104

Morphological variation of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata genotypes and their hybrid progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-hybrid alfalfa cultivars offer the possibility of capturing non-additive genetic variation. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and subsp.sativa have been shown to form a heterotic pattern for biomass yield. Objectives of this study were to examine morphological variation\\u000a in a broad range of falcate germplasm and to determine how falcate morphological variation per se is related to the performance of falcate

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

2004-01-01

105

Biosynthetic origin of the nitrogen atom in cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural cyanamide (NH2CN) has recently been found in three Leguminosae plants: Vicia villosa subsp. varia, Vicia cracca and Robinia pseudo-acacia. As cyanamide has long been thought to be absent in nature, its physiological role and biosynthesis are totally unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated the incorporation of N from [N]nitrate and [N]ammonium into cyanamide using shoots of V. villosa subsp.

Tsunashi Kamo; Kenji Kato; Shun Abe; Mitsuru Hirota; Hiroko Yamaya; Syuntaro Hiradate; Yoshiharu Fujii

2009-01-01

106

The Citrate Transport System of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis Is Induced by Acid Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate transport in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis is catalyzed by citrate permease P (CitP), which is encoded by the plasmidic citP gene. We have shown previously that citP is included in the citQRP operon, which is mainly transcribed from the P1 promoter in L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Furthermore, transcription of citQRP and citrate transport are not

NIEVES GARCIA-QUINTANS; CHRISTIAN MAGNI; DIEGO DE MENDOZA; PALOMA LOPEZ

1998-01-01

107

Die Unkraut-Hirse ( Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale ) — neue Tatsachen und Befunde  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weed-Broomcorn Millet,Panicum miliaceum L. subsp.ruderale (Kitag.)Tzvelev, until now observed only in Asiatic countries, is also present in Austria (C. Europe). Whereas the cultivatedP. miliaceum subsp.miliaceum, devoid of all natural dispersal ability, cannot actively spread, the Weed-Broomcorn Millet can do so successfully and is increasingly infesting fields ofZea mays. Its spikelets disarticulate at maturity below the glumes, and moreover the

Hildemar Scholz

1983-01-01

108

Pork Meat as a Potential Source of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae Infection in Humans  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae was isolated from 13 of 123 slaughtered pigs in central Greece. The samples cultured were feces, ileum tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gallbladder swabs. A total of 74 isolates from 492 samples were identified as Salmonella spp. by use of standard laboratory culture media and two commercial micromethods and by use of a polyvalent slide agglutination test for the detection of O and H antigens. Among them were 19 (25.68%) suspected to be S. enterica subsp. arizonae according to analysis with standard laboratory culture media. Of those, 14 were identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae by the API 20E (bioMérieux, France) and the Microgen GnA+B-ID (Microgen Bioproducts, Ltd., United Kingdom) identification systems. All the isolates were tested for resistance to 23 antimicrobials. Strains identified as S. enterica subsp. arizonae were resistant to 17 (70.8%) antibiotics. The highest proportions of resistance were observed for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (71.4%), tetracycline (71.4%), ampicillin (64.3%), and amoxicillin (57.1%). Two isolates were resistant to aztreonam (7.1%) and tigecycline (7.1%), used only for the treatment of humans. Thus, pork meat may play a role in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant S. enterica subsp. arizonae to human consumers. This is the first report of S. enterica subsp. arizonae isolation from pigs. PMID:24335956

Kritas, Spyridon; Govaris, Alexander; Burriel, Angeliki R.

2014-01-01

109

Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

2012-01-01

110

Decreased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquito larvae after contact with leaf litter.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, a 60% decrease in the amount of Cyt toxin detectable by immunology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]) was observed, while the respective proportions of Cry toxins were not affected. The toxicity of Cry toxins toward Aedes aegypti larvae was not affected by leaf litter, while the synergistic effect of Cyt toxins on all B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins was decreased by about 20% when mixed with leaf litter. The toxicity of two commercial B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains (VectoBac WG and VectoBac 12AS) and a laboratory-produced B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain decreased by about 70% when mixed with leaf litter. Taken together, these results suggest that Cyt toxins interact with leaf litter, resulting in a decreased toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in litter-rich environments and thereby dramatically reducing the efficiency of mosquitocidal treatments. PMID:22610426

Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphane; Després, Laurence

2012-08-01

111

Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

2013-11-01

112

Expression Library Immunization Confers Protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection†  

PubMed Central

Currently, paratuberculosis vaccines are comprised of crude whole-cell preparations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Although effective in reducing clinical disease and fecal shedding, these vaccines have severe disadvantages as well, including seroconversion of vaccinated animals and granulomatous lesions at the site of vaccination. DNA vaccines can offer an alternative approach that may be safer and elicit more protective responses. In an effort to identify protective M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis sequences, a genomic DNA expression library was generated and subdivided into pools of clones (?1,500 clones/pool). The clone pools were evaluated to determine DNA vaccine efficacy by immunizing mice via gene gun delivery and challenging them with live, virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Four clone pools resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from mouse tissues compared to mice immunized with other clone pools and nonvaccinated, infected control mice. One of the protective clone pools was further partitioned into 10 clone arrays of 108 clones each, and four clone arrays provided significant protection from both spleen and mesenteric lymph node colonization by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The nucleotide sequence of each clone present in the protective pools was determined, and coding region functions were predicted by computer analysis. Comparison of the protective clone array sequences implicated 26 antigens that may be responsible for protection in mice. This study is the first study to demonstrate protection against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with expression library immunization. PMID:16177367

Huntley, J. F.; Stabel, J. R.; Paustian, M. L.; Reinhardt, T. A.; Bannantine, J. P.

2005-01-01

113

Tomato Fruit and Seed Colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through External and Internal Routes  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

Tancos, Matthew A.; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

2013-01-01

114

Altered Toll-like receptor 9 signaling in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes reveals potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection changes the responsiveness of bovine monocytes to TLR9 stimulation. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis inhibits classical TLR9-mediated responses despite a 10-fold increase in TLR9 expression and maintained uptake of CpG ODNs. Other TLR9-mediated responses, such as oxidative burst, which occur through noncanonical signaling, remain functional. Kinome analysis verifies that classic TLR9 signaling is blocked by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and that signaling instead proceeds through a Pyk2-mediated mechanism. Pyk2-mediated signaling does not hinder infection, as CpG ODNs fail to promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. Indeed, Pyk2 signaling appears to be an important aspect of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, as Pyk2 inhibitors significantly reduce the number of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria. The actions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on TLR9 signaling may represent a strategy to generate a host environment which is better suited for infection, revealing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23115040

Arsenault, Ryan J; Li, Yue; Maattanen, Pekka; Scruten, Erin; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Kusalik, Anthony; Napper, Scott

2013-01-01

115

Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?  

PubMed

The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. PMID:21668609

Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

2011-07-01

116

Quantification of the Sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica to Low pH and High Organic Acids using Propidium Monoazide and Quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica (S. enterica) are two pathogens that are a concern to food and animal safety due to their ability to withstand harsh conditions encountered in the natural environment and within the host during pathogenesis. Acid...

117

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and its dipteran-specific toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-04-01

118

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-01-01

119

Utilization of galactooligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis isolates  

PubMed Central

Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding ?-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant ?-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for ?-galactosides such as 4? and 6?-galactobiose, and four ?-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host. PMID:23200660

Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Jimenez-Espinoza, Rogelio; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

2013-01-01

120

Anti-tumour activity of Digitalis purpurea L. subsp. heywoodii.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the anticancer effects of digitalis compounds suggesting their possible use in medical oncology. Four extracts obtained from the leaves of Digitalis purpurea subsp. heywoodii have been assessed for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines, using the SRB assay. All of them showed high cytotoxicity, producing IC50 values in the 0.78 - 15 microg/mL range with the methanolic extract being the most active, in non toxic concentrations. Steroid glycosides (gitoxigenin derivatives) were detected in this methanolic extract. Gitoxigenin and gitoxin were evaluated in the SRB assay using the three human cancer cell lines, showing IC50 values in the 0.13 - 2.8 microM range, with the renal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (TK-10) being the most sensitive one. Morphological apoptosis evaluation of the methanolic extract and both compounds on the TK-10 cell line showed that their cytotoxicity was mediated by an apoptotic effect. Finally, possible mechanisms involved in apoptosis induction by digitalis compounds are discussed. PMID:14531018

López-Lázaro, Miguel; Palma De La Peña, Nieves; Pastor, Nuria; Martín-Cordero, Carmen; Navarro, Eduardo; Cortés, Felipe; Ayuso, María Jesús; Toro, María Victoria

2003-08-01

121

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

122

Insertion and Deletion Events That Define the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis? ‡  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium comprises genetically related yet phenotypically distinct subspecies. Consistent with their common origin, whole-genome sequence comparisons have revealed extensive synteny among M. avium organisms. However, the sequenced strains also display numerous regions of heterogeneity that likely contribute to the diversity of the individual subspecies. Starting from a phylogenetic framework derived by multilocus sequence analysis, we examined the distribution of 25 large sequence polymorphisms across a panel of genetically defined M. avium strains. This distribution was most variable among M. avium subsp. hominissuis isolates. In contrast, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains exhibited a characteristic profile, with all isolates containing a set of genomic insertions absent from other M. avium strains. The emergence of the pathogen from its putative M. avium subsp. hominissuis ancestor entailed the acquisition of approximately 125 kb of novel genetic material, followed by a second phase, characterized by reductive genomics. One genomic deletion is common to all isolates while additional deletions distinguish two major lineages of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. For the average strain, these losses total at least 38 kb (sheep lineage) to 90 kb (cattle lineage). This biphasic pattern of evolution, characterized by chromosomal gene acquisition with subsequent gene loss, describes the emergence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and may serve as a general model for the origin of pathogenic mycobacteria. PMID:19028885

Alexander, David C.; Turenne, Christine Y.; Behr, Marcel A.

2009-01-01

123

Detection and Verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fresh Ileocolonic Mucosal Biopsy Specimens from Individuals with and without Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere. Water supplies are also at risk. The involvement of M. avium subsp.

Tim J. Bull; Elizabeth J. McMinn; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Angela Skull; Damien Durkin; Penny Neild; Glenn Rhodes; Roger Pickup; John Hermon-Taylor

2003-01-01

124

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

125

Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum Strain Pet-3, Isolated from a Lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus)  

PubMed Central

The whole-genome sequence for Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, a pathogen isolated from humans and turtles, has been reported recently. We present another completed genome sequence of the C. fetus subsp. testudinum strain pet-3, which was isolated from a lizard in Taiwan, for further genomic comparison study.

Wu, Zong-Yen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Jhou, Yi-Jyun; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Shyu, Ching-Lin

2015-01-01

126

Protection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Expressed in  

E-print Network

Protection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis from damage inflicted by UV-B, a sunlight component. israelensis as a mosquito biological control agent. Various subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt

Zaritsky, Arieh

127

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†  

PubMed Central

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-01-01

128

Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis Strain B6 and bv. intermedius Strain 642-21  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. We sequenced the genomes of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain B6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. The genetic variability of these Australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock. PMID:25278524

Barrero, Roberto A.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Indjein, Léa; Venus, Bronwyn; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Power, John

2014-01-01

129

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland reserve after 22 years of mosquito control.  

PubMed

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-06-01

130

Rapid and Sensitive Method To Identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cow's Milk by DNA Methylase Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time. PMID:23275511

Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José

2013-01-01

131

Use of Hoechst 33342 Staining To Detect Apoptotic Changes in Bovine Mononuclear Phagocytes Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes a chronic enteritis (Johne's disease) in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to determine whether M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection causes apoptosis in bovine monocytes. Using Hoechst 33342 staining, we observed increased numbers of apoptotic monocytes within 6 h of infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and these numbers increased further at 24 and 48 h. This effect appeared to require viable bacilli, because monocytes infected with heat-killed M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis did not exhibit a significant increase in apoptosis. Preincubation of monocytes with bovine growth hormone prior to infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis did not significantly alter the number of apoptotic cells. PMID:11238240

Allen, S.; Sotos, J.; Sylte, M. J.; Czuprynski, C. J.

2001-01-01

132

Complete Genome Sequences of Virulent Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains F38 and ILRI181.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe epidemic affecting mainly domestic Caprinae species but also affects wild Caprinae species. M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster." The disease features prominently in East Africa, in particular Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. CCPP also endangers wildlife and thus affects not only basic nutritional resources of large populations but also expensively built-up game resorts in affected countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of two M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains: the type strain F38 and strain ILRI181 isolated druing a recent outbreak in Kenya. Both genomes have a G+C content of 24% with sizes of 1,016,760 bp and 1,017,183 bp for strains F38 and ILRI181, respectively. PMID:25323717

Falquet, Laurent; Liljander, Anne; Schieck, Elise; Gluecks, Ilona; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

2014-01-01

133

Twelve aberrant strains of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus from clinical specimens.  

PubMed

A new biovar of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus was isolated from human clinical specimens and described on the basis of studies of 12 isolates that were compared with 11 standard reference strains. Both DNA hybridization experiments and numerical taxonomy analysis demonstrated that these strains were strictly related to S. aureus subsp. aureus; however, they were significantly different from the latter. The atypical strains belonging to the new biovar can be distinguished from typical S. aureus subsp. aureus strains by their alpha-chymotrypsin, alpha-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase (C-14), and leucine arylamidase enzymatic activities and novobiocin resistance. Thus, the combination of alpha-glucosidase and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase is more useful for distinguishing these S. aureus strains from the other, typical ones. PMID:8370737

Fontana, C; Cellini, L; Dainelli, B

1993-08-01

134

Comparative Phenotypic and Molecular Genetic Profiling of Wild Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Strains of the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris Genotypes, Isolated from Starter-Free Cheeses Made of Raw Milk?  

PubMed Central

Twenty Lactococcus lactis strains with an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype isolated from five traditional cheeses made of raw milk with no added starters belonging to the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotypes (lactis and cremoris genotypes, respectively; 10 strains each) were subjected to a series of phenotypic and genetic typing methods, with the aims of determining their phylogenetic relationships and suitability as starters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of intact genomes digested with SalI and SmaI proved that all strains were different except for three isolates of the cremoris genotype, which showed identical PFGE profiles. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using internal sequences of seven loci (namely, atpA, rpoA, pheS, pepN, bcaT, pepX, and 16S rRNA gene) revealed considerable intergenotype nucleotide polymorphism, although deduced amino acid changes were scarce. Analysis of the MLST data for the present strains and others from other dairy and nondairy sources showed that all of them clustered into the cremoris or lactis genotype group, by using both independent and combined gene sequences. These two groups of strains also showed distinctive carbohydrate fermentation and enzyme activity profiles, with the strains in the cremoris group showing broader profiles. However, the profiles of resistance/susceptibility to 16 antibiotics were very similar, showing no atypical resistance, except for tetracycline resistance in three identical cremoris genotype isolates. The numbers and concentrations of volatile compounds produced in milk by the strains belonging to these two groups were clearly different, with the cremoris genotype strains producing higher concentrations of more branched-chain, derived compounds. Together, the present results support the idea that the lactis and cremoris genotypes of phenotypic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis actually represent true subspecies. Some strains of the two subspecies in this study appear to be good starter candidates. PMID:21666023

Fernández, Elena; Alegría, Ángel; Delgado, Susana; Martín, M. Cruz; Mayo, Baltasar

2011-01-01

135

Persistence and recycling of bioinsecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in contrasting environments: evidence from field monitoring and laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

Sprays of commercial preparations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are widely used for the control of mosquito larvae. Despite an abundant literature on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis field efficiency on mosquito control, few studies have evaluated the fate of spores in the environment after treatments. In the present article, two complementary experiments were conducted to study the effect of different parameters on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence and recycling, in field conditions and in the laboratory. First, we monitored B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence in the field in two contrasting regions in France: the Rhône-Alpes region, where mosquito breeding sites are temporary ponds under forest cover with large amounts of decaying leaf matter on the ground and the Mediterranean region characterized by open breeding sites such as brackish marshes. Viable B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores can persist for months after a treatment, and their quantity is explained both by the vegetation type and by the number of local treatments. We found no evidence of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling in the field. Then, we tested the effect of water level, substrate type, salinity and presence of mosquito larvae on the persistence/recycling of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in controlled laboratory conditions (microcosms). We found no effect of change in water level or salinity on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence over time (75 days). B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores tended to persist longer in substrates containing organic matter compared to sand-only substrates. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling only occurred in presence of mosquito larvae but was unrelated to the presence of organic matter. PMID:24402370

Duchet, Claire; Tetreau, Guillaume; Marie, Albane; Rey, Delphine; Besnard, Gilles; Perrin, Yvon; Paris, Margot; David, Jean-Philippe; Lagneau, Christophe; Després, Laurence

2014-04-01

136

Characterization of mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis crystal proteins.  

PubMed Central

The mosquitocidal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis were isolated and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of two mosquito species. The 50% lethal concentration values of the crystals to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were 4.1 and 2.9 micrograms/ml, respectively. In addition, the solubilized crystals had hemolytic activity; 50 micrograms/ml was the lowest detectable level. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the crystals consisted of polypeptides of 90, 86, 82, 72, 50, 48, 37, and 27 kDa. When the solubilized inclusion was treated with C. quinquefasciatus midgut brush border membrane vesicles or Manduca sexta gut juice, only one major protein was detected. This protein retained mosquitocidal activity but had no detectable hemolytic activity. Immunological analysis of this subspecies and the subspecies israelensis, kyushuensis and darmstadiensis by using polyclonal antisera raised against the whole-crystal protein of B. thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis revealed that the proteins in subsp. fukuokaensis are distinct from proteins in the other subspecies because little cross-reaction was observed. Analysis of the plasmid pattern showed that the crystal protein genes are located on a plasmid of 130 MDa. Analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from subsp. fukuokaensis showed little homology to the 72-kDa toxin gene (PG-14) of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni. However, some of the proteins of B. thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis are homologous to other B. thuringiensis toxins because N-terminal amino acid analysis revealed that the 90-kDa protein is encoded by a cryIV gene type. Images PMID:2059032

Yu, Y M; Ohba, M; Gill, S S

1991-01-01

137

Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Isolated from Feces, Water and Fish in Mediterranean Spain  

PubMed Central

Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004–2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8–100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993–1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD50 of 3.3×106 CFU fish?1) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

2012-01-01

138

Naturally acquired Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida infection in a closed colony of rabbits: characteristics of isolates.  

PubMed

Twelve litters, comprising 41 rabbits aged 35 to 60 days old, in a closed university colony, were monitored for acquisition of nasal Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida infection. Isolates from 11 infected rabbits were characterized by colonial morphology, capsular type, biotype and antibiotic resistance. Selected isolates were further characterized by somatic antigen typing. Two major strains of P. multocida subsp. multocida were detected in the colony. One strain had mucoid colonies, fermented few carbohydrates and was serotype A:5, whereas, the other strain had smooth iridescent colonies, non-typeable capsular antigen, type 3 somatic antigen and fermented more than twice as many carbohydrates. PMID:1921322

Digiacomo, R F; Allen, V; Hinton, M H

1991-07-01

139

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in California coyotes, 1994-1998.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (Canis latrans) in California ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern California. Seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of Bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of transmission is from wildlife to domestic dogs and possibly humans. PMID:10511529

Chang, C; Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Simpson, D C; Smith, C R; Kramer, V L

1999-01-01

140

Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides  

PubMed Central

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical ?(1?>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an antigenic switch constitutes a finely tuned mechanism that may be involved in virulence. PMID:23869216

Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

2013-01-01

141

New antimicrobial mono- and sesquiterpenes from Soroseris hookeriana subsp. erysimoides.  

PubMed

A new monoterpene and a new guaianolide were isolated from the aerial parts of the Tibetan medicinal plant Soroseris hookeriana subsp. erysimoides (Asteraceae), in addition to (1R,4R,5R)-5-hydroxybornan-2-one 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, diosmetin, isoluteolin, p-methoxybenzoic acid, isovanillic acid, two phenylmethanol derivatives (vanilioloside and phenylmethanol glucopyranoside), and five guaianolides [3 beta,8 beta-dihyroxyguaia-4(15),10(14),11(13)-triene-12,6 alpha-olide, dentalactone, 10 alpha-hydroxy-8-deoxy-10,14-dihydrodeacylcinaropicrin, glucozaluzanin C and 8-epideacylcinaropicrin glucoside]. By a combination of spectroscopic methods (IR, EI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and DEPT), the structure of the new guaianolide was established as 3 beta,8 beta-dihydroxy-11 alpha H-guaia-4(15),10(14)-diene-12,6 alpha-olide, and that of the new monoterpene as (1R,4R,5R)-5-benzoyloxybornan-2-one. The antimicrobial activity of all isolates except the two sterols were measured using Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton rubrum as test microorganisms. The new guaianolide was shown to be equally active (MIC: 50 micrograms/ml) against E. coli, B. subtilis and A. niger. The new monoterpene inhibited exclusively the growth of B. subtilis with MIC at 25 micrograms/ml. p-Methoxybenzoic acid and isovanillic acid were inhibitory against A. niger (MIC: 25 micrograms/ml), the latter being also active against B. subtilis with MIC at 25 micrograms/ml. The flavonoids diosmetin and isoluteolin almost equally inhibited the growth of B. subtilis (MIC: 25 micrograms/ml) and the human pathgenic fungus T. rubrum (MIC: 50 micrograms/ml). PMID:10985081

Meng, J C; Zhu, Q X; Tan, R X

2000-08-01

142

Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to assess spontaneous selfing, self-compatibility and effects of pollen source (hermaphroditic vs. male flowers). Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth and reproductive success was assessed by fruit, seed and seedling numbers and characteristics. The pollinator guild was surveyed and the pollination distance determined both by direct observations and by indirect fluorescent dye dispersal. Key Results The species is probably pollinated by several Hymenoptera, principally by Hypotrigona para. Pollinator flight distances varied from 25 to 69 cm. No evidence for apomixis or spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of insect visitors was found. The self-fertility index (SFI = 0) indicated a total dependence on pollinators for reproductive success. The effects of hand pollination on fruit set, seed number and seedling fitness differed among years. Pollen tube growth and reproductive success did not differ between self- and cross-pollinations. Accordingly, a high self-compatibility index for the fruit set (SCI = 1·00) and the seed number (SCI = 0·98) and a low inbreeding depression at all developmental stages (cumulative ? = 0·126) suggest a high selfing ability. Finally, pollen origin had no effect on fruit and seed sets. Conclusions This andromonoecious species has the potential for a mixed mating system with high dependence on insect-mediated pollination. The selfing rate through geitonogamy should be important. PMID:19671577

Kouonon, Leonie C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, Arsene I.; Bertin, Pierre; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Yao

2009-01-01

143

Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis enhances mosquitocidal activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 against Aedes aegypti but not Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

The Cyt1Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is known to synergize mosquitocidal proteins of B. thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus strains. Cyt1Aa is highly lipophilic, and after binding in vivo to the midgut microvillar membrane serves as a "receptor" for mosquitocidal Cry proteins, which subsequently form cation channels that kill mosquito larvae. Here we report that Cyt1Aa can serve a similar function for lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins of B. thuringiensis in certain mosquito larvae. Engineering Cyt1Aa into the HD-1 isolate of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki enhanced toxicity against 4th instars of Aedes aegypti, but not against 4th instars of Culex quinquefasciatus. PMID:23314373

Park, Hyun-Woo; Pino, Brent C; Kozervanich-Chong, Switzerlyna; Hafkenscheid, Erika A; Oliverio, Ryan M; Federici, Brian A; Bideshi, Dennis K

2013-01-01

144

Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J.  

PubMed

The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A

2014-01-01

145

Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J  

PubMed Central

The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

2014-01-01

146

Polyphasic taxonomic revision of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex: proposal to emend the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and reclassify current R. syzygii strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii subsp. nov., R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov., banana blood disease bacterium strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. and R. solanacearum phylotype I and III strains as Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov.  

PubMed

The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex has long been recognized as a group of phenotypically diverse strains that can be subdivided into four phylotypes. Using a polyphasic taxonomic approach on an extensive set of strains, this study provides evidence for a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision of members of this complex. Data obtained from phylogenetic analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS gene sequences, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region sequences and partial endoglucanase (egl) gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrate that the R. solanacearum species complex comprises three genospecies. One of these includes the type strain of Ralstonia solanacearum and consists of strains of R. solanacearum phylotype II only. The second genospecies includes the type strain of Ralstonia syzygii and contains only phylotype IV strains. This genospecies is subdivided into three distinct groups, namely R. syzygii, the causal agent of Sumatra disease on clove trees in Indonesia, R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains isolated from different host plants mostly from Indonesia, and strains of the blood disease bacterium (BDB), the causal agent of the banana blood disease, a bacterial wilt disease in Indonesia that affects bananas and plantains. The last genospecies is composed of R. solanacearum strains that belong to phylotypes I and III. As these genospecies are also supported by phenotypic data that allow the differentiation of the three genospecies, the following taxonomic proposals are made: emendation of the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and descriptions of Ralstonia syzygii subsp. nov. (type strain R 001(T)?=?LMG 10661(T)?=?DSM 7385(T)) for the current R. syzygii strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 464(T)?=?LMG 27703(T)?=?DSM 27478(T)) for the current R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 627(T)?=?LMG 27706(T)?=?DSM 27477(T)) for the BDB strains and Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov. (type strain UQRS 461(T)?=?LMG 9673(T)?=?NCPPB 1029(T)) for the strains of R. solanacearum phylotypes I and III. PMID:24944341

Safni, Irda; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fegan, Mark; Sly, Lindsay; Kappler, Ulrike

2014-09-01

147

Structural similarity between the lepidoptera- and diptera-specific insecticidal endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" and "israelensis".  

PubMed Central

A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" was cloned from the large plasmids of this subspecies and was shown to code for a mosquitocidal polypeptide. The gene could be expressed in either Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" to produce the larvicidal activity. Similarly, a Lepidoptera-specific toxin gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" was also cloned and expressed in E. coli and B. subtilis. Both cloned genes were sequenced and subjected to computer analysis. A long open translational reading frame coded for the B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" gene product. However, the B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" clone was composed of two adjacent open reading frames oriented as if they were in a transcriptional operon. The products of the cloned genes retained their specificity for either Lepidoptera or Diptera. The control regions immediately preceding the toxin genes of both B. thuringiensis subspecies showed considerable DNA homology, most likely because both toxins are expressed only during sporulation. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequences from the two contiguous B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" genes bore a striking resemblance to the deduced amino acid sequence from the single larger B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" gene, as if these two arrangements were evolutionarily related. Images PMID:3011746

Thorne, L; Garduno, F; Thompson, T; Decker, D; Zounes, M; Wild, M; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

1986-01-01

148

Isolation and Identification of novel toxins from a new mosquitocidal isolate from Malaysia, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed Central

A new mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp., jegathesan, has recently been isolated from Malaysia. Parasporal crystal inclusions were purified from this strain and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes togoi, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles maculatus, and Mansonia uniformis. The 50% lethal concentration of crystal inclusions for each species was 0.34, 8.08, 0.34, 17.59, 3.91, and 120 ng/ml, respectively. These values show that parasporal inclusions from this new subspecies have mosquitocidal toxicity comparable to that of inclusions isolated from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Solubilized and chymotrypsin-activated parasporal inclusions possessed low-level hemolytic activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the crystals were composed of polypeptides of 77, 74, 72, 68, 55, 38, 35, 27, and 23 kDa. Analysis by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with polyclonal antisera raised against toxins purified from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis reveals that proteins in parasporal inclusions of subsp. jegathesan are distinct, because little cross-reactivity was shown. Analysis of the plasmid content of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan indicates that the genes for toxin production may be located on 105- to 120-kb plasmids. Cry- clones that have been cured of these plasmids are nontoxic. Southern blot analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from subsp. jegathesan showed little or low homology to the genes coding for CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. PMID:7487029

Kawalek, M D; Benjamin, S; Lee, H L; Gill, S S

1995-01-01

149

Genetic construction of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and analysis of a rapid method for conjugation.  

PubMed Central

Conjugation was used to construct nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains. Recipients were obtained by electroporation of L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains with the drug resistance plasmid pGK13 or pGB301. A method, direct-plate conjugation, was developed in which donor and recipient cells were concentrated and then combined directly on selective media. This method facilitated transfer of the nisin-sucrose (Nip+ Suc+) phenotype from the donor strain, L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454, to three L. lactis subsp. cremoris recipient strains. Nip+ Suc+ L. lactis subsp. cremoris transconjugants were obtained at frequencies which ranged from 10(-7) to 10(-8) per donor CFU. DNA-DNA hybridization to transconjugant DNAs, performed with an oligonucleotide probe synthesized to detect the nisin precursor gene, showed that this gene was transferred during conjugation but was not associated with detectable plasmid DNA. Further investigation indicated that L. lactis subsp. cremoris Nip+ Suc+ transconjugants retained the recipient strain phenotype with respect to bacteriophage resistance and acid production in milk. Results suggested that it would be feasible to construct nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains for application as mixed and multiple starter systems. Additionally, the direct-plate conjugation method required less time than filter or milk agar matings and may also be useful for investigations of conjugal mechanisms in these organisms. Images PMID:1901708

Broadbent, J R; Kondo, J K

1991-01-01

150

Effect of Three Factors in Cheese Production (pH, Salt, and Heat) on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Viability  

PubMed Central

Low pH and salt are two factors contributing to the inactivation of bacterial pathogens during a 60-day curing period for cheese. The kinetics of inactivation for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains ATCC 19698 and Dominic were measured at 20°C under different pH and NaCl conditions commonly used in processing cheese. The corresponding D values (decimal reduction times; the time required to kill 1 log10 concentration of bacteria) were measured. Also measured were the D values for heat-treated and nonheated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 50 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.0, 2% [wt/vol] NaCl) and a soft white Hispanic-style cheese (pH 6.0, 2% [wt/vol] NaCl). Samples were removed at various intervals until no viable cells were detected using the radiometric culture method (BACTEC) for enumeration of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. NaCl had little or no effect on the inactivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and increasing NaCl concentrations were not associated with decreasing D values (faster killing) in the acetate buffer. Lower pHs, however, were significantly correlated with decreasing D values of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the acetate buffer. The D values for heat-treated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698 in the cheese were higher than those predicted by studies done in acetate buffer. The heat-treated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains had lower D values than the nonheated cells (faster killing) both in the acetate buffer (pH 5, 2% [wt/vol] NaCl) and in the soft white cheese. The D value for heat-treated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698 in the cheese (36.5 days) suggests that heat treatment of raw milk coupled with a 60-day curing period will inactivate about 103 cells of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml. PMID:10742208

Sung, Nackmoon; Collins, Michael T.

2000-01-01

151

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Free-Ranging Birds and Mammals on Livestock Premises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract

Joseph L. Corn; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Srinand Sreevatsan; John R. Fischer

2005-01-01

152

Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1  

PubMed Central

We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. PMID:25676774

Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

2015-01-01

153

Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted

Christopher P. Bickford; Thomas E. Kolb; Brian W. Geils

2005-01-01

154

Molecular Evidence of Perinatal Transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae to a Child?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella henselae, or DNA of both organisms was amplified and sequenced from blood, enrichment blood cultures, or autopsy tissues from four family members. Historical and microbiological results support perinatal transmission of Bartonella species in this family. It is of clinical relevance that Bartonella spp. may adversely influence human reproductive performance. PMID:20392912

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Farmer, Peter; Mascarelli, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

155

Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation and persistence of the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis may result in environmental hazards, such as toxicity to nontarget species and the selection of toxin-resistant target species. Toxins from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were added to three soils [Kitchawan soil (which contains kaolinite but not montmorillonite) unamended or amended with montmorillonite or kaolinite (as an internal control); Mopala

H. Tapp; G. Stotzky

1998-01-01

156

A UV Tolerant Mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Producing Melanin  

E-print Network

A UV Tolerant Mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Producing Melanin Deepak Saxena,1 polypeptide produced by Bt-m was Cry1Ac (130 kDa); it lost cry1Aa, cry2Aa, and cry2Ab. Bacillus thuringiensis Received: 2 April 2001 / Accepted: 14 May 2001 Abstract. A UV-resistant mutant (Bt-m) of Bacillus

Zaritsky, Arieh

157

Development and Application of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (formerly known as S. bovis biotype I) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in animals and in up to 15% of healthy humans. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen that can cause infectious endocarditis, mastitis, and septicemia. The number of infections is increasing, but the transmission routes and zoonotic potential remain unknown. To assess the zoonotic potential and characterize the epidemiological structure of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. We amplified and sequenced internal fragments of seven housekeeping genes. The resulting sequences were analyzed with BioNumerics software 6.6 by using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages algorithm. A total of 101 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains isolated from animals, humans, and environmental samples were analyzed and divided into 50 sequence types. Our first results highlight the importance of this MLST scheme for investigating the epidemiology, transmission patterns, and infection chains of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. PMID:24789199

Dumke, J.; Hinse, D.; Vollmer, T.; Knabbe, C.

2014-01-01

158

Characterizing the Genetic Diversity of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Population in New York.  

PubMed

New York Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates, collected from disparate bacterial canker of tomato outbreaks over the past 11 years, were characterized with a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme that differentiated the 51 isolates into 21 haplotypes with a discriminatory power of 0.944. The MLSA scheme consisted of five housekeeping genes (kdpA, sdhA, dnaA, ligA, and gyrB) and three putative pathogenicity genes (celA, tomA, and nagA). Repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the BOX-A1R primer, confirmed the high diversity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates in New York by demonstrating that all six PCR patterns (A, B, 13C, 65C, 81C, and D) were present, with PCR patterns C and A being the most common. The MLSA scheme provided higher resolving power than the current repetitive-PCR approach. The plasmid profiles of New York isolates were diverse and differed from reference strain NCPPB382. PCR analysis indicated that the presence of putative pathogenicity genes varied between isolates and highlighted the ephemeral nature of pathogenicity genes in field populations of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Analysis of molecular variance between Serbian and New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolates demonstrated that the two populations were not significantly different, with 98% genetic variation within each population and only 2% genetic variation between populations. PMID:25208240

Tancos, Matthew A; Lange, Holly W; Smart, Christine D

2015-02-01

159

Effective Heat Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Raw Milk Contaminated with Naturally Infected Feces?  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 102 to 3.5 × 105 cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90°C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72°C and a holding time of 6 s, 70°C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an Ea of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk0 of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72°C and a Z value of 7.7°C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at ?72°C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:17496131

Rademaker, Jan L. W.; Vissers, Marc M. M.; te Giffel, Meike C.

2007-01-01

160

Experimental infection of dogs with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii.  

PubMed

The lack of a suitable infection model remains an important obstacle for the pathophysiological understanding of Bartonella spp. The following pilot study was designed to determine whether cell culture-grown Bartonella henselae SA2 and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III would cause persistent bacteremia in dogs. Pre-inoculation screening established that two laboratory-raised Golden retrievers were naturally-infected with Bartonella koehlerae. Despite prior infection, one dog each was inoculated subcutaneously with 5 × 10(4)B. henselae (SA2 strain) or 3 × 10(4)B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. Dogs were bled weekly for serological testing and culture using Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Dog 1 seroconverted to B. henselae and Dog 2 seroconverted to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. Throughout the study period, Bartonella spp. DNA was neither amplified nor isolated in ante-mortem BAPGM enrichment blood cultures. B. henselae SA2 was isolated from a postmortem bone marrow from Dog 1 and B. koehlerae DNA was amplified from postmortem lung from Dog 2 following BAPGM enrichment culture. Limitations include lack of uninfected controls, a potentially suboptimal B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii inoculum and a relatively short duration of study. We conclude that following intradermal infection, sequestration of Bartonella spp. in tissues may limit diagnostic detection of these bacteria in dog blood samples. PMID:24120155

Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Cherry, Natalie A; Linder, Keith E; Pierce, Eric; Sontakke, Neal; Hegarty, Barbara C; Bradley, Julie M; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2013-11-15

161

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental

R. L. Smith; Y. H. Schukken; A. K. Pradhan; J. M. Smith; R. H. Whitlock; J. S. Van Kessel; D. R. Wolfgang; Y. T. Grohn

2011-01-01

162

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C; Ramos, Rommel T J; Sá, Pablo H C G; Carneiro, Adriana R; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F O; Santos, Anderson R; Pinto, Anne C; Souza, Bianca M; Castro, Camila P; Diniz, Carlos A A; Rocha, Clarissa S; Mariano, Diego C B; de Aguiar, Edgar L; Folador, Edson L; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Gonçalves, Lucas A; Guimarães, Luís C; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C M; Silva, Renata F; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S; Hassan, Syed S; Pereira, Vanessa B; Abreu, Vinicius A C; Pereira, Ulisses P; Dorella, Fernanda A; Carvalho, Alex F; Pereira, Felipe L; Leal, Carlos A G; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2014-01-01

163

Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

164

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Heterogeneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Immunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The etiological agent of Johne’s disease in cattle is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Controlling the spread of this disease is hindered by the lack of sensitive selective, and rapid detection methods for MAP. This presentation details the development and performance of an assay f...

165

Immunogenicity of Proteome-Determined Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Proteins in Sheep with Paratuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Detecting animals with paratuberculosis infections is difficult because the currently available tools have low sensitivity and lack specificity; these tools are prone to generating spurious positive test results caused by exposure to environmental M. avium complex organisms. To generate candidate antigens for incorporation into a specific test for paratuberculosis, subspecies-specific proteins were determined by proteomic comparison of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium. Analysis was aimed at revealing proteins only expressed (or predominant) in the protein profile of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolved approximately 1,000 protein spots from each subspecies. Proteome analysis identified protein spots whose expression profile appeared markedly increased in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 32 were identified by analysis of their tryptic peptide profile by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis. Thirty of these proteins were cloned, and their recombinant proteins were expressed. Ovine paratuberculosis sera were used to assess their immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and dot blot analysis. Seventeen proteins were detected in at least one of the immunoassays, and eleven proteins were detected by ELISA with an optical density in excess of the cutoff of 0.1 in four of six sera tested. The immunoreactivity of these proteins indicates their potential as unique diagnostic antigens for the development of a specific serological detection of paratuberculosis. PMID:18845834

Hughes, Valerie; Bannantine, John P.; Denham, Susan; Smith, Stuart; Garcia-Sanchez, Alfredo; Sales, Jill; Paustian, Michael L.; Mclean, Kevin; Stevenson, Karen

2008-01-01

166

New tricks from an old cow: Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.  

PubMed

We present a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae; a major cause of bovine mastitis and previously thought to be an animal restricted pathogen. The patient reported no direct contact with animals, and the clinical course was severe and complicated. PMID:25472489

Jordal, Stina; Glambek, Marte; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Kittang, Bård Reiakvam

2014-12-01

167

Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistently infect intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes leading to a prolonged subclinical disease. We investigated the intracellular lifestyle of MAP in the intestines and lymph nodes to understand the MAP pathways that function to govern th...

168

Essential oil composition of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro (Asteraceae) from Sicily.  

PubMed

Ninety-four components of the essential oils from aerial parts and capitula of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro were detected. Alpha-Thujone, beta-thujone and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the oils. The analysis allows the assignment of this Tanacetum species to the thujone chemotype. PMID:19476007

Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Bellone, Gabriella; Spadaro, Vivienne

2009-04-01

169

Geographic Distribution of Common and Dwarf Bunt Resistance in Landraces of Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landrace accessions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) have been tested systematically for the past 25 yr for disease resistance. We analyzed the resistance of 10 759 common wheat ac- cessions to common bunt (CB) caused by Tilletia tritici (Bjerk.) Wint. and T. laevis Kuhn, and 8167 to dwarf bunt (DB)

J. Michael Bonman; Harold E. Bockelman; Blair J. Goates; Don E. Obert; Patrick E. McGuire; Calvin O. Qualset; Robert J. Hijmans

170

Induction of B Cell Responses upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal models are useful for studying host responses to infection and aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study was designed to compare the effects of different methods of experimental infection: Oral (Mycobacterium avium subsp. parauberculosis (MAP) strain K-10; Or...

171

Identification of resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli among melon (Cucumis spp.) Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) is a seed-borne disease that threatens most cucurbit crops. Although, limited resistance has been found in a small number of Plant Introductions (PI) in watermelon (Citrullus spp.), no significant activity ...

172

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality  

PubMed Central

Abstract A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. PMID:16642877

Hernandez, Laura; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

2006-01-01

173

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

Benahmed, Faiza H.; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G.; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Rasmussen, Mark A.

2014-01-01

174

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

Oliveira, Letícia C.; Saraiva, Tessália D. L.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F. O.; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Souza, Bianca M.; Castro, Camila P.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Rocha, Clarissa S.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; de Aguiar, Edgar L.; Folador, Edson L.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Gonçalves, Lucas A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C. M.; Silva, Renata F.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S.; Hassan, Syed S.; Pereira, Vanessa B.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson

2014-01-01

175

Iron-sparing Response of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is Strain Dependent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Two genotypically and microbiologically distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) exist – the type I and type II strains that primarily infect sheep and cattle, respectively. Concentration of iron in the cultivation medium has been suggested as one contributin...

176

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD73.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide variety of insect larvae. We report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD73 from the Centre OILB (Institut Pasteur, France), which belongs to serotype 3ab and is toxic to lepidopteran larvae. PMID:23516207

Liu, Guiming; Song, Lai; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Pinshu; Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Lereclus, Didier; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Dafang; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

2013-01-01

177

Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac), and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using

Márcia R Soares; Agda P Facincani; Rafael M Ferreira; Leandro M Moreira; Julio CF de Oliveira; Jesus A Ferro; Rogério Meneghini; Fábio C Gozzo

2010-01-01

178

Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the

Stephen D. Bentley; Craig Corton; Susan E. Brown; Andrew Barron; Louise Clark; Jon Doggett; Barbara Harris; Doug Ormond; Michael A. Quail; Georgiana May; David Francis; Dennis Knudson; Julian Parkhill; Carol A. Ishimaru

2008-01-01

179

VERTEBRATE TOXICOLOGY OF THE SOLUBILIZED PROTEINS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review summarizes the studies done with the mammalian toxic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) 28 kDa cytA protein. The data is relevant to hazard identification studies with bacterial pesticides. The data shows that cytA produces lethal physiological changes in...

180

Expression Library Immunization Confers Protection against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 15 April 2005\\/Returned for modification 25 May 2005\\/Accepted 6 June 2005 Currently, paratuberculosis vaccines are comprised of crude whole-cell preparations of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Although effective in reducing clinical disease and fecal shedding, these vaccines have severe disadvantages as well, including seroconversion of vaccinated animals and granulomatous lesions at the site of vaccination. DNA vaccines can offer an

J. F. Huntley; J. R. Stabel; M. L. Paustian; T. A. Reinhardt; J. P. Bannantine

2005-01-01

181

Iron-sparing Response of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is strain dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two genotypically and microbiologically distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) exist - S and C MAP strains that primarily infect sheep and cattle, respectively. Concentration of iron in the cultivation medium has been suggested as one contributing factor for the observed microbiologic differences. We recently demonstrated that S strains have defective iron storage systems, leading us to

Harish K Janagama; Senthilkumar; John P Bannantine; Abirami Kugadas; Pratik Jagtap; LeeAnn Higgins; Bruce A Witthuhn; Srinand Sreevatsan

2010-01-01

182

Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Strain RM6836  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strain RM6836 was isolated from lettuce in 2002. We report here the complete sequence and annotation of the genome of S. Thompson RM6836. This is the first reported complete genome sequence for S. Thompson and it will enhance our understanding of this serovar and provide another point for comparative studies between Salmonella enterica strains. PMID:24233585

Gorski, Lisa; Huynh, Steven

2013-01-01

183

Surface Proteome of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection  

PubMed Central

“Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease. PMID:22392927

McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

184

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease is a significant problem in many North American cattle herds. The efficacy of currently available vaccines is questionable. There is a need to develop efficacious vaccines and strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAPTB) that could serve as potential candidates for ...

185

Immunologic responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois protein cocktail vaccines in a mouse model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis characterized by severe diarrhea, wasting and a decline in milk production caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois (MAP). The vaccine currently on the market has some limitations including a severe injection site reactio...

186

Induction of B Cell Responses Upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal models are useful for studying host responses to infection and aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study was designed to compare the effects of different methods of experimental infection: Oral (Mycobacterium avium subsp. parauberculosis (MAP) strain K-10; Or...

187

Functional Characterization of Iron Dependent Regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we investigated an iron dependent regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). IdeR is a transcriptional factor that plays a global iron regulatory role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with a 19-bp recognition sequence. IdeR recognition sites within MAP ge...

188

Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL-1) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL-1) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

Asgary, S.; Naderi, G.A.; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; Sahebkar, A.; Airin, A.; Aslani, S.; Kasher, T.; Emami, S.A.

2014-01-01

189

Identification of Resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli among Melon (Cucumis spp.) Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial fruit blotch caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) is a seed-borne disease that threatens most cucurbit crops. Although limited resistance has been found in a small number of Plant Introductions (PI) in watermelon (Citrullus spp.), no significant activity in scre...

190

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COMMON AND DWARF BUNT RESISTANCE IN LANDRACES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM SUBSP. AESTIVUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landrace accessions of cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) (TAA) from the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) have been tested systematically for the past 25 years for disease resistance. We analyzed the resistance of 10759 TAA accessions to common bunt (CB), c...

191

Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

192

Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves. PMID:24689051

Rossier, Christophe; Baehler, Corinne; Schmitt, Sarah

2014-01-01

193

Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in captive Siberian tiger.  

PubMed

We report the first case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in a captive Siberian tiger, an endangered feline. The pathogen was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained by bronchoscopy. This procedure provided a reliable in vivo diagnostic method in conjunction with conventional and molecular tests for the detection of mycobacteria. PMID:14718093

Lantos, Akos; Niemann, Stefan; Mezõsi, Lásló; Sós, Endre; Erdélyi, Károly; Dávid, Sándor; Parsons, Linda M; Kubica, Tanja; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Somoskövi, Akos

2003-11-01

194

Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).  

PubMed

The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

2013-03-01

195

Influence of the carbon source on nisin production in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nisin production by Lactucmcus lrrctis subsp. lactis NIZO 22186 was studied in batch fermentation using a complex medium. Nisin production showed primary metabolite kinetics: nisin biosynthesis took place during the active growth phase and completely stopped when cells entered the stationary phase. A stringent correlation could be observed between the expression of the prenisin gene (nisA) and the synthesis of

LUC DE VUYST; ERICK J. VANDAMME

1992-01-01

196

Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. We report the genome sequence of a plant pathogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043, the causative agent of soft rot and blackleg potato diseases. Approximately 33% of Eca genes are not

K. S. Bell; M. Sebaihia; L. Pritchard; M. T. G. Holden; L. J. Hyman; M. C. Holeva; N. R. Thomson; S. D. Bentley; L. J. C. Churcher; K. Mungall; R. Atkin; N. Bason; K. Brooks; T. Chillingworth; K. Clark; J. Doggett; A. Fraser; Z. Hance; H. Hauser; K. Jagels; S. Moule; H. Norbertczak; D. Ormond; C. Price; M. A. Quail; M. Sanders; D. Walker; S. Whitehead; G. P. C. Salmond; P. R. J. Birch; J. Parkhill; I. K. Toth

2004-01-01

197

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases. PMID:22078099

2011-01-01

198

Purification of native HBHA from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Paratuberculosis remains today a major global problem in animal health, especially for dairy cattle. However, the diagnosis of its etiologic agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), still lacks sensitivity because of the lack of available antigens. Little is known about the virulence factors for this pathogen. In this study we have developed a method to produce and purify the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), a major adhesin of Mycobacteria, from a culture of Map. Findings For this extremely slow-growing Mycobacterium, a culture was established in a 3-liter bioreactor. Using the bioreactor the amount of the Map biomass was increased 5-fold compared to a classical culture in flasks. The map-HBHA was purified from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography on HiTrap columns. Binding of map-HBHA onto heparin-Sepharose can be reduced in the presence of salt. Consequently, all steps of sample preparation and column equilibration were carried out in 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.2). The map-HBHA was eluted by a linear NaCl gradient. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the native form of map-HBHA has posttranslational modifications, including the removal of the initiation methionine, acetylation of the alanine residue at the N-terminal extremity and the presence of methylated lysines in the C-terminal domain of the protein. Conclusions An optimized culture of Map in a bioreactor was established to purify the native map-HBHA from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The availability of this antigen offers the possibility to study the structure of the protein and to examine its role in pathogenicity, in particular to better understand the specific interactions of Map with the intestinal tissue. The map-HBHA obtained in its native immunogenic form may also be useful to improve the diagnostic test, especially for the development of a new T-cell-based interferon gamma release assays. PMID:23390963

2013-01-01

199

Analysis of the Immune Response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Calves  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease of cattle is widespread and causes significant economic loss to producers. Control has been hindered by limited understanding of the immune response to the causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and lack of an effective vaccine and sensitive specific diagnostic assays. The present study was conducted to gain insight into factors affecting the immune response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A persistent proliferative response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis purified protein derivative and soluble M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens was detected in orally infected neonatal calves 6 months postinfection (p.i.) by flow cytometry (FC). CD4+ T cells with a memory phenotype (CD45R0+) expressing CD25 and CD26 were the predominant cell type responding to antigens. Few CD8+ T cells proliferated in response to antigens until 18 months p.i. ?? T cells did not appear to respond to antigen until 18 months p.i. The majority of WC1+ CD2? and a few WC1? CD2+ ?? T cells expressed CD25 at time zero. By 18 months, however, subsets of ?? T cells from both control and infected animals showed an increase in expression of CD25, ACT2, and CD26 in the presence of the antigens. Two populations of CD3? non-T non-B null cells, CD2+ and CD2?, proliferated in cell cultures from some control and infected animals during the study, with and without antigen. The studies clearly show multicolor FC offers a consistent reliable way to monitor the evolution and changes in the immune response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that occur during disease progression. PMID:15557608

Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Yong Ho; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Barrington, George M.; Davies, Christopher J.; Kim, Jong Bae; Dahl, John L.; Waters, W. Ray; Davis, William C.

2004-01-01

200

Induction of B Cell Responses upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if experimental infection of neonatal calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis would invoke changes in the percentages of total B cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population and of subpopulations of B cells as determined by CD5, CD25, and CD45RO markers during a 12-month period. Experimental infection groups included control (noninfected), oral (infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain K-10), oral/DXM (pretreatment with dexamethasone before oral inoculation), i.p. (intraperitoneal inoculation), and oral/M (oral inoculation with mucosal scrapings from a cow with clinical disease) groups. Over the course of the study, the percentages of total B cells in nonstimulated and antigen-stimulated cell cultures increased for oral and i.p. group calves, with the highest percentages noted at 3 and 6 months. Oral/M group calves had increased percentages of activated B cells, as determined by CD5dim and CD5bright markers, at 9 and 12 months. Experimental infection by all methods resulted in increased expression of CD25+ and CD45RO+ B cells early in the study, but the most significant results were observed at 12 months for oral/DXM and oral/M group calves. Immunoblot analyses with a whole-cell sonicate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis demonstrated the most reactivity with sera from i.p. group calves and the least reactivity with sera from oral group calves. Further evidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses in the i.p. group calves was demonstrated using the ethanol vortex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EvELISA) method. In summary, an induction of B cell responses was noted after experimental infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, with differences in responses noted according to the method of experimental inoculation. PMID:21543587

Stabel, J. R.; Bannantine, J. P.; Eda, Shigetoshi; Robbe-Austerman, S.

2011-01-01

201

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FC alleviates symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.  

PubMed

Probiotics have been used to treat human gastrointestinal inflammations including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the exact mechanisms by which probiotics act to protect against intestinal inflammation have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FC using in vivo and in vitro inflammation models. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of 3% dextran sulfate sodium to drinking water. In the cellular level assessment, a gut inflammation model with the co-culture system consisting Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS was used. Administration of L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC significantly ameliorated shortening of colon length and histological score of the colon in DSS-induce colitis mice. In addition, the treatment of L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC improved the aberrant mRNA expression in inflamed tissue near to control level through notable suppression of TNF-alpha (P<0.05), IFN-gamma (P<0.05), IL-6, iNOS, and MIP-2 mRNA expression. In addition, in a gut inflammation model, treatment with L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC resulted in significant down-regulation of IL-8 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells and inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in RAW264.7 cells. Our findings indicate that administration of L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC improves negative effects of DSS-induced colitis in mice through the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration. PMID:19733697

Nishitani, Yosuke; Tanoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Katsushige; Ishida, Tsukasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Mizuno, Masashi

2009-11-01

202

Biosorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn from aqueous solutions by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii sub.sp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub.sp. stromboliensis: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of each of the ions Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ on Geobacillus toebii sub.sp. decanicus (G1) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub.sp. stromboliensis (G2) in a batch stirred system was investigated. The equilibrium adsorptive quantity was determined to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, biomass concentration, initial metal concentrations and temperature. The results obtained from biosorption experiments

Sadin Özdemir; Ersin Kilinc; Annarita Poli; Barbara Nicolaus; Kemal Güven

2009-01-01

203

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LS25, a Commercial Starter Culture Strain for Fermented Sausage  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium associated primarily with fermented meat and fish. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of L. sakei subsp. sakei strain LS25, a commercial starter culture strain for fermented sausage. PMID:23846274

McLeod, Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Rud, Ida

2013-01-01

204

The spiFEG Locus in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102 Confers Protection against Nisin U  

PubMed Central

Nisin U is a member of the extended nisin family of lantibiotics. Here we identify the presence of nisin U immunity gene homologues in Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius BAA-102. Heterologous expression of these genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP confers protection to nisin U and other members of the nisin family, thereby establishing that the recently identified phenomenon of resistance through immune mimicry also occurs with respect to nisin. PMID:22064537

Draper, Lorraine A.; Tagg, John R.; Ross, R. Paul

2012-01-01

205

Evidence for a correlation between auxin production and host plant species among strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi.  

PubMed Central

Auxin production by 131 strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi was investigated with the aim of looking for correlations among this characteristic and the origin of the strains, the types of symptoms, and the host plant. Most of the P.syringae subsp. savastanoi strains, except those isolated from ash, produced auxin and harbored iaa genes. Among ash strains, which were pathogenic only on ash, only 2 out of 33 were found to produce auxin and to harbor iaa genes. PMID:1622252

Gardan, L; David, C; Morel, M; Glickmann, E; Abu-Ghorrah, M; Petit, A; Dessaux, Y

1992-01-01

206

Contrasting Results of Culture-Dependent and Molecular Analyses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Wood Bison  

PubMed Central

Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. PMID:23686265

De Buck, Jeroen; Elkin, Brett; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Orsel, Karin

2013-01-01

207

Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recovered from goats were originally classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae; however, this subspecies was recently reclassified as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae. Besides biochemical (sensitivity to pyrazinamide) and epidemiological features, strains of this unusual member of the M. tuberculosis complex show a special combination of pncA, oxyR, katG and gyrA gene polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of the

A. Aranaz; Debby Cousins; Ana Mateos; Lucas Dominguez

2003-01-01

208

Isolation, characterization and expression analysis of BrMyb from Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora diseased Chinese cabbage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant MYB Transcription factors play important roles in defense responses. We described here a novel gene BrMyb encoding MYB transcription factor homologue was isolated from Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) pathogens diseased Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) and named as BrMyb. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned BrMyb revealed a single open reading frame of 1047 bp coding for

Song-He Zhang; Qing Yang; Rong-Cai Ma

209

Virulence and Immunity Orchestrated by the Global Gene Regulator sigL in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants, a chronic enteric disease responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Global gene regulators, including sigma factors are important in regulating mycobacterial virulence. However, the biological significance of such regulators in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rremains elusive. To better decipher the role of sigma factors in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we targeted a key sigma factor gene, sigL, activated in mycobacterium-infected macrophages. We interrogated an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ?sigL mutant against a selected list of stressors that mimic the host microenvironments. Our data showed that sigL was important in maintaining bacterial survival under such stress conditions. Survival levels further reflected the inability of the ?sigL mutant to persist inside the macrophage microenvironments. Additionally, mouse infection studies suggested a substantial role for sigL in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence, as indicated by the significant attenuation of the ?sigL-deficient mutant compared to the parental strain. More importantly, when the sigL mutant was tested for its vaccine potential, protective immunity was generated in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. Overall, our study highlights critical role of sigL in the pathogenesis and immunity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, a potential role that could be shared by similar proteins in other intracellular pathogens. PMID:24799632

Ghosh, Pallab; Steinberg, Howard

2014-01-01

210

Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) was used to specifically identify Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. LAMP primers were developed to detect micA, a chromosomally stable gene that encodes a type II lantibiotic, michiganin A, which inhibits growth of other C. michiganensis subspecies. In all, 409 bacterial strains (351 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and 58 non-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) from a worldwide collection were tested with LAMP to determine its specificity. LAMP results were compared with genetic profiles established using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven genes (dnaA, ppaJ, pat-1, chpC, tomA, ppaA, and ppaC). C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains produced eight distinct profiles. The LAMP reaction identified all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains and discriminated them from other C. michiganensis subspecies and non-Clavibacter bacteria. LAMP has advantages over immunodiagnostic and other molecular detection methods because of its specificity and isothermal nature, which allows for easy field application. The LAMP reaction is also not affected by as many inhibitors as PCR. This diagnostic tool has potential to provide an easy, one-step test for rapid identification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. PMID:23802869

Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Kubota, Ryo; Jenkins, Daniel M; Alvarez, Anne M

2013-12-01

211

Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the dipteran Haematobia irritans.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be larvicidal to horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L. [Diptera:Muscidae]). The toxic activity was particulate, appeared during sporulation, and could be prevented by the addition of streptomycin before sporulation. Density gradient centrifugation in Renografin was used to separate endospores, crystals, and low-density particulate matter (fraction 3) from sporulated preparations. Larvicidal activity was restricted to purified crystals and fraction 3, indicating that delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was active against horn fly larvae. Purified crystals produced mortality during larval feeding stages, but not pupal stages. Fraction 3 produced significant mortality during both larval and pupal stages. The mortality data indicated the presence of at least two dipteran-active toxins. PMID:6742837

Temeyer, K B

1984-01-01

212

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

213

Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pepino mosaic virus in tomato seed using magnetic capture hybridization and real time PCR.  

E-print Network

??Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis are quarantined seedborne pathogens of tomato that cause severe economic losses. Currently, separate seed health assays… (more)

Johnson, Kameka Latoya

2005-01-01

214

Experimental Paratuberculosis in Calves following Inoculation with a Rabbit Isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of wildlife species in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis has been the subject of increased research efforts following the discovery of natural paratuberculosis in free-living rabbits from farms in east Scotland. This paper describes the experimental inoculation of young calves with an isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from a free-living rabbit. After a 6-month incubation period, all

P. M. Beard; K. Stevenson; A. Pirie; K. Rudge; D. Buxton; S. M. Rhind; M. C. Sinclair; L. A. Wildblood; D. G. Jones; J. M. Sharp

2001-01-01

215

Seed-associated Clavibacter spp. are clearly distinguishable from Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

The genus Clavibacter contains one recognized species, Clavibacter michiganensis. Clavibacter michiganensis is subdivided into subspecies based on host specificity and bacteriological characteristics, with Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies michiganensis (Cmm) causing bacterial canker of tomato. Cmm is often spread through contaminated seed leading to outbreaks of bacterial canker in tomato production areas worldwide. The frequent occurrence of non-pathogenic Cmm-like bacteria is a concern for seed producers because Cmm is a quarantine organism and detection of a non-pathogenic variant may result in destruction of an otherwise healthy seed lot. A thorough biological and genetic characterization of these seed-associated Cmm-like strains was performed using standard biochemical tests, cell wall analyses, metabolic profiling using BIOLOG, single-gene and multilocus sequence analyses. Combined, these tests revealed two distinct populations of seed-associated Clavibacter that differed from each other, as well as all other described Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization values are 70% or higher, justifying placement into the single recognized species, C. michiganensis, but other analyses justify separate subspecies designations. Additionally, Clavibacter strains isolated from pepper also represent a distinct population and warrant separate subspecies designation. On the basis of these data we propose subspecies designations for separate nonpathogenic subpopulations of Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. californici californiensis subsp. nov. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chiloensis subsp. nov. for seed-associated strains represented by C55T (=ATCC BAA-2691T, =CFBP 8216T) and ZUM3936T (=ATCC BAA-2690T, =CFBP 8217T), respectively. Recognition of separate subspecies is essential for improved international seed testing operations. PMID:25481293

Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Alvarez, Anne M

2014-12-01

216

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples of cattle and buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples were collected at random from cattle (Bos taurus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from an abattoir of the district of Lahore and were analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis through acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Body condition of animals and diarrhea were recorded. Most\\u000a of the animals were emaciated. Diarrhea was

Farhan Anwar Khan; Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry; Muhammad Ijaz Ali; Shahid Khan; Naima Mumtaz; Ijaz Ahmad

2010-01-01

217

Development of a low-cost medium for production of nisin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to develop a lower-cost medium for nisin production, so this bacteriocin could be used in a broader\\u000a range of industrial fermentation processes. The objectives included: (1) evaluating methods for controlling the inhibitory\\u000a effect of lactic acid produced during fermentation, and (2) comparing two inexpensive complex media for nisin production.\\u000a Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was

Charlene E. Wolf-Hall; William R. Gibbons; Nichole A. Bauer

2009-01-01

218

Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany  

PubMed Central

In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002–00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission. PMID:25531286

Otto, Peter; Kohlmann, Rebekka; Müller, Wolfgang; Julich, Sandra; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören G.; Peters, Martin; Wolf, Peter Johannes; Karlsson, Edvin; Forsman, Mats; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

2015-01-01

219

Cytological mechanisms of 2n egg formation in a diploid genotype of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gametes formed without meiosis in alfalfa would be useful in basic and applied research. Therefore, the cytological analysis of macrosporogenesis of a diploid plant of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli (named PG-F9), previously selected as a good 2n egg producer, was conducted. A stain-clearing technique was applied which also allowed the analysis of microsporogenesis to be performed. Two mechanisms

S. Tavoletti

1994-01-01

220

An ultrastructural study of the mature spermatozoid of the fern Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes spermatozoids are spirals of about five turns. Keels link the elements of the microtubular ribbon with the plates of the lamellar\\u000a layer (LL) which are uninterrupted, parallel and curved with an inner angle of about 150. Electron-opaque filaments connect\\u000a the microtubules of the multilayered structure (MLS) and the osmiophilic crest, the LL and the MLS-associated

P. Gori; Simonetta Muccifora; Sheridan L. Woo; Lorenza M. Bellani

1997-01-01

221

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Mentha spicata L. subsp. Spicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried aerial parts of M.spicata L. subsp. spicata, which were collected from eastern Turkey, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the essential oil was obtained in a yield of 3.24% (v\\/w). The oil was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-seven constituents, accounting for more than 95.3% of the total oil composition, were identified. The main compounds of the essential oil

E. ?arer; S. Ya?mur Toprak; B. Otlu; R. Durmaz

2011-01-01

222

Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida ATCC 43137  

PubMed Central

Soft-tissue infection by Pasteurella multocida in humans is usually associated with a dog- or cat-related injury, and these infections can become aggressive. We sequenced the type strain P. multocida subsp. multocida ATCC 43137 into a single closed chromosome consisting of 2,271,840 bp (40.4% G+C content), which is currently available in the NCBI GenBank under the accession number CP008918. PMID:25342682

Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C. C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Scholz, M. B.; Teshima, H.

2014-01-01

223

Hare-to-Human Transmission of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Germany.  

PubMed

In November 2012, a group of 7 persons who participated in a hare hunt in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, acquired tularemia. Two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates were cultivated from human and hare biopsy material. Both isolates belonged to the FTN002-00 genetic subclade (derived for single nucleotide polymorphisms B.10 and B.18), thus indicating likely hare-to-human transmission. PMID:25531286

Otto, Peter; Kohlmann, Rebekka; Müller, Wolfgang; Julich, Sandra; Geis, Gabriele; Gatermann, Sören G; Peters, Martin; Wolf, Peter Johannes; Karlsson, Edvin; Forsman, Mats; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Tomaso, Herbert

2015-01-01

224

Immunoreactivity of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein  

PubMed Central

Background The Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein has been reported to stimulate both T and B cell responses as well as induce a number of Th1 cytokines. In order to evaluate the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) 19-kDa lipoprotein as an immunomodulator in cattle with Johne's disease, the gene encoding the 19-kDa protein (MAP0261c) was analyzed. Results MAP0261c is conserved in mycobacteria, showing a 95% amino acid identity in M. avium subspecies avium, 84% in M. intracellulare and 76% in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. MAP0261c was cloned, expressed, and purified as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP-19 kDa) in Escherichia coli. IFN-? production was measured from 21 naturally infected and 9 control cattle after peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with a whole cell lysate (WCL) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or the recombinant MBP-19 kDa. Overall, the mean response to MBP-19 kDa was not as strong as the mean response to the WCL. By comparison, cells from control, non-infected cattle did not produce IFN-? after stimulation with either WCL or MBP-19 kDa. To assess the humoral immune response to the 19-kDa protein, sera from cattle with clinical Johne's disease were used in immunoblot analysis. Reactivity to MBP-19 kDa protein, but not MBP alone, was observed in 9 of 14 infected cattle. Antibodies to the 19-kDa protein were not observed in 8 of 9 control cows. Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that while the 19-kDa protein from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis stimulates a humoral immune response and weak IFN-? production in infected cattle, the elicited responses are not strong enough to be used in a sensitive diagnostic assay. PMID:15663791

Huntley, Jason FJ; Stabel, Judith R; Bannantine, John P

2005-01-01

225

Improvement of growth, under field conditions, of wheat inoculated with Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca SR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca strain SR1 (termed SR1) were studied at an experimental field site in Río Cuarto, Argentina. Treatments involved SR1 inoculation\\u000a with or without nitrogen\\/phosphorus fertilization. Inoculation produced a significant increase in plant height and root length\\u000a in early growth stages. Inoculation plus fertilization with 40 kg ha?1 urea\\/30 kg ha?1

Evelin Carlier; Marisa Rovera; Alberto Rossi Jaume; Susana B. Rosas

2008-01-01

226

Chemical and biological investigations of a toxic plant from Central Africa, Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana (Chrysobalanaceae) is known, in the Great Lakes Region, to possess toxicological properties. In this paper, we investigated the acute toxicity (dose levels 50–1600mg\\/kg) of its aqueous extract, administered orally to adult Wistar rats.This study demonstrated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract (5%, w\\/w) possesses high toxicity. The extract caused hypothermia, neurological disorders, including extensor reflex of maximal

C. Karangwa; V. Esters; M. Frédérich; J. N. Kadima; J. Damas; A. Noirfalise; L. Angenot

2006-01-01

227

Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C.

2013-01-01

228

Hydraulic redistribution in Eucalyptus kochii subsp. borealis with variable access to fresh groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity caused by land clearing is an important cause of land degradation in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Returning\\u000a a proportion of the cleared land to higher water use perennial vegetation is one option for reducing or slowing the salinisation\\u000a of land. Over the course of a year patterns of water use by Eucalyptus kochii subsp borealis (C. Gardner) D. Nicolle,

K. Brooksbank; D. A. White; E. J. Veneklaas; J. L. Carter

2011-01-01

229

MglA Regulates Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (Francisella novicida) Response to Starvation and Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

MglA is a transcriptional regulator of genes that contribute to the virulence of Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. This study used a label-free shotgun proteomics method to determine the F. tularensis subsp. novicida (F. novicida) proteins that are regulated by MglA. The differences in relative protein amounts between wild-type F. novicida and the

Tina Guina; Dragan Radulovic; Arya J. Bahrami; Diana L. Bolton; Laurence Rohmer; Kendan A. Jones-Isaac; Jinzy Chen; Larry A. Gallagher; Byron Gallis; Soyoung Ryu; Greg K. Taylor; Mitchell J. Brittnacher; Colin Manoil; David R. Goodlett

2007-01-01

230

Genomic Diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Its Correlation with Virulence  

PubMed Central

We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the genomic diversity of the enterobacterial plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The results obtained with each method showed that E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains isolated from one ecological niche, potato plants, are surprisingly diverse compared to related pathogens. A comparison of 23 partial mdh sequences revealed a maximum pairwise difference of 10.49% and an average pairwise difference of 2.13%, values which are much greater than the maximum variation (1.81%) and average variation (0.75%) previously reported for Escherichia coli. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA revealed seven rrn operons in all E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains examined except strain WPP17, which had only six copies. We identified 26 I-CeuI restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns and observed significant polymorphism in fragment sizes ranging from 100 to 450 kb for all strains. We detected large plasmids in two strains, including the model strain E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71. The two least virulent strains had an unusual chromosomal structure, suggesting that a particular pulsotype is correlated with virulence. To compare chromosomal organization of multiple enterobacterial genomes, several genes were mapped onto I-CeuI fragments. We identified portions of the genome that appear to be conserved across enterobacteria and portions that have undergone genome rearrangements. We found that the least virulent strain, WPP17, failed to oxidize cellobiose and was missing several hrp and hrc genes. The unexpected variability among isolates obtained from clonal hosts in one region and in one season suggests that factors other than the host plant, potato, drive the evolution of this common environmental bacterium and key plant pathogen. PMID:15128563

Yap, Mee-Ngan; Barak, Jeri D.; Charkowski, Amy O.

2004-01-01

231

Genomic diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and its correlation with virulence.  

PubMed

We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the genomic diversity of the enterobacterial plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The results obtained with each method showed that E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains isolated from one ecological niche, potato plants, are surprisingly diverse compared to related pathogens. A comparison of 23 partial mdh sequences revealed a maximum pairwise difference of 10.49% and an average pairwise difference of 2.13%, values which are much greater than the maximum variation (1.81%) and average variation (0.75%) previously reported for Escherichia coli. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA revealed seven rrn operons in all E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains examined except strain WPP17, which had only six copies. We identified 26 I-CeuI restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns and observed significant polymorphism in fragment sizes ranging from 100 to 450 kb for all strains. We detected large plasmids in two strains, including the model strain E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71. The two least virulent strains had an unusual chromosomal structure, suggesting that a particular pulsotype is correlated with virulence. To compare chromosomal organization of multiple enterobacterial genomes, several genes were mapped onto I-CeuI fragments. We identified portions of the genome that appear to be conserved across enterobacteria and portions that have undergone genome rearrangements. We found that the least virulent strain, WPP17, failed to oxidize cellobiose and was missing several hrp and hrc genes. The unexpected variability among isolates obtained from clonal hosts in one region and in one season suggests that factors other than the host plant, potato, drive the evolution of this common environmental bacterium and key plant pathogen. PMID:15128563

Yap, Mee-Ngan; Barak, Jeri D; Charkowski, Amy O

2004-05-01

232

The First Structure of a Mycobacteriophage, the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii Phage Araucaria  

PubMed Central

The unique characteristics of the waxy mycobacterial cell wall raise questions about specific structural features of their bacteriophages. No structure of any mycobacteriophage is available, although ?3,500 have been described to date. To fill this gap, we embarked in a genomic and structural study of a bacteriophage from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, a member of the Mycobacterium abscessus group. This opportunistic pathogen is responsible for respiratory tract infections in patients with lung disorders, particularly cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus subsp. bolletii was isolated from respiratory tract specimens, and bacteriophages were observed in the cultures. We report here the genome annotation and characterization of the M. abscessus subsp. bolletii prophage Araucaria, as well as the first single-particle electron microscopy reconstruction of the whole virion. Araucaria belongs to Siphoviridae and possesses a 64-kb genome containing 89 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 27 could be annotated with certainty. Although its capsid and connector share close similarity with those of several phages from Gram-negative (Gram?) or Gram+ bacteria, its most distinctive characteristic is the helical tail decorated by radial spikes, possibly host adhesion devices, according to which the phage name was chosen. Its host adsorption device, at the tail tip, assembles features observed in phages binding to protein receptors, such as phage SPP1. All together, these results suggest that Araucaria may infect its mycobacterial host using a mechanism involving adhesion to cell wall saccharides and protein, a feature that remains to be further explored. PMID:23678183

Sassi, Mohamed; Bebeacua, Cecilia; Drancourt, Michel

2013-01-01

233

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at ?18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

2013-01-01

234

Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.  

PubMed

Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants. PMID:15597742

Mattinen, Laura; Tshuikina, Marina; Mäe, Andres; Pirhonen, Minna

2004-12-01

235

Identification and characterization of a mosquito pupicidal metabolite of a Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain.  

PubMed

The culture supernatant of a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis isolated from mangrove forests of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India was found to kill larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. A chloroform extract of the culture supernatant of the bacterium showed pupicidal effects at an LC(50) dose of 1 microg/ml. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) produced by this strain were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The purified fraction was subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The FTIR spectrum of active fraction/CHCl3 residue showed strong band characteristic of peptides. MALDI-TOF spectrum of the sample showed well-resolved group of peaks at m/z values 1,030.6, 1,046.7, 1,044.6, 1,060.5, 1,058.6, 1,058.7, and 1,074.6. The results indicated production of different isoforms of surfactin, ranging from C13-C15. Further, the sfp gene responsible for the production of surfactin was amplified and sequenced. In conclusion, this study showed that the mosquito pupicidal metabolite(s), produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis is the cyclic lipopeptide, surfactin. The mode of action of surfactin on pupae of mosquitoes is discussed. This is the first report on the mosquito pupicidal activity of surfactin produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis. PMID:20130853

Geetha, I; Manonmani, A M; Paily, K P

2010-05-01

236

Medium for the production of primary powder of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed Central

Five media, formulated from the seeds of five legume varieties, dried cow blood, and mineral salts, were assessed for the growth and production of insecticidal properties of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Bacterial powders prepared from the broth cultures were assayed against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A standard primary powder of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (IPS78) was included in the assay for comparison. Good growth was obtained in all the media, and all powders were effective against the three types of mosquito larvae. The powder containing ground seeds of Voandzeia subterranean was the most effective and compared favorably with the standard (IPS78). The concentrations required to kill 50% of the larvae of Aedes aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae were 1.13 X 10(-2) +/- 1.79 X 10(-3), 1.83 X 10(-2) +/- 2.55 X 10(-3), and 2.25 X 10(-2) +/- 1.88 X 10(-3) micrograms/ml, respectively. This investigation shows that the medium containing V. subterranean can be used for the production of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis primary powder. PMID:6144290

Obeta, J A; Okafor, N

1984-01-01

237

Linkage disequilibrium in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.  

PubMed

Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) can provide high resolution for whole-genome mapping of genes underlying phenotypic variation. This field has received considerable attention over the last decade. We present here the first characterization of LD in wild French grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris. To assess the pattern and extent of LD, we used a sample of 85 plants from southern France and 36 microsatellite markers distributed over 5 linkage groups. LD was evaluated with independence tests and multiallelic r(2), using both unphased genotypic data and reconstructed haplotypic data. LD decayed rapidly, with r(2) values decreasing to 0.1 within 2.7 cM for genotypic data and within 1.4 cM for haplotypic data. Compared to the results of a previous study on cultivated grapevine subsp. sativa, where significant LD was found up to 16.8 cM, LD in subsp. silvestris was no longer significant past 1.4 cM. LD was therefore 12 times further extended in cultivated than wild grapevine, even though LD in wild grapevine seemed to extend slightly further than in wild relatives of other crops. Domestication bottlenecks and vegetative propagation are the primary factors responsible for this difference between cultivated and wild grapevine. The rapid decay of LD observed in this study seems promising for future association mapping studies of functional variation in wild V. vinifera grapevine. PMID:19844269

Barnaud, A; Laucou, V; This, P; Lacombe, T; Doligez, A

2010-05-01

238

Lymphoproliferative and Gamma Interferon Responses to Stress-Regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. An important strategy to control disease is early detection, and a potentially efficient method for early detection is measurement of cell-mediated immune responses developed by the host in response to exposure or infection. One method is to measure lymphoproliferation and cytokine release from the host cells when exposed to the organism or parts of the organism. In this study, 10 recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins known to be upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were evaluated by examining their ability to evoke memory as a result of exposure by vaccination or oral challenge with live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Out of 10 proteins, MAP2698c was found to induce higher cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated and challenged sheep in comparison to healthy controls. The findings suggest that not all stress-regulated proteins have the diagnostic potential to detect cell-mediated immune responses in ovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24695774

Gurung, Ratna B.; Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bannantine, John P.

2014-01-01

239

Acute septicemia caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in turkey poults.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II/2, is a well-known cause of sepsis and meningitis in humans and birds. The present case report describes an outbreak of fatal septicemia associated with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II/2) in 11 turkey flocks in Pennsylvania between 2010 and 2013. Affected poults were 2-3 wk of age. Major clinical observation was sudden increase in mortality among turkey poults without any premonitory clinical signs. Postmortem examination findings revealed acute septicemia with lesions such as fibrinous pericarditis, meningitis, splenic multifocal fibrinoid necrosis, hepatitis, osteochondritis, myositis, and airsacculitis. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from several organs by routine bacterial culture. Biotyping identified bacteria as streptococci, whereas 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identified them as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that all the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin with different sensitivity profiles for other antibacterial agents tested. The present study reports the first confirmed case of acute septicemia in turkey poults caused by S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. PMID:25055641

Saumya, Dona; Wijetunge, S; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Pierre, Traci; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2014-06-01

240

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida haem receptor gene.  

PubMed

A haem receptor gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly known as Pasteurella piscicida) has been cloned, sequenced and analysed for its function. The gene, designated as pph, has an open reading frame consisting of 2154 bp, a predicted 718 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy. It is homologous with the haem receptors of Vibrio anguillarum hupA, V. cholerae hutA, V. mimicus mhuA and V. vulnificus hupA at 32.7, 32.7, 45.6 and 30.9%, respectively, and is highly conserved, consisting of a Phe-Arg-Ala-Pro sequence (FRAP), an iron transport related molecule (TonB) and a Asn-Pron-Asn-Leu sequence (NPNL), binding motifs associated with haem receptors. As a single gene knockout mutant P. damselae subsp. piscicida was able to bind haem in the absence of pph, suggesting that other receptors may be involved in its iron transport system. This study shows that the P. damselae subsp. piscicida pph belongs to the haem receptor family, is conserved and that its iron-binding system may involve more than one receptor. PMID:15705153

Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

2005-02-01

241

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae as potential causes of proliferative vascular diseases in animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella species are highly fastidious, vector borne, zoonotic bacteria that cause persistent intraerythrocytic bacteremia and endotheliotropic infection in reservoir and incidental hosts. Based upon prior in vitro research, three Bartonella sp., B. bacilliformis, B. henselae, and B. quintana can induce proliferation of endothelial cells, and each species has been associated with in vivo formation of vasoproliferative tumors in human patients. In this study, we report the molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. koehlerae, or DNA of two of these Bartonella species simultaneously in vasoproliferative hemangiopericytomas from a dog, a horse, and a red wolf and in systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis lesions from cats and a steer. In addition, we provide documentation that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infections induce activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and production of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby providing mechanistic evidence as to how these bacteria could contribute to the development of vasoproliferative lesions. Based upon these results, we suggest that a fourth species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, should be added to the list of bartonellae that can induce vasoproliferative lesions and that infection with one or more Bartonella sp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis and hemangiopericytomas in animals. PMID:22450733

Beerlage, Christiane; Varanat, Mrudula; Linder, Keith; Maggi, Ricardo G; Cooley, Jim; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2012-08-01

242

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2015-03-01

243

New Type of Antimicrobial Protein Produced by the Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

PubMed Central

It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease. PMID:23851100

Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

2013-01-01

244

Involvement of N-acylhomoserine lactones throughout plant infection by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Pectobacterium atrosepticum).  

PubMed

Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is responsible for potato blackleg disease in the field and tuber soft rot during crop storage. The process leading to the disease occurs in two phases: a primary invasion step followed by a maceration step. Bacteria-to-bacteria communication is associated with a quorum-sensing (QS) process based on the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). The role of HSL throughout plant infection was analyzed. To this purpose, HSL produced by a specific E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica wild-type strain, which was particularly virulent on potato, were identified. A derivative of this strain that expressed an HSL lactonase gene and produced low amounts of HSL was generated. The comparison of these strains allowed the evaluation of the role of HSL and QS in disease establishment and development. Bacterial growth and motility; activity of proteins secreted by type I, II, and III systems; and hypersensitive and maceration reactions were evaluated. Results indicated that HSL production and QS regulate only those traits involved in the second stage of the host plant infection (i.e., tissue maceration) and hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco plants. Therefore, the use of QS quenching strategies for biological control in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cannot prevent initial infection and multiplication of this pathogen. PMID:15553252

Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Faure, Denis; Chevalier, Sylvie; Dessaux, Yves; Orange, Nicole

2004-11-01

245

New Triplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Feces?  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a robust TaqMan real-time PCR amplifying the F57 and the ISMav2 sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples was developed and validated. The validation was based on the recommendations of International Organization for Standardization protocols for PCR and real-time PCR methods. For specificity testing, 205 bacterial strains were selected, including 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of bovine, ovine, and human origin and 100 non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Diagnostic quality assurance was obtained by use of an internal amplification control. By investigating six TaqMan reagents from different suppliers, the 100% detection probability was assessed to be 0.1 picogram M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA per PCR. The amplification efficiency was 98.2% for the single-copy gene F57 and 97.8% for the three-copy insertion sequence ISMav2. The analytical method was not limited due to instrument specificity. The triplex real-time PCR allowed the reliable detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA using the ABI Prism 7000 sequence detection system, and the LightCycler 1.0. TaqManmgb and locked nucleic acid fluorogenic probes were suitable for fluorescent signal detection. To improve the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples, a more efficient DNA extraction method was developed, which offers the potential for automated sample processing. The 70% limit of detection was assessed to be 102 CFU per gram of spiked bovine feces. Comparative analysis of 108 naturally contaminated samples of unknown M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis status resulted in a relative accuracy of 98.9% and a sensitivity of 94.4% for fecal samples containing <10 CFU/g feces compared to the traditional culture method. PMID:18326682

Schönenbrücher, H.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Failing, K.; Bülte, M.

2008-01-01

246

Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Evidence for Limited Strain Diversity, Strain Sharing, and Identification of Unique Targets for Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to understand the molecular diversity of animal and human strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated in the United States and to identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific diagnostic molecular markers to aid in disease detection, prevention, and control. Multiplex PCR of IS900 integration loci (MPIL) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were used to fingerprint M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from animals (n = 203) and patients with Crohn's disease (n = 7) from diverse geographic localities. Six hundred bacterial cultures, including M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 303), non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis mycobacteria (n = 129), and other nonmycobacterial species (n = 168), were analyzed to evaluate the specificity of two IS900 integration loci and a newly described M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sequence (locus 251) as potential targets for the diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. MPIL fingerprint analysis revealed that 78% of bovine origin M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates clustered together into a major node, whereas isolates from human and ovine sources showed greater genetic diversity. MPIL analysis also showed that the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from ovine and bovine sources from the same state were more closely associated than were isolates from different geographic regions, suggesting that some of the strains are shared between these ruminant species. AFLP fingerprinting revealed a similar pattern, with most isolates from bovine sources clustering into two major nodes, while those recovered from sheep or humans were clustered on distinct branches. Overall, this study identified a high degree of genetic similarity between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains recovered from cows regardless of geographic origin. Further, the results of our analyses reveal a relatively higher degree of genetic heterogeneity among M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from human and ovine sources. PMID:12734243

Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Strother, Megan; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Byrum, Beverly; Naser, Saleh A.; Stabel, Judith R.; Shulaw, William P.; Bannantine, John P.; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2003-01-01

247

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antibody Response, Fecal Shedding, and Antibody Cross-Reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Cattle Herds Vaccinated against Johne's Disease  

PubMed Central

Vaccination for Johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. The vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. Johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. Temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, were measured in 2 dairy cattle herds using Johne's disease vaccine (Mycopar) over a period of 7 years. Vaccination against Johne's disease resulted in positive serum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody responses in both herds, and the responses persisted in vaccinated cattle up to 7 years of age. Some vaccinated animals (29.4% in herd A and 36.2% in herd B) showed no serological reactivity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses were also detected in milk from Johne's disease-vaccinated animals, but fewer animals (39.3% in herd A and 49.4% in herd B) had positive results with milk than with serum samples. With vaccination against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal shedding in both dairy herds was reduced significantly (P < 0.001). In addition, when selected Johne's disease-vaccinated and -infected animals were investigated for serological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis, no cross-reactivity was observed. PMID:24623626

Hovingh, Ernest; Linscott, Rick; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John; Wolfgang, David; Griswold, David

2014-01-01

248

Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille

2013-01-01

249

Novel feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, highlighted by characterization of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

Lefrancois, Louise H; Bodier, Christelle C; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A; Locht, Camille; Biet, Franck

2013-11-01

250

Emulsifying, rheological and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205.  

PubMed

The rheological, emulsification and certain physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205 were studied and compared with those of guar gum and xanthan gum. The two strains were grown in skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) casein hydrolysate at 37 °C for 24h; they both produced heteropolysaccharides with different molecular mass and composition. The carbohydrate content of both polymers was more than 92% and no protein was detected. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 showed highly branched entangled porous structure under scanning electron microscopy. Higher intrinsic viscosity was observed for the EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 compared to the EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and guar gum. Both polymers showed pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behaviour in an aqueous solution. The EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 produced more stable emulsions with orange oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil and xylene compared to guar and xanthan gum. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 is the most promising one for applications in the food industry, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, higher apparent viscosity in aqueous solution, porous dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity. PMID:24751074

Prasanna, P H P; Bell, A; Grandison, A S; Charalampopoulos, D

2012-09-01

251

Prevalence and Acquisition of the Genes for Zoocin A and Zoocin A Resistance in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

PubMed Central

Zoocin A is a streptococcolytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain 4881. The zoocin A gene (zooA) and the gene specifying resistance to zoocin A (zif) are adjacent on the chromosome and are divergently transcribed. Twenty-four S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains were analyzed to determine the genetic difference between three previously characterized as zoocin A producers (strains 4881, 9g and 9h) and the twenty-one non-producers. LT-PCR and Southern hybridization studies revealed that none of the non-producer strains possessed zooA or zif. RAPD and PFGE showed that the 24 strains were a genetically diverse population with 8 RAPD profiles. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains 9g and 9h appeared genetically identical to each other, but quite different from 4881. Sequences derived from 4881 and 9g showed that zooA and zif were integrated into the chromosome adjacent to the gene flaR. A comparison of these sequences with the genome sequences of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains H70 and MGCS10565 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047 suggests that flaR flanks a region of genome plasticity in this species. PMID:19357799

O’Rourke, Anna-Lee D.; Simmonds, Robin S.; Gargis, Amy S.; Sloan, Gary L.

2009-01-01

252

Organization and nucleotide sequence of the glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.  

PubMed Central

A 3.3-kb BamHI fragment of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA was cloned and sequenced. It complements an Escherichia coli glnA deletion strain and hybridizes strongly to a DNA containing the Bacillus subtilis glnA gene. DNA sequence analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA showed it to contain the glnA gene encoding class I glutamine synthetase, as judged by extensive homology with other prokaryotic glnA genes. The sequence suggests that the enzyme encoded in this gene is not controlled by adenylylation. Based on a comparison of glutamine synthetase sequences, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is much closer to gram-positive eubacteria, especially Clostridium acetobutylicum, than to gram-negative eubacteria and archaebacteria. The fragment contains another open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function consisting of 306 amino acids (ORF306), which is also present upstream of glnA of Bacillus cereus. In B. cereus, a repressor gene, glnR, is found between the open reading frame and glnA. Two proteins encoded by the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus gene were identified by the maxicell method; the sizes of these proteins are consistent with those of the open reading frames of ORF306 and glnA. The lack of a glnR gene in the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DNA in this position may indicate a gene rearrangement or a different mechanism of glnA gene expression. Images PMID:1359838

Ishino, Y; Morgenthaler, P; Hottinger, H; Söll, D

1992-01-01

253

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Exo-?-1,3-Galactanase, an Enzyme for the Degradation of Type II Arabinogalactan  

PubMed Central

Type II arabinogalactan (AG-II) is a suitable carbohydrate source for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, but the degradative enzymes have never been characterized. In this study, we characterized an exo-?-1,3-galactanase, BLLJ_1840, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 from B. longum subsp. longum JCM1217. The recombinant BLLJ_1840 expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed ?-1,3-linked galactooligosaccharides but not ?-1,4- and ?-1,6-linked galactooligosaccharides. The enzyme also hydrolyzed larch wood arabinogalactan (LWAG), which comprises a ?-1,3-linked galactan backbone with ?-1,6-linked galactan side chains. The kcat/Km ratio of dearabinosylated LWAG was 24-fold higher than that of ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 is a novel type of exo-?-1,3-galactanase with a higher affinity for the ?-1,6-substituted ?-1,3-galactan than for nonsubstituted ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 has 27% to 28% identities with other characterized exo-?-1,3-galactanases from bacteria and fungi. The homologous genes are conserved in several strains of B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis but not in other bifidobacteria. Transcriptional analysis revealed that BLLJ_1840 is intensively induced with BLLJ_1841, an endo-?-1,6-galactanase candidate, in the presence of LWAG. This is the first report of exo-?-1,3-galactanase in bifidobacteria, which is an enzyme used for the acquisition of AG-II in B. longum subsp. longum. PMID:24837371

Sakaguchi, Takenori; Sakamoto, Ayami; Shimokawa, Michiko; Kitahara, Kanefumi

2014-01-01

254

Clustering of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Rabbits and the Environment: How Hot Is a Hot Spot?  

PubMed Central

Clustering of pathogens in the environment leads to hot spots of diseases at local, regional, national, and international levels. Scotland contains regional hot spots of Johne's disease (caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in rabbits, and there is increasing evidence of a link between paratuberculosis infections in rabbits and cattle. The spatial and temporal dynamics of paratuberculosis in rabbits within a hot spot region were studied with the overall aim of determining environmental patterns of infection and thus the risk of interspecies transmission to livestock. The specific aims were to determine if prevalence of paratuberculosis in rabbits varies temporally between seasons and whether the heterogeneous spatial environmental distribution of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a large scale (i.e., regional hot spots) is replicated at finer resolutions within a hot spot. The overall prevalence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits was 39.7%; the temporal distribution of infection in rabbits followed a cyclical pattern, with a peak in spring of 55.4% and a low in summer of 19.4%. Spatially, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected rabbits and, thus, the risk of interspecies transmission were highly clustered in the environment. However, this is mostly due to the clustered distribution of rabbits. The patterns of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in rabbits are discussed in relation to the host's socioecology and risk to livestock. PMID:16204518

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Allcroft, David J.; Hutchings, Michael R.

2005-01-01

255

Clustering of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits and the environment: how hot is a hot spot?  

PubMed

Clustering of pathogens in the environment leads to hot spots of diseases at local, regional, national, and international levels. Scotland contains regional hot spots of Johne's disease (caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in rabbits, and there is increasing evidence of a link between paratuberculosis infections in rabbits and cattle. The spatial and temporal dynamics of paratuberculosis in rabbits within a hot spot region were studied with the overall aim of determining environmental patterns of infection and thus the risk of interspecies transmission to livestock. The specific aims were to determine if prevalence of paratuberculosis in rabbits varies temporally between seasons and whether the heterogeneous spatial environmental distribution of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a large scale (i.e., regional hot spots) is replicated at finer resolutions within a hot spot. The overall prevalence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits was 39.7%; the temporal distribution of infection in rabbits followed a cyclical pattern, with a peak in spring of 55.4% and a low in summer of 19.4%. Spatially, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected rabbits and, thus, the risk of interspecies transmission were highly clustered in the environment. However, this is mostly due to the clustered distribution of rabbits. The patterns of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in rabbits are discussed in relation to the host's socioecology and risk to livestock. PMID:16204518

Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Allcroft, David J; Hutchings, Michael R

2005-10-01

256

Effect of Accessory Proteins P19 and P20 on Cytolytic Activity of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in  

E-print Network

for the accessory protein P19 of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was expressed in Escherichia coli and itsEffect of Accessory Proteins P19 and P20 on Cytolytic Activity of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Escherichia coli Robert Manasherob,1 Arieh Zaritsky,1,2 Eitan Ben-Dov,1

Zaritsky, Arieh

257

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers  

PubMed Central

Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant pathogenic bacteria or 162 saprophytic bacteria from potato tubers. Only one strain of E. chrysanthemi from potato cross-reacted. A comparison of several serological techniques to detect E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers was performed with MAb 4G4 or polyclonal antibodies. The organism was extracted directly from potato peels of artificially inoculated tubers by soaking or selective enrichment under anaerobiosis in a medium with polypectate. MAb 4G4 was able to detect specifically 240 E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cells per ml by indirect immunofluorescence and immunofluorescence colony staining and after soaking by ELISA-DAS (double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) after enrichment. The same amount of cells was detected by using immunolectrotransfer with polyclonal antibodies, and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora were distinguished by the latter technique. ELISA-DAS using MAb 4G4 with an enrichment step also efficiently detected E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in naturally infected tubers and plants. PMID:16349293

Gorris, María Teresa; Alarcon, Benito; Lopez, María M.; Cambra, Mariano

1994-01-01

258

Development of an F57 Sequence-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

PubMed Central

A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed. This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction. The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and 33 other bacterial strains. The LC-PCR assay has a broad linear range (2 × 101 to 2 ×106 copies) for quantitative estimation of the number of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis F57 target copies in positive samples. To maximize the assay's detection sensitivity, an efficient strategy for isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA from spiked milk samples was also developed. The integrated procedure combining optimal M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA isolation and real-time PCR detection had a reproducible detection limit of about 10 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells per ml when a starting sample volume of 10 ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked milk was analyzed. The entire process can be completed within a single working day and is suitable for routine monitoring of milk samples for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination. The applicability of this protocol for naturally contaminated milk was also demonstrated using milk samples from symptomatic M.?avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows, as well as pooled samples from a dairy herd with a confirmed history of paratuberculosis. PMID:16204510

Tasara, T.; Stephan, R.

2005-01-01

259

Replication and Long-Term Persistence of Bovine and Human Strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis within Acanthamoeba polyphaga  

PubMed Central

Free-living protists are ubiquitous in the environment and form a potential reservoir for the persistence of animal and human pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease, a systemic infection accompanied by chronic inflammation of the intestine that affects many animals, including primates. Most humans with Crohn's disease are infected with this chronic enteric pathogen. Subclinical infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in domestic livestock. Infected animals excrete large numbers of robust organisms into the environment, but little is known about their ability to replicate and persist in protists. In the present study we fed laboratory cultures of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with bovine and human strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Real-time PCR showed that the numbers of the pathogens fell over the first 4 to 8 days and recovered by 12 to 16 days. Encystment of the amoebic cultures after 4 weeks resulted in a 2-log reduction in the level of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which returned to the original level by 24 weeks. Extracts of resection samples of human gut from 39 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were fed to cultures of A. polyphaga. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detected by nested IS900 PCR with amplicon sequencing and visualized by IS900 in situ hybridization and auramine-rhodamine staining was found in cultures derived from 13 of the patients and was still present in the cultures after almost 4 years of incubation. Control cultures were negative. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis has the potential for long-term persistence in environmental protists. PMID:16391127

Mura, Manuela; Bull, Tim J.; Evans, Hugh; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; McMinn, Liz; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger; Hermon-Taylor, John

2006-01-01

260

Salmonella enterica Suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Population and Soft Rot Progression by Acidifying the Microaerophilic Environment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. PMID:23404399

Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O.; Barak, Jeri D.

2013-01-01

261

Persistence and Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii Spores on Corroded Iron in a Model Drinking Water System?  

PubMed Central

Persistence of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron coupons in drinking water was studied using a biofilm annular reactor. Spores were inoculated at 106 CFU/ml in the dechlorinated reactor bulk water. The dechlorination allowed for observation of the effects of hydraulic shear and biofilm sloughing on persistence. Approximately 50% of the spores initially adhered to the corroded iron surface were not detected after 1 month. Addition of a stable 10 mg/liter free chlorine residual after 1 month led to a 2-log10 reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii, but levels on the coupons quickly stabilized thereafter. Increasing the free chlorine concentration to 25 or 70 mg/liter had no additional effect on inactivation. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores injected in the presence of a typical distribution system chlorine residual (?0.75 mg/liter) resulted in a steady reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii over 1 month, but levels on the coupons eventually stabilized. Adding elevated chlorine levels (10, 25, and 70 mg/liter) after 1 month had no effect on the rate of inactivation. Decontamination with elevated free chlorine levels immediately after spore injection resulted in a 3-log10 reduction within 2 weeks, but the rate of inactivation leveled off afterward. This indicates that free chlorine did not reach portions of the corroded iron surface where B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores had adhered. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores are capable of persisting for an extended time in the presence of high levels of free chlorine. PMID:17308186

Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Rice, Eugene W.; Bishop, Paul L.

2007-01-01

262

DrsG from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Inhibits the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37  

PubMed Central

SIC and DRS are related proteins present in only 4 of the >200 Streptococcus pyogenes emm types. These proteins inhibit complement-mediated lysis and/or the activity of certain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A gene encoding a homologue of these proteins, herein called DrsG, has been identified in the related bacterium Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Here we show that geographically dispersed isolates representing 14 of 50 emm types examined possess variants of drsG. However, not all isolates within the drsG-positive emm types possess the gene. Sequence comparisons also revealed a high degree of conservation in different S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types. To examine the biological activity of DrsG, recombinant versions of two major DrsG variants, DrsGS and DrsGL, were expressed and purified. Western blot analysis using antisera raised to these proteins demonstrated both variants to be expressed and secreted into culture supernatants. Unlike SIC, but similar to DRS, DrsG does not inhibit complement-mediated lysis. However, like both SIC and DRS, DrsG is a ligand of the cathelicidin LL-37 and is inhibitory to its bactericidal activity in in vitro assays. Conservation of prolines in the C-terminal region also suggests that these residues are important in the biology of this family of proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the activity of an AMP-inhibitory protein in S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and suggests that inhibition of AMP activity is the primary function of this family of proteins. The acquisition of the complement-inhibitory activity of SIC may reflect its continuing evolution. PMID:24664506

Smyth, Danielle; Cameron, Ainslie; Davies, Mark R.; McNeilly, Celia; Hafner, Louise; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.

2014-01-01

263

Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd  

PubMed Central

Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability. PMID:22176659

2011-01-01

264

Early Immune Markers Associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in a Neonatal Calf Model ?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to observe early markers of cell-mediated immunity in naïve calves infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and how expression of these markers evolved over the 12-month period of infection. Groups for experimental infection included control (noninfected), oral (infected orally with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain K-10), oral/DXM (pretreatment with dexamethasone before oral inoculation), intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, and oral/M (oral inoculation with mucosal scrapings from a cow with clinical disease) groups. One of the earliest markers to emerge was antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?). Only i.p. inoculated calves had detectable antigen-specific IFN-? responses at 7 days, with responses of the other infection groups becoming detectable at 90 and 120 days. All infection groups maintained robust IFN-? responses for the remainder of the study. At 1 month, calves in the oral and oral/M groups had higher antigen-stimulated interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels than calves in the other treatment groups, but IL-10 secretion declined by 12 months for all calves. T-cell activation markers such as CD25, CD26, CD45RO, and CD5 were significantly upregulated in infected calves compared to noninfected controls. Oral inoculation of calves resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation at 9 and 12 months, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) secretion at 6 and 12 months. These results demonstrate that infection of naïve calves with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invoked early immunologic responses characterized by robust antigen-specific IFN-? responses and induction of CD25 and CD45RO expression on T-cell subsets. These were followed by antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, iNOS secretion, and expression of CD26 and CD5bright markers in the latter part of the 12-month study. PMID:21228140

Stabel, J. R.; Robbe-Austerman, S.

2011-01-01

265

Phytochemical Composition and Antinociceptive Activity of Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana in Rats  

PubMed Central

In traditional medicine, Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana has long been used as an analgesic agent in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of B. glauca subsp. hupehana (BHE) in rats and its chemical fingerprint. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was assessed in mice using chemically and heat–induced pain models, such as the acetic acid–induced writhing, hot plate, tail–flick and glutamate tests. Naltrexone hydrochloride, a non–selective opioid receptor antagonist, was utilized to determine the involvement of the opioid system. In addition to this, the involvements of the cGMP and ATP–sensitive K+ channel pathways were also detected using methylene blue and glibenclamide. The oral administration of BHE (at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant and dose–related inhibitions in both the chemically and heat–induced pain models. Interestingly, in the abdominal constriction test, when the dose of BHE was increased to 800 mg/kg (p.o., n = 10), the inhibition rate was 100%. The antinociceptive mechanism may involve the cGMP pathway and ATP sensitive K+ channel pathway. The central antinociceptive effect was not antagonized by naltrexone. One phenolic acid, one lignin and five flavonoids were isolated from BHE. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was most likely due to the presence of the flavonoids. The acute toxicity results showed that BHE was safe at a high dose (2 g/kg, p.o.). The current investigation demonstrates that B. glauca subsp. hupehana is a potential candidate for the development of novel, non–opioid, analgesic phytomedicines. PMID:25658740

Xu, Jinlong; Zhao, Qizhi; Wei, Lei; Yang, Yu; Xu, Rui; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhao, Yimin

2015-01-01

266

High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines (S. A. Bustin et al., Clin. Chem. 55:611–622, 2009, doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797). The HT-J assay has been approved for use in JD control programs in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:24352996

Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

2014-01-01

267

Peptide aMptD-Mediated Capture PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bulk Milk Samples  

PubMed Central

A peptide-mediated capture PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples was developed and characterized. Capture of the organism was performed using peptide aMptD, which had been shown to bind to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis MptD protein (J. Stratmann, B. Strommenger, R. Goethe, K. Dohmann, G. F. Gerlach, K. Stevenson, L. L. Li, Q. Zhang, V. Kapur, and T. J. Bull, Infect. Immun. 72:1265-1274, 2004). Consistent expression of the MptD receptor protein and binding of the aMptD ligand were demonstrated by capturing different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and type II strains and subsequent PCR analysis using ISMav2-based primers. The analytical sensitivity of the method was determined to be 5 × 102 CFU ml?1 for artificially contaminated milk. The specificity of aMptD binding was confirmed by culture and competitive capture assays, showing selective enrichment of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (at a concentration of 5 × 102 CFU ml?1) from samples containing 100- and 1,000-fold excesses of other mycobacterial species, including M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The aMptD-mediated capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using paramagnetic beads, followed by culture, demonstrated the ability of this approach to capture viable target cells present in artificially contaminated milk. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the aMptD peptide is a high-affinity ligand with a calculated association rate constant of 9.28 × 103 and an association constant of 1.33 × 109. The potential use of the method on untreated raw milk in the field was investigated by testing 423 bulk milk samples obtained from different dairy farms in Germany, 23 of which tested positive. Taken together, the results imply that the peptide-mediated capture PCR might present a suitable test for paratuberculosis screening of dairy herds, as it has an analytical sensitivity sufficient for detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk milk samples under field conditions, relies on a defined and validated ligand-receptor interaction, and is adaptable to routine diagnostic laboratory automation. PMID:16885259

Stratmann, Janin; Dohmann, Karen; Heinzmann, Julia; Gerlach, Gerald-F.

2006-01-01

268

Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks  

PubMed Central

IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal

2013-01-01

269

Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks.  

PubMed

IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal; Pavlik, Ivo

2013-01-01

270

Cytotoxic activity of diterpenoids isolated from the aerial parts of Elaeoselinum asclepium subsp. meoides.  

PubMed

The phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Elaeoselinum asclepium (L.) Bertol. subsp. meoides (Desf.) Fiori afforded several known diterpenoids as well as meoidic acid ( 5), new in the literature. The cytotoxic activities of elasclepic acid ( 1), ENT-atis-16-en-19-oic acid ( 2), ent-beyer-15-en-19-oic acid ( 3), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid ( 4) and meoidic acid ( 5) were investigated on rat glioma C6 cells by evaluation of cell growth inhibition. PMID:18604778

Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Eiroa, Cristina; Formisano, Carmen; Bruno, Maurizio; Irace, Carlo; Maffettone, Carmen; Mascolo, Nicola

2008-08-01

271

Characterization of the siderophore transport genes in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have developed multiple mechanisms to obtain iron from the host. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron starvation conditions. In this study, we characterized six ABC transporter\\u000a proteins immediately downstream of a sigma factor as AsbI, which were denominated AsbH, AsbJ, AsbK, AsbL, AsbQ, and AsbM,\\u000a and a siderophore receptor as AsbE. All studied genes showed

Mohsen Najimi

272

Chitosan enhances xanthone production in Hypericum perforatum subsp. angustifolium cell cultures.  

PubMed

Hypericum perforatum is an important medicinal plant containing numerous biologically active compounds. The effect of chitosan elicitation on xanthone biosynthesis in calli and in cell suspension cultures of H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium was evaluated. Elicited cell cultures showed an increase in xanthone production and a simultaneous decrease in flavonoid production. Chitosan also induced the production of 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (euxanthone) and cadensin G, which were not detected in either the calli nor the non-elicited cell cultures. 1,7-Dihydroxyxanthone was in part (21%) released in the culture medium. PMID:20140807

Tocci, N; Ferrari, F; Santamaria, A R; Valletta, A; Rovardi, I; Pasqua, G

2010-02-01

273

Biochemical and genetic evidence for the transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to the species Mycobacterium bovis Karlson and Lessel 1970 (approved lists 1980) as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov.  

PubMed

We propose to replace the species designation Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae (Aranaz et al. 1999) by Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov., since isolates of this subspecies share their main growth, biochemical and genetic characteristics with M. bovis and not with M. tuberculosis. These include negative biochemical test results for niacin accumulation and nitrate reduction as well as genetic features like the presence of an M. bovis-specific mutation in the oxyR locus, absence of the mtp40 sequence and a specific mutation in the gyrB gene, all of which have been described as characteristics for the differentiation of M. bovis. The only obvious biochemical character that differentiates the caprae subtype from other M. bovis isolates is susceptibility to pyrazinamide (PZA), which is due to the lack of a single point mutation in the pncA gene. However, susceptibility to PZA among clinical isolates of M. bovis isolates has been reported previously and, thus, may now been explained by a PZA-susceptible subspecies of M. bovis. We conclude that the species designation M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae is misleading and not correct in light of the biochemical and genetic characteristics and propose that the accurate designation of isolates of this subtype is M. bovis subsp. caprae. PMID:11931153

Niemann, Stefan; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

2002-03-01

274

Novel Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections?  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replication (up to 36.05% infectious foci reduction) and also to protect cells from virus infection (up to 48.50% infectious foci reduction) in both MA-104 and HT-29 cell lines. Furthermore, studies using a BALB/c mouse model have proved that this strain provides preliminary in vivo protection against rotavirus infection. The strain has been deposited in the Spanish Type Culture Collection under the accession number CECT 7210. This novel strain has the main properties required of a probiotic, such as resistance to gastrointestinal juices, biliary salts, NaCl, and low pH, as well as adhesion to intestinal mucus and sensitivity to antibiotics. The food safety status has been confirmed by the absence of undesirable metabolite production and in acute ingestion studies of mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 can be considered a probiotic able to inhibit rotavirus infection. PMID:22003027

Moreno Muñoz, José Antonio; Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Montava, Rebeca; Ribes, Juan Manuel; Buesa, Javier; Fàbrega, Joan; Rivero, Montserrat

2011-01-01

275

Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis.  

PubMed

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H; Kosoy, Michael Y; Root, J Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B

2011-03-01

276

Organization of the genes encoding [Fe] hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello.  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding the periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus Monticello were cloned by exploiting their homology with the hydAB genes from D. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough, in which this enzyme is present as a heterologous dimer of alpha and beta subunits. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the enzyme is encoded by an operon in which the gene for the 46-kilodalton (kDa) alpha subunit precedes that of the 13.5-kDa beta subunit, exactly as in the Hildenborough strain. The pairs of hydA and hydB genes are highly homologous; both alpha subunits (420 amino acid residues) share 79% sequence identity, while the unprocessed beta subunits (124 and 123 amino acid residues, respectively) share 71% sequence identity. In contrast, there appears to be no sequence homology outside these coding regions, with the exception of a possible promoter element, which was found approximately 90 base pairs upstream from the translational start of the hydA gene. The recently discovered hydC gene, which may code for a 65.8-kDa fusion protein (gamma) of the alpha and beta subunits and is present immediately downstream from the hydAB genes in the Hildenborough strain, was found to be absent from the Monticello strain. The implication of this result for the possible function of the hydC gene product in Desulfovibrio species is discussed. Images PMID:2661538

Voordouw, G; Strang, J D; Wilson, F R

1989-01-01

277

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates  

PubMed Central

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

2014-01-01

278

Characterization of the mature cell surface proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.  

PubMed

The cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (PrtL) has an essential role in bacterial growth, contributes to the flavor and texture development of fermented products, and can release bioactive health-beneficial peptides during milk fermentation. The genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 possesses only one gene that encodes PrtL, which consists of 1924 amino acids and is a multidomain protein anchored to the cell via its W domain. PrtL was extracted from the cell under high ionic strength conditions using NaCl, suggesting an electrostatic interaction between the proteinase and the cell envelope. The released PrtL was purified and biochemically characterized; its activity was maximal at temperatures between 37 and 40 °C and at pH between 7 and 8. Under optimal conditions, PrtL exhibited higher affinity for succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide than for succinyl-alanyl-glutamyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide, while methoxy-succinyl-arginyl-prolyl-tyrosyl-p-nitroanilide was not degraded. A similar ?- and ?-casein degradation pattern was observed with the purified and the cell envelope-bound proteinase. Finally, on the basis of its specificity towards caseins and the unique combination of amino acids at residues thought to be involved in substrate specificity, PrtL can be classified as a representative of a new group of CEP. PMID:25487890

Villegas, Josefina M; Brown, Lucía; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira M

2014-12-01

279

Environmental Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Different Climatic Zones of Eastern Australia  

PubMed Central

The duration of survival of both the S and C strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces was quantified in contrasting climatic zones of New South Wales, Australia, and detailed environmental temperature data were collected. Known concentrations of S and C strains in feces placed on soil in polystyrene boxes were exposed to the environment with or without the provision of shade (70%) at Bathurst, Armidale, Condobolin, and Broken Hill, and subsamples taken every 2 weeks were cultured for the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The duration of survival ranged from a minimum of 1 week to a maximum of 16 weeks, and the provision of 70% shade was the most important factor in extending the survival time. The hazard of death for exposed compared to shaded samples was 20 and 9 times higher for the S and C strains, respectively. Site did not affect the survival of the C strain, but for the S strain, the hazard of death was 2.3 times higher at the two arid zone sites (Broken Hill and Condobolin) than at the two temperate zone sites (Bathurst and Armidale). Temperature measurements revealed maximum temperatures exceeding 60°C and large daily temperature ranges at the soil surface, particularly in exposed boxes. PMID:24463974

Begg, Douglas J.; Dhand, Navneet K.; Watt, Bruce; Whittington, Richard J.

2014-01-01

280

Composition and Toxicity of the Inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

PubMed Central

The multisegmented ovoidal inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be composed of two structurally and biochemically distinct components. Electron microscopy of the inclusion revealed it to be composed mainly of osmiophobic or lightly stained segments crystallized in a lattice showing a repeat of approximately 4.3 nm. These light segments of the inclusions were shared by osmiophylic darkly stained segments with a crystal lattice repeat of approximately 7.8 nm. The lightly stained segments were soluble at pH 9.2 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-dithiothreitol-Tris-hydrochloride. The extracts of lightly stained segments were lytic to mammalian erythrocytes, and the precipitate obtained by lowering the pH to 5.2 was toxic to the larvae of Aedes egypti. The dark inclusion segments remaining, besides being much less toxic to larvae, were nonlytic to erythrocytes and were soluble at pH 10.5 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-dithiothreitol-Tris-hydrochloride. The light segment was composed of two major polypeptide doublets with molecular weights of 145,000 and 135,000, and 27,000 and 26,500, and the dark segments were composed of a single major polypeptide with a molecular-weight of 70,000. Hence, the inclusion of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is more complex than previously reported, and we conclude that the toxin may be the polypeptide with a molecular weight of 27,000 and 26,500. Images PMID:16346842

Insell, J. P.; Fitz-James, P. C.

1985-01-01

281

Assessment of Dietzia subsp. C79793-74 for treatment of cattle with evidence of paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether the bacterium Dietzia subsp. C79793-74, previously shown to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis under in vitro culture conditions, has therapeutic value as a probiotic for adult cattle with paratuberculosis. Animals were obtained from several herds with evidence of disease based on seropositivity and/or fecal shedding. Sixty-eight cows with initial evidence of Stage II or III paratuberculosis and two with an initial Stage IV disease were evaluated longitudinally. Animals were either treated daily with variable, disease-dependent doses of Dietzia (n = 48) or left untreated (n = 22). Clinical aspects of disease (diarrhea, emaciated, cachectic and appetite) were recorded until the animal recovered or required euthanasia due to advanced clinical paratuberculosis or other severe conditions. Paratuberculosis parameters—antibody serology (ELISA, AGID) and fecal culture—were longitudinally monitored over the lifetime of each animal. The results indicated that daily treatment with Dietzia was therapeutic for paratuberculosis cows based on: (a) longitudinal decline in ELISA values only occurred in animals that were treated; (b) prolonged survival was dependant upon treatment—the length being directly associated with low initial ELISA values; and (c) treated animals were the only ones cured of disease. Further investigations are envisaged to determine optimal, long-term dosages that may result in even better therapeutic outcomes as well as to evaluate potential application for therapy of the Johne disease, human-counterpart, Crohn disease. PMID:21178433

Kampen, Craig L Van

2010-01-01

282

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection in swine associated with peat used for bedding.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding. PMID:25431762

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Agdestein, Angelika; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

2014-01-01

283

Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora extracellular protease: characterization and nucleotide sequence of the gene.  

PubMed Central

The prt1 gene encoding extracellular protease from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14 in cosmid pCA7 was subcloned to create plasmid pSK1. The partial nucleotide sequence of the insert in pSK1 (1,878 bp) revealed a 1,041-bp open reading frame (ORF1) that correlated with protease activity in deletion mutants. ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 347 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38,826 Da. Escherichia coli transformed with pSK1 or pSK23, a subclone of pSK1, produces a protease (Prt1) intracellularly with a molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 4.8. Prt1 activity was inhibited by phenanthroline, suggesting that it is a metalloprotease. The prt1 promoter was localized between 173 and 1,173 bp upstream of ORF1 by constructing transcriptional lacZ fusions. Primer extension identified the prt1 transcription start site 205 bp upstream of ORF1. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 showed significant sequence identity to metalloproteases from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus (thermolysin), B. subtilis (neutral protease), Legionella pneumophila (metalloprotease), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (elastase). It has less sequence similarity to metalloproteases from Serratia marcescens and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Locations for three zinc ligands and the active site for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora protease were predicted from thermolysin. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:1917878

Kyöstiö, S R; Cramer, C L; Lacy, G H

1991-01-01

284

Potential of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Strain Pcho10 as a Biocontrol Agent Against Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To develop an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Fusarium head blight on wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum, the bacterial biocontrol agent Pcho10 was selected from more than 1,476 wheat-head-associated bacterial strains according to its antagonistic activity in vitro. This strain was subsequently characterized as Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, assays of the BIOLOG microbial identification system, and unique pigment production. The major antifungal metabolite produced by Pcho10 was further identified as phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance data. The core PCN biosynthesis gene cluster in Pcho10 was cloned and sequenced. PCN showed strong inhibitory activity against F. graminearum conidial germination, mycelial growth, and deoxynivalenol production. Tests both under growth chamber conditions and in field trials showed that Pcho10 well colonized on the wheat head and effectively controlled the disease caused by F. graminearum. Results of this study indicate that P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca Pcho10 has high potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent against F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of P. chlororaphis for the management of Fusarium head blight. PMID:24941327

Hu, Weiqun; Gao, Qixun; Hamada, Mohamed Sobhy; Dawood, Dawood Hosni; Zheng, Jingwu; Chen, Yun; Ma, Zhonghua

2014-12-01

285

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida: an integrated view of a bacterial fish pathogen.  

PubMed

Pasteurellosis, or pseudotuberculosis, is a bacterial septicaemia caused by the halophilic bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida). Although this disease was first described in wild populations of white perch and striped bass, currently the natural hosts of the pathogen are a wide variety of marine fish. The disease has great economic impact both in Japan, where it affects mainly yellowtail cultures, and in the Mediterranean area, due to the losses it causes in seabream and seabass farms. This microorganism serves as a perfect model to study a bacterial fish pathogen, either at an applied level, to resolve or to mitigate the high economic losses of fish farmers, or at a basic level, for a better understanding of P. damselae subsp. piscicida biology. This article discusses the methods employed in our laboratory to study the causative agent of pasteurellosis. It reviews important aspects, from the diverse procedures for the detection and isolation of the pathogen to the latest molecular studies that have allowed its correct taxonomic allocation. Characterization of some virulence mechanisms and the available methods to prevent the disease are also presented. PMID:12102234

Romalde, Jesús L

2002-03-01

286

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

287

Multi-method approach for characterizing the interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki.  

PubMed

Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin. PMID:24739804

Rocha, Liliana O; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Reis, Gabriela M; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-01-01

288

Multi-Method Approach for Characterizing the Interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki  

PubMed Central

Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin. PMID:24739804

Rocha, Liliana O.; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser.; Reis, Gabriela M.; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B.; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-01-01

289

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in potato plants to infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed

The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the alpha, beta, and gamma subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease. PMID:11976096

Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

2002-05-01

290

Response of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Potato Plants to Infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica  

PubMed Central

The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the ?, ?, and ? subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease. PMID:11976096

Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

2002-01-01

291

Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot  

PubMed Central

Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned out region of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and by complementation of Out- mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Out- mutants of Ecb168, which did not secrete pectate lyase into the culture medium, were obtained when deletions internal to either HindIII fragment were introduced into the genome of Ecb168 through marker exchange mutagenesis. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were complemented to the Out+ phenotype by introduction of the corresponding cloned HindIII fragment. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were less virulent than the Out+ parental strain on potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives inhibited the growth of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture, indicating that the uncharacterized antibiotic(s) responsible for antagonism was exported through an out-independent mechanism. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives reduced the establishment of large populations of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in wounds of potato tubers and suppressed tuber soft rot caused by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. PMID:16349316

Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

1994-01-01

292

Culture- and Quantitative IS900 Real-Time PCR-Based Analysis of the Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Controlled Dairy Cow Farm Environment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 103 were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 102 after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable. PMID:22773642

Moravkova, M.; Babak, V.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

2012-01-01

293

First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. PMID:25359917

Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W; Allard, Marc W

2014-01-01

294

First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. PMID:25359917

Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Allard, Marc W.

2014-01-01

295

Insecticidal activity and biodegradation of the toxin from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki bound to humic acids from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium adsorption and binding of the active toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, toxic to lepidopteran larvae, to humic acids extracted from two forest and two cultivated soils, as well as the insecticidal activity and the biodegradation of the bound toxin, were studied. From 75 to 85% of the toxin added was rapidly adsorbed to the humic acids at

C. Crecchio; G. Stotzky

1998-01-01

296

Contribution of the individual components of the ?-endotoxin crystal to the mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-endotoxin crystal of the mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis contains four major 0-endotoxins. Expression systems were devised to synthesize each of the four toxins at concentrations at which they formed inclusion bodies in an acrystalliferous mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis. The relative activities of these inclusions were then determined against Aedes aegypti larvae. Bioassays of mixtures of the individual

Neil Crickmore; Eileen J. Bone; Juliet A. Williams; David J. Ellar

1995-01-01

297

Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

298

Palaeopolyploidy, Spatial Structure and Conservation Genetics of the Narrow Steppe Plant Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Vellinae, Cruciferae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Cruciferae) is a narrow endemic plant to the Teruel province (eastern Spain), which is listed in the National Catalogue of Endangered Species. Two distinct ploidy levels (diploid, 2n = 34, and tetraploid, 2n = 68) have been reported for this taxon that belongs to the core subtribe Vellinae, a western Mediterranean group

ERNESTO P EREZ-COLLAZOS; P ILAR C ATALAN

299

Eradication of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by incorporating fresh crop debris into soil: Preliminary evaluations under controlled conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the eradication of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was tested for its efficacy in three experiments carried out in the laboratory and greenhouse. In the first experiment, peat moss and sand mix in pots was amended with fresh tomato debris which was either artificially infected with the pathogen, or was not amended. Pots were enclosed in plastic bags

María Jesús Zanón; Concepción Jordá

2008-01-01

300

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals. Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammation of the intestine,

Alifiya H. Ghadiali; Megan Strother; Saleh A. Naser; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Srinand Sreevatsan

2004-01-01

301

Germination, Growth, and Sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Excreted Food Vacuoles of the Protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their toxic crystals are bioencapsulated in the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, in which the toxin remains stable. Each T. pyriformis cell concentrates the spores and crystals in its food vacuoles, thus delivering them to mosquito larvae, which rapidly die. Vacuoles containing undigested material are later excreted from the cells. The fate of spores and

ROBERT MANASHEROB; EITAN BEN-DOV; ARIEH ZARITSKY; EV BARAK

1998-01-01

302

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two decontamination chemicals, hexadecylpyridinium choride (HPC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), were compared for their efficacy of reducing the growth of non-specific microorganisms in milk while minimally affecting the recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

303

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

304

Immune Responses in Mice to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Following Vaccination with a Novel 74F Recombinant Polyprotein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s Disease (JD) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Here, we report the cloning and expression of a 74kDa recombinant polyprotein (Map74F) and its protective efficacy against MAP infection in mice. Map74F was generated by th...

305

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Sonicate Immunoassay Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sandwich immunoassay is developed for the rapid, low-level detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, and one of the major obstacles in controlling the spread of this disease is the inability to rapidly detect small amou...

306

The erm(T) Gene Is Flanked by IS1216V in Inducible Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus  

PubMed Central

We investigated the sequence and the genetic context of the erm(T) gene in six inducible erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (formerly S. bovis biotype II.2) isolates. In all isolates, the erm(T) genes were flanked by two IS1216V-like elements with the same polarity and were found to be inserted in the chromosome. PMID:16189118

Tsai, Jui-Chang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Chen, Pei-Yu; Teng, Lee-Jene

2005-01-01

307

Antigenicity of recombinant maltose binding protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins with and without factor Xa cleaving  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that MAP expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such prot...

308

Evaluation of two mutants of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for Johne's disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Efforts to control Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we examined the potential of targeted gene disruption as a method to develop candidate vaccines with impaired c...

309

Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Oranienburg Strain S-76, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is a widespread microorganism and a common causative agent of food-borne illnesses. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Oranienburg is highly prevalent in surface water from tropical ecosystems and is not commonly related to illnesses. Here, we report the first genome sequence of Salmonella Oranienburg strain S-76, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336368

Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

2013-01-01

310

Genome Sequence of Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis Strain C-4T, Isolated from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a fish pathogen that has an important impact on the Chilean salmon industry. Here, we report the genome sequence of the type strain C-4(T) isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), showing a number of interesting features and genes related to its possible virulence factors. PMID:25502668

Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Suarez, Rudy; Lazo, Eduardo; Bravo, Diego; Llegues, Katerina O; Romalde, Jesús L; Godoy, Marcos G

2014-01-01

311

Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recovered from goats were originally classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae; however, this subspecies was recently reclassified as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae. Besides biochemical (sensitivity to pyrazinamide) and epidemiological features, strains of this unusual member of the M. tuberculosis complex show a special combination of pncA, oxyR, katG and gyrA gene polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of the gyrB gene in these strains reveals special nucleotide substitutions not found in other members of the M. tuberculosis complex that can be used to differentiate caprine mycobacterial strains from M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex. M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae now appears not to be restricted to Spanish goats, as strains of this organism have been isolated from cattle, wild boar and pigs. Its occurrence has also been reported in France, Austria and Germany. Two studies on the evolution of the M. tuberculosis complex based on the presence/absence of regions of difference have shown that the group of caprine isolates (or its ancestor) is older than M. bovis (or its ancestor). These findings reinforce the original suggestion that the caprine mycobacterial strains are a taxon of the M. tuberculosis complex, independent of M. bovis. Within the current context of the existing nomenclature of the M. tuberculosis complex, it is proposed that M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae be elevated to species status, as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov. PMID:14657105

Aranaz, Alicia; Cousins, Debby; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

2003-11-01

312

Duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Stenocarpella maydis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of two seedborne maize pathogens in a single assay. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) (syn. Erwinia stewartii) is the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize. Stewart's wilt i...

313

Identification and Functional Characterization of the Iron-dependent Regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), a ruminant pathogen, has unique iron requirements based on the observation that it is mycobactin dependent for successful cultivation in vitro. Thus an elucidation of iron regulation in MAP is expected to provide an understanding of its survival in ...

314

Genome Sequence of Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis Strain C-4T, Isolated from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a fish pathogen that has an important impact on the Chilean salmon industry. Here, we report the genome sequence of the type strain C-4T isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), showing a number of interesting features and genes related to its possible virulence factors. PMID:25502668

Suarez, Rudy; Lazo, Eduardo; Bravo, Diego; Llegues, Katerina O.; Romalde, Jesús L.; Godoy, Marcos G.

2014-01-01

315

Evaluation of survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in ciliates isolated from Johne’s positive cow.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in farm environments is not well understood. Previously we examined the ability of amoebae from a cow’s watering trough to sequester and enhance growth of Map and found that one amoeba species released vesicles containin...

316

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

317

Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

318

PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CORN AND RICE STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. AVENAE BY DNA/DNA HYBRIDIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is the causal agent of diseases of several important economic crops, including bacterial streak of corn (Zea mays) and bacterial stripe of rice (Oryza sativa). To determine the phylogenetic relationship of these two pathogens, a highly reproducible S1 exonuclea...

319

Immunization with a DNA Vaccine Cocktail Induces a Th1 Response and Protects Mice Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several novel antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been studied as vaccine components and their immunogenicity has been evaluated. Previously, we reported that 85 antigen complex (85A, 85B, and 85C), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 35kDa protein could induce significant lymph...

320

Macrophage Transcriptional Response to Species-Adapted Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis Isolates: The Role of Pathogen Genotype in Host Response  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcriptional response of human and bovine macrophages to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) isolates from cattle and sheep were examined using DNA microarrays. M. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s Disease, a chronic infection of ruminant anima...

321

Biological Control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Infection in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Using Aeromonas Phage PAS-1.  

PubMed

The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture. PMID:23594036

Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

2015-02-01

322

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from Feral Cats on a Dairy Farm with Map-infected Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paratuberculosis is an economical- ly important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six rac- coons (Procyon lotor), and three

Mitchell V. Palmer; William C. Stoffregen; Jeremy G. Carpenter; Judith R. Stabel

2005-01-01

323

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC178, a Phyllosphere Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain CC178 is a phyllosphere bacterium with antagonistic activity against a wide range of plant fungal pathogens. The genome of strain CC178 is 3,916,828 bp in size and harbors 3,972 genes. Six giant gene clusters are dedicated to the nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial polypeptides and polyketides. PMID:25573933

Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Sang-Yeob; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Wan-Gyu

2015-01-01

324

Are plants more responsive to decreased than to increased rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau? Evidence from Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides is a sedge species in alpine grassland ecosys- tems on the Tibetan Plateau. Here we examine its physiological and growth responses to variation in simulated rainfall in a growing season. Compared with the present local rainfall, increased rainfall had no effect on any measured trait except for long-term water use efficiency, and decreased rainfall significantly reduced

Zheng-Sheng He; Wei-Ming He; Ling-Ling Xu; Pei-Li Shi; Xian-Zhou Zhang; Yong-Tao He; Zhi-Ming Zhong; Ming Dong

325

Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro.  

PubMed

The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR(-)), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR(-))] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR(-) or GRM+ IR(-) when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight. PMID:17679772

Jung, Tae S; Thompson, Kim D; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A

2007-09-01

326

Use of Recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 Fusion Protein for Differentiation of Infections of Cattle by Mycobacterium bovis and by M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Immunological diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle is often confounded by cross-reactive responses resulting from exposure to other mycobacterial species, especially Mycobacterium avium. Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are dominant gamma interferon (IFN-?)-inducing antigens of tuberculous mycobacteria, and they are absent from many environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria. Because M. avium exposure is the primary confounding factor in the diagnosis of M. bovis-infected animals, in vitro responses to a recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 (rESAT-6:CFP-10) fusion protein by blood leukocytes from cattle naturally exposed to M. avium or experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium or Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were compared to responses by M. bovis-infected cattle. Responses to heterogeneous mycobacterial antigens (i.e., purified protein derivatives [PPDs] and whole-cell sonicates [WCSs]) were also evaluated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), IFN-?, and nitric oxide responses by M. bovis-infected cattle to rESAT-6:CFP-10 exceeded (P < 0.05) the corresponding responses by cattle naturally sensitized to M. avium. Experimental infection with M. bovis, M. avium, or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis induced significant (P < 0.05) IFN-? and nitric oxide production to WCS and PPD antigens, regardless of the mycobacterial species used for the preparation of the antigen. Responses to homologous crude antigens generally exceeded responses to heterologous antigens. Nitric oxide and IFN-? responses to rESAT-6:CFP-10 by blood leukocytes from M. bovis-infected calves exceeded (P < 0.05) the corresponding responses of noninfected, M. avium-infected, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected calves. Despite the reported potential for secretion of immunogenic ESAT-6 and CFP-10 proteins by M. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, it appears that use of the rESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein will be useful for the detection of tuberculous cattle in herds with pre-existing sensitization to M. avium and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:15242948

Waters, W. R.; Nonnecke, B. J.; Palmer, M. V.; Robbe-Austermann, S.; Bannantine, J. P.; Stabel, J. R.; Whipple, D. L.; Payeur, J. B.; Estes, D. M.; Pitzer, J. E.; Minion, F. C.

2004-01-01

327

Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

328

Treatment with antibiotics is detrimental to the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured from milk and colostrum of dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibiotic cocktails are frequently used as secondary decontaminants prior to the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study investigated whether secondary incubation with an antibiotic cocktail containing vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B after primary exp...

329

Production and Evaluation of an Improved Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Purified Protein Derivative for Use in In-Vivo and In-Vitro Diagnostic Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purified protein derivatives (PPD’s) were prepared from the cultured filtrate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ATCC strain 19698. Production of PPD has historically been problematic for maintaining optimal floating cultures yielding defined immunogenic components. To obtain mor...

330

Modulation of Cytokine Expression and Lymphocyte Subsets During the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm observations suggest that dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) may demonstrate increased signs of clinical disease during the weeks following parturition. To date, limited research is available characterizing host immunity in periparturient dairy cows ...

331

Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves.  

PubMed

The utility of Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves from Eastern Black Sea region for the removal (sorption) of metal ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this, the optimum values of pH, time, metal concentration, leaf concentration, leaf particle size and adsorption capacity were determined. Also the recovery conditions of the metals from leaves were studied. Cd metal was selected because of its toxic properties. Freundlich isotherm model was used to describe the adsorption behaviour and the experimental results obtained for Cd(2+) adsorption, followed this model well. The utility of Nordmann fir leaves to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions was proved. Hence, this study showed that the leaves of Nordmann fir can provide cheap source as biosorbents for toxic metal removal from natural or wastewaters. PMID:17475482

Serencam, H; Gundogdu, A; Uygur, Y; Kemer, B; Bulut, V N; Duran, C; Soylak, M; Tufekci, M

2008-04-01

332

New humulane-type sesquiterpenes from the liverworts Tylimanthus tenellus and Marchantia emarginata subsp. tosana.  

PubMed

The ether extract of the New Zealand liverwort Tylimanthus tenellus produced three new sesquiterpenes, together with (+)-3,11-eudesmadiene and (-)-4(15),11-eudesmadiene which were enantiomeric to those isolated from higher plants. The structures of the new sesquiterpenes were established by 2D NMR spectral data and/or X-ray crystallographic analysis. Those structures were shown to be humulane type sesquiterpene alcohol, and its esters of 2,4-hexadienedioic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-diphenyl-gamma-lactone. 1,6-Humuladien-10-ol was also isolated from Japanese liverwort Marchantia emarginata subsp. tosana. The absolute configuration of 1,6-humuladien-10-ol was determined by (1)H-NMR resolution of its diastereomeric methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl (MTPA) esters. It was shown to be (3S,10R)-1,6-humuladien-10-ol. PMID:15056972

Toyota, Masao; Omatsu, Ikuko; Braggins, John; Asakawa, Yoshinori

2004-04-01

333

Draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is the etiologic agent of tularemia and a highly virulent category A biothreat agent. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177, isolated from the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned this isolate to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. Automatic annotation of the 1,813,372 bp draft genome revealed 2,103 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes. PMID:24501637

Coolen, Jordy P M; Sjödin, Andreas; Maraha, Boulos; Hajer, Gerard F; Forsman, Mats; Verspui, Ellen; Frenay, Hendrina M E; Notermans, Daan W; de Vries, Maaike C; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Paauw, Armand; Roeselers, Guus

2013-07-30

334

[Detection and analysis of sulfur metabolism genes in Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans representatives].  

PubMed

The lithotrophic capacity of the betaproteobacteria Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans was confirmed at genetic level: functional genes of sulfur metabolism were detected (aprBA, soxB, and sqr, coding for adenylyl phosphosulfate reductase, thiosulfate-cleaving enzyme, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, respectively), and the expression of aprA and soxB genes was demonstrated. An evolutionary scenario for soxB genes in Sphaerotilus representatives is suggested based on comparative analysis of codon occurrence frequency, DNA base composition (G + C content), and topology of phylogenetic trees. The ancestor bacterium of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group was capable of lithotrophic growth in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds. However, in the course of further evolution, the sulfur metabolism genes, including the soxB gene, were lost by some Sphaerotilus strains. As a result, the lithotrophic Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group split into two phylogenetic lineages, lithotrophic and organotrophic ones. PMID:25509396

Belousova, E V; Chernousova, E Iu; Dubinina, G A; Turova, T P; Grabovich, M Iu

2013-01-01

335

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method  

PubMed Central

In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection. PMID:21772965

Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernández-Pando, R.; Romano, María Isabel

2011-01-01

336

Cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

PubMed

Cyt1Aa is the major and most active component of the parasporal crystal of the Gram-positive soil entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cyt1Aa protoxin exhibits some hemolytic and cytolytic activity. However, highly active 22-25 kDa toxins are obtained after proteolysis of Cyt1Aa from both the N- and the C-termini. As shown in this study, preliminary binding of the protoxin to polylamellary liposomes or partial denaturation of Cyt1Aa and further processing by several exogenous proteases yielded short 4.9-11.5 kDa cytolytic peptide fragments of Cyt1Aa. The shortest 51 amino acid peptide was obtained after pre-incubation of Cyt1Aa with SDS and proteolysis with proteinase K. This peptide was purified, identified as the Ile87-Asp137 fragment of Cyt1Aa and was shown to exhibit more than 30 % hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes. PMID:22875467

Nisnevitch, Marina; Nikonov, Svetlana; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

2013-03-01

337

Complete Genome Sequence of the Strong Mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Heidelberg Strain B182  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, normal mutation frequencies are mostly around 10?10 per base pair. However, there exists natural isolates, called “mutators,” that exhibit permanent mutation occurrences up to 1,000-fold greater than usual. As mutations play essential roles, particularly in the evolution of antibiotic resistance, bacteria showing elevated mutation rates could have an important responsibility in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially in the clinical background. In this announcement, we report the first complete genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Heidelberg B182 mutator strain, isolated from bovine feces (France), which consists of a 4,750,465-bp circular chromosome (cB182_4750; GC, 52.2%) and one circular plasmid of 37,581 bp (pB182_37; GC, 42.8%). PMID:22689230

Le Bars, Hervé; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

2012-01-01

338

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 ?-Fucosidases Are Active on Fucosylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 utilizes several small-mass neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), several of which are fucosylated. Whereas previous studies focused on endpoint consumption, a temporal glycan consumption profile revealed a time-dependent effect. Specifically, among preferred HMOs, tetraose was favored early in fermentation, with other oligosaccharides consumed slightly later. In order to utilize fucosylated oligosaccharides, ATCC 15697 possesses several fucosidases, implicating GH29 and GH95 ?-l-fucosidases in a gene cluster dedicated to HMO metabolism. Evaluation of the biochemical kinetics demonstrated that ATCC 15697 expresses three fucosidases with a high turnover rate. Moreover, several ATCC 15697 fucosidases are active on the linkages inherent to the HMO molecule. Finally, the HMO cluster GH29 ?-l-fucosidase possesses a crystal structure that is similar to previously characterized fucosidases. PMID:22138995

Sela, David A.; Garrido, Daniel; Lerno, Larry; Wu, Shuai; Tan, Kemin; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

2012-01-01

339

Homodimeric ?-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081: Expression in Lactobacillus plantarum and Biochemical Characterization  

PubMed Central

The lacZ gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081, encoding a ?-galactosidase of the glycoside hydrolase family GH2, was cloned into different inducible lactobacillal expression vectors for overexpression in the host strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. High expression levels were obtained in laboratory cultivations with yields of approximately 53000 U of ?-galactosidase activity per liter of medium, which corresponds to ?170 mg of recombinant protein per liter and ?-galactosidase levels amounting to 63% of the total intracellular protein of the host organism. The wild-type (nontagged) and histidine-tagged recombinant enzymes were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and further characterized. ?-Galactosidase from L. bulgaricus was used for lactose conversion and showed very high transgalactosylation activity. The maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) was approximately 50% when using an initial concentration of 600 mM lactose, indicating that the enzyme can be of interest for the production of GalOS. PMID:22283494

2012-01-01

340

A model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in whey.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038) is a bacterium that is used as a starter for dairy products by Meiji Co., Ltd of Japan. Culturing L. bulgaricus 2038 with whey as the sole nitrogen source results in a shorter lag phase than other milk proteins under the same conditions (carbon source, minerals, and vitamins). Microarray results of gene expression revealed characteristics of amino acid anabolism with whey as the nitrogen source and established a model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for L. bulgaricus. Whey peptides and free amino acids are readily metabolized, enabling rapid entry into the logarithmic growth phase. The oligopeptide transport system is the primary pathway for obtaining amino acids. Amino acid biosynthesis maintains the balance between amino acids required for cell growth and the amount obtained from environment. The interconversion of amino acids is also important for L. bulgaricus 2038 growth. PMID:22986815

Liu, Enuo; Zheng, Huajun; Hao, Pei; Konno, Tomonobu; Yu, Yao; Kume, Hisae; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

2012-12-01

341

Draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is the etiologic agent of tularemia and a highly virulent category A biothreat agent. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177, isolated from the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned this isolate to the genomic group B.FTNF002–00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. Automatic annotation of the 1,813,372 bp draft genome revealed 2,103 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes. PMID:24501637

Coolen, Jordy P. M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Maraha, Boulos; Hajer, Gerard F.; Forsman, Mats; Verspui, Ellen; Frenay, Hendrina M.E.; Notermans, Daan W.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Reubsaet, Frans A.G.; Paauw, Armand

2013-01-01

342

Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.  

PubMed

In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. PMID:24895428

Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

2014-01-01

343

Secondary structure of the entomocidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73.  

PubMed

The secondary structure of the toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) HD-73 was estimated by Raman, infrared, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and by predictive methods. Circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy gave an estimate of 33-40% alpha-helix, whereas Raman and predictive methods gave approximately 20%. Raman and circular dichroism spectra, as well as predictive methods, indicated that the toxin contains 32-40% beta-sheet structure, whereas infrared spectroscopy gave a slightly lower estimate. Thus, all of these approaches are in agreement that the native conformation of Btk HD-73 toxin is highly folded and contains considerable amounts of both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures. No significant differences were detected in the secondary structure of the toxin either in solution or as a hydrated pellet. PMID:2340079

Choma, C T; Surewicz, W K; Carey, P R; Pozsgay, M; Kaplan, H

1990-02-01

344

Detection and Verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fresh Ileocolonic Mucosal Biopsy Specimens from Individuals with and without Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere. Water supplies are also at risk. The involvement of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease (CD) in humans has been uncertain because of the substantial difficulties in detecting this pathogen. In its Ziehl-Neelsen staining-negative form, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is highly resistant to chemical and enzymatic lysis. The present study describes the development of optimized sample processing and DNA extraction procedures with fresh human intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens which ensure access to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA and maximize detection of these low-abundance pathogens. Also described are two nested PCR methodologies targeted at IS900, designated IS900[L/AV] and IS900[TJ1-4], which are uniquely specific for IS900. Detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in mucosal biopsy specimens was also evaluated by using mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures (Becton Dickinson). IS900[L/AV] PCR detected M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 34 of 37 (92%) patients with CD and in 9 of 34 (26%) controls without CD (noninflammatory bowel disease [nIBD] controls) (P = 0.0002; odds ratio = 3.47). M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected by IS900[L/AV] PCR in MGIT cultures after 14 to 88 weeks of incubation in 14 of 33 (42%) CD patients and 3 of 33 (9%) nIBD controls (P = 0.0019; odds ratio = 4.66). Nine of 15 (60%) MGIT cultures of specimens from CD patients incubated for more than 38 weeks were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In each case the identity of IS900 from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was verified by amplicon sequencing. The rate of detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in individuals with CD is highly significant and implicates this chronic enteric pathogen in disease causation. PMID:12843021

Bull, Tim J.; McMinn, Elizabeth J.; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Skull, Angela; Durkin, Damien; Neild, Penny; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger; Hermon-Taylor, John

2003-01-01

345

Long Lasting Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti) in Mosquito Natural Habitats  

PubMed Central

Background The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. Methodology/Main Findings In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects. PMID:18941501

Tilquin, Mathieu; Paris, Margot; Reynaud, Stéphane; Despres, Laurence; Ravanel, Patrick; Geremia, Roberto A.; Gury, Jérôme

2008-01-01

346

Phylogenomics of Brazilian epidemic isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii reveals relationships of global outbreak strains.  

PubMed

Rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) species are emerging pathogens that cause various diseases including skin and respiratory infections. The species has undergone recent taxonomic nomenclature refinement, and is currently recognized as two subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAB-A) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (MAB-B). The recently reported outbreaks of MAB-B in surgical patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2009 and in cystic fibrosis patients in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2006 to 2012 underscore the need to investigate the genetic diversity of clinical MAB strains. To this end, we sequenced the genomes of two Brazilian MAB-B epidemic isolates (CRM-0019 and CRM-0020) derived from an outbreak of skin infections in Rio de Janeiro, two unrelated MAB strains from patients with pulmonary infections in the United States (US) (NJH8 and NJH11) and one type MAB-B strain (CCUG 48898) and compared them to 25 publically available genomes of globally diverse MAB strains. Genome-wide analyses of 27,598 core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed that the two Brazilian derived CRM strains are nearly indistinguishable from one another and are more closely related to UK outbreak isolates infecting CF patients than to strains from the US, Malaysia or France. Comparative genomic analyses of six closely related outbreak strains revealed geographic-specific large-scale insertion/deletion variation that corresponds to bacteriophage insertions and recombination hotspots. Our study integrates new genome sequence data with existing genomic information to explore the global diversity of infectious M. abscessus isolates and to compare clinically relevant outbreak strains from different continents. PMID:24055961

Davidson, Rebecca M; Hasan, Nabeeh A; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

2013-12-01

347

Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013  

PubMed Central

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2?>NO?>N2O?>N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

348

Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

PubMed Central

The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or “miniclump” status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

2005-01-01

349

Key Role for the Alternative Sigma Factor, SigH, in the Intracellular Life of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Macrophage Stress  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, an enteric infection in cattle and other ruminants, greatly afflicting the dairy industry worldwide. Once inside the cell, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is known to survive harsh microenvironments, especially those inside activated macrophages. To improve our understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we examined phagosome maturation associated with transcriptional responses of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis during macrophage infection. Monitoring cellular markers, only live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were able to prevent phagosome maturation and reduce its acidification. On the transcriptional level, over 300 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes were significantly and differentially regulated in both naive and IFN-?-activated macrophages. These genes include the sigma factor H (sigH) that was shown to be important for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival inside gamma interferon (IFN-?)-activated bovine macrophages. Interestingly, an sigH-knockout mutant showed increased sensitivity to a sustained level of thiol-specific oxidative stress. Large-scale RNA sequence analysis revealed that a large number of genes belong to the sigH regulon, especially following diamide stress. Genes involved in oxidative stress and virulence were among the induced genes in the sigH regulon with a putative consensus sequence for SigH binding that was recognized in a subset of these genes (n = 30), suggesting direct regulation by SigH. Finally, mice infections showed a significant attenuation of the ?sigH mutant compared to its parental strain, suggesting a role for sigH in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence. Such analysis could identify potential targets for further testing as vaccine candidates against Johne's disease. PMID:23569115

Ghosh, Pallab; Wu, Chia-wei

2013-01-01

350

Isolation of High-Affinity Single-Chain Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Surface Proteins from Sheep with Johne's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johne's disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools—necessary to understand disease processes and to identify subclinical infection—are much sought after. Here, we describe the production of single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) were generated from

Sven Berger; Dominik Hinz; John P. Bannantine; J. F. T. Griffin

2006-01-01

351

Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10(6)-10(8)CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa. PMID:24131584

Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-10-15

352

Six-Month Multicenter Study on Invasive Infections Due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina  

PubMed Central

During a 6-month period, 95 invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were recorded from 40 centers of 16 cities in Argentina. We describe here epidemiologic data available for 55 and 19 patients, respectively, associated with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. The associated isolates and 58 additional pharyngeal isolates were genotyped and subjected to serologic and/or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Group A streptococcal emm type distribution and strain association with toxic shock appeared to differ somewhat from results found within the United States; however, serologic characterization and sof sequence typing suggested that emm types found in both countries are reflective of shared clonal types. PMID:15695683

Lopardo, Horacio A.; Vidal, Patricia; Sparo, Monica; Jeric, Paola; Centron, Daniela; Facklam, Richard R.; Paganini, Hugo; Pagniez, N. Gaston; Lovgren, Marguerite; Beall, Bernard

2005-01-01

353

Immunomagnetic separation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica from potato peel extracts to improve detection sensitivity on a crystal violet pectate medium or by PCR.  

PubMed

Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures for the selective separation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica from potato peel extract were optimized for the recovery of target and removal of non-target bacteria. A streptomycin-resistant strain of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was used in combination with a crystal violet pectate (CVP) medium supplemented with 100 micrograms ml-1 of streptomycin to determine the recovery level of the target bacterium. Recovery obtained with a polyclonal antiserum against Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica at a concentration of 6 micrograms IgG ml-1 was greater than that obtained with two monoclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica at a concentration of 10 micrograms IgG ml-1. A linear relationship was found between particle concentration ranging from 12 to 200 micrograms ml-1 and recovery level. When the Advanced Magnetics (AM) protein A and anti-rabbit IgG particles in the AM separation system and the Dynal anti-rabbit IgG particles in the Dynal separation system were examined, the highest recovery level per microgram of particles (66%) was obtained with the Advanced Magnetics protein A particles, followed by AM anti-rabbit particles (37%). Without IMS, detection of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in tuber peel extracts on a CVP-medium without streptomycin was impossible when the ratio of Erw. carotovora subsp. carotovora to Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was greater than 100 or when large numbers of other saprophytic bacteria were present, because of overcrowding. IMS, using the AM anti-rabbit IgG particles, ensured that Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica could be enumerated in tuber peel extract consistently, to a detection level of 100 cells ml-1. Similarly, the IMS procedure lowered the detection level of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in a twofold diluted peel extract by PCR to ca 2.0 x 10(3) cells ml-1 or 50 cells per reaction tube. In contrast, positive results in PCR without IMS were obtained only when the peel extract was diluted 100 times and when the concentration of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was at least 10(5) cell ml-1. PMID:9072520

van der Wolf, J M; Hyman, L J; Jones, D A; Grevesse, C; van Beckhoven, J R; van Vuurde, J W; Pérombelon, M C

1996-05-01

354

The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. Accordingly, the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC15697 reflects a competitive nutrient-utilization strategy targeting milk-borne molecules which lack a nutritive value to the neonate. Several chromosomal loci reflect potential adaptation to the infant host including a 43 kbp cluster

D. A. Sela; J. Chapman; A. Adeuya; J. H. Kim; F. Chen; T. R. Whitehead; A. Lapidus; D. S. Rokhsar; C. B. Lebrilla; J. B. German; N. P. Price; P. M. Richardson; D. A. Mills

2008-01-01

355

Antimicrobial Effects of a Hexapetide KCM21 against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small but effective cationic peptides with variable length. In previous study, four hexapeptides were identified that showed antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic bacteria. KCM21, the most effective antimicrobial peptide, was selected for further analysis to understand its modes of action by monitoring inhibitory effects of various cations, time-dependent antimicrobial kinetics, and observing cell disruption by electron microscopy. The effects of KCM21 on Gram-negative strain, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Gram-positive strain, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis were compared. Treatment with divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibited the bactericidal activities of KCM21 significantly against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The bactericidal kinetic study showed that KCM21 killed both bacteria rapidly and the process was faster against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The electron microscopic analysis revealed that KCM21 induced the formation of micelles and blebs on the surface of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 cells, while it caused cell rupture against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells. The outer membrane alteration and higher sensitivity to Ca2+ suggest that KCM21 interact with the outer membrane of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 cells during the process of killing, but not with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cells that lack outer membrane. Considering that both strains had similar sensitivity to KCM21 in LB medium, outer membrane could not be the main target of KCM21, instead common compartments such as cytoplasmic membrane or internal macromolecules might be a possible target(s) of KCM21. PMID:25289010

Choi, Jeahyuk; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Eunpyo

2014-01-01

356

Survival of plains cottonwood ( Populus deltoides subsp. Monilifera ) and saltcedar ( Tamarix ramosissima ) seedlings in response to flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the response of first year saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp.monilifera) seedlings to flooding in fall (25 days) and spring (28 days) using potgrown plants (12–18 individuals\\/26.5-liter pot). Seedlings\\u000a were initially counted in all pots prior to fall treatment. Survival was calculated as the proportion of seedlings in cach\\u000a pot still alive following spring treatment.

Douglas N. Gladwin; James E. Roelle

1998-01-01

357

Evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of arzanol, a prenylated ?-pyrone–phloroglucinol etherodimer from Helichrysum italicum subsp . microphyllum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various phenolics and (mero)terpenoids from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, a plant endemic to Sardinia, were investigated for their capacity to inhibit non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. These compounds were studied in simple in vitro systems, under conditions of autoxidation and of iron (EDTA)-mediated oxidation of linoleic acid at 37°C. Arzanol, a pyrone–phloroglucinol etherodimer, and helipyrone, a dimeric pyrone, showed antioxidant activity, and

Antonella Rosa; Monica Deiana; Angela Atzeri; Giulia Corona; Alessandra Incani; M. Paola Melis; Giovanni Appendino; M. Assunta Dessì

2007-01-01

358

Pollination in small islands by occasional visitors: the case of Daucus carota subsp. commutatus (Apiaceae) in the Columbretes archipelago, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the pollination ecology and related floral traits of the species Daucus carota subsp. commutatus in the isolated archipelago of Columbretes, E. Spain, where bees are absent. Two populations were studied: a small population\\u000a found on a relatively large island (Grossa) inhabited nowadays by three people; and a larger population on a smaller uninhabited\\u000a island (Foradada). The plant,

Celeste Pérez-Bañón; Theodora Petanidou

2007-01-01

359

Sequence Diversity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum tprK in Human Syphilis Lesions and Rabbit-Propagated Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tprK gene of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, belongs to a 12-member gene family and encodes a protein with a predicted cleavable signal sequence and predicted transmembrane domains. Except for the Nichols type strain, all rabbit-propagated isolates of T. pallidum examined thus far are comprised of mixed populations of organisms with heterogeneous tprK sequences.

Rebecca E. LaFond; Arturo Centurion-Lara; Charmie Godornes; Anne M. Rompalo; Wesley C. Van Voorhis; Sheila A. Lukehart

2003-01-01

360

Molecular Evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains, Based on Polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). All members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of both rRNA operons from 20 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in Africa and Asia were determined. Nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms) were detected in 24 positions. The polymorphisms were not randomly distributed in the 16S rRNA genes, and some of them were found in regions of low evolutionary variability. Interestingly, 11 polymorphisms were found in all the M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, thus defining a putative ancestor. A sequence length difference between the 16S rRNA genes in a poly(A) region and 12 additional polymorphisms were found in only one or some of the strains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparative analysis of the polymorphisms, and this tree revealed two distinct lines of descent. The nucleotide substitution rate of strains within line II was up to 50% higher than within line I. A tree was also constructed from individual operonal 16S rRNA sequences, and the sequences of the two operons were found to form two distinct clades. The topologies of both clades were strikingly similar, which supports the use of 16S rRNA sequence data from homologous operons for phylogenetic studies. The strain-specific polymorphism patterns of the 16S rRNA genes of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae may be used as epidemiological markers for CCPP. PMID:9573185

Pettersson, Bertil; Bölske, Göran; Thiaucourt, François; Uhlén, Mathias; Johansson, Karl-Erik

1998-01-01

361

Preconcentration of cadmium and nickel using the bioadsorbent Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis immobilized on Amberlite XAD-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium and nickel ions have been preconcentrated on Geobacillus thermoleovorans subsp. stromboliensis, immobilized on Amberlite XAD-4, and were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Parameters such as pH,\\u000a amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow rate of solution and the matrix interference effect on retention have been\\u000a studied, and extraction conditions were optimized. Elution of Cd(II) and Ni(II)

Sadin Özdemir; Reyhan Gul-Guven; Ersin Kilinc; Mehmet Dogru; Sait Erdogan

2010-01-01

362

Development of a Peptide-Mediated Capture PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on phage display technology, a peptide-mediated magnetic separation technique was developed to facilitate selective isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) from bulk milk of naturally infected dairy herds. Nine recombinant bacteriophages binding to M. paratuberculosis were isolated from a commercial phage-peptide library encoding random 12-mer peptides. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the deduced sequence of the binding peptides. One

Janin Stratmann; Birgit Strommenger; Karen Stevenson

2002-01-01

363

Allozyme Diversity and Geographic Variation among Populations of the Locally Endangered Taxon Carex magellanica subsp. irrigua (Cyperaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex magellanica subsp. irrigua is a wet habitat taxon that is extinct or declining in the Baltic States and Central Europe, but still quite common in northern\\u000a areas, in Fennoscandia and Alaska. We investigated the extent of genetic variation within and among populations and geographic\\u000a regions of this subspecies. Isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels was applied to characterize genetic diversity

Thea Kull; Tatjana Oja

2010-01-01

364

Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).  

PubMed

The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms. PMID:10755301

Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

2000-04-01

365

Improved trehalose production from biodiesel waste using parent and osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Trehalose is an important nutraceutical of wide commercial interest in the food processing industry. Recently, crude glycerol was reported to be suitable for the production of trehalose using a food microbe, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, under static flask conditions. Similarly, enhanced trehalose yield was reported in an osmotically sensitive mutant of the same strain under anaerobic conditions. In the present study, an effort was made to achieve higher production of trehalose, propionic acid, and lactic acid using the parent and an osmotically sensitive mutant of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aeration conditions. Under aeration conditions (200 rpm in shake flasks and 30 % air saturation in a batch reactor), biomass was increased and approximately 98 % of crude glycerol was consumed. In the parent strain, a trehalose titre of 361 mg/l was achieved, whereas in the mutant strain a trehalose titre of 1.3 g/l was produced in shake flask conditions (200 rpm). In the mutant strain, propionic and lactic acid yields of 0.53 and 0.21 g/g of substrate were also achieved with crude glycerol. Similarly, in controlled batch reactor culturing conditions a final trehalose titre of approximately 1.56 g/l was achieved with the mutant strain using crude glycerol as the substrate. Enhanced production of trehalose using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii from waste under aeration conditions is reported here. Higher production of trehalose was not due to a higher yield of trehalose but to a higher final biomass concentration. PMID:22526328

Ruhal, Rohit; Choudhury, Bijan

2012-08-01

366

Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg -1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg -1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg -1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg -1 versus 7800 mg kg -1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

2008-02-01

367

The Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Hemolysins Damselysin and HlyA Are Encoded within a New Virulence Plasmid ?  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a marine bacterium that causes infections and fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals and in humans. Highly hemolytic strains produce damselysin (Dly), a cytolysin encoded by the dly gene that is lethal for mice and has hemolytic activity. We found that Dly is encoded in the highly hemolytic strain RM-71 within a 153,429-bp conjugative plasmid that we dubbed pPHDD1. In addition to Dly, pPHDD1 also encodes a homologue of the pore-forming toxin HlyA. We found a direct correlation between presence of pPHDD1 and a strong hemolytic phenotype in a collection of P. damselae subsp. damselae isolates. Hemolysis was strongly reduced in a double dly hlyA mutant, demonstrating the role of the two pPHDD1-encoded genes in hemolysis. Interestingly, although single hlyA and dly mutants showed different levels of hemolysis reduction depending on the erythrocyte source, hemolysis was not abolished in any of the single mutants, suggesting that the hemolytic phenotype is the result of the additive effect of Dly and HlyA. We found that pPHDD1-encoded dly and hlyA genes are necessary for full virulence for mice and fish. Our results suggest that pPHDD1 can be considered as a driving force for the emergence of a highly hemolytic lineage of P. damselae subsp. damselae. PMID:21875966

Rivas, Amable J.; Balado, Miguel; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2011-01-01

368

Studies on the isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus) and antibacterial agents sensitivity.  

PubMed

An epizootic occurred among cultured golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus); it involved mass mortality on fish farms in Linshui in Hainan province, China, in 2008. Diseased fish exhibited no obvious clinical signs, but pathological studies showed that nodules were scattered over the spleen and kidney. To investigate the nature of the pathogen, we studied the surviving fish, and a Gram-negative bacterium (designated strain TOS1) was isolated from the spleens of golden pompano. Pathogenicity assays revealed that TOS1 was virulent for golden pompano when they were challenged by intraperitoneal injection, and the lethal dose (LD(50)) was 1.1 × 10(6)colony forming units (CFU)g(-1). 16S rDNA gene sequence of TOS1 demonstrated high similarity (99%) to that of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Phylogenetic analysis also showed a clear association of strain TOS1 with P. damselae subsp. piscicida, and this agreed with the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical identification. The results also showed that TOS1 was sensitive to norfloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, neomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline, and was very sensitive to Psidium guajava and Atractylodes lancea (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC=10(-6)g/mL). This paper describes a systematic study of P. damselae subsp. piscicida isolated from diseased golden pompano in China, including its sensitivity to different antibiotics and Chinese herbal extracts, which will contribute to the diagnosis and prevention of the associated disease. PMID:23140939

Wang, Ruixuan; Feng, Juan; Su, Youlu; Ye, Lingtong; Wang, Jiangyong

2013-03-23

369

Cloning and expression of a novel toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encoding a highly mosquitocidal protein.  

PubMed Central

A gene, designated cry11B, encoding a 81,293-Da crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan was cloned by using a gene-specific oligonucleotide probe. The sequence of the Cry11B protein, as deduced from the sequence of the cry11B gene, contains large regions of similarity with the Cry11A toxin (previously CryIVD) from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cry11B protein was immunologically related to both Cry11A and Cry4A proteins. The cry11B gene was expressed in a nontoxic strain of B. thuringiensis, in which Cry11B was produced in large amounts during sporulation and accumulated as inclusions. Purified Cry11B inclusions were highly toxic for mosquito larvae of the species Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens, and Anopheles stephensi. The activity of Cry11B toxin was higher than that of Cry11A and similar to that of the native crystals from B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, which contain at least seven polypeptides. PMID:8534090

Delécluse, A; Rosso, M L; Ragni, A

1995-01-01

370

Isolation of High-Affinity Single-Chain Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Surface Proteins from Sheep with Johne's Disease  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools—necessary to understand disease processes and to identify subclinical infection—are much sought after. Here, we describe the production of single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) were generated from sheep with Johne's disease by cloning heavy-chain and lambda light-chain variable regions and expressing these in fusion with gene III of filamentous phages. Two scFv clones (designated SurfS1.2 and SurfS2.2) were shown to be immunoreactive against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface targets by flow cytometry, and immunoblotting identified specificity for a 34-kDa proteinase-susceptible determinant. Both antibodies were cross-reactive against Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium but nonreactive against Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium phlei cells and were shown to be capable of enriching M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells by a factor of approximately 106-fold when employed in magnetic bead separation of mixed Mycobacterium sp. cultures. Further, magnetic bead separation using SurfS1.2 and SurfS2.2 was capable of isolating as few as 103 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from ovine fecal samples, indicating the diagnostic potential of these reagents. Finally, inclusion of SurfS1.2 or SurfS2.2 in in vitro broth culture with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis indicated that surface binding activity did not impede bacterial growth, although colony clumping was prevented. These results are discussed in terms of the potential use of single-chain phage display monoclonal antibodies as novel diagnostic reagents. PMID:16960114

Berger, Sven; Hinz, Dominik; Bannantine, John P.; Griffin, J. Frank T.

2006-01-01

371

Live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and a Killed-Bacterium Vaccine Induce Distinct Subcutaneous Granulomas, with Unique Cellular and Cytokine Profiles?  

PubMed Central

Type II (lepromatous) granulomas are characterized by a lack of organization, with large numbers of macrophages heavily burdened with bacilli and disorganized lymphocyte infiltrations. Type II granulomas are a characteristic feature of the enteric lesions that develop during clinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in the bovine. Considering the poor organization and function of these granulomas, it is our hypothesis that dendritic cell (DC) function within the granuloma is impaired during initial infection. In order to test our hypothesis, we used a subcutaneous M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection model to examine early DC function within M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-induced granulomas. In this model, we first characterized the morphology, cellular composition, and cytokine profiles of subcutaneous granulomas that develop 7 days after subcutaneous inoculation with either vaccine or live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Second, we isolated CD11c+ cells from within granulomas and measured their maturation status and ability to induce T-cell responses. Our results demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or vaccine administration resulted in the formation of distinct granulomas with unique cellular and cytokine profiles. These distinct profiles corresponded to significant differences in the phenotypes and functional responses of DCs from within the granulomas. Specifically, the DCs from the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-induced granulomas had lower levels of expression of costimulatory and chemokine receptors, suggesting limited maturation. This DC phenotype was associated with weaker induction of T-cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in vivo influences DC function, which may shape the developing granuloma and initial local protection. PMID:18337380

Lei, Liying; Plattner, Brandon L.; Hostetter, Jesse M.

2008-01-01

372

Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization.  

PubMed

Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica?Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S.?Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

2014-11-01

373

Bioinformatics characterization of potential new beta-glucuronidase from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed

Recently, the gene coding for a new beta-glucuronidase enzyme has been identified and cloned from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. This is another report of a beta-glucuronidase gene cloned from bacterial species. The ORF Finder analysis of a sequenced DNA (EMBL, AJ890474) revealed a presence of 1,785 bp large ORF potentially coding for a 594 aa protein. Three protein families in (Pfam) domains were identified using the Conserved Domain Database (CDD) analysis: Pfam 02836, glycosyl hydrolases family 2, triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel domain; Pfam 02837, glycosyl hydrolases family 2, sugar binding domain; and Pfam 00703, glycosyl hydrolases family 2, immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich domain. To gain more insight into the enzymatic activity, the domains were used to generate a bootstrapped unrooted distance tree using ClustalX. The calculated distances for two domains, TIM barrel domain, and sugar-binding domain were comparable and exhibited similarity pattern based on function and thus being in accordance with recently published works confirming beta-glucuronidase activity of the enzyme. The calculated distances and the tree arrangement in the case of centrally positioned immonoglobulin-like beta-sandwich domain were somewhat higher when compared to other two domains but clustering with other beta-glucuronidases was rather clear. Nine proteins, including beta-glucuronidases, beta-galactosidase, and mannosidase were selected for multiple alignment and subsequent distance tree creation. PMID:20077037

Krahulec, Ján; Szemes, Tomás; Krahulcová, Jana

2010-03-01

374

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biofilms on livestock watering trough materials.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection that affects ruminants. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of Mycobacterium sp. in nature and the fact that Johne's disease has been reported worldwide, little research has been done to assess its survival in agricultural environments. The goal of this 365-day study was to evaluate the ability of Map to persist in mixed-community biofilms on materials commonly used to construct livestock watering troughs. Map was inoculated into 32l of trough water containing either concrete, plastic, galvanized or stainless steel trough materials. The concentration of Map was determined by using quantitative, real-time PCR to target the IS900 sequence in DNA extracts. High concentrations of Map were detected on all trough materials after 3 days (around 1 x 10(5)cells cm(-2)). Based on the best-fit slopes, the time required for a 99% reduction (t(99)) in biofilm-associated Map cells was 144 and 115 days for plastic and stainless steel trough materials, respectively. Map concentrations did not decrease on concrete and galvanized steel trough materials. These results suggest that Map survives well in biofilms present on livestock watering trough materials. To inhibit spread of this organism and exposure of susceptible animals to Map on infected farms, best management practices aimed at maintaining biofilm-free trough surfaces should be included in any Johne's control plan. PMID:19717251

Cook, Kimberly L; Britt, Jenks S; Bolster, Carl H

2010-02-24

375

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the anthranilate synthase gene of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi.  

PubMed Central

The trpE gene, which encodes the large component of the enzyme anthranilate synthase, was isolated from a Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (P. savastanoi) cosmid library. Cosmids that complemented an Escherichia coli trpE mutation contained a gene whose product is 86% homologous at the deduced amino acid level to TrpE of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. Amino acid sequence comparison with other TrpE sequences revealed the existence of conserved regions between the procaryotic and eucaryotic polypeptide sequences analyzed, regions that might be of functional importance. We also report on studies on the expression pattern of this gene. We analyzed the promoter activity of a trpE::lacZ transcriptional fusion, the relative amount of trpE steady-state mRNA, and the activity of anthranilate synthase from cells grown in minimal medium with or without exogenously added tryptophan and in complete medium. We concluded that under the conditions tested, expression of the trpE gene of P. savastanoi is independent of the concentration of tryptophan in the culture medium. Implications of such an expression pattern on the virulence of this bacterium are discussed. PMID:1987141

da Costa e Silva, O; Kosuge, T

1991-01-01

376

Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America. PMID:24892580

Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

2015-02-01

377

Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei.  

PubMed

A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-D-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-D-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was achieved by a combination of one- ((1)H and (13)C) and two-dimensional NMR techniques (G-COSY, G-HMQC, and G-HMBC) and LC-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were tested for their antiproteasomal activity. The results indicated that kaempferol, a well known and widely distributed flavonoid in the plant kingdom, was the most active antiproteasomal agent, followed by apigenin, eriodictyol-7-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and salidroside, respectively. PMID:20937505

Gülcemal, Derya; Alanku?-Çal??kan, Ozgen; Karaalp, Canan; Ors, Ahmet Uygar; Ballar, Petek; Bedir, Erdal

2010-11-22

378

[Characteristics and identification of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K].  

PubMed

The Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K strain has been established to be able to produce two bacteriocins, one of which was identified as the known lantibiotic nisin A, and the other 194-D bacteriocin represents a polypeptide with a 2589-Da molecular mass and comprises 20 amino acid residues. Both bacteriocins were produced in varying proportions in all of the studied nutrient media, which support the growth of the producer. Depending on the cultivation medium, the nisin A content was 380- to 1123-fold lower in the 194-K stain culture fluid than that of the 194-D peptide. In comparision to to nisin A Bacteriocin 194-D possessed a wide range of antibacterial activity and suppressed the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An optimal medium for 194-D bacteriocin synthesis was shown to be a fermentation medium which contained yeast extract, casein hydrolysate, and potassium phosphate. The biosynthesis ofbacteriocin 194-D by the 194-K strain in these media occurred parallel to producer growth, and its maximal accumulation in the culture fluid was observed at 14-20 h of the strain's growth. PMID:23330388

Ustiugova, E A; Timofeeva, A V; Stoianova, L G; Netrusov, A I; Katrukha, G S

2012-01-01

379

Immunological relationships among proteins making up the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystalline toxin.  

PubMed Central

The immunological relationships among the proteins of the mosquito larvicidal toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis have been investigated by using polyclonal antisera specific for the 28-, 70-, and 135-kilodalton proteins. Each of these proteins was immunologically distinct. There was no cross-reaction among the three proteins and the two non-homologous antisera. Treatment of toxin proteins with larval gut enzymes for 20 h identified protease-resistant domains at approximately 65, 38, and 22 kilodaltons. Similar domains were generated by treatment with trypsin and chymotrypsin. Our immunological and kinetic data indicate that the 28-kilodalton protein is degraded successively to protein bands at 26, 25, 23, and 22 kilodaltons, the 70-kilodalton protein is degraded to a protein at 38 kilodaltons, and the 135-kilodalton protein is degraded successively to protein bands at 94, 72, and, probably, 65 kilodaltons. Solubilized toxin possesses two biological activities, larvicidal and general cytolytic (hemolytic). We used nondenaturing gel electrophoresis to show that the hemolytic activity resides in the 28-kilodalton protein. However, higher-molecular-weight proteins are required to achieve the level of toxicity observed in intact toxin. Images PMID:3535673

Pfannenstiel, M A; Couche, G A; Ross, E J; Nickerson, K W

1986-01-01

380

Isolation and characterization of a novel insecticidal crystal protein gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai EG6346, a novel grain dust isolate, was analyzed by Southern blot hybridization for its insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) gene profile. Strain EG6346 lacks previously characterized cryIA ICP genes yet does possess novel cryI-related gene sequences. A recombinant genomic plasmid library was constructed for strain EG6346 in Escherichia coli. One recombinant plasmid, pEG640, isolated from the library contained a novel ICP gene on a 5.7-kb Sau3A insert. The sequence of this gene, designated cryIF, was related to, but distinct from, the published sequences for other cryI genes. A second novel cryI-related sequence was also located on pEG640, approximately 500 bp downstream from cryIF. Introduction of cryIF into a Cry- B. thuringiensis recipient strain via electroporation enabled sufficient production of CryIF protein for quantitative bioassay analyses of insecticidal specificity. The CryIF crystal protein was selectively toxic to a subset of lepidopteran insects tested, including the larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis and Spodoptera exigua. Images PMID:2061280

Chambers, J A; Jelen, A; Gilbert, M P; Jany, C S; Johnson, T B; Gawron-Burke, C

1991-01-01

381

Structural disulfide bonds in the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis protein crystal.  

PubMed Central

We examined disulfide bonds in mosquito larvicidal crystals produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Intact crystals contained 2.01 X 10(-8) mol of free sulfhydryls and 3.24 X 10(-8) mol of disulfides per mg of protein. Reduced samples of alkali-solubilized crystals resolved into several proteins, the most prominent having apparent molecular sizes of 28, 70, 135, and 140 kilodaltons (kDa). Nonreduced samples contained two new proteins of 52 and 26 kDa. When reduced, both the 52- and 26-kDa proteins were converted to 28-kDa proteins. Furthermore, both bands reacted with antiserum prepared against reduced 28-kDa protein. Approximately 50% of the crystal proteins could be solubilized without disulfide cleavage. These proteins were 70 kDa or smaller. Solubilization of the 135- and 140-kDa proteins required disulfide cleavage. Incubation of crystals at pH 12.0 for 2 h cleaved 40% of the disulfide bonds and solubilized 83% of the crystal protein. Alkali-stable disulfides were present in both the soluble and insoluble portions. The insoluble pellet contained 12 to 14 disulfides per 100 kDa of protein and was devoid of sulfhydryl groups. Alkali-solubilized proteins contained both intrachain and interchain disulfide bonds. Despite their structural significance, it is unlikely that disulfide bonds are involved in the formation or release of the larvicidal toxin. Images PMID:3597322

Couche, G A; Pfannenstiel, M A; Nickerson, K W

1987-01-01

382

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2010-11-01

383

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates from equine infectious endometritis belong to a distinct genetic group  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the pathogen most commonly isolated from the uterus of mares. S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen and part of the resident flora in the caudal reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genotypically distinct subpopulation of S. zooepidemicus is associated with endometritis in the mare, by genotyping and comparing uterine S. zooepidemicus strains with isolates from the vagina and clitoral fossa. Mares with (n?=?18) or without (n?=?11) clinical symptoms of endometritis were included. Uterine samples were obtained using a guarded endometrial biopsy punch, whereas a swab was used to recover samples from the cranial vagina and the clitoral fossa. If S. zooepidemicus was present, up to three colonies were selected from each anatomical location (max. 9 isolates per mare). Bacterial isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. zooepidemicus was isolated from the endometrium of 12 mares. A total of 88 isolates were analyzed by PFGE: 31 from the endometrium, 26 from the cranial vagina and 31 isolates from the clitoral fossa. For MLST 21 isolates were chosen. Results demonstrated a higher genetic similarity of the isolates obtained from infectious endometritis compared to isolates obtained from the caudal reproductive tract. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that a genetically distinct group of S. zooepidemicus is associated with infectious endometritis in the mare. PMID:23597033

2013-01-01

384

Leaching of Mycobacterium avium Subsp paratuberculosis in Soil under In Vitro Conditions.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30?cm long each) of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500?mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control) and Map high shedder cows (treatment) were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500?mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application. PMID:21776350

Raizman, Eran A; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Wu, Ching C; Lin, Tsang L; Negron, M; Turco, Ronald F

2011-01-01

385

In Vitro Cellular Immune Responses to Recombinant Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Five recombinant antigens (Ags; 85A, 85B, 85C, superoxide dismutase [SOD], and 35-kDa protein) were purified from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and evaluated for their ability to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) from fecal-culture-positive cows (low and medium shedders) and culture-negative healthy cows. Recombinant Ags 85A, 85B, and 85C induced significant lymphocyte proliferation as well as the production of gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), but not IL-4, from low and medium shedders. The 85 antigen complex did not stimulate PMBC proliferation from culture-negative healthy cows. The 35-kDa protein also induced significant lymphocyte proliferation as well as the production of IFN-? and IL-4 from low and medium shedders. CD4+ T cells and CD25+ (IL-2R) T cells were stimulated the most by 85A and 85B, while the 35-kDa protein primarily stimulated CD21+ B cells involved in humoral immune responses. Interestingly, SOD was less immunostimulatory than other antigens but strongly induced ??+ T cells, which are thought to be important in the early stages of infection, such as pathogen entry. These data provide important insight into how improved vaccines against mycobacterial infections might be constructed. PMID:16041023

Shin, Sung Jae; Chang, Chao-Fu; Chang, Ching-Dong; McDonough, Sean P.; Thompson, Belinda; Yoo, Han Sang; Chang, Yung-Fu

2005-01-01

386

New PCR systems to confirm real-time PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Johne's disease, a serious chronic form of enteritis in ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). As the organism is very slow-growing and fastidious, several PCR-based methods for detection have been developed, based mainly on the MAP-specific gene IS900. However, because this gene is similar to genes in other mycobacteria, there is a need for sensitive and reliable methods to confirm the presence of MAP. As described here, two new real-time PCR systems on the IS900 gene and one on the F57 gene were developed and carefully validated on 267 strains and 56 positive clinical faecal samples. Results Our confirmatory PCR systems on IS900 were found sensitive and specific, only yielding weak false positive reactions in one strain for each system. The PCR system on F57 did not elicit any false positives and was only slightly less sensitive than our primary IS900-system. DNA from both naturally infected and spiked faeces that tested positive with our primary system could be confirmed with all new systems, except one low-level infected sample that tested negative with the F57 system. Conclusion We recommend using the newly constructed DH3 PCR system on the F57 gene as the primary confirmatory test for PCR positives, but should it fail due to its lower sensitivity, the DH1 and DH2 PCR systems should be used. PMID:17020599

Herthnek, David; Bölske, Göran

2006-01-01

387

Multi-functional glycoside hydrolase: Blon_0625 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697.  

PubMed

We here describe a unique ?-D-glucosidase (BGL; Blon_0625) derived from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697. The Blon_0625 gene was expressed by recombinant Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant Blon_0625 retains hydrolyzing activity against both p-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG; 17.3±0.24Umg(-1)) and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX; 16.7±0.32Umg(-1)) at pH 6.0, 30°C. To best of our knowledge, no previously described BGL retains the same level of both pNPGase and pNPXase activity. Furthermore, Blon_0625 also retains the activity against 4-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinofranoside (pNPAf; 5.6±0.09Umg(-1)). In addition, the results of the degradation of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) or xylan using endoglucanase from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu_0901) or xylanase from Kitasatospora setae KM-6054 (KSE_59480) show that Blon_0625 acts as a BGL and as a ?-D-xylosidase (XYL) for hydrolyzing oligosaccharides. These results clearly indicate that Blon_0625 is a multi-functional glycoside hydrolase which retains the activity of BGL, XYL, and also ?-l-arabinofuranosidase. Therefore, the utilization of multi-functional Blon_0625 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic materials and help enhance bioconversion processes. PMID:25435500

Matsumoto, Takuya; Shimada, Shota; Hata, Yuto; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

2015-01-01

388

Activation of a casB gene encoding ?-glucosidase of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum LY34.  

PubMed

Two cas genes were isolated from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum LY34 (Pcc LY34). Sequence analysis of the 4873 bp cloned DNA fragment (accession number AY866383) revealed two open reading frames (casF and casB) that are predicted to encode 658 and 467 amino acid proteins, respectively. The CasF protein is similar to other PTS enzyme II components. casB encodes ?-glucosidase, a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. An inverted repeat sequence was identified in the casB promoter region, and was hypothesized to have a negative effect on casB transcription. Replacement of the casB promoter of Pcc LY34 with the bglB promoter activated the casB gene, consistent with the repeats inhibiting expression of casB. Purified CasB enzyme was estimated to be 53,000 Da by SDS-PAGE, and hydrolyzed salicin, arbutin, pNPG, and MUG. CasB exhibited maximal activity toward pNPG at pH 7.0 and 40 °C, and Mg(2+) is essential for its activity. Two conserved glutamate residues (Glu(177) and Glu(366)) were shown to be important for CasB activity. PMID:23176777

Kim, Min Keun; An, Chang Long; Kang, Tae Ho; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

2013-03-30

389

Helichrysum arenarium subsp. arenarium: phenolic composition and antibacterial activity against lower respiratory tract pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. arenarium inflorescences against lower respiratory tract pathogens (standard strains and clinical isolates). The extract was characterised by a total phenolic content of 160.17 mg/g. Several caffeic acid conjugates (chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and naringenin-O-hexosides) were identified as major constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was more susceptible to Helichrysum extract than Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.62  and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively). The extract exhibited similar antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates (MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) displaying a higher activity against ampicillin-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis isolate (MIC = 0.15 mg/mL). The combination with ciprofloxacin exhibited additivity against both standard strains (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.75 and 0.73) and S. aureus isolates (FIC index = 0.62) and synergy against S. pneumoniae isolates (FIC index = 0.5). PMID:24931335

Gradinaru, Adina C; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana C

2014-01-01

390

Diagnosis and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Dairy Cows in Colombia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was the serological, bacteriological and molecular diagnosis, as well as the molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in adult cows of five Colombian dairy herds. Serum samples were tested by an indirect absorbed enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C). All fecal samples were tested by pooled culture. After that, fecal samples of Map positive pools were tested individually by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In one herd, slurry and tissue samples from one animal were also taken and tested by PCR and culture. Map isolates were analyzed by the Multilocus Short Sequence Repeat (MLSSR) and the Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) methods. ELISA produced positive results in 1.8% (6/329) of the animals and 40% (2/5) of the herds. Four fecal, two tissue, and two slurry samples from a herd were Map positive by culture and PCR. MLSSR and MIRU-VNTR revealed two different strain profiles among eight Map isolates recovered. This study reports the first molecular characterization of Map in one dairy herd in Colombia, the limitations for individual diagnosis of subclinical Map infections in cattle, and the usefulness of pooled fecal samples and environmental sampling for Map diagnosis. PMID:21785685

Fernández-Silva, J. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Bülte, M.

2011-01-01

391

MglA Regulates Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (Francisella novicida) Response to Starvation and Oxidative Stress? †  

PubMed Central

MglA is a transcriptional regulator of genes that contribute to the virulence of Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. This study used a label-free shotgun proteomics method to determine the F. tularensis subsp. novicida (F. novicida) proteins that are regulated by MglA. The differences in relative protein amounts between wild-type F. novicida and the mglA mutant were derived directly from the average peptide precursor ion intensity values measured with the mass spectrometer by using a suite of mathematical algorithms. Among the proteins whose relative amounts changed in an F. novicida mglA mutant were homologs of oxidative and general stress response proteins. The F. novicida mglA mutant exhibited decreased survival during stationary-phase growth and increased susceptibility to killing by superoxide generated by the redox-cycling agent paraquat. The F. novicida mglA mutant also showed increased survival upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide, likely due to increased amounts of the catalase KatG. Our results suggested that MglA coordinates the stress response of F. tularensis and is likely essential for bacterial survival in harsh environments. PMID:17644593

Guina, Tina; Radulovic, Dragan; Bahrami, Arya J.; Bolton, Diana L.; Rohmer, Laurence; Jones-Isaac, Kendan A.; Chen, Jinzy; Gallagher, Larry A.; Gallis, Byron; Ryu, Soyoung; Taylor, Greg K.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Manoil, Colin; Goodlett, David R.

2007-01-01

392

Characterization of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Operon Associated with Virulence and Drug Detoxification  

PubMed Central

The lprG-p55 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. P55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while LprG is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. The knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. In order to gain insight into the function of LprG in the Mycobacterium avium complex, in this study, we assayed the effect of the deletion of lprG gene in the D4ER strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The replacement of lprG gene with a hygromycin cassette caused a polar effect on the expression of p55. Also, a twofold decrease in ethidium bromide susceptibility was observed and the resistance to the antibiotics rifampicin, amikacin, linezolid, and rifabutin was impaired in the mutant strain. In addition, the mutation decreased the virulence of the bacteria in macrophages in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. These findings clearly indicate that functional LprG and P55 are necessary for the correct transport of toxic compounds and for the survival of MAA in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24967408

Viale, Mariana Noelia; Imperiale, Belén; Gioffre, Andrea Karina; Colombatti Olivieri, María Alejandra; Moyano, Roberto Damián; Morcillo, Nora; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Davis, William; Romano, María Isabel

2014-01-01

393

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 positively modulates intestinal microflora in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC01 (LC01) can tolerate intestinal stresses and has antioxidant activity. To evaluate the effect of the bacterium on human intestinal microflora, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial was carried out. Fifty-two healthy adult volunteers were randomized equally to two groups. One group consumed 12% (wt/vol) skimmed milk supplemented with 10(10) CFU of LC01 each day for the 4-week treatment period, and then consumed placebo in the next treatment period, separated by a 2-week washout. The other group followed the reverse order. Group-specific real-time PCR and biochemical analyses was used to determine the intestinal bacterial composition of fecal samples collected at the end of every period, and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia. A significant inhibition in fecal Escherichia coli and increase in Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Roseburia intestinalis were observed after consumption of LC01. Acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly higher in the probiotic stage and fecal ammonia was significantly lower. The results indicated a modulation effect of LC01 on the intestinal microflora of young adults, suggesting a beneficial effect on bowel health. LC01 may have potential value as a probiotic. PMID:24385355

Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Hong, Chuan; Zhu, Yuanbo; Liu, Aiping; Li, Siqi; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

2013-12-01

394

Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: Possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although invasions by exotic plants have increased dramatically as human travel and commerce have increased, few have been comprehensively described. Understanding the patterns of invasive species spread over space and time will help guide management activities and policy. Tracing the earliest appearances of an exotic plant reveals likely sites of introduction, paving the way for genetic studies to quantify founder events and identify potential source populations. Red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded even relatively undisturbed areas of western North America, where it threatens native plant communities. This study used herbarium records and contemporary published accounts to trace the early introductions and subsequent spread of red brome in western North America. The results challenge the most frequently cited sources describing the early history of this grass and suggest three possible modes for early introductions: the California Gold Rush and Central Valley wheat, southern California shipping, and northern California sheep. Subsequent periods of most rapid spread into new areas, from 1930 to 1942, and of greatest spread into new regions, during the past 50 years, coincide with warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation regimes, which are linked to increased winter precipitation in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Global environmental change, including increased atmospheric CO2 levels and N deposition, may be contributing to the success of red brome, relative to native species.

Salo, L.F.

2005-01-01

395

From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP’s ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP’s ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP’s interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages. PMID:24885748

2014-01-01

396

Dual role of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.  

PubMed Central

The alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene aldB is clustered with the genes for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. It can be transcribed with BCAA genes under isoleucine regulation or independently of BCAA synthesis under the control of its own promoter. The product of aldB is responsible for leucine sensibility under valine starvation. In the presence of more than 10 microM leucine, the alpha-acetolactate produced by the biosynthetic acetohydroxy acid synthase IlvBN is transformed to acetoin by AldB and, consequently, is not available for valine synthesis. AldB is also involved in acetoin formation in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, initiated by the catabolic acetolactate synthase, AlsS. The differences in the genetic organization, the expression, and the kinetics parameters of these enzymes between L. lactis and Klebsiella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, or Leuconostoc oenos suggest that this pathway plays a different role in the metabolism in these bacteria. Thus, the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from L. lactis plays a dual role in the cell: (i) as key regulator of valine and leucine biosynthesis, by controlling the acetolactate flux by a shift to catabolism; and (ii) as an enzyme catalyzing the second step of the 2,3-butanediol pathway. PMID:9335274

Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Cocaign-Bousquet, M; Godon, J J; Ehrlich, S D; Renault, P

1997-01-01

397

Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in Kyushu Island, Japan.  

PubMed

We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri) are shorter (192-210 microns compared with 228-247 microns), and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region) form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera). In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini. PMID:11584751

Uni, S; Bain, O; Takaoka, H; Miyashita, M; Suzuki, Y

2001-09-01

398

Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov., isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica).  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of three Lactobacillus-like micro-organisms (strains SG293(T), SG296 and SG310) isolated from fermented rice grain (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) in Japan was investigated. These heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and did not show catalase activity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain SG293(T) revealed that the type strains of Lactobacillus malefermentans (98.3 %), Lactobacillus odoratitofui (96.2 %), Lactobacillus similis (96.1 %), Lactobacillus kimchicus (96.1 %), Lactobacillus paracollinoides (95.9 %) and Lactobacillus collinoides (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours. Additional phylogenetic analysis on the basis of pheS and rpoA gene sequences, as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics, indicated that these three strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the novel isolates had a unique taxonomic position. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1?9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Because low DNA-DNA hybridization values among the isolates and Lactobacillus malefermentans JCM 12497(T) were observed, it is proposed that these unidentified isolates be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus oryzae sp. nov. The type strain is SG293(T) (= JCM 18671(T) = DSM 26518(T)). PMID:23378109

Tohno, Masanori; Kitahara, Maki; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidehiko; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tajima, Kiyoshi

2013-08-01

399

Probiotic characterization of potential hydrolases producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from pickled yam.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize potential probiotic strain co-producing ?-amylase and ?-galactosidase. Sixty-three strains, isolated from pickle samples were screened for their hydrolase producing capacity by utilizing different starches as carbon source. One out of 63 strains, isolated from traditionally fermented pickled yam showing maximum hydrolase activity (?-amylase (36.9?U/ml) and ?-galactosidase (42.6?U/ml)) within a period of 48 hours was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Further, it was assessed for the probiotic characteristics under gastrointestinal conditions like acidic, alkaline, proteolytic enzymes, bile stress and found to exhibit tolerance to these stresses. The therapeutic potential of the isolate is implicated because of its antagonistic effect against enteric foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). The results of this study entail a potential applicability of the isolate in developing future probiotic foods besides the production of industrially significant hydrolases. PMID:24020495

Bhanwar, Seema; Singh, Arashdeep; Ganguli, Abhijit

2014-02-01

400

Cytotoxicity Analysis of Three Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis ?-Endotoxins towards Insect and Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Three members of the ?-endotoxin group of toxins expressed by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Cyt2Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry11A, were individually expressed in recombinant acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strains for in vitro evaluation of their toxic activities against insect and mammalian cell lines. Both Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins, activated with either trypsin or Spodoptera frugiperda gastric juice (GJ), resulted in different cleavage patterns for the activated toxins as seen by SDS-PAGE. The GJ-processed proteins were not cytotoxic to insect cell cultures. On the other hand, the combination of the trypsin-activated Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins yielded the highest levels of cytotoxicity to all insect cells tested. The combination of activated Cyt2Ba and Cry11A also showed higher toxic activity than that of toxins activated individually. When activated Cry4Aa, Cry11A and Cyt2Ba were used simultaneously in the same assay a decrease in toxic activity was observed in all insect cells tested. No toxic effect was observed for the trypsin-activated Cry toxins in mammalian cells, but activated Cyt2Ba was toxic to human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) when tested at 20 µg/mL. PMID:23029407

Teixeira Corrêa, Roberto Franco; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

2012-01-01

401

Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors  

PubMed Central

The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. We report the genome sequence of a plant pathogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043, the causative agent of soft rot and blackleg potato diseases. Approximately 33% of Eca genes are not shared with sequenced enterobacterial human pathogens, including some predicted to facilitate unexpected metabolic traits, such as nitrogen fixation and opine catabolism. This proportion of genes also contains an overrepresentation of pathogenicity determinants, including possible horizontally acquired gene clusters for putative type IV secretion and polyketide phytotoxin synthesis. To investigate whether these gene clusters play a role in the disease process, an arrayed set of insertional mutants was generated, and mutations were identified. Plant bioassays showed that these mutants were significantly reduced in virulence, demonstrating both the presence of novel pathogenicity determinants in Eca, and the impact of functional genomics in expanding our understanding of phytopathogenicity in the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:15263089

Bell, K. S.; Sebaihia, M.; Pritchard, L.; Holden, M. T. G.; Hyman, L. J.; Holeva, M. C.; Thomson, N. R.; Bentley, S. D.; Churcher, L. J. C.; Mungall, K.; Atkin, R.; Bason, N.; Brooks, K.; Chillingworth, T.; Clark, K.; Doggett, J.; Fraser, A.; Hance, Z.; Hauser, H.; Jagels, K.; Moule, S.; Norbertczak, H.; Ormond, D.; Price, C.; Quail, M. A.; Sanders, M.; Walker, D.; Whitehead, S.; Salmond, G. P. C.; Birch, P. R. J.; Parkhill, J.; Toth, I. K.

2004-01-01

402

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Bovine Milk and Feces by a Combination of Immunomagnetic Bead Separation-Conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunomagnetic bead separation coupled with bead beating and real-time PCR was found to be a very effective procedure for the isolation, separation, and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk and\\/or fecal samples from cattle and American bison. Samples were spiked with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms, which bound to immunomagnetic beads and were subsequently lysed by bead beating;

Sangeeta Khare; Thomas A. Ficht; Renato L. Santos; Juan Romano; Allison R. Ficht; Shuping Zhang; Irene R. Grant; Melissa Libal; David Hunter; L. Garry Adams

2004-01-01

403

Antiphagocytic function of an IgG glycosyl hydrolase from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and its use as a vaccine component.  

PubMed

EndoSe from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is an enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl groups on IgG, analogous to EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes. We here show that the activity of EndoSe leads to an antiphagocytic function and may thus be a contributory factor to immune evasion of S. equi. Despite the damaging effect that EndoSe has on IgG, antibodies against EndoSe can neutralize its function. Antibodies against EndoSe restored the opsonic activity of specific opsonizing antibodies. Mice infected with either S. equi subsp. equi or subsp. zooepidemicus or S. pyogenes could be protected by vaccination with EndoSe. It is speculated that EndoSe could be a suitable vaccine candidate against streptococcal infections. PMID:22615244

Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Sköld, Markus; Guss, Bengt; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

2012-08-01

404

First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain).  

PubMed

During an unusually long period of bad weather, several outbreaks of caprine contagious agalactia (CCA) were reported in a number of flocks on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain). Clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating goats and some cases of arthritis and pneumonia in kids were observed in the affected flocks. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was isolated as the main causal agent of the outbreaks, associated with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides "large colony type" (Mmm LC) in two flocks. This is the first report of an isolation of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum on the island of Lanzarote. The finding is of epidemiological importance and could complicate plans to control the disease. The significance of this mycoplasma species in association with CCA must now be studied in detail. PMID:16324858

De la Fe, C; Gutiérrez, A; Poveda, J B; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Fabelo, F

2007-03-01

405

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis type strain (E13(T)), a strictly thermophilic and organic solvent-tolerant bacterium.  

PubMed

Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis is the only strictly thermophilic bacterium that is able to tolerate a broad range of toxic solvents at its optimal temperature of 55-60°C. The type strain E13(T) was isolated from water-sediment slurries collected from a hot spring. This study presents the draft genome sequence of A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis E13(T) and its annotation. The 2,838,393bp long genome (67 contigs) contains 3,035 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA genes, including 10 rRNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used to compare with the genomes from A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus strains. PMID:25197458

Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yunyun; Wang, Min; Gao, Yi; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui

2014-06-15

406

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis type strain (E13T), a strictly thermophilic and organic solvent-tolerant bacterium  

PubMed Central

Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis is the only strictly thermophilic bacterium that is able to tolerate a broad range of toxic solvents at its optimal temperature of 55-60°C. The type strain E13T was isolated from water-sediment slurries collected from a hot spring. This study presents the draft genome sequence of A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis E13T and its annotation. The 2,838,393bp long genome (67 contigs) contains 3,035 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA genes, including 10 rRNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used to compare with the genomes from A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus strains. PMID:25197458

Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yunyun; Wang, Min; Gao, Yi; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui

2014-01-01

407

Existence of two geographically-linked clonal lineages in the bacterial fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida evidenced by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

In this work, we applied the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to evaluate the genetic diversity in Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida), an important pathogen for different marine fish. Regardless of the oligonucleotide primer employed, the 29 isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida tested were separated into two groups, the RAPD-PCR analysis differentiated the European strains from the Japanese strains. The similarity between both groups estimated on the basis of the Dice coefficient was 75-80%. These results show that European and Japanese isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida, regardless of their host fish species, belong to two different clonal lineages. Our findings also indicate that RAPD profiling constitutes a useful tool for epidemiological studies of this fish pathogen. PMID:11057980

Magariños, B.; Toranzo, A. E.; Barja, J. L.; Romalde, J. L.

2000-01-01

408

Existence of two geographically-linked clonal lineages in the bacterial fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida evidenced by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, we applied the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to evaluate the genetic diversity in Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida), an important pathogen for different marine fish. Regardless of the oligonucleotide primer employed, the 29 isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida tested were separated into two groups, the RAPD-PCR analysis differentiated the European strains from the Japanese strains. The similarity between both groups estimated on the basis of the Dice coefficient was 75-80%. These results show that European and Japanese isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida, regardless of their host fish species, belong to two different clonal lineages. Our findings also indicate that RAPD profiling constitutes a useful tool for epidemiological studies of this fish pathogen. PMID:11057980

Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Romalde, J L

2000-08-01

409

Antiphagocytic Function of an IgG Glycosyl Hydrolase from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Its Use as a Vaccine Component  

PubMed Central

EndoSe from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is an enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl groups on IgG, analogous to EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes. We here show that the activity of EndoSe leads to an antiphagocytic function and may thus be a contributory factor to immune evasion of S. equi. Despite the damaging effect that EndoSe has on IgG, antibodies against EndoSe can neutralize its function. Antibodies against EndoSe restored the opsonic activity of specific opsonizing antibodies. Mice infected with either S. equi subsp. equi or subsp. zooepidemicus or S. pyogenes could be protected by vaccination with EndoSe. It is speculated that EndoSe could be a suitable vaccine candidate against streptococcal infections. PMID:22615244

Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Sköld, Markus; Guss, Bengt

2012-01-01

410

The Environment of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" Microaggregates Induces Synthesis of Small Proteins Associated with Efficient Infection of Respiratory Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

"Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that causes respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis as well as other chronic respiratory diseases. Currently, there is no efficient approach to prevent or treat M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection in the lungs. During initial colonization of the airways, M. avium subsp. hominissuis forms microaggregates composed of 3 to 20 bacteria on human respiratory epithelial cells, which provides an environment for phenotypic changes leading to efficient mucosal invasion in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis was employed to identify genes associated with the microaggregate phenotype. The gene encoding microaggregate-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) (MAV_3013) is highly expressed during microaggregate formation. When expressed in noninvasive Mycobacterium smegmatis, MBP-1 increased the ability of the bacteria to bind to HEp-2 epithelial cells. Using anti-MBP-1 immune serum, microaggregate binding to HEp-2 cells was significantly reduced. By far-Western blotting, and verified by coimmunoprecipitation, we observed that MBP-1 interacts with the host cytoskeletal protein vimentin. As visualized by confocal microscopy, microaggregates, as well as MBP-1, induced vimentin polymerization at the site of bacterium-host cell contact. Binding of microaggregates to HEp-2 cells was inhibited by treatment with an antivimentin antibody, suggesting that MBP-1 expression is important for M. avium subsp. hominissuis adherence to the host cell. MBP-1 immune serum significantly inhibited M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection throughout the respiratory tracts of mice. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism utilized by M. avium subsp. hominissuis to bind and invade the host respiratory epithelium, suggesting new potential targets for the development of antivirulence therapy. PMID:25422262

Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Rose, Sasha J; Kornberg, Tiffany; Bermudez, Luiz E

2015-02-01

411

Genetic Structure of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Population in Cattle Herds in Quebec as Revealed by Using a Combination of Multilocus Genomic Analyses  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a granulomatous enteritis affecting a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A variety of molecular typing tools are used to distinguish M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, contributing to a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis epidemiology. In the present study, PCR-based typing methods, including mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units/variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and small sequence repeats (SSR) in addition to IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were used to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of 200 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains from dairy herds located in the province of Quebec, Canada. The majority of strains were of the “cattle type,” or type II, although 3 strains were of the “bison type.” A total of 38 genotypes, including a novel one, were identified using a combination of 17 genetic markers, which generated a Simpson's index of genetic diversity of 0.876. Additional analyses revealed no differences in genetic diversity between environmental and individual strains. Of note, a spatial and spatiotemporal cluster was evidenced regarding the distribution of one of the most common genotypes. The population had an overall homogeneous genetic structure, although a few strains stemmed out of the consensus cluster, including the bison-type strains. The genetic structure of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis populations within most herds suggested intraherd dissemination and microevolution, although evidence of interherd contamination was also revealed. The level of genetic diversity obtained by combining MIRU-VNTR and SSR markers shows a promising avenue for molecular epidemiology investigations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission patterns. PMID:24829229

Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Arsenault, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Fecteau, Gilles

2014-01-01

412

Phylogenetic Analysis and Polyphasic Characterization of Clavibacter michiganensis Strains Isolated from Tomato Seeds Reveal that Nonpathogenic Strains Are Distinct from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

PubMed Central

The genus Clavibacter comprises one species and five subspecies of plant-pathogenic bacteria, four of which are classified as quarantine organisms due to the high economic threat they pose. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important pathogens of tomato, but the recommended diagnostic tools are not satisfactory due to false-negative and/or -positive results. To provide a robust analysis of the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, relatives (strains from the four other C. michiganensis subspecies), and nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains isolated from tomato, we performed multilocus sequence-based analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) based on six housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB). We compared this “framework” with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics such as pathogenicity on tomato, reaction to two antisera by immunofluorescence and to five PCR identification tests, and the presence of four genes encoding the main C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity determinants. We showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is monophyletic and is distinct from its closest taxonomic neighbors. The nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains were identified as C. michiganensis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains, while cross-reacting with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis identification tools, are phylogenetically distinct from the pathogenic strains but belong to the C. michiganensis clade. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis clonal complexes linked strains from highly diverse geographical origins and also strains isolated over long periods of time in the same location. This illustrates the importance of seed transmission in the worldwide dispersion of this pathogen and its survival and adaptation abilities in a new environment once introduced. PMID:23001675

Durand, Karine; Orgeur, Geoffrey; Balidas, Samuel; Fricot, Céline; Bonneau, Sophie; Quillévéré, Anne; Audusseau, Corinne; Olivier, Valérie; Grimault, Valérie; Mathis, René

2012-01-01

413

Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fallow deer.  

PubMed

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the diagnostic test most commonly used in efforts to control paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants. However, commercial ELISAs have not been validated for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animals. In this study, we compared the sensitivities and specificities of five ELISAs using individual serum samples collected from 41 fallow deer with or without histopathological lesions consistent with paratuberculosis. Two target antigenic preparations were selected, an ethanol-treated protoplasmic preparation obtained from a fallow deer M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ELISAs A and B) and a paratuberculosis protoplasmic antigen (PPA3) (ELISAs C and D). Fallow deer antibodies bound to the immobilized antigens were detected by using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fallow deer IgG antibody (ELISAs A and C) or HRP-conjugated protein G (ELISAs B and D). A commercially available assay, ELISA-E, which was designed to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in cattle, sheep, and goats, was also tested. Although ELISAs A, C, and E had the same sensitivity (72%), ELISAs A and C were more specific (100%) for detecting fallow deer with lesions consistent with paratuberculosis at necropsy than was the ELISA-E (87.5%). In addition, the ELISA-A was particularly sensitive for detecting fallow deer in the latent stages of infection (62.5%). The antibody responses detected with the ELISA-A correlated with both the severity of enteric lesions and the presence of acid-fast bacteria in gut tissue samples. In summary, our study shows that the ELISA-A can be a cost-effective diagnostic tool for preventing the spread of paratuberculosis among fallow deer populations. PMID:24872517

Prieto, José M; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Abendaño, Naiara; Fitzgerald, Liam E; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

2014-08-01

414

Sensitive and Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Serum Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fallow Deer  

PubMed Central

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the diagnostic test most commonly used in efforts to control paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants. However, commercial ELISAs have not been validated for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animals. In this study, we compared the sensitivities and specificities of five ELISAs using individual serum samples collected from 41 fallow deer with or without histopathological lesions consistent with paratuberculosis. Two target antigenic preparations were selected, an ethanol-treated protoplasmic preparation obtained from a fallow deer M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ELISAs A and B) and a paratuberculosis protoplasmic antigen (PPA3) (ELISAs C and D). Fallow deer antibodies bound to the immobilized antigens were detected by using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fallow deer IgG antibody (ELISAs A and C) or HRP-conjugated protein G (ELISAs B and D). A commercially available assay, ELISA-E, which was designed to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in cattle, sheep, and goats, was also tested. Although ELISAs A, C, and E had the same sensitivity (72%), ELISAs A and C were more specific (100%) for detecting fallow deer with lesions consistent with paratuberculosis at necropsy than was the ELISA-E (87.5%). In addition, the ELISA-A was particularly sensitive for detecting fallow deer in the latent stages of infection (62.5%). The antibody responses detected with the ELISA-A correlated with both the severity of enteric lesions and the presence of acid-fast bacteria in gut tissue samples. In summary, our study shows that the ELISA-A can be a cost-effective diagnostic tool for preventing the spread of paratuberculosis among fallow deer populations. PMID:24872517

Prieto, José M.; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Abendaño, Naiara; Fitzgerald, Liam E.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.

2014-01-01

415

Effect of Turbulent-Flow Pasteurization on Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Added to Raw Milk  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale pasteurizer operating under validated turbulent flow (Reynolds number, 11,050) was used to study the heat sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis added to raw milk. The ATCC 19698 type strain, ATCC 43015 (Linda, human isolate), and three bovine isolates were heated in raw whole milk for 15 s at 63, 66, 69, and 72°C in duplicate trials. No strains survived at 72°C for 15 s; and only one strain survived at 69°C. Means of pooled D values (decimal reduction times) at 63 and 66°C were 15.0 ± 2.8 s (95% confidence interval) and 5.9 ± 0.7 s (95% confidence interval), respectively. The mean extrapolated D72°C was <2.03 s. This was equivalent to a >7 log10 kill at 72°C for 15 s (95% confidence interval). The mean Z value (degrees required for the decimal reduction time to traverse one log cycle) was 8.6°C. These five strains showed similar survival whether recovery was on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin or by a radiometric culture method (BACTEC). Milk was inoculated with fresh fecal material from a high-level fecal shedder with clinical Johne's disease. After heating at 72°C for 15 s, the minimum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis kill was >4 log10. Properly maintained and operated equipment should ensure the absence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail milk and other pasteurized dairy products. An additional safeguard is the widespread commercial practice of pasteurizing 1.5 to 2° above 72°C. PMID:11525992

Pearce, Lindsay E.; Truong, H. Tuan; Crawford, Robert A.; Yates, Gary F.; Cavaignac, Sonia; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.

2001-01-01

416

Contribution of type IV pili to the virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen of Atlantic salmon, has no visible pili, yet its genome contains genes for three type IV pilus systems. One system, Tap, is similar to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pil system, and a second, Flp, resembles the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Flp pilus, while the third has homology to the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pilus of Vibrio cholerae. The latter system is likely nonfunctional since eight genes, including the gene encoding the main pilin subunit, are deleted compared with the orthologous V. cholerae locus. The first two systems were characterized to investigate their expression and role in pathogenesis. The pili of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were imaged using atomic force microscopy and Tap- and Flp-overexpressing strains. The Tap pili appeared to be polar, while the Flp pili appeared to be peritrichous. Strains deficient in tap and/or flp were used in live bacterial challenges of Atlantic salmon, which showed that the Tap pilus made a moderate contribution to virulence, while the Flp pilus made little or no contribution. Delivery of the tap mutant by immersion resulted in reduced cumulative morbidity compared with the cumulative morbidity observed with the wild-type strain; however, delivery by intraperitoneal injection resulted in cumulative morbidity similar to that of the wild type. Unlike the pili of other piliated bacterial pathogens, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type IV pili are not absolutely required for virulence in Atlantic salmon. Significant differences in the behavior of the two mutant strains indicated that the two pilus systems are not redundant. PMID:18212071

Boyd, Jessica M; Dacanay, Andrew; Knickle, Leah C; Touhami, Ahmed; Brown, Laura L; Jericho, Manfred H; Johnson, Stewart C; Reith, Michael

2008-04-01

417

Differential Expression of In Vivo and In Vitro Protein Profile of Outer Membrane of Acidovorax avenae Subsp. avenae  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane (OM) proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium. PMID:23166741

Qiu, Hui; Li, Bin; Jabeen, Amara; Li, Liping; Liu, He; Kube, Michael; Xie, Guanlin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

2012-01-01

418

Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase FabV.  

PubMed

Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. While the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homologue. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologues revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralogue in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other Gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25370725

Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Haejin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jinhee; Lee, Seon-Woo

2014-11-01

419

Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mode of transmission of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, especially to identify potential vectors, and to determine how humans become infected. PMID:11060089

Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

2000-11-01

420

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in Modified Alginate-chitosan Beads and Evaluation of Survival in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was entrapped in alginate, alginate-chitosan, alginate-chitosan-Sureteric and alginate-chitosan-Acryl-Eze. Survival and in vitro release of bifidobacteria from the microparticles were investigated under conditions simulating gastrointestinal fluids covering the pH range from 1.5 to 7.5, with and without pepsin (3gL), pancreatin (1gL), and bile (10gL). All types of microcapsules protected B. animalis, but the use of chitosan and

Alcina Maria Liserre; Maria Ines Ré; Bernadette D. G. M. Franco

2007-01-01

421

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc) were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using labeled cDNA probes showed that some of the mutated genes are differentially expressed when the bacterium is grown in citrus leaves. Finally, comparative genomic analysis revealed that 5 mutated ORFs are in new putative pathogenicity islands. Conclusion The identification of these new genes related with Xcc infection and virulence is a great step towards the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and could allow the development of strategies to control citrus canker. PMID:19149882

2009-01-01

422

Production of Concentrated Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Suspensions in Calcium Alginate Beads  

PubMed Central

The effect of simultaneous modification of medium composition and growth conditions on the production of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris biomass in calcium alginate beads was studied by the response surface method. Statistical methods of data analysis for unbalanced experiments are illustrated. The media tested were whey, whey supplemented with yeast extract and/or meat extract, milk, and the commercial medium Gold Complete (Nordica). Fermentations were performed at 23°C under pH control (5.6, 6.0, 6.4, or 6.8). In one complete series, 1% CaCO3 was added to the growth media. There were strong interactions between CaCO3 and media, CaCO3 and pH level, and CaCO3, media, and pH level. In media with CaCO3, all first-order interactions between media, pH, and sampling time were significant. The addition of CaCO3 increased cell counts in whey-meat extract medium, but no significant difference was found with the other media. Uncoupling between growth and acidification occurred between 16 and 22 h. Highest counts were obtained on milk and Gold Complete (6 × 1010/g). In CaCO3-containing media, pH influenced cell counts only in whey and in Gold Complete (pH 5.6 and 6.0 giving the best results); pH also influenced the bead mass obtained at the end of the fermentation. Biomass production in alginate gels is proposed as a method of obtaining concentrated cell suspensions without centrifugation or filtration. PMID:16348644

Morin, Nicole; Bernier-Cardou, Michèle; Champagne, Claude P.

1992-01-01

423

Generation and screening of a comprehensive Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transposon mutant bank.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's Disease in ruminants. This enteritis has significant economic impact and worldwide distribution. Vaccination is one of the most cost effective infectious disease control measures. Unfortunately, current vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding, but are of limited efficacy and do not provide long-term protective immunity. Several strategies have been followed to mine the MAP genome for virulence determinants that could be applied to vaccine and diagnostic assay development. In this study, a comprehensive mutant bank of 13,536 MAP K-10 Tn5367 mutants (P > 95%) was constructed and screened in vitro for phenotypes related to virulence. This strategy was designated to maximize identification of genes important to MAP pathogenesis without relying on studies of other mycobacterial species that may not translate into similar effects in MAP. This bank was screened for mutants with colony morphology alterations, susceptibility to D-cycloserine, impairment in siderophore production or secretion, reduced cell association, and decreased biofilm and clump formation. Mutants with interesting phenotypes were analyzed by PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequencing to determine transposon insertion sites. These insertion sites mapped upstream from the MAP1152-MAP1156 cluster, internal to either the Mod operon gene MAP1566 or within the coding sequence of lsr2, and several intergenic regions. Growth curves in broth cultures, invasion assays and kinetics of survival and replication in primary bovine macrophages were also determined. The ability of vectors carrying Tn5370 to generate stable MAP mutants was also investigated. PMID:25360421

Rathnaiah, Govardhan; Lamont, Elise A; Harris, N Beth; Fenton, Robert J; Zinniel, Denise K; Liu, Xiaofei; Sotos, Josh; Feng, Zhengyu; Livneh-Kol, Ayala; Shpigel, Nahum Y; Czuprynski, Charles J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Barletta, Raúl G

2014-01-01

424

Characterization of a Novel Plasmid, pMAH135, from Mycobacterium avium Subsp. hominissuis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) causes mainly two types of disease. The first is disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The second is pulmonary disease in individuals without systemic immunosuppression, and the incidence of this type is increasing worldwide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis, a component of MAC, causes infection in pigs as well as in humans. Many aspects of the different modes of M. avium infection and its host specificity remain unclear. Here, we report the characteristics and complete sequence of a novel plasmid, designated pMAH135, derived from M. avium strain TH135 in an HIV-negative patient with pulmonary MAC disease. The pMAH135 plasmid consists of 194,711 nucleotides with an average G + C content of 66.5% and encodes 164 coding sequences (CDSs). This plasmid was unique in terms of its homology to other mycobacterial plasmids. Interestingly, it contains CDSs with sequence homology to mycobactin biosynthesis proteins and type VII secretion system-related proteins, which are involved in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. It also contains putative conserved domains of the multidrug efflux transporter. Screening of isolates from humans and pigs for genes located on pMAH135 revealed that the detection rate of these genes was higher in clinical isolates from pulmonary MAC disease patients than in those from HIV-positive patients, whereas the genes were almost entirely absent in isolates from pigs. Moreover, variable number tandem repeats typing analysis showed that isolates carrying pMAH135 genes are grouped in a specific cluster. Collectively, the pMAH135 plasmid contains genes associated with M. avium's pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The results of this study suggest that pMAH135 influence not only the pathological manifestations of MAC disease, but also the host specificity of MAC infection. PMID:25671431

Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Takahashi, Hiroyasu; Nakagawa, Taku; Yagi, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Inagaki, Takayuki; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

2015-01-01

425

Culture phenotypes and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants.  

PubMed

In this study the suitability of different solid media was investigated for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in order to identify the optimum single or combination of media to permit the isolation of all strain types from small ruminants. A subset of these Map strains was then further characterized by molecular typing methods to assess the genetic diversity of Map strains in the study area (Northern Greece). Map strains were isolated from tissues and faeces of infected goats (n=52) and sheep (n=8) and were analysed for polymorphisms in IS1311 to classify the strain type as Type C or S. The study found that M7H11 supplemented with mycobactin j, OADC and new born calf serum (M7H11+Mj) is the best single choice of medium for the primary isolation of Map of both Type C and S from small ruminants. The combination of M7H11+Mj and Herrolds egg yolk medium supplemented with mycobactin j and sodium pyruvate allowed the detection of all Map isolates in this study. Nineteen Map isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the isolates demonstrated significant genetic diversity. Twelve different SnaBI and 16 distinct SpeI profiles were detected of which 25 have not been described previously and are new profiles. The combination of both enzyme profiles gave 13 different multiplex profiles. Ten different multiplex profiles were detected in goats and three in sheep. One ovine isolate gave the same multiplex profile as a caprine isolate and two different profiles were found within a single goat herd. PMID:23587160

Dimareli-Malli, Z; Mazaraki, K; Stevenson, K; Tsakos, P; Zdragas, A; Giantzi, V; Petridou, E; Heron, I; Vafeas, G

2013-08-01

426

Maternal sex effects and inbreeding depression under varied environmental conditions in gynodioecious Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Gynodioecy (coexistence of females and hermaphrodites) is a sexual system that occurs in numerous flowering plant lineages. Thus, understanding the features that affect its maintenance has wide importance. Models predict that females must have a seed fitness advantage over hermaphrodites, and this may be achieved via seed quality or quantity. Females in a population of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata, a long-lived gynodioecious perennial, do not demonstrate a seed quantity advantage, so this study explored whether females produced better quality seed via maternal sex effects or avoidance of inbreeding depression (IBD). Methods Families of selfed and outcrossed seed were created using hermaphrodite mothers and families of outcrossed seed were created using female mothers. The effects of these pollination treatments were assessed under benign conditions early in life and under varied conditions later in life. To test for an effect of maternal sex, fitness components and traits associated with acclimation to variable environments of progeny of outbred hermaphrodites and females were compared. To test for expression of IBD, fitness parameters between inbred and outbred progeny of hermaphrodites were compared. Key Results Offspring of females were more likely to germinate in benign conditions and survive in harsh resource environments than outbred progeny of hermaphrodites. IBD was low across most life stages, and both the effect of maternal sex on progeny quality and the expression of IBD depended on both maternal family and resource condition of the progeny. Conclusions The effect of maternal sex and IBD on progeny quality depended on resource conditions, maternal lineage and progeny life stage. In conjunction with known lack of differences in seed quantity, the quality advantages and IBD observed here are still unlikely to be sufficient for maintenance of gynodioecy under nuclear inheritance of male sterility. PMID:23723257

Dalton, Rebecca M.; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-01-01

427

Risk Factors for Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii Infection After Laparoscopic Surgery During an Outbreak in Brazil.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors related to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii infection during an outbreak, associated with laparoscopic surgery and to propose recommendations for preventing new cases. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study. SETTING A private hospital in Manaus, Brazil. PATIENTS A cohort of 222 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery between July 2009 and August 2010 by a single surgical team. METHODS We collected information about the patients and the surgical procedure using a standard form. We included sex, age, and variables with P?0.2 in the bivariate analysis in a logistic regression model. Additionally, we reviewed the procedures for reprocessing the laparoscopic surgery equipment, and the strains obtained with culture were identified by molecular methods. RESULTS We recorded 60 (27%) cases of infection. After multivariate analysis, the duration of surgery beyond 1 hour (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.5), not to have been the first operated patient on a given day (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2), and the use of permanent trocar (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) were associated with infection. We observed that the surgical team attempted to sterilize the equipment in glutaraldehyde solution when sanitary authorities had already prohibited it. Eleven strains presented 100% DNA identity with a single strain, known as BRA100 clone. CONCLUSIONS Because contaminated material can act as vehicle for infection, ensuring adequate sterilization processing of video-assisted surgery equipment was crucial to stopping this single clonal outbreak of nonturbeculous mycobacteria in Brazil. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(1): 81-86. PMID:25627765

Baruque Villar, Gabriela; de Mello Freitas, Felipe Teixeira; Pais Ramos, Jesus; Dias Campos, Carlos Eduardo; de Souza Caldas, Paulo Cesar; Santos Bordalo, Fernanda; Amorim Ramos, Tatyana Costa; do Nascimento Pereira, Vívian; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo; Abdalla Santos, Joao Hugo; Coelho Motta, Glauco; Gomes, Suzie Marie; Mendes de Souza, Verena Maria; de Araujo, Wildo Navegantes

2015-01-01

428

Solution properties of viilian, the exopolysaccharide from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SBT 0495.  

PubMed

The exopolysaccharide (EPS) "viilian" was isolated from a large-batch fermentation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SBT 0495. After applying a newly developed purification procedure, pure viilian with a weight-averaged molar mass of 2.64 x 10(3) kg/mol was obtained in a yield of 0.6 g/L culture broth. The native EPS, as well as lower molar mass fractions obtained by sonication of the native polymer, were studied by capillary viscometry and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to multiangle laser light scattering detection (MALLS). From the viscosity data at various ionic strengths, we extracted a Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada exponent a = 0.79, and a Smidsrod B value of 0.03. By application of the Hearst, Bohdanecký, and Odijk models for stiff polymer coils, in connection to the experimental viscosity data, we established the characteristic ratio to be C(infinity) = 44 and the intrinsic persistence length q(0) = 11.5 nm. The rms radii of gyration predicted from each of the models were in good agreement with the experimental radii (e.g., (1/2)(w) = 162 nm for native viilian in 0.2M NaNO(3)), as determined by SEC-MALLS. In addition, the Odijk model predicts correct ionic strength-linear charge density dependence of the rms radius of gyration. From the combined viscosity and SEC-MALLS experiments we concluded that, in dilute aqueous solutions, viilian behaves as an intermediately stiff, random coil polyelectrolyte system. PMID:10861375

Higashimura, M; Mulder-Bosman, B W; Reich, R; Iwasaki, T; Robijn, G W

2000-08-01

429

Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain Associated with a Songbird Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast. PMID:22885752

Hernandez, Sonia M.; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Adams, Jennifer K.; Cheng, Ying; Ray, Al; Martin, Gordon; Presotto, Andrea; Ruder, Mark G.; Brown, Justin; Blehert, David S.; Cottrell, Walter

2012-01-01

430

Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multipl