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1

Quick detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli by PCR and necleotide sequence analysis of PCR amplicons from Chinese Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A quick polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the bacterial causal agent of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, in crude juice samples from stalks. After removal of abiotic impurities and large molecular weight microorgani...

2

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-planting countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. Based on loop-mediat...

3

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. We developed a diag...

4

Recent advances in the molecular biology of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli , causal organism of ratoon stunting disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve years ago our understanding of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) was confined almost exclusively to diagnosis of the disease\\u000a and control via farm hygiene, with little understanding of the biology of the interaction between the causal agent (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli) and the host plant sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). Since then, research has focused on developing the molecular tools to

S. M. Brumbley; L. A. Petrasovits; S. R. Hermann; A. J. Young; B. J. Croft

2006-01-01

5

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is a deep bacteriosis and prevalent in most of sugarcane-producing countries. Based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), we developed a method for detecting Lxx. The major advantages of the LAMP method are visual judgment by color and time saving with only 60?min for identification of Lxx and without the need for costly PCR apparatus and gel scanner. In the present study, positive and negative samples detected by the LAMP method were clearly distinguishable. When total DNA extracted from internode juice was used as the template, the sensitivity of LAMP was 10 times higher than that of the conventional PCR detection. The LAMP assay is a highly specific, rapid, and sensitive method for the diagnosis of ratoon stunt caused by Lxx in sugarcane. This is the first report of LAMP-based assay for the detection of Lxx in sugarcane. PMID:23710444

Liu, Jing; Xu, Liping; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Rukai; Grisham, Michael Paul; Que, Youxiong

2013-01-01

6

Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is a deep bacteriosis and prevalent in most of sugarcane-producing countries. Based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), we developed a method for detecting Lxx. The major advantages of the LAMP method are visual judgment by color and time saving with only 60?min for identification of Lxx and without the need for costly PCR apparatus and gel scanner. In the present study, positive and negative samples detected by the LAMP method were clearly distinguishable. When total DNA extracted from internode juice was used as the template, the sensitivity of LAMP was 10 times higher than that of the conventional PCR detection. The LAMP assay is a highly specific, rapid, and sensitive method for the diagnosis of ratoon stunt caused by Lxx in sugarcane. This is the first report of LAMP-based assay for the detection of Lxx in sugarcane. PMID:23710444

Liu, Jing; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Rukai; Grisham, Michael Paul

2013-01-01

7

Genetic uniformity of international isolates of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli , causal agent of ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international collection of the sugarcane ratoon stunting disease pathogen, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, was analysed to assess genetic diversity. DNA fingerprinting using BOX primers was performed on 105 isolates, comprising\\u000a 65 Australian isolates and an additional 40 isolates from Indonesia (n=8), Japan (n=1), USA (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Mali (n=2), Zimbabwe (n=13), South Africa (n=9) and Réunion (n=2). Sixty-two of

A. J. Young; L. A. Petrasovits; B. J. Croft; M. Gillings; S. M. Brumbley

2006-01-01

8

Stability of the delta-endotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a recombinant strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis.  

PubMed Central

Deletion of chromosomally inserted gene sequences from Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis, a xylem-inhabiting endophyte, was studied in vitro and in planta. We found that nonreplicating plasmid pCG610, which conferred resistance to kanamycin and tetracycline and contained segments of C. xyli subsp. cynodontis genomic DNA, integrated into a homologous sequence in the bacterial chromosome. In addition, pCG610 contains two copies of the gene encoding the CryIA(c) insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73. Using drug resistance phenotypes and specific DNA probes, we found that the loss of all three genes arose both in vitro under nonselective conditions and in planta. The resulting segregants are probably formed by recombination between the repeated DNA sequences flanking pCG610 that resulted from the integration event into the chromosome. Eventually, segregants predominated in the bacterial population. The loss of the integrated plasmid from C. xyli subsp. cynodontis revealed a possible approach for decreasing the environmental consequences of recombinant bacteria for agricultural use. Images PMID:1664710

Turner, J T; Lampel, J S; Stearman, R S; Sundin, G W; Gunyuzlu, P; Anderson, J J

1991-01-01

9

Leifsonia xyli -like bacteria are endophytes of grasses in eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria serologically related to Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli, the causal bacterium of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) in sugarcane, were detected using the fluorescent antibody direct\\u000a count on filter (FADCF) technique in grasses in eastern Australia. In a survey of 191 grass, sedge and bullrush samples comprising\\u000a 53 plant species, 90 (47%) of the samples tested harboured bacteria which reacted positively

L. Mills; T. M. Leaman; S. M. Taghavi; L. Shackel; B. C. Dominiak; P. W. J. Taylor; M. Fegan; D. S. Teakle

2001-01-01

10

XyliMelts time-release adhering discs for night-time oral dryness.  

PubMed

Dry mouth can be caused by medication, CPAP use, radiation treatment and a variety of connective tissue diseases, with the prevalence increasing with age. In most individuals, daytime dryness is easily managed. However, except for a new product tested in this study, there is no product lasting longer than an hour that can be used at night to reduce the perception of oral dryness while sleeping. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a self-adhering, slowly dissolving disc that time-releases 500 mg of xylitol, cellulose gum (lubricant and humectant) and mild mint flavour (XyliMelts for Dry Mouth, OraHealth Corp.) used during sleep would reduce perceived morning oral dryness and discomfort. Fifteen subjects self-identified as having morning oral dryness were evaluated first without treatment and again with the use of XyliMelts for Dry Mouth. Measures of initial morning discomfort and perceived wetness demonstrated significant improvement. Perceived oral wetness scores increased more than threefold with the use of XyliMelts for Dry Mouth while sleeping. These findings suggest that XyliMelts for Dry Mouth may be an effective strategy for managing oral dryness that occurs at night. PMID:22040224

Burgess, J; Lee, P

2012-05-01

11

Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov. Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 23 strains of coryneform bacteria that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease were examined. These included 17 sugarcane strains from Florida, Louisiana, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan and six Bermudagrass strains from Florida and Taiwan. The sugarcane and Bermudagrass strains contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, rhamnose, and fucose in their cell walls, suggesting a relationship

MICHAEL J. DAVIS; A. GRAVES GILLASPIE; ANNE K. VIDAVER; RUSSELL W. HARRIS

12

First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

13

Determining the Status of Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) in the Jamaican Sugar Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) caused by the organism Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (previously named Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli) is of major concern in many sugar producing countries of the world, as its impact on production can be very severe. Surveys were conducted on farms in the five ecological areas to determine the level of intensity and distribution of the disease

Derrick Wright; Errol Henry; Malcolm Bennett-Easy

14

Signature proteins that are distinctive characteristics of Actinobacteria and their subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Actinobacteria constitute one of the main phyla of Bacteria. Presently, no morphological and very few molecular characteristics are known which can distinguish species of this highly diverse group. In this work, we have analyzed the genomes of four actinobacteria (viz. Mycobacterium leprae TN, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli str. CTCB07, Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 and Thermobifida fusca YX) to search for

Beile Gao; Ragi Paramanathan; Radhey S. Gupta

2006-01-01

15

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

16

Impact of sugarcane diseases on yield and control practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane diseases reduce yields and cause the withdrawal of cultivars from production. Three diseases, ratoon stunt, yellow leaf and smut are discussed to demonstrate methods of spread and control practices required. Ratoon stunt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli, is im...

17

RATING SUGARCANE VARIETIES FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RSD WITH REAL-TIME PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tissue-blot enzyme immunoassay (TB-EIA) is commonly used to rank sugarcane varieties for susceptibility to infection by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the bacterium that causes ratoon stunting disease. The ranking is based on the number of vascular bundles in the stalk that are colonized (CVB) with th...

18

Effect of Ratoon Stunting Disease on Yield of Sugarcane Cultivars Recently Released in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of six recently released Louisiana cultivars to infection by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the causal bacterium of ratoon stunting disease, varied in field trials conducted between 2001 and 2005. Sugar yields were compared to LCP 85-384, the leading Louisiana cultivar released in 1...

19

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

20

A method for rating sugarcane cultivars for resistance to ratoon stunting disease based on an enzyme-linked immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaporative-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EB-EIA) was used to compare the relative populations of Leifsonia (Clavibacter) xyli subsp. xyli, the causal agent of ratoon stunting disease, in 25 cultivars of sugarcane that were inoculated by planting them through\\u000a a contaminated mechanical planter. There were highly significant differences between cultivars in relative populations of\\u000a bacteria in xylem extracts. However, the percentage

Barry J. Croft

2002-01-01

21

Serological diagnosis of ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological observations of stunted sugarcane plants of predominant varieties in India indicated the occurrence of ratoon\\u000a stunting disease. The incidence ranged from 3 to 11 per cent on infected clump basis in different varieties. In the serological\\u000a observations, diffusates from the infected stalks\\/tissues were used as antigen for identification of bacteriumClavibacter xyli subsp. xyli by DAC — ELISA technique using

G. P. Rao; G. P. Singh

2000-01-01

22

Interactions of plant-beneficial bacteria with the ascomycete Coniochaeta ligniaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the interactions between Coniochaeta ligniaria F\\/TGF15 obtained from torrefied grass fibers (TGF) and selected bacteria from the same substrate. Methods and Results: Upon coinoculation on potato dextrose agar, Pseudomonas putida 15\\/TGE5, Methylobacterium radiotolerans 56\\/TGF10, Serratia plymutica 23\\/TGE5, Pseudomonas corrugata 31\\/TGE5, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli 66\\/TGF10, Mycobacterium anthracenicum 70\\/TGF15 and Agromyces aurantiacus 95\\/TGF15 were translocated by C. ligniaria,

R. D. Trifonova; J. Postma; Elsas van J. D

2009-01-01

23

Comparison of extracellular enzymes of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme.  

PubMed Central

A total of 10 strains each of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme were tested for the production of 13 extracellular enzymes. DNase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase were predominantly associated with all the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, with DNase not detected in any of the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. In addition, the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum were generally more hemolytic than those of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Lecithinase, beta-lactamase, elastase, hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulfatase, and coagulase were not detected in any of the strains. DNase may be used to differentiate between the two subspecies. PMID:8370761

Amoako, K K; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T

1993-01-01

24

Isoquinoline alkaloids from Berberis Vulgaris subsp. Australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from Berberis vulgaris subsp. australis. In addition to quaternary protoberberines and bisbenzylisoquinolines, a new seco-bisbenzylisoquinoline, (-)-tejedine, is reported.

Rafael Suau; Rodrigo Rico; J. Manuel López-Romero; Francisco Nájera; Ana Cuevas

1998-01-01

25

Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae subsp. nov., E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei comb. nov., and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii subsp. nov., Three New Subspecies of Clinical Importance  

PubMed Central

Six species and six additional genovars are combined within the so-called Enterobacter cloacae complex, with one of them being the species Enterobacter hormaechei. In a recent population genetic study, two genetic clusters were found in close phylogenetic proximity to the genetic cluster of E. hormaechei. In order to prove the hypothesis that these three genetic clusters belong to the same species, we performed cross-hybridization experiments in microplates with DNAs of representatives of each genetic cluster. The close phylogenetic relationship among the clusters was reflected by their relatively low ?Tm values, ranging from 0.3 to 4.8, confirming the hypothesis that the clusters are parts of the same species. These clusters can be distinguished from the other species of the E. cloacae complex, which have ?Tm values of 5.6 to 10.3. Forty-eight E. hormaechei strains from the different genetic clusters were phenotypically characterized with 129 biochemical tests. In this way, E. hormaechei could be differentiated from the other species of the E. cloacae complex because it tests negative in the 3-hydroxy-butyrate test. The three genetic clusters of E. hormaechei could also be differentiated from each other by using phenotypic tests. Hence, we propose three new subspecies of E. hormaechei corresponding to genetic clusters VI, VII, and VIII of the E. cloacae complex. E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei comb. nov. corresponds to the original species description, as it gives negative results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests and a positive result for the dulcitol test. E. hormaechei subsp. oharae subsp. nov. gives negative results for the dulcitol, adonitol, and d-arabitol tests and positive results for the d-sorbitol and d-melibiose tests. E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii subsp. nov. gives a negative result for the dulcitol test and positive results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests. Among the members of the E. cloacae complex, E. hormaechei seems to be the species most frequently recovered from clinical specimens. PMID:16000451

Hoffmann, Harald; Stindl, Sibylle; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Stumpf, Anita; Mehlen, Andre; Monget, Daniel; Pierard, Denis; Ziesing, Stefan; Heesemann, Jürgen; Roggenkamp, Andreas; Schleifer, Karl H.

2005-01-01

26

Molecular Characterization of Copper Resistance Genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis?  

PubMed Central

Copper sprays have been widely used for control of endemic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in citrus-growing areas for more than 2 decades. Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis populations were also exposed to frequent sprays of copper for several years as a protective measure against citrus bacterial spot (CBS) in Florida citrus nurseries. Long-term use of these bactericides has led to the development of copper-resistant (Cur) strains in both X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, resulting in a reduction of disease control. The objectives of this study were to characterize for the first time the genetics of copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis and to compare these organisms to other Cur bacteria. Copper resistance determinants from X. citri subsp. citri strain A44(pXccCu2) from Argentina and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strain 1381(pXacCu2) from Florida were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames (ORFs) related to the genes copL, copA, copB, copM, copG, copC, copD, and copF were identified in X. citri subsp. citri A44. The same ORFs, except copC and copD, were also present in X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381. Transposon mutagenesis of the cloned copper resistance determinants in pXccCu2 revealed that copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri strain A44 is mostly due to copL, copA, and copB, which are the genes in the cloned cluster with the highest nucleotide homology (?92%) among different Cur bacteria. PMID:21515725

Behlau, Franklin; Canteros, Blanca I.; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2011-01-01

27

Eubacterium yurii subsp. schtitka subsp. nov.: Test Tube Brush Bacteria from Subgingival Dental Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative strains of the test tube brush bacterium Eubacterium yurii, previously recovered from subgingival dental plaque of chronic adult periodontitis patients, were examined by determining their serological reactivities, protein electrophoretic patterns, deoxyribonucleic acid homologies, and bone resorp- tive activities in vitro. Our results indicate the existence of a third subspecies, E. yurii subsp. schtitka subsp. nov., in addition to the

BARBARA S. MARGARET; GEORGE N. KRYWOLAP

28

Common Genomic Features of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei Strains Distinguish Them from C. jejuni subsp. jejuni  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter jejuni has been divided into two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd). Nearly all of the C. jejuni strains isolated are Cjj; nevertheless, although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently, they differ from Cjj in two key aspects: they are obtained ...

29

Genetic analysis of a locus on the Bacteroides ovatus chromosome which contains xylan utilization genes.  

PubMed

Bacteroides ovatus, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe found in the human colon, can utilize xylan as a sole source of carbohydrate. Previously, a 3.8-kbp segment of B. ovatus chromosomal DNA, which contained genes encoding a xylanase (xylI) and a bifunctional xylosidase-arabinosidase (xsa), was cloned, and expression of the two genes was studied in Escherichia coli (T. Whitehead and R. Hespell, J. Bacteriol. 172:2408-2412, 1990). In the present study, we have used segments of the cloned region to construct insertional disruptions in the B. ovatus chromosomal locus containing these two genes. Analysis of these insertional mutants demonstrated that (i) xylI and xsa are probably part of the same operon, with xylI upstream of xsa, (ii) the true B. ovatus promoter was not cloned on the 3.5-kbp DNA fragment which expressed xylanase and xylosidase in E. coli, (iii) there is at least one gene upstream of xylI which could encode an arabinosidase, and (iv) xylosidase rather than xylanase may be a rate-limiting step in xylan utilization. Insertional mutations in the xylI-xsa locus reduced the rate of growth on xylan, but the concentration of residual sugars at the end of growth was the same as that with the wild type. Thus, a slower rate of growth on xylan was not accompanied by less extensive digestion of xylan. Mutants in which xylI had been disrupted still expressed some xylanase activity. This second activity was associated with membranes and produced xylose from xylan, whereas the xylI gene product partitioned primarily with the soluble fraction and produced xylobiose from xylan. PMID:1444385

Weaver, J; Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A; Valentine, P C; Salyers, A A

1992-09-01

30

Genetic analysis of a locus on the Bacteroides ovatus chromosome which contains xylan utilization genes.  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides ovatus, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe found in the human colon, can utilize xylan as a sole source of carbohydrate. Previously, a 3.8-kbp segment of B. ovatus chromosomal DNA, which contained genes encoding a xylanase (xylI) and a bifunctional xylosidase-arabinosidase (xsa), was cloned, and expression of the two genes was studied in Escherichia coli (T. Whitehead and R. Hespell, J. Bacteriol. 172:2408-2412, 1990). In the present study, we have used segments of the cloned region to construct insertional disruptions in the B. ovatus chromosomal locus containing these two genes. Analysis of these insertional mutants demonstrated that (i) xylI and xsa are probably part of the same operon, with xylI upstream of xsa, (ii) the true B. ovatus promoter was not cloned on the 3.5-kbp DNA fragment which expressed xylanase and xylosidase in E. coli, (iii) there is at least one gene upstream of xylI which could encode an arabinosidase, and (iv) xylosidase rather than xylanase may be a rate-limiting step in xylan utilization. Insertional mutations in the xylI-xsa locus reduced the rate of growth on xylan, but the concentration of residual sugars at the end of growth was the same as that with the wild type. Thus, a slower rate of growth on xylan was not accompanied by less extensive digestion of xylan. Mutants in which xylI had been disrupted still expressed some xylanase activity. This second activity was associated with membranes and produced xylose from xylan, whereas the xylI gene product partitioned primarily with the soluble fraction and produced xylobiose from xylan. Images PMID:1444385

Weaver, J; Whitehead, T R; Cotta, M A; Valentine, P C; Salyers, A A

1992-01-01

31

Genome Sequences of the Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii Type Strain and Two Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis Strains  

PubMed Central

We present the complete genomes of Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii WSLC 3010 (ATCC 19119T), Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30151 (SLCC 8854), and Listeria ivanovii subsp. londoniensis WSLC 30167 (SLCC 6032), representing the type strain of the species and two strains of the same serovar but different properties, respectively. PMID:25614561

Hupfeld, Mario; Fouts, Derrick E.; Loessner, Martin J.

2015-01-01

32

Comparative chemical composition of Agastache mexicana subsp. mexicana and A. mexicana subsp. xolocotziana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative chemical analysis of Agastache mexicana subsp. mexicana and A. mexicana subsp. xolocotziana reveals that their methanol extracts constituents were very similar, with acacetin and (2-acetyl)-7-O-glucosyl acacetin being the most abundant compounds obtained. These results are consistent with the information reported for other species of Agastache. However, GS-MS analyses showed that methyl chavicol, limonene and linalool were the main

Rosa Estrada-Reyes; Eva Aguirre Hernández; Aída García-Argáez; Marcos Soto Hernández; Edelmira Linares; Robert Bye; Gerardo Heinze; Mariano Martínez-Vázquez

2004-01-01

33

Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum and H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium (DC.) Gaudin.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of H. perforatum subsp. perforatum and H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that H. perforatum subsp. perforatum is richer in flavonoids and tannins than the other subspecies. HPLC analysis confirmed the higher yield of flavonoids in H. perforatum subsp. perforatum and gave also a higher content of phenolic acids. H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium contained more hypericin. The presence of rutin was proven only in H. perforatum subsp. perforatum. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of both subspecies was evaluated based on the inhibition zone diameters using the hole-plate diffusion method. The MeOH extracts, dichloromethane and petroleum ether fractions were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The results indicate that H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium had a stronger antimicrobial effect than the other subspecies. PMID:19831284

Males, Zeljan; Brantner, Adelheid H; Sovi?, Katarina; Pilepi?, Kroata Hazler; Plazibat, Misko

2006-09-01

34

Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel  

PubMed Central

Underdiagnosis of fatal spotted fever may be attributed to nonspecific clinical features and insensitive acute-phase serologic studies. We describe the importance of molecular and immunohistochemical methods in establishing the postmortem diagnosis of locally acquired Israeli spotted fever due to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis in a traveler returning to Israel from India. PMID:18439372

Keysary, Avi; Sandbank, Judith; Zaidenstein, Ronit; Itzhaki, Avi; Strenger, Carmela; Leitner, Moshe; Paddock, Christopher D.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

2008-01-01

35

The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

36

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Potable-Water Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybrid- ization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive

Markku J. Lehtola; Eila Torvinen; Ilkka T. Miettinen; C. William Keevil

2006-01-01

37

Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

2013-01-01

38

Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I C; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Bolzani, V S; Belasque, J; Sacramento, L V S; Ferreira, H

2013-01-01

39

Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India  

PubMed Central

Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of ?-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples. PMID:24834002

MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; FARIDI, Farah; BHAT, Mohd. Altaf; BABA, Naseer Ahmad; MAQBOOL, Tahir

2013-01-01

40

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand  

PubMed Central

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA. PMID:22607728

Kosoy, Michael Y.; Diaz, Maureen H.; Winchell, Jonas; Baggett, Henry; Maloney, Susan A.; Boonmar, Sumalee; Bhengsri, Saithip; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Peruski, Leonard F.

2012-01-01

41

IMMUNOREACTIVITY OF THE MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS 19-KDA LIPOPROTEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background The Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein has been reported to stimulate both T and B cell responses as well as induce a number of Th1 cytokines. In order to evaluate the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis) 19-kDa lipoprotein as an immun...

42

Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of surgical-site infections by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii affected >1,700 patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2008. The genome of the epidemic prototype strain M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, deposited in the collection of the National Institute for Health Quality Control (INCQS), was sequenced. PMID:24201191

Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Azevedo, Vasco

2013-01-01

43

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus Infection in Twin Infants.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotype II.2, is an uncommon pathogen in neonates. Nevertheless, it can cause severe neonatal sepsis and meningitis often clinically indistinguishable from those caused by group B streptococci and has been associated with considerable morbidity. We report the first known cases of S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection in twin infants. PMID:25609731

Hede, Sannya Vidyadhar; Olarte, Liset; Chandramohan, Lakshmi; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hulten, Kristina G

2015-04-01

44

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus lung disease: ‘trouble ahead, trouble behind…’  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp abscessus is the most common respiratory pathogen among the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and is also the most feared due to its well-deserved reputation for being refractory to antibiotic therapy. M. abscessus subsp abscessus has multiple innate antibiotic resistance mechanisms, but the most important one described so far is an inducible erythromycin methylase (erm) gene. M. abscessus subsp abscessus isolates may appear macrolide susceptible on initial in vitro testing but become macrolide resistant after exposure to macrolide. It is therefore very important to test clinically significant M. abscessus subsp abscessus isolates for erm gene activity. Remarkably, controversy still exists about the taxonomy and nomenclature of M. abscessus subspecies including subsp abscessus, subsp massiliense and subsp bolletii. Identification of these subspecies is not moot as M. abscessus subsp massiliense does not have an active erm gene resulting in both in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to macrolide. It is imperative from the clinician's perspective that mycobacterial laboratories correctly and rapidly identify M. abscessus to the subspecies level. Unfortunately, there are no reliably or predictably effective treatment regimens for M. abscessus subsp abscessus and better, more effective antimicrobial agents are badly needed. Surgical resection of involved lung tissue as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy is beneficial in selected patients but cannot be broadly applied. Overall, M. abscessus subsp abscessus remains a formidable respiratory mycobacterial pathogen, one that we are only beginning to understand microbiologically and one that as yet consistently evades our best efforts at successful therapeutic outcomes. ‘trouble ahead, trouble behind, and you know that notion just crossed my mind’. Casey Jones, Grateful Dead (1970) PMID:25580261

2014-01-01

45

Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens as Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.  

PubMed

A novel, psychrotolerant facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359(T), was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 µm long and 0.4-0.5 µm wide. Growth occurred in the range of pH 5.8-9.0 with optimal growth at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew at temperatures from 0-37 °C and optimal growth occurred at 25 °C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 8.8?% (1.5 M) NaCl with optimal growth at 0.5?% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides as substrates. The major metabolic end-product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86?% l-lactate?:?14?% d-lactate. Strain WN1359(T) was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. The fatty acid content was predominantly unsaturated (70.2?%), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7?%) and saturated (12.5?%). The DNA G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7?% sequence identity between strain WN1359(T) and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359(T) belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359(T) represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WN1359(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2557(T)?=?DSM 27470(T)). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is created automatically. An emended description of C. inhibens is also provided. PMID:25392348

Nicholson, Wayne L; Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Triplett, Eric W

2015-02-01

46

Hypoglycemic constituents of Gynura divaricata subsp. formosana.  

PubMed

Gynura divaricata Kitam. subsp. formosana is a folk medicine used as a hypoglycemic agent for diabetes patients in Taiwan. Guided by the hexose transport assay, the hypoglycemic constituents of the aerial part of this plant were disclosed through chromatographic methods. They are fructooligosaccharides, including beta-D-fructofuranose, sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and 1(F)-beta-fructofuranosylnystose. The hexose transport assay indicated that nystose was the most potent among these compounds, showing a 46.7% difference from pinitol in the stimulation index at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. PMID:22474963

Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2012-02-01

47

Paired-End Sequence Mapping Detects Extensive Genomic Rearrangement and Translocation during Divergence of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica Populations† ‡  

PubMed Central

Comparative genome hybridization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica populations have shown that genome content is highly conserved, with relatively few genes in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome being absent in other F. tularensis subspecies. To determine if organization of the genome differs between global populations of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, we have used paired-end sequence mapping (PESM) to identify regions of the genome where synteny is broken. The PESM approach compares the physical distances between paired-end sequencing reads of a library of a wild-type reference F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain to the predicted lengths between the reads based on map coordinates of two different F. tularensis genome sequences. A total of 17 different continuous regions were identified in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genome (CRholarctica) which are noncontiguous in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome. Six of the 17 different CRholarctica are positioned as adjacent pairs in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome sequence but are translocated in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, implying that their arrangements are ancestral in F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and derived in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. PCR analysis of the CRholarctica in 88 additional F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates showed that the arrangements of the CRholarctica are highly conserved, particularly in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, consistent with the hypothesis that global populations of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica have recently experienced a periodic selection event or they have emerged from a recent clonal expansion. Two unique F. tularensis subsp. tularensis-like strains were also observed which likely are derived from evolutionary intermediates and may represent a new taxonomic unit. PMID:16885459

Dempsey, Michael P.; Nietfeldt, Joseph; Ravel, Jacques; Hinrichs, Steven; Crawford, Robert; Benson, Andrew K.

2006-01-01

48

Regulation of Expression of Major Histocompatibility Antigens by Bovine Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis or Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium are antigenically and genetically very similar organisms; however, they differ markedly in their virulence for cattle. We evaluated the capacity of bovine macrophages infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. avium subsp. avium to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on their surface and to interact with primed autologous lymphocytes. Our results indicate that infection of bovine macrophages with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis promoted the downregulation of MHC class I and class II molecules on the macrophage surface within 24 and 12 h, respectively. Alternatively, MHC class II expression by M. avium subsp. avium-infected macrophages was not detected until 24 h after infection, and the magnitude of the decrease was smaller. Decreased MHC class I expression by M. avium subsp. avium-infected macrophages was not detected. Unlike M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages, M. avium subsp. avium-infected macrophages upregulated MHC class I and class II expression after activation by gamma interferon or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Further, M. avium subsp. avium-infected macrophages were lysed by primed autologous lymphocytes, whereas M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected macrophages were not. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the difference in the virulence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium for cattle is dependent on a difference in the capacity of the organisms to suppress mycobacterial antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. PMID:11159996

Weiss, Douglas J.; Evanson, Oral A.; McClenahan, David J.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Walcheck, Bruce K.

2001-01-01

49

Short-sequence-repeat analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates collected from animals throughout the United States reveals both stability of loci and extensive diversity.  

PubMed

We analyzed the multilocus short sequence repeats (SSRs) of 211 and 56 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium, respectively. The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates could be differentiated into 61 genotypes. The M. avium subsp. avium isolates showed limited diversity. These SSRs are stable and suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:16891519

Harris, N Beth; Payeur, Janet B; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2006-08-01

50

Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-01-01

51

Breeding system of the annual Cruciferae, Arabidopsis kamchatica subsp. kawasakiana.  

PubMed

The breeding system of an annual Cruciferae, Arabidopsis kamchatica subsp. kawasakiana, was studied in three natural populations. We applied four experimental treatments, open pollination, bagging, emasculation + bagging, and emasculation + hand-pollination + bagging. None of the emasculated flowers with bags produced fruits but we observed high fruit sets in the other three treatments. The results confirmed that A. kamchatica subsp. kawasakiana is a self-compatible, non-apomictic species that can produce seeds through auto-pollination. Considering the life cycle as an annual, increased reproductive assurance through auto-pollination should be critical for the maintenance of populations of A. kamchatica subsp. kawasakiana. PMID:17982712

Sugisaka, Jiro; Kudoh, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

52

Ribotyping to differentiate Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolated from bovine ruminal contents and liver abscesses.  

PubMed Central

Differences in biological activities (hemagglutination, hemolytic, leukotoxic, and virulence) and ribotypes between the two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum of bovine ruminal and liver abscess origins were investigated. Hemagglutination activity was present in all hepatic, but only some ruminal, strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum. Ruminal F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum had low leukotoxin titers yet was virulent in mice. Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme of hepatic or ruminal origin had no hemagglutination activity, had low hemolytic and leukotoxic activities, and was less virulent to mice. For ribotyping, chromosomal DNAs of 10 F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and 11 F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates were digested with restriction endonucleases (EcoRI, EcoRV, SalI, PstI, and HaeIII) and examined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms after hybridizing with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe transcribed from a mixture of 16 and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli. The most discriminating restriction endonuclease enzyme for ribotyping was EcoRI. The presence or absence of two distinct bands of 2.6 and 4.3 kb differentiated the two subspecies. Regardless of the origin, only F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, a virulent subspecies, had a ca. 2.6-kb band, whereas F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme, a less virulent subspecies, had a ca. 4.3-kb band. Ribotyping appears to be a useful technique to genetically differentiate the two subspecies of F. necrophorum. PMID:8593050

Okwumabua, O; Tan, Z; Staats, J; Oberst, R D; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G

1996-01-01

53

Cell surface characteristics of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophilic and electrostatic cell surface properties of eight Lactobacillus strains were characterized by using the microbial adhesion to solvents method and microelectrophoresis, respectively. All strains appeared relatively hydrophilic. The strong microbial adhesion to chloroform, an acidic solvent, in comparison with microbial adhesion to hexadecane, an apolar n-alkane, demonstrated the particularity of lactobacilli to have an important electron donor and basic character and consequently their potential ability to generate Lewis acid-base interactions with a support. Regardless of their electrophoretic mobility (EM), strains were in general slightly negatively charged at alkaline pH. A pH-dependent behavior concerning cell surface charges was observed. The EM decreased progressively with more acidic pHs for the L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains until the isoelectric point (IEP), i.e., the pH value for which the EM is zero. On the other hand, the EM for the L. rhamnosus strains was stable from pH 8 to pH 3 to 4, at which point there was a shift near the IEP. Both L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains were characterized by an IEP of around 4, whereas L. rhamnosus strains possessed a markedly lower IEP of 2. The present study showed that the cell surface physicochemical properties of lactobacilli seem to be, at least in part and under certain experimental conditions, particular to the bacterial species. Such differences detected between species are likely to be accompanied by some particular changes in cell wall chemical composition. PMID:9143109

Pelletier, C; Bouley, C; Cayuela, C; Bouttier, S; Bourlioux, P; Bellon-Fontaine, M N

1997-01-01

54

Comparisons of genetic and morphological distance with heterosis between Medicago sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass yield heterosis has been shown to exist between Medicago sativasubsp. sativa and Medica gosativa subsp. falcata. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of what morphological and genetic factors were most highly\\u000a correlated with total biomass yield heterosis. We calculated genetic distances among nine sativa and five falcate genotypes\\u000a based on amplified fragment length polymorphism

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer; T. Austin Campbell; Diane Luth; Patricia M. Cazcarro

2003-01-01

55

Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop im- provement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Har- rington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent

I. Matus; A. Corey; T. Filichkin; P. M. Hayes; M. I. Vales; J. Kling; O. Riera-Lizarazu; K. Sato; W. Powell; R. Waugh

2003-01-01

56

A low G+C content genetic island in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. silvaticum with homologous genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of representation difference analysis PCR has been applied to find genes specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This generated a 671 bp fragment which was used to isolate a larger genetic element found in the enteric pathogens M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. silvaticum but which was absent from the very closely related and relatively benign

Mark Tizard; Tim Bull; Douglas Millar; Tim Doran; Helene Martin; Nazira Sumar; Jon Ford; John Hermon-Taylor

1998-01-01

57

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.  

PubMed

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

Rantala, S

2014-08-01

58

Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strangles is a contagious equine disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. In this study, clinical strains of S. equi (n=24) and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (n=24) were genetically characterized by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and sodA genes in order to devise a real-time PCR system that can detect S. equi and S. zooepidemicus and distinguish between them.Sequencing demonstrated

V. Båverud; S. K. Johansson; A. Aspan

2007-01-01

59

The chromosome morphology of Hesperis matronalis subsp. matronalis and related diploid taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hesperis matronalis L. subsp.matronalis contains various genoms having the same chromosome number (2n=24), differing, however, by ther-index of some pairs of homologous chromosomes. Diploid sets of the taxaHesperis matronalis L. subsp.matronalis, Hesperis sylvestris\\u000a Crantz subsp.sylvestris, Hesperis sylvestris\\u000a Crantz subsp.velenovskyi\\u000a (Fritsch) Borza andHesperis steveniana DC. are compared.

František Dvo?ák; Božena Dadáková

1976-01-01

60

Sugar Utilization and Acid Production by Free and Entrapped Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a Whey Permeate Medium  

PubMed Central

Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis entrapped in k-carrageenan-locust bean gum gel performed similarly to free cells in the conversion of lactose to lactic acid. Bead diameter influenced the fermentation rate. Cells entrapped in smaller beads (0.5 to 1.0 mm) showed higher release rates, higher lactose, glucose, and formic acid utilization, higher galactose accumulation, and higher lactic acid production than did cells entrapped in larger beads (1.0 to 2.0 mm). Values for smaller beads were comparable with those for free cells. Immobilization affected the fermentation rate of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Entrapped cells of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus demonstrated a lower lactic acid production than did free cells in batch fermentation. The kinetics of the production of formic and pyruvic acids by L. lactis subsp. lactis and S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus are presented. PMID:16347822

Audet, Pascal; Paquin, Celine; Lacroix, Christophe

1989-01-01

61

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

PubMed

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

62

Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in a turkey processing plant.  

PubMed Central

Cecal cultures taken over a 1-year period from 600 turkeys at a poultry processing plant were all positive for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. Swabs of the cloaca and fresh feces were likewise all positive. Of 33 freshly dressed turkey carcases, 94% were positive before chilling in tanks of chlorinated ice and water; 34% of 83 carcasses were still positive after overnight soaking in the tanks. Increasing the chlorine content from 50 to 340 ppm (50 to 340 micrograms/ml) did not cause a decrease in the number of positive carcasses. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from wastewater gutters as well as from chutes and conveyor belts in the packaging room. Water samples from the five water treatment lagoons for the plant were all positive for C. fetus subsp. jejuni while the plant was in operation, but 4 days after the plant closed for the winter, all water samples were negative. PMID:7204547

Luechtefeld, N W; Wang, W L

1981-01-01

63

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from migratory waterfowl.  

PubMed Central

Since the sources from which humans acquire Campylobacter enteritis are only partially known, we studied the frequency of carriage of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in migratory waterfowl. Cecal contents of various species of wild ducks were cultured on selective media that contained antibiotics to inhibit normal flora. Thirty-five percent of the 445 ducks cultured harbored C. fetus subsp. jejuni. Migratory waterfowl are yet another reservoir for this enteric pathogen and may be of public health importance for humans in the contamination of water or when used as food. PMID:7217334

Luechtefeld, N A; Blaser, M J; Reller, L B; Wang, W L

1980-01-01

64

Toxicity and trichothecene production by Fusarium acuminatum subsp. acuminatum and Fusarium acuminatum subsp. armeniacum.  

PubMed

The toxicity of cultures of Fusarium acuminatum subsp. acuminatum and Fusarium acuminatum subsp. armeniacum grown on Weet-Bix medium was assessed using a chick bioassay. Thirty-nine of 45 cultures of F. a. armeniacum tested produced at least 50% mortality in the chick bioassay. In contrast, of the 26 cultures of F. a. acuminatum tested, only nine produced at least 50% mortality. Selected extracts of both subspecies were analyzed by gas chromatography after clean-up and hydrolysis for the four main trichothecene families, namely; nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), scirpentriol (Sctol), and T-2 tetraol (T-2tol). Levels of up to 500 micrograms/g and 7 micrograms/g of T-2tol were detected in F. a. armeniacum and F. a. acuminatum extracts respectively. Four cultures each of F. a. armeniacum and F. a. acuminatum were also grown on two solid media (Weet-Bix and Vermiculite) and two liquid media (MYRO and GYEP). Culture extracts were again tested for toxicity and analyzed for trichothecene production. Cultures of F. a. armeniacum grown on the solid media and on MYRO produced the highest toxicity. Levels of up to 168, 129, 150, and 8 micrograms/g of T-2tol were detected in cultures of F. a. armeniacum on Weet-Bix, Vermiculite, MYRO, and GYEP respectively. In contrast, only trace amounts of T-2tol were detected in extracts of F. a. acuminatum on all media. Sctol levels of less than 0.5 microgram/g were also detected in some cultures of both subspecies on solid media, but only F. a. armeniacum produced trace levels of Sctol on liquid media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8167939

Wing, N; Lauren, D R; Bryden, W L; Burgess, L W

1993-01-01

65

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

66

TARGETING MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diagnosis of Johne’s disease, an enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), has been impeded by the lack of rapid, reliable detection methods. The goal of this study was to optimize detection of MAP in environmental samples. Experiments were conducted to...

67

DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS (MAP) IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic, enteric infection that is passed from adults to calves via the fecal-oral route. MAP has become the focus of unwanted attention due to its increased prevalence and the economic impact resulting f...

68

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

2015-01-01

69

Global detection and identification of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine genital campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is a genital infection that threatens the cattle industry. Detection and identification of Cfv are key factors in control programmes. Trade regulations should be based on scientifically and internationally accepted methods of detection and identification of Cfv. Such methods are described in the World Health (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests

Bergen van M. A. P; S. Linnane; Putten van J. P; J. A. Wagenaar

2005-01-01

70

Complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (Cmi) causes bacterial wilt disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and can also infect the model legume plant M. truncatula. The virulence mechanisms of Cmi are yet to be identified, hampered by the lack of efficient mutagenesis tools as well as by the la...

71

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius strain ST1464 genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is responsible for Morel's disease in animals and a cause of abscess in humans. It is characterized by a microaerophilic growth, contrary to the other strains of S. aureus. The 2,604,446-bp genome (32.7% GC content) of S. anaerobius ST1464 comprises one chromosome and no plasmids. The chromosome contains 2,660 open reading frames (ORFs), 49 tRNAs and three complete rRNAs, forming one complete operon. The size of ORFs ranges between 100 to 4,600 bp except for two ORFs of 6,417 and 7,173 bp encoding segregation ATPase and non-ribosomal peptide synthase, respectively. The chromosome harbors Staphylococcus phage 2638A genome and incomplete Staphylococcus phage genome PT1028, but no detectable CRISPRS. The antibiotic resistance gene for tetracycline was found although Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is susceptible to tetracycline in-vitro. Intact oxygen detoxification genes encode superoxide dismutase and cytochrome quinol oxidase whereas the catalase gene is impaired by a stop codon. Based on the genome, in-silico multilocus sequence typing indicates that S. aureus subsp. anaerobius emerged as a clone separated from all other S. aureus strains, illustrating host-adaptation linked to missing functions. Availability of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius genome could prompt the development of post-genomic tools for its rapid discrimination from S. aureus. PMID:24501641

Elbir, Haitham; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Ti Thien; Gimenez, Grégory; El Sanousi, Sulieman M.; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Raoult, Didier

2013-01-01

72

Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans  

SciTech Connect

A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

1991-06-01

73

Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

74

Heat Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pasteurization and the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk have been identified in quantitative risk analysis as the most critical factors influencing the potential presence of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in dairy products. A quantitative assessment of the lethality of pasteurization was undertaken using an industrial pasteurizer designed for research purposes with a validated Reynolds

Wendy L. McDonald; Kimberly J. O'Riley; Christopher J. Schroen; Robin J. Condron

2005-01-01

75

Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum  

PubMed Central

Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1?25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

2014-01-01

76

Subandrodioecy and Male Fitness in Sagittaria lancifolia Subsp. Lancifolia (Alismataceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. lancifolia is described as cosexual (monoecious), but the study population consisted of 84% cosexuals that typically had 35% pistillate buds and 16% predominant males that typically had 0-2% pistillate buds. Hand- pollinations showed that pistillate flowers required pollination to set seed, and pollen from both male and cosexual plants was potent. No gender switching was seen in

Gayle E. Muenchow

1998-01-01

77

Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov. Isolated from the External Auditory Meatus of Dogs with External Ear Otitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. couguluns, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to

SHIZUNOBU IGIMI; EIJI TAKAHASHI; TOMOTARI MITSUOKA

78

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) reveals no genetic divergence of the Eastern Alpine endemic Oxytropis campestris subsp. tiroliensis (Fabaceae) from widespread subsp. campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, we explored genetic differences between widespread Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris and O. campestris subsp. tiroliensis, a presumed glacial relict restricted to a small area along the main chain of the Eastern Alps. We could not find genetic differences between the two “taxa”. Neither do the morphological characters given in the literature discriminate between them. Therefore

Peter Schönswetter; Andreas Tribsch; Harald Niklfeld

2004-01-01

79

Taxonomic investigation of representatives of the genus Sphaerotilus: descriptions of Sphaerotilus montanus sp. nov., Sphaerotilus hippei sp. nov., Sphaerotilus natans subsp. natans subsp. nov. and Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans subsp. nov., and an emended description of the genus Sphaerotilus.  

PubMed

Seven strains of the genus Sphaerotilus were obtained from natural thermal sulfide (strains D-501(T), D-502, D-504, D-505 and D-507) and low-temperature ferrous (strain HS(T)) springs and from an activated sludge system (strain D-380). These Sphaerotilus isolates and strains of Sphaerotilus natans obtained from the DSMZ (S. natans DSM 6575(T), DSM 565 and DSM 566) were studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. All strains had Q-8 as the major quinone and C(16?:?1)?7, C(16?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?7 as the major fatty acids. The DNA-DNA hybridization results and 16S rRNA, hsp60 and gyrB gene sequencing experiments showed that isolates D-501(T), D-502, D-504, D-505, D-507 and D-380 were closely related to the type strain of S. natans DSM 6575(T). However, strains D-501(T), D-502, D-504, D-505 and D-507 significantly differed from the heterotrophic strain S. natans DSM 6575(T) by their capability for lithotrophic growth with reduced sulfur compounds as an electron donor for energy conservation and some other phenotypic features. For this reason, strains D-501(T), D-502, D-504, D-505 and D-507 merit a separate taxonomic classification at the subspecies level. The name Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans subsp. nov. (type strain D-501(T)?=?DSM 22545(T)?=?VKM B-2573(T)) is proposed. The subspecies Sphaerotilus natans subsp. natans subsp. nov. is automatically created as a result of this proposal. Strain D-380 was phenotypically closely related to S. natans DSM 6575(T). Strains D-380 and S. natans DSM 6575(T) were assigned to the subspecies Sphaerotilus natans subsp. natans subsp. nov. (type strain DSM 6575(T)?=?ATCC 13338(T)). The 16S rRNA, hsp60 and gyrB gene sequences obtained for strains HS(T) and DSM 565 showed very low sequence similarity values of 97.3?%, 89.7?% and 88.4?%, respectively, with S. natans DSM 6575(T). Strain HS(T) shared 99?% DNA-DNA relatedness with strain. PMID:20495027

Gridneva, Elena; Chernousova, Elena; Dubinina, Galina; Akimov, Vladimir; Kuever, Jan; Detkova, Ekaterina; Grabovich, Margarita

2011-04-01

80

Draft Genome Sequences for Canadian Isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense with Weak Virulence on Potato  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium carotovurum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potato. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three weakly virulent P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains isolated in Canada. Analysis of these genome sequences will help to pinpoint differences in virulence among P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains from tropical/subtropical and temperate regions, such as Canada and United States. A small number of key factors for adaptation to this bacterium's specific environmental niche were also evaluated. PMID:25858837

Yuan, Kat (Xiaoli); Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T.; De Boer, Solke H.

2015-01-01

81

Draft Genome Sequences for Canadian Isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense with Weak Virulence on Potato.  

PubMed

Pectobacterium carotovurum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potato. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three weakly virulent P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains isolated in Canada. Analysis of these genome sequences will help to pinpoint differences in virulence among P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains from tropical/subtropical and temperate regions, such as Canada and United States. A small number of key factors for adaptation to this bacterium's specific environmental niche were also evaluated. PMID:25858837

Li, Xiang Sean; Yuan, Kat Xiaoli; Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C André; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; De Boer, Solke H

2015-01-01

82

Isolation by genomic subtraction of DNA probes specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is a pathogen of potatoes in Europe because of its ability to induce blackleg symptoms early in the growing season. However, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora is not able to produce such severe symptoms under the same conditions. On the basis of the technique described by Straus and Ausubel (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1889-1893, 1990), we isolated DNA sequences of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica 86.20 that were absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26. Six DNA fragments ranging from ca. 180 to 400 bp were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment was further hybridized with 130 microorganisms including 87 E. carotovora strains. One probe was specific for typical E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains, two probes hybridized with all E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains and with a few E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains, and two probes recognized only a subset of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica strains. The last probe was absent from the genomic DNA of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora CH26 but was present in the genomes of many strains, including those of other species and genera. This probe is homologous to the putP gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes a proline carrier. Further use of the probes is discussed. Images PMID:8117082

Darrasse, A; Kotoujansky, A; Bertheau, Y

1994-01-01

83

Efficient transformation of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei and Rhizobium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei B3 with either pBBR122 or pKT230 was carried out. We determined the optimal conditions required for transformation by electroporation and obtained up to 105 CFU\\/?g pBBR122. Plasmids prepared from strain B3 yielded higher transformation efficiency than those from various dam or dcm mutant strains of Escherichia coli. This result suggests that a high

Makoto Hayashi; Yoshiaki Maeda; Yoshiteru Hashimoto; Yoshikatsu Murooka

2000-01-01

84

Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States  

PubMed Central

We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

2014-01-01

85

Chromones and flavanones from artemisia campestris subsp. maritima  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the acetone extract of Artemisia campestris subsp. maritima six flavanones, two chromones and the coumarin scopoletin were isolated. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxychromone and 5,7-dimethoxychromone are new compounds, while the flavanone eriodictyol-7,3?-dimethyl ether is reported for the first time in this species. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The unequivocal assignments of carbon resonances, mainly made by using 1D

João M. J. Vasconcelos; Artur M. S. Silva; José A. S. Cavaleiro

1998-01-01

86

Nucleotide sequences of xylan-inducible xylanase and xylosidase/arabinosidase genes from Bacteroides ovatus V975.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of the xylI and xsa genes of Bacteroides ovatus V975, encoding xylanase and xylosidase activities, were determined. Both genes are part of a xylan-inducible operon, the sequenced region of which also contains a partial open reading frame upstream of the xylanase gene. Deduced amino acid sequence similarly analyses indicate that the xylanase belongs to the Family F series of glycosyl hydrolases. PMID:7766665

Whitehead, T R

1995-05-11

87

Proposal for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anaemia or splenomegaly in rodents. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes, rnpB and dnaK, in strains of the species M. haemomuris detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpB nucleotide sequences in strains of the species M. haemomuris isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89?% sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnaK had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 84?% between the subgroups. These results support the classification of M. haemomuris into two genetically distinct subgroups. Here we propose the establishment of these subgroups as 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi', detected in small field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti', detected in black rats (Rattus rattus). PMID:25406232

Harasawa, Ryô; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Ando, Shuji; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2015-02-01

88

Comparison of pectic enzymes produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia spp. that cause soft-rot diseases in plants produce a variety of extracellular pectic enzymes. To assess the correlation between patterns of pectic enzyme production and taxonomic classification, we compared the enzymes from representative strains. Supernatants obtained from polygalacturonate-grown cultures of nine strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi, three strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and three strains of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica were concentrated and subjected to ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. Pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, and exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase activities were visualized by staining diagnostically buffered pectate-agarose overlays with ruthenium red after incubation of the overlays with the isoelectric focusing gels. The isoelectric focusing profiles of pectate lyase and polygalacturonase were nearly identical for strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, showing three pectate lyase isozymes with isoelectric points higher than 8.7 and a polygalacturonase with pI of ca. 10.2. Isoelectric focusing profiles of the E. chrysanthemi pectic enzymes were substantially different. Although there was considerable intraspecific heterogeneity, all strains produced at least four isozymes of pectate lyase, which could be divided into three groups: basic (pI, ca. 9.0 to 10.0), slightly basic (pI, ca. 7.0 to 8.5), and acidic (pI, ca. 4.0 to 5.0). Several strains of E. chrysanthemi also produced a single form of exo-poly-alpha-D-galacturonosidase (pI, ca. 8.0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3752996

Ried, J L; Collmer, A

1986-01-01

89

A Change in a Single Midgut Receptor in the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Is Only in Part Responsible for Field Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai  

PubMed Central

A population (SERD3) of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) with field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 (Dipel) and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Florbac) was collected. Laboratory-based selection of two subpopulations of SERD3 with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk-Sel) or B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bta-Sel) increased resistance to the selecting agent with little apparent cross-resistance. This result suggested the presence of independent resistance mechanisms. Reversal of resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai was observed in the unselected SERD3 subpopulation. Binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles was examined for insecticidal crystal proteins specific to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Cry1Ac), B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Cry1Ca), or both (Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab). In the unselected SERD3 subpopulation (ca. 50- and 30-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai), specific binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca was similar to that for a susceptible population (ROTH), but binding of Cry1Ab was minimal. The Btk-Sel (ca. 600-and 60-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) and Bta-Sel (ca. 80-and 300-fold resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai) subpopulations also showed reduced binding to Cry1Ab. Binding of Cry1Ca was not affected in the Bta-Sel subpopulation. The results suggest that reduced binding of Cry1Ab can partly explain resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. However, the binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ca and the lack of cross-resistance between the Btk-Sel and Bta-Sel subpopulations also suggest that additional resistance mechanisms are present. PMID:16535597

Wright, D. J.; Iqbal, M.; Granero, F.; Ferre, J.

1997-01-01

90

Complete Genome Sequence of the Strong Mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Heidelberg Strain B182  

E-print Network

, Leclerc et al. (5) detected a high incidence (over 1%) of mutators among pathogenic SalmonellaComplete Genome Sequence of the Strong Mutator Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype the first complete genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Heidelberg B182

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Pohlia nutans subsp. schimperi (Mull.Hal.) Nyholm, a neglected Nordic moss in Central Europe  

E-print Network

Pohlia nutans subsp. schimperi (Mu¨ll.Hal.) Nyholm, a neglected Nordic moss in Central Europe Pohlia nutans subsp. schimperi is recognized as a distinct taxon, differing from ssp. nutans by the pink: Pohlia schimperi, P. nutans, taxonomy, ecology, glacial relict, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland

Kucera, Jan

92

Pohlia nutans subsp. schimperi (Müll.Hal.) Nyholm, a neglected Nordic moss in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pohlia nutans subsp. schimperi is recognized as a distinct taxon, differing from ssp. nutans by the pink to purple coloration of its leaves and a dioicous or polyoicous, rather than paroicous, sexual condition. We review the contrasting reports about the sexuality of these plants, as well as their nomenclatural history, and demonstrate their synonymy with P. nutans subsp. purpurascens

Heribert Köckinger; Jan Ku?era; Adam Stebel

2005-01-01

93

Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Isolated from Human Breast Milk  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has also been associated with human Crohn’s disease. We report the complete genome sequence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolated from the breast milk of a Crohn’s disease patient. This sequence has high identity with characterized strains recovered from cattle. PMID:24503996

Li, Lingling; Mwangi, Michael; Cote, Rebecca; Raygoza Garay, Juan A.

2014-01-01

94

A17, the First Sequenced Strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris with Potential Immunomodulatory Functions  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris A17, isolated from Taiwan fermented cabbage, is the first sequenced strain of L. lactis subsp. cremoris with immunomodulatory activity and antiallergic functions. The resulting A17 draft genome contains 2,679,936 bp and indicates that A17 is a potential exopolysaccharide-producing strain without any known virulence gene. PMID:25676767

Yang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Chien-Chen; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Chung, Ming-Chuan

2015-01-01

95

Complete genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain J18, isolated from kimchi.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides is one of the most predominant lactic acid bacterial groups during kimchi fermentation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides J18, which was isolated from kimchi. The genome of the strain consists of a 1,896,561-bp chromosome and five plasmids. PMID:22247530

Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

2012-02-01

96

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of Rhinoscleroma  

E-print Network

PCR-Based Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the Agent of this study was to develop two simple PCR assays. We took advantage of the fact that all Klebsiella pneumoniae assayed on the 76 other Klebsiella capsular types. Further, to discriminate Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

98

Genomic Diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Its Correlation with Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the genomic diversity of the enterobacterial plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The results obtained with each method showed that E. caroto- vora subsp. carotovora strains isolated from one ecological niche, potato plants, are surprisingly diverse compared to related pathogens. A comparison of 23 partial mdh sequences revealed a maximum pairwise difference

Mee-Ngan Yap; Jeri D. Barak; Amy O. Charkowski

2004-01-01

99

A Gene Specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, But Only at the Transcription-translation Level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is no known antibody that detects M. avium subsp paratuberculosis and does not cross react with other M. avium subspecies. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody was identified from mice immunized with a cell membrane fraction of M. avium subsp paratuberculosis strain K-10. This antibod...

100

A UV Tolerant Mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Producing Melanin  

E-print Network

A UV Tolerant Mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Producing Melanin Deepak Saxena,1 thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, producing a dark brown pigment, identified as melanin, was studied. Bt-m had that production of melanin by various microorganisms protects their susceptibility to oxidative damage caused

Zaritsky, Arieh

101

Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, isolated from human breast milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease. We report the draft genome sequences of six M. avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates obtained from diverse hosts including bison, cattle and sheep. These sequences will deepen our understanding of host association ...

102

Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strain SEJ  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica constitutes a group of enteric pathogens with a broad host range, including humans, reptiles, and birds. S. enterica subsp. enterica is a common cause of inflammatory diarrhea in humans. We present the draft genome of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strain SEJ, including a 59-kbp plasmid. PMID:25342692

Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Frey, K. G.; Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Chertkov, O.; Freitas, T.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Minogue, T. D.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Xu, Y.

2014-01-01

103

Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the etiologic agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease of cattle that is of worldwide importance. The complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of the type strain C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354T are reported. PMID:21952544

Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Moore, Robert J.; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; de Resende, Vivian D'Afonseca da Silva; Ruy, Patricia de Cássia; Daher, Nesley; Resende, Daniela de Melo; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Soares, Siomar de Castro; de Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Rocha, Aryane Aparecida C. Magalhães; dos Santos, Anderson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Eudes Guilherme Vieira; Costa, Danielle Fonseca; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Miyoshi, Anderson; de Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Campos, Frederico Davi da Silva; de Sá, Pablo Gomes; Lopes, Thiago Souza; Rodrigues, Ryan Mauricio Araujo; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Leão, Thiago; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Ruiz, Jerônimo C.

2011-01-01

104

Composicion de los aceites esenciales de Nepeta nepetella subsparagonensis, Nepeta coerulea subsp. coerulea y Nepeta cataria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Nepeta coerulea subsp. coerulea, Nepeta nepetella subsp. aragonensis and Nepeta cataria. - Essential oil composition of three iberian Nepeta were studied by chromatographic and spectrometric methods. The essential oils are constituted mainly of diasteroisomers of nepetalactone. These compounds may be used as chemosystematic characters.

Arturo Velasco Negueruela; Margarita Mata Rico; Paulina Bermejo Benito; Maria José Pérez-Alonso

1988-01-01

105

Isolation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris from nature by colony hybridization with rRNA probes.  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris is widely used in the manufacture of fermented milk products. Despite numerous attempts, efforts to isolate new strains by traditional plating and identification methods have not been successful. Previously, we described oligonucleotide probes for 16S rRNAs which could be used to discriminate L. lactis subsp. cremoris from related strains. These probes were used in colony hybridization experiments to screen large numbers of colonies obtained from enrichment cultures. A total of 170 strains of L. lactis were isolated from six milk samples, two colostrum samples, and one corn sample by using oligonucleotide probe 212RLa specific for the species L. lactis. Fifty-nine of these isolates also hybridized to L. lactis subsp. cremoris-specific probe 68RCa, and 26 of the strains which hybridized to the L. lactis subsp. cremoris-specific probe had the L. lactis subsp. cremoris phenotype. Images PMID:7506898

Salama, M S; Sandine, W E; Giovannoni, S J

1993-01-01

106

Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle mortalities. PMID:23503307

Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

2013-01-01

107

Bibenzyls and dihydroisocoumarins from white salsify ( Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. porrifolius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phytochemical investigation of three accessions of Tragopogon porrifolius L. subsp. porrifolius (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) yielded three new bibenzyl derivatives, 5,4?-dihydroxy-3-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, 2-carboxyl-3,4?-dihydroxy-5-?-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, tragopogonic acid (2?carboxyl-3?,5?,4?-trihydroxyphenylethanone) and three dihydroisocoumarin derivatives, including the new natural product 6-O-methylscorzocreticoside I. One of the isolated bibenzyl derivatives is considered to be a precursor to the biosynthesis of dihydroisocoumarins. Structures of new compounds were established by HR

Christian Zidorn; Ulrike Lohwasser; Susanne Pschorr; Daniela Salvenmoser; Karl-Hans Ongania; Ernst P. Ellmerer; Andreas Börner; Hermann Stuppner

2005-01-01

108

Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two organisms and plays a major role in shaping the population structure of SDSE. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HGT and recombination in the evolution of SDSE. PMID:25566202

McNeilly, Celia L.; McMillan, David J.

2014-01-01

109

Lipase and Esterase Activities of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii  

PubMed Central

The lipase and esterase activities of eight strains of dairy Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii were studied. A lipase activity was detected on whole cells and in the culture supernatant. The highest activity was expressed at 45°C and pH 6.8. An esterase activity was also detected in the culture medium. The electrophoresis of the intracellular fractions of the cells revealed from three to six different esterase activities. Two esterases were common to all the strains. The substrate specificity was dependent on each esterase, but no activity was revealed, in our experimental conditions, on ester substrates with a chain length longer than that of butyrate. PMID:16349102

Dupuis, C.; Corre, C.; Boyaval, P.

1993-01-01

110

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica subsp. nov., a new pectinase-positive subspecies isolated from a heavily polluted river.  

PubMed

Aeromonas strains which phenotypically and genetically belong to the Aeromonas salmonicida species but that according to their phenotypic properties constitute a new subspecies have been isolated from the water of a heavily polluted river, the Matanza river, situated near the central district of Buenos Aires city. These strains were ascribed to the A. salmonicida species by using 65 biochemical tests and by DNA-DNA hybridization. They produce acid from -sorbitol, an unusual biochemical property found in a few members of the A. salmonicida species. They also utilize urocanic acid and do not ferment L-rhamnose or utilize LD-lactate, and are elastase- and gluconate-negative. The DNA relatedness was over 70%, the current limit accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a species, to the described A. salmonicida subspecies and nearly 100% within the new group of Aeromonas strains. Phenotypic differentiation from other A. salmonicida subspecies was readily achieved using the following characteristics: growth at 37 degrees C, melanin production, indole and Voges-Proskauer assays, growth on KCN broth, mannitol and sucrose fermentation and gas from glucose. A remarkable property of the strains of the new group was their ability to degrade polypectate, an unusual feature among Aeromonas species in general. The complete 16S rRNA gene of one strain of the new group was sequenced. Comparison with rDNA sequences of Aeromonas members available in databases revealed a close relationship between this strain and strains belonging to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida and achromogenes, in agreement with the biochemical data. Since the new A. salmonicida strains constitute a tight genomic group that can be identified by phenotypic properties it was concluded that they represent a new subspecies for which the name Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica is proposed. The type strain of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica is 34melT (= DSM 12609T). PMID:10843053

Pavan, M E; Abbott, S L; Zorzópulos, J; Janda, J M

2000-05-01

111

Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed

Strangles is a contagious equine disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. In this study, clinical strains of S. equi (n=24) and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (n=24) were genetically characterized by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and sodA genes in order to devise a real-time PCR system that can detect S. equi and S. zooepidemicus and distinguish between them. Sequencing demonstrated that all S. equi strains had the same 16S rRNA sequence, whereas S. zooepidemicus strains could be divided into subgroups. One of these (n=12 strains) had 16S rRNA sequences almost identical with the S. equi strains. Interestingly, four of the strains biochemically identified as S. zooepidemicus were found by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to have a sequence homologous with Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum. However, they did not have the colony appearance or the biochemical characteristics of the type strain of S. ruminatorum. Classification of S. ruminatorum may thus not be determined solely by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequencing of the sodA gene demonstrated that all S. equi strains had an identical sequence. For the S. zooepidemicus strains minor differences were found between the sodA sequences. The developed real-time PCR, based on the sodA and seeI genes was compared with conventional culturing on 103 cultured samples from horses with suspected strangles or other upper respiratory disease. The real-time PCR system was found to be more sensitive than conventional cultivation as two additional field isolates of S. equi and four of S. zooepidemicus were detected. PMID:17531409

Båverud, V; Johansson, S K; Aspan, A

2007-10-01

112

Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. neoaurantiaca subsp. nov., orange-pigmented bacteria isolated from soil and the rhizosphere of agricultural plants.  

PubMed

A large group of 38 strains of saprophytic bacteria was isolated from soil and the rhizosphere of agricultural plants. The novel organisms were Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that produced a green fluorescent pigment, a red-orange diffusible pigment and a complex mixture of phloroglucinol derivates with antimicrobial activity. The latter have not been found in other bacteria, but are peculiar to ferns. The bacteria were vigorous denitrifiers that synthesized levan from sucrose and liquefied gelatin, but were found not to degrade aesculin, starch, agar, Tween 80 or DNA. Bacterial growth was found to occur at 4 degrees C but not at 40 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 16 : 1(n-7), 18 : 1(n-7) and 17 : 0 cyclo. The G+C content of the novel bacteria was 61.0-62.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the representative strain CIP 109457(T) had a clear affiliation with Pseudomonas sensu stricto groups, with the nearest relatives being Pseudomonas brassicacearum, P. thivervalensis, P. corrugata, P. mediterranea and P. kilonensis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the group of isolated strains exhibited high levels of genetic relatedness (81-100 %), confirming that they are representatives of the same species. At the same time, they bound at low levels (4-46 %) with DNA of the type strains of their nearest relatives with the exception of P. brassicacearum; DNA binding of 90 % with the DNA of P. brassicacearum CIP 107059(T) suggested that the bacteria studied belong to this species. Analysis of taxonomic data indicated that the group of novel bacteria maintain a distinct phenotypic profile, allowing the description of novel subspecies within P. brassicacearum, for which the following names are proposed: Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum subsp. nov. (type strain DBK11(T) =CFBP 11706(T) =CIP 107059(T) =DSM 13227(T) =JCM 11938(T)) and Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. neoaurantiaca subsp. nov., with the type strain CIP 109457(T) (=ATCC 49054(T) =IMV 387(T) =VKM B-1524(T)). PMID:19622656

Ivanova, Elena P; Christen, Richard; Bizet, Chantal; Clermont, Dominique; Motreff, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Zhukova, Natalia V; Crawford, Russell J; Kiprianova, Elena A

2009-10-01

113

Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis.  

PubMed

Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni has been one of the most important diseases of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years. The emergence of P. alni subsp. alni -the pathogen responsible for the epidemic-is linked to an interspecific hybridization event between two parental species: P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis. One of the parental species, P. alni subsp. uniformis, has been isolated in several European countries and, recently, in North America. The objective of this work was to assess the level of genetic diversity, the population genetic structure, and the putative reproduction mode and mating system of P. alni subsp. uniformis. Five new polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to contrast both geographical populations. The study comprised 71 isolates of P. alni subsp. uniformis collected from eight European countries and 10 locations in North America. Our results revealed strong differences between continental populations (Fst = 0.88; Rst = 0.74), with no evidence for gene flow. European isolates showed extremely low genetic diversity compared with the North American collection. Selfing appears to be the predominant mating system in both continental collections. The results suggest that the European P. alni subsp. uniformis population is most likely alien and derives from the introduction of a few individuals, whereas the North American population probably is an indigenous population. PMID:23095465

Aguayo, Jaime; Adams, Gerard C; Halkett, Fabien; Catal, Mursel; Husson, Claude; Nagy, Zoltán Á; Hansen, Everett M; Marçais, Benoît; Frey, Pascal

2013-02-01

114

Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.  

PubMed

Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov. (type strain LMG 25992(T)=CFBP 2051(T)), with the automatic creation of Dickeya dadantii subsp. dadantii subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 25991(T)=CFBP 1269(T)). PMID:21890733

Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

2012-07-01

115

Rapid Expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins for Antigen Discovery?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We describe here an approach that utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for the rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins for antigen discovery in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The investigations showed that the MAP1272c protein selectively reacts with sera from Johne's disease-positive cattle and represents an antigen of potential utility in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis immunodiagnostics. PMID:17079432

Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek

2007-01-01

116

Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules  

PubMed Central

Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate. PMID:23181077

Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

2012-01-01

117

A comparative study of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis in experimentally infected pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) are opportunistic pathogens that may infect several species, including humans and pigs. Mah is however more frequently isolated from pigs than Maa, and it is unclear if this is due to difference in virulence or in exposure to the two organisms. Clinical isolates of each subspecies were administered perorally to ten domestic pigs, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at six and 12 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were recorded, and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture, IS1245 real time PCR and histopathological examination. Culturing was also performed on faecal samples collected at necropsy. Results Macroscopic and histopathological lesions were detected in pigs infected with each subspecies, and bacterial growth and histopathological changes were demonstrated, also in samples from organs without gross pathological lesions. Six weeks after inoculation, live Mah was detected in faeces, as opposed to Maa. The presence of live mycobacteria was also more pronounced in Mah infected tonsils. In comparison, the Maa isolate appeared to have a higher ability of intracellular replication in porcine macrophages compared to the Mah isolate. Conclusions The study shows that both subspecies were able to infect pigs. Additionally, the more extensive shedding of Mah might cause pig-to-pig transmission and contribute to the higher incidence of infection caused by this subspecies. PMID:22284630

2012-01-01

118

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-01-01

119

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

2014-01-01

120

Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

121

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in waterfowl: first confirmation in animals.  

PubMed Central

We report the first description, confirmed by bacteriologic and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) analysis, of an infection in animals caused by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, affecting waterfowl. PMID:11747704

Goyache, J.; Vela, A. I.; Gibello, A.; Blanco, M. M.; Briones, V.; González, S.; Téllez, S.; Ballesteros, C.; Domínguez, L.; Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.

2001-01-01

122

Molecular characterization of three Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus phages.  

PubMed

In this study, three phages infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, named Ld3, Ld17, and Ld25A, were isolated from whey samples obtained from various industrial fermentations. These phages were further characterized in a multifaceted approach: (i) biological and physical characterization through host range analysis and electron microscopy; (ii) genetic assessment through genome analysis; (iii) mass spectrometry analysis of the structural components of the phages; and (iv), for one phage, transcriptional analysis by Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension. The three obtained phage genomes display high levels of sequence identity to each other and to genomes of the so-called group b L. delbrueckii phages c5, LL-Ku, and phiLdb, where some of the observed differences are believed to be responsible for host range variations. PMID:25002431

Casey, Eoghan; Mahony, Jennifer; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Cornelissen, Anneleen; Neve, Horst; Heller, Knut J; Noben, Jean-Paul; Dal Bello, Fabio; van Sinderen, Douwe

2014-09-01

123

Bibenzyls and dihydroisocoumarins from white salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. porrifolius).  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation of three accessions of Tragopogon porrifolius L. subsp. porrifolius (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) yielded three new bibenzyl derivatives, 5,4'-dihydroxy-3-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, 2-carboxyl-3,4'-dihydroxy-5-beta-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, tragopogonic acid (2'carboxyl-3',5',4''-trihydroxyphenylethanone) and three dihydroisocoumarin derivatives, including the new natural product 6-O-methylscorzocreticoside I. One of the isolated bibenzyl derivatives is considered to be a precursor to the biosynthesis of dihydroisocoumarins. Structures of new compounds were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, radical scavenging activities of the polyphenolic compounds were measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay; two of the bibenzyls showed moderate and two of the dihydroisocoumarins showed weak radical scavenging activities. The chemosystematic impact of bibenzyls and dihydroisocoumarins is discussed briefly. PMID:15964041

Zidorn, Christian; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Pschorr, Susanne; Salvenmoser, Daniela; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Börner, Andreas; Stuppner, Hermann

2005-07-01

124

Sources and distribution of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in turkeys  

E-print Network

(NPN) procedure. C. fetus subsp. jejuni PAR 6 inoculated into and recovered from turke e sa 0 E F G H I Initial concentration (per ml) 10, 000 5, 000 1, 000 500 100 50 10 5 1 Egg-Brucella-FBP Broth mixturesc + + + + + NPN per mid Upper limite... concentrationb (per ml) 54 27 6 3 0. 6 0. 3 0. 06 0. 03 0. 006 Egg-Brucella-FBP Broth mixturesc MPN per mid Upper limite Lower limite + + + + + + + 15 43 9. 3 4. 3 0. 4 1. 5 &0. 3 &0. 3 &0. 3 44 210 38 21 2 4. 4 3 7 1. 5 0. 7 &0. 05 0. 3 a50 g of eggs...

Acuff, Gary Royce

1982-01-01

125

Two antigenotoxic chalcone glycosides from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mentha L. (Labiatae) species (mint) with their flavoring properties have been used in food industries for centuries. Besides they have a great importance in drug development and medicinal applications due to various bioactive compounds of several members of the genus. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate bioactive compounds with antimutagenic potential by bio-guided fractionation and determine their structures by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done based on spectroscopic methods, including MALDI-MS, UV, IR, and 2D NMR experiments, and the bio-guided fractionation process was done by using the Ames/Salmonella test system. Henceforth, solely genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the new compounds were also confirmed up to 2?µM/plate by using the same test system. Results: Two new chalcone glycosides: (?R)-?,3,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone and (?R)-?,4,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone, were isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia, together with known six flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid. According to the antimutagenicity results, both new test compounds significantly inhibited the mutagenic activity of 9-aminoacridine in a dose-dependent manner at the tested concentrations from 0.8 to 2?µM/plate. (?R)-?,4,2',6'-Tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone showed the maximum inhibition rate as 75.94% at 2?µM/plate concentration. Conclusions: This is the first report that two new chalcone glycosides were isolated from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia and their antimutagenic potentials by using mutant bacterial tester strains. In conclusion, the two new chalcone glycosides showed a significant antigenotoxic effect on 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenesis at tested concentrations. PMID:25429992

Guvenalp, Zuhal; Ozbek, Hilal; Karadayi, Mehmet; Gulluce, Medine; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Salih, Bekir; Demirezer, Omur

2014-11-28

126

Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease of both domestic and wild ruminants and has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans. The organism is shed in the feces of infected animals and can survive for protracted periods in the environment and hence could be present in catchment areas receiving agricultural runoff. A limited survey was undertaken in Northern Ireland to test for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water entering nine water treatment works (WTWs) over a 1-year period. Three detection methods were employed, viz., immunomagnetic separation-PCR and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and BACTEC 12B medium, the latter both supplemented with mycobactins. Of the 192 untreated water samples tested, 15 (8%) tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis positive by one or more of the three detection methods. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was successfully isolated from eight untreated water samples, three by BACTEC culture and five by culture on HEYM. Although the highest incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in spring, overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the seasons. No significant correlation was found between numbers of coliforms or fecal coliforms and the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In general, a higher incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in untreated water entering those WTWs that had a high mean water pH value over the sampling period. This work indicates the need to determine the efficacy of water treatment processes to either kill or remove M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from untreated water and the possible risks posed by contact with recreational water sources. PMID:16269747

Whan, Lynne; Ball, Hywel J; Grant, Irene R; Rowe, Michael T

2005-11-01

127

Determination of kinetic properties of polyphenol oxidase from Thymus ( Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii var. chaubardii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii var. chaubardii is described. Polyphenol oxidase of Thymus was isolated by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis. The effects of substrate specificity, pH, temperature, heat-inactivation and glutathione inhibitor on polyphenol oxidase activity obtained from T. longicaulis subsp. chaubardii var. chaubardii were investigated. Polyphenol oxidase showed activity toward catechol, 4-methylcatechol

Serap Dogan; Mehmet Dogan

2004-01-01

128

Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

The genus Clavibacter contains one recognized species, Clavibacter michiganensis. Clavibacter michiganensis is subdivided into subspecies based on host specificity and bacteriological characteristics, with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis causing bacterial canker of tomato. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is often spread through contaminated seed leading to outbreaks of bacterial canker in tomato production areas worldwide. The frequent occurrence of non-pathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-like bacteria (CMB) is a concern for seed producers because Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a quarantine organism and detection of a non-pathogenic variant may result in destruction of an otherwise healthy seed lot. A thorough biological and genetic characterization of these seed-associated CMB strains was performed using standard biochemical tests, cell wall analyses, metabolic profiling using Biolog, and single-gene and multilocus sequence analyses. Combined, these tests revealed two distinct populations of seed-associated members of the genus Clavibacter that differed from each other, as well as from all other described subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis. DNA-DNA hybridization values are 70?% or higher, justifying placement into the single recognized species, C. michiganensis, but other analyses justify separate subspecies designations. Additionally, strains belonging to the genus Clavibacter isolated from pepper also represent a distinct population and warrant separate subspecies designation. On the basis of these data we propose subspecies designations for separate non-pathogenic subpopulations of Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis subsp. nov. for seed-associated strains represented by C55(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2691(T)?=?CFBP 8216(T)) and ZUM3936(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2690(T)?=?CFBP 8217(T)), respectively. Recognition of separate subspecies is essential for improved international seed testing operations. PMID:25481293

Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Alvarez, Anne M

2015-03-01

129

Local evolution of obligate autogamy in Epipactis helleborine subsp. neerlandica (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozyme analysis was used to assess the origin of the DanishEpipactis renzii, a local endemic of open coastal dunes. It seems to have evolved recently in several local populations of the more or less allogamousE. helleborine subsp.neerlandica. The obligately autogamousE. renzii is restricted to the easternmost part of the Danish range ofE. helleborine subsp.neerlandica, indicating that transition to obligate autogamy

H. Æ. Pedersen; B. K. Ehlers

2000-01-01

130

Morphological variation of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata genotypes and their hybrid progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-hybrid alfalfa cultivars offer the possibility of capturing non-additive genetic variation. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and subsp.sativa have been shown to form a heterotic pattern for biomass yield. Objectives of this study were to examine morphological variation\\u000a in a broad range of falcate germplasm and to determine how falcate morphological variation per se is related to the performance of falcate

Heathcliffe Riday; E. Charles Brummer

2004-01-01

131

Alfalfa Subsp. Sativa by Falcata Intersubspecific Semi-Hybrid Seed Production Using Alfalfa Leafcutter Bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry-matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator preference for purple-flowered subsp. sativa plants over the yellow-flowered subsp. falcata plants. This study was conducted to quantify

Heathcliffe Riday

2008-01-01

132

Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Untreated Water in Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease of both domestic and wild ruminants and has been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn's disease in humans. The organism is shed in the feces of infected animals and can survive for protracted periods in the environment and hence could be present in catchment areas receiving agricultural runoff. A limited survey was undertaken in Northern Ireland to test for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in untreated water entering nine water treatment works (WTWs) over a 1-year period. Three detection methods were employed, viz., immunomagnetic separation-PCR and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM) and BACTEC 12B medium, the latter both supplemented with mycobactins. Of the 192 untreated water samples tested, 15 (8%) tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis positive by one or more of the three detection methods. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was successfully isolated from eight untreated water samples, three by BACTEC culture and five by culture on HEYM. Although the highest incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in spring, overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the seasons. No significant correlation was found between numbers of coliforms or fecal coliforms and the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In general, a higher incidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in untreated water entering those WTWs that had a high mean water pH value over the sampling period. This work indicates the need to determine the efficacy of water treatment processes to either kill or remove M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from untreated water and the possible risks posed by contact with recreational water sources. PMID:16269747

Whan, Lynne; Ball, Hywel J.; Grant, Irene R.; Rowe, Michael T.

2005-01-01

133

Maximizing Capture Efficiency and Specificity of Magnetic Separation for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Cells ?  

PubMed Central

In order to introduce specificity for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis prior to a phage amplification assay, various magnetic-separation approaches, involving either antibodies or peptides, were evaluated in terms of the efficiency of capture (expressed as a percentage) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and the percentage of nonspecific binding by other Mycobacterium spp. A 50:50 mixture of MyOne Tosylactivated Dynabeads coated with the chemically synthesized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific peptides biotinylated aMp3 and biotinylated aMptD (i.e., peptide-mediated magnetic separation [PMS]) proved to be the best magnetic-separation approach for achieving 85 to 100% capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and minimal (<1%) nonspecific recovery of other Mycobacterium spp. (particularly if beads were blocked with 1% skim milk before use) from broth samples containing 103 to 104 CFU/ml. When PMS was coupled with a recently optimized phage amplification assay and used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 50-ml volumes of spiked milk, the mean 50% limit of detection (LOD50) was 14.4 PFU/50 ml of milk (equivalent to 0.3 PFU/ml). This PMS-phage assay represents a novel, rapid method for the detection and enumeration of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms in milk, and potentially other sample matrices, with results available within 48 h. PMID:20851966

Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T.; Grant, Irene R.

2010-01-01

134

Characterization of Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Dogs?  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality. This highly contagious disease is characterized by the sudden onset of clinical signs, including pyrexia, dyspnea, and hemorrhagic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is poorly understood. This study systematically characterized the histopathological changes in the lungs of 39 dogs from a large rehoming shelter in London, United Kingdom; the dogs were infected with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. An objective scoring system demonstrated that S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus caused pneumonia in 26/39 (66.7%) dogs, and most of these dogs (17/26 [65.4%]) were classified as severe fibrino-suppurative, necrotizing, and hemorrhagic. Three recently described superantigen genes (szeF, szeN, and szeP) were detected by PCR in 17/47 (36.2%) of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates; however, there was no association between the presence of these genes and the histopathological score. The lungs of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus-infected dogs with severe respiratory signs and lung pathology did however have significantly higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) than in uninfected controls, suggesting a role for an exuberant host immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:20861329

Priestnall, Simon L.; Erles, Kerstin; Brooks, Harriet W.; Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Waller, Andrew S.; Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Darby, Alistair C.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Schöniger, Sandra

2010-01-01

135

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies  

PubMed Central

Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains. PMID:23995933

Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun

2013-01-01

136

Versatile use of oriC plasmids for functional genomics of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum.  

PubMed

Replicative oriC plasmids were recently developed for several mollicutes, including three Mycoplasma species belonging to the mycoides cluster that are responsible for bovine and caprine diseases: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. In this study, oriC plasmids were evaluated in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum as genetic tools for (i) expression of heterologous proteins and (ii) gene inactivation by homologous recombination. The reporter gene lacZ, encoding beta-galactosidase, and the gene encoding spiralin, an abundant surface lipoprotein of the related mollicute Spiroplasma citri, were successfully expressed. Functional Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was detected in transformed Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum cells despite noticeable codon usage differences. The expression of spiralin in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum was assessed by colony and Western blotting. Accessibility of this protein at the cell surface and its partition into the Triton X-114 detergent phase suggest a correct maturation of the spiralin precursor. The expression of a heterologous lipoprotein in a mycoplasma raises potentially interesting applications, e.g., the use of these bacteria as live vaccines. Targeted inactivation of gene lppA encoding lipoprotein A was achieved in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum with plasmids harboring a replication origin derived from S. citri. Our results suggest that the selection of the infrequent events of homologous recombination could be enhanced by the use of oriC plasmids derived from related mollicute species. Mycoplasma gene inactivation opens the way to functional genomics in a group of bacteria for which a large wealth of genome data are already available and steadily growing. PMID:15932982

Janis, Carole; Lartigue, Carole; Frey, Joachim; Wróblewski, Henri; Thiaucourt, François; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2005-06-01

137

Flow Cytometric Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibodies in Experimentally Infected and Naturally Exposed Calves  

PubMed Central

A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032

Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, Ö.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bülte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.

2013-01-01

138

IDENTIFICATION OF GENOMIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI SUBSP. JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI SUBSP. DOYLEI AT THE NAP LOCUS LEADS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A C. JEJUNI SUBSPECIATION MULTIPLEX PCR METHOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd). Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual cli...

139

Quantification of the Sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica to Low pH and High Organic Acids using Propidium Monoazide and Quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica (S. enterica) are two pathogens that are a concern to food and animal safety due to their ability to withstand harsh conditions encountered in the natural environment and within the host during pathogenesis. Acid...

140

Description of a Novel Adhesin of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The binding and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by host cells are fibronectin (FN) dependent. In several species of mycobacteria, a specific family of proteins allows the attachment and internalization of these bacteria by epithelial cells through interaction with FN. Thus, the identification of adhesion molecules is essential to understand the pathogenesis of MAP. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize FN binding cell wall proteins of MAP. We searched for conserved adhesins within a large panel of surface immunogenic proteins of MAP and investigated a possible interaction with FN. For this purpose, a cell wall protein fraction was obtained and resolved by 2D electrophoresis. The immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and a homology search was performed. We selected elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as candidate for further studies. We demonstrated the FN-binding capability of EF-Tu using a ligand blot assay and also confirmed the interaction with FN in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The dissociation constant of EF-Tu was determined by surface plasmon resonance and displayed values within the ?M range. These data support the hypothesis that this protein could be involved in the interaction of MAP with epithelial cells through FN binding. PMID:25136616

Viale, Mariana Noelia; Echeverria-Valencia, Gabriela; Romasanta, Pablo; Mon, María Laura; Fernandez, Marisa; Malchiodi, Emilio; Romano, María Isabel; Gioffré, Andrea Karina; Santangelo, María de la Paz

2014-01-01

141

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in scavenging mammals in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

The presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in non-ruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in Johne's disease transmission. In this study we tested 472 tissues from 212 animals of six different species of scavenging mammals. All animals were taken from within a 210-square-mile area in Dane and Iowa counties of south central Wisconsin from September to May in 2003-04 and tested for the presence of MAP. We detected MAP-specific DNA in 81 of 212 (38%) scavenging mammals, in 98 of the 472 (21%) tissues; viable MAP was cultured from one coyote's ileum and lymph node tissue. Despite the low numbers of viable MAP isolated in this study, our data adds to the increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for transmission and infection of MAP in nonruminant species and provides possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The apparently high exposure of nonruminant wildlife provides potential evidence of a spill-over of MAP to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to domestic and wild ruminants. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of wildlife species in developing management strategies for Johne's disease in domestic livestock. PMID:17495318

Anderson, Jennifer L; Meece, Jennifer K; Koziczkowski, Jeff J; Clark, Dorn L; Radcliff, Roy P; Nolden, Cherrie A; Samuel, Michael D; Ellingson, Jay L E

2007-04-01

142

Prevalence on beef carcasses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA.  

PubMed

Fifty samples were collected from each of skinned and dressed carcasses, from each of culled beef breeding cows and fed beef cattle <18 months old at two beef packing plants A and B, and from culled dairy cows at a packing plant C. The 450 samples were collected by swabbing an area of about 1000 cm2 in the anal region of each carcass. DNA extracted from each swab was tested for the IS900 and F57 sequences of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) genome by two stage, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. An internal amplification control (IAC) was detected in 45 or more of each group of 50 DNA preparations. IS900 and F57 were detected in some IAC-positive preparations from all and all but one of the groups of carcasses, respectively. Of the IAC-positive preparations in each group, between 6 and 54% were positive for IS900, and between 4 and 20% were positive for F57. When preparations were tested by single stage, quantitative PCR procedures, IS900 was detected in two samples but F57 was detected in none. The MAP DNA on carcasses was probably derived from small numbers of MAP from the environment that contaminated the animals' hides. PMID:18450311

Meadus, W J; Gill, C O; Duff, P; Badoni, M; Saucier, L

2008-06-10

143

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-01-01

144

Subandrodioecy and male fitness in Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. lancifolia (Alismataceae).  

PubMed

Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. lancifolia is described as cosexual (monoecious), but the study population consisted of 84% cosexuals that typically had 35% pistillate buds and 16% predominant males that typically had 0-2% pistillate buds. Hand-pollinations showed that pistillate flowers required pollination to set seed, and pollen from both male and cosexual plants was potent. No gender switching was seen in the field or greenhouse. From 24 experimental crosses, 890 offspring were grown to maturity. Among these, all offspring of cosexual sires were cosexual, but approximately half the offspring of male sires were male, implying that maleness was inherited as a single, dominant allele. These results indicate that S. lancifolia is subandrodioecious, a very rare breeding system. It is rare, in part because its maintenance requires a large male-fitness differential between male and cosexual plants. In the study population, this condition was met by the differential survival of staminate buds on male racemes. Larvae of the weevil Listronotus appendiculatus killed many staminate buds. They did so in a vertical gradient, with buds lower on racemes safer. Male plants have replaced pistillate with staminate buds at these safer positions and thereby enjoy disproportionally higher male fitness. PMID:21684934

Muenchow, G

1998-04-01

145

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and its dipteran-specific toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa) and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa) polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six ?-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III) and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come. PMID:24686769

Ben-Dov, Eitan

2014-04-01

146

Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of a chronic enteritis of ruminants (bovine paratuberculosis (PTB)-Johne's disease) that is associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the animal production. Diagnosis is based on observation of clinical signs, the detection of antibodies in milk or serum, or evaluation of bacterial culture from feces. The limit of these methods is that they are not able to detect the disease in the subclinical stage and are applicable only when the disease is already advanced. For this reason, the main purpose of this study is to use the MAP proteome to detect novel immunoreactive proteins that may be helpful for PTB diagnoses. 2DE and 2D immunoblotting of MAP proteins were performed using sera of control cattle and PTB-infected cattle in order to highlight the specific immunoreactive proteins. Among the assigned identifiers to immunoreactive spots it was found that most of them correspond to surface-located proteins while three of them have never been described before as antigens. The identification of these proteins improves scientific knowledge that could be useful for PTB diagnoses. The sequence of the identified protein can be used for the synthesis of immunoreactive peptides that could be screened for their immunoreaction against bovine sera infected with MAP. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange consortium with identifier PXD001159 and DOI 10.6019/PXD001159. PMID:25404104

Piras, Cristian; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Greco, Viviana; Ricchi, Matteo; Arrigoni, Norma; Bassols, Anna; Urbani, Andrea; Roncada, Paola

2015-02-01

147

Anti-tumour activity of Digitalis purpurea L. subsp. heywoodii.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the anticancer effects of digitalis compounds suggesting their possible use in medical oncology. Four extracts obtained from the leaves of Digitalis purpurea subsp. heywoodii have been assessed for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines, using the SRB assay. All of them showed high cytotoxicity, producing IC50 values in the 0.78 - 15 microg/mL range with the methanolic extract being the most active, in non toxic concentrations. Steroid glycosides (gitoxigenin derivatives) were detected in this methanolic extract. Gitoxigenin and gitoxin were evaluated in the SRB assay using the three human cancer cell lines, showing IC50 values in the 0.13 - 2.8 microM range, with the renal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (TK-10) being the most sensitive one. Morphological apoptosis evaluation of the methanolic extract and both compounds on the TK-10 cell line showed that their cytotoxicity was mediated by an apoptotic effect. Finally, possible mechanisms involved in apoptosis induction by digitalis compounds are discussed. PMID:14531018

López-Lázaro, Miguel; Palma De La Peña, Nieves; Pastor, Nuria; Martín-Cordero, Carmen; Navarro, Eduardo; Cortés, Felipe; Ayuso, María Jesús; Toro, María Victoria

2003-08-01

148

Isolation of an endoglucanase gene from Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis.  

PubMed

A gene coding for endo-1, 4-beta-glucanase activity has been isolated from Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis by cloning in Escherichia coli. After restriction mapping of a 6.4 kb insert, a 2.2 kb DNA fragment was sub-cloned in pUC19 to produce the enzymically active clone pJW3. Recloning of the gene fragment in the reverse orientation in pUC18 (clone pJW4) indicated that a gene promoter was present in the cloned fragment and was able to function in E. coli. The clone pJW4 displayed increased activity which was attributed to expression from the lac promoter of pUC18. The enzyme encoded by pJW4 was optimally active at pH 5.5-6.0, and in the temperature range 37-42 degrees C. The preferred substrate was carboxymethylcellulose, but the enzyme displayed 50-60% of maximal activity on both acid-swollen cellulose and soluble xylan. No significant activity was detected on ball-milled filter paper or particulate xylan. Deletion experiments confirmed that both cellulase and xylanase activities were altered to a similar extent by deletion of DNA from the 3' end of the gene, suggesting that both are a function of the same polypeptide product. PMID:2628545

Woods, J R; Hudman, J F; Gregg, K

1989-09-01

149

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria.  

PubMed

Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can influence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice deficient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt (-/-) , a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt (-/-) mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescentis. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64 % of WT mice, but only 37 % of Agxt (-/-) mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fluxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially influence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

Klimesova, Klara; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

2015-04-01

150

Uptake and Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Human Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a bacterium sometimes found in human blood and tissue samples that may have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease in humans. To date, however, there have been few studies examining the interactions of these bacteria with human cells. Using the THP-1 human monocytic cell line, this study shows that the uptake and trafficking of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in human cells are cholesterol dependent and that these bacteria localize to cholesterol-rich compartments that are slow to acidify. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria containing phagosomes stain for the late endosomal marker Rab7, but recruitment of the Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein that regulates the fusion of bacterium-containing phagosomes with lysosomal compartments and facilitates subsequent bacterial clearance is significantly reduced. Disruption of phagosome acidification via this mechanism may contribute to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistence in human cells, but there was no evidence that internalized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also affects the survival of bacteria taken up during a secondary phagocytic event. PMID:22890992

Keown, Dayle A.; Collings, David A.

2012-01-01

151

Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk  

PubMed Central

Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plating out homogenized cheese samples onto 7H10-PANTA agar. In both the hard and the semihard cheeses, counts decreased steadily but slowly during cheese ripening. Nevertheless, viable cells could still be detected in 120-day cheese. D values were calculated at 27.8 days for hard and 45.5 days for semihard cheese. The most important factors responsible for the death of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cheese were the temperatures applied during cheese manufacture and the low pH at the early stages of cheese ripening. Since the ripening period for these raw milk cheeses lasts at least 90 to 120 days, the D values found indicate that 103 to 104 cells of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per g will be inactivated. PMID:11526024

Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

2001-01-01

152

Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-08-01

153

Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Zoonotic transmission of sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis occurs in California, USA. Human infections with various Bartonella species have been reported recently. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are ubiquitous throughout California and can become infected with both bacterial agents, making the species useful for surveillance purposes. This study examined the geographic distribution of 863 coyotes tested for Y. pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii serologic status to gain insight into the natural history of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and to characterize the spatial distribution of the two agents. We found 11.7% of specimens positive to Y. pestis and 35.5% positive to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. The two pathogens had distinct spatial clusters: Y. pestis was more prevalent in eastern portions of the state and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coastal regions. Prevalence of Y. pestis increased with increasing elevation, whereas prevalence of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii decreased with increasing elevation. There were differences in the proportions of positive animals on a yearly basis to both pathogens. PMID:12507856

Hoar, B R; Chomel, B B; Rolfe, D L; Chang, C C; Fritz, C L; Sacks, B N; Carpenter, T E

2003-01-15

154

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (?Xacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

2014-10-01

155

Detection and Verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Fresh Ileocolonic Mucosal Biopsy Specimens from Individuals with and without Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a robust and phenotypically versatile pathogen which causes chronic inflammation of the intestine in many species, including primates. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is widespread in domestic livestock and is present in retail pasteurized cows' milk in the United Kingdom and, potentially, elsewhere. Water supplies are also at risk. The involvement of M. avium subsp.

Tim J. Bull; Elizabeth J. McMinn; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Angela Skull; Damien Durkin; Penny Neild; Glenn Rhodes; Roger Pickup; John Hermon-Taylor

2003-01-01

156

THE ABILITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS TO ENTER BOVINE EPITHELIAL CELLS IS INFLUENCED BY PREEXPOSURE TO A HYPEROSMOLAR ENVIRONMENT AND INTRACELLULAR PASSAGE IN BOVINE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne’s disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp...

157

Virulence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds for domestic poultry and game birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens, turkeys, partridges and pheasants were experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida to investigate whether outbreaks of fowl cholera in avifauna might represent a risk for organic, backyard and industrial poultry production. Birds were infected intra-tracheally with a strain of P. multocida subsp. multocida (40605-1) isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds in Denmark. P. multocida subsp.

Kamille D. Petersen; Jens P. Christensen; Anders Permin; Magne Bisgaard

2001-01-01

158

Copper tolerance in the macrolichens Cladonia furcata and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis is constitutive rather than inducible  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we assessed the degree of copper (Cu) tolerance in two common lichen species (Cladonia furcata and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis) that grow on both uncontaminated substrata and the surface of waste heaps from abandoned old Cu-mines. Regardless of their locality, populations of these lichens contain identical strains of photobionts (Asterochloris clade A in C. arbuscula subsp. mitis

Martin Ba?kor; Evelin Ramóna Péli; Ivana Vantová

2011-01-01

159

Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis Strain B6 and bv. intermedius Strain 642-21.  

PubMed

Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. We sequenced the genomes of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain B6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. The genetic variability of these Australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock. PMID:25278524

Barrero, Roberto A; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Indjein, Léa; Venus, Bronwyn; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Power, John; Bellgard, Matthew I; Lew-Tabor, Ala E

2014-01-01

160

The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregano, thyme, dictamnus, marjoram, lavender, rosemary, sage and pennyroyal essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. (Fusarium solani var. coeruleum), and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on artificial growth media. The chemical composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was

Dimitra J Daferera; Basil N Ziogas; Moschos G Polissiou

2003-01-01

161

Rapid and Sensitive Method To Identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cow's Milk by DNA Methylase Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time. PMID:23275511

Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José

2013-01-01

162

Culture and Serologic Survey for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection among Southeastern White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States for infection by My- cobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was

William R. Davidson; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Victor F. Nettles; D. B. Warnell

163

The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide

Michael E Reith; Rama K Singh; Bruce Curtis; Jessica M Boyd; Anne Bouevitch; Jennifer Kimball; Janet Munholland; Colleen Murphy; Darren Sarty; Jason Williams; John HE Nash; Stewart C Johnson; Laura L Brown

2008-01-01

164

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†  

PubMed Central

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P < 0.0001). These findings indicated that B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-01-01

165

Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum Strain Pet-3, Isolated from a Lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus)  

PubMed Central

The whole-genome sequence for Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, a pathogen isolated from humans and turtles, has been reported recently. We present another completed genome sequence of the C. fetus subsp. testudinum strain pet-3, which was isolated from a lizard in Taiwan, for further genomic comparison study. PMID:25700400

Wu, Zong-Yen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Jhou, Yi-Jyun; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Shyu, Ching-Lin

2015-01-01

166

Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum Strain Pet-3, Isolated from a Lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus).  

PubMed

The whole-genome sequence for Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, a pathogen isolated from humans and turtles, has been reported recently. We present another completed genome sequence of the C. fetus subsp. testudinum strain pet-3, which was isolated from a lizard in Taiwan, for further genomic comparison study. PMID:25700400

Wang, Chao-Min; Wu, Zong-Yen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Jhou, Yi-Jyun; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Shyu, Ching-Lin

2015-01-01

167

Protection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Expressed in  

E-print Network

pigments act as UV-B photopro- tectors [11, 13]; these microorganisms are, therefore, likely to preserveProtection from UV-B Damage of Mosquito Larvicidal Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis from damage inflicted by UV-B, a sunlight component

Zaritsky, Arieh

168

Dissemination of the superantigen encoding genes seeL, seeM, szeL and szeM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed

Bacterial superantigens are one of the major virulence factors produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The two novel superantigen encoding genes seeM and seeL were described for S. equi subsp. equi which is known as the causative agent of strangles in equids. In the present study previously characterized S. equi subsp. equi strains and strains of various other animal pathogenic streptococcal species and subspecies were investigated for the presence of the superantigen encoding genes seeM and seeL by polymerase chain reaction. According to these studies seeL and seeM appeared to be a constant characteristic of all investigated S. equi subsp. equi strains. Surprisingly, one S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain (S.z. 122) was also positive for both genes. The species identity of this S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain could additionally be confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. The superantigen encoding genes could not be found among additionally investigated S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains or among strains of seven other streptococcal species. The seeL and seeM genes of the S. equi subsp. equi strain S.e. CF32 and the genes szeL and szeM of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain S.z. 122 were cloned and sequenced. A sequence comparison revealed a high degree of sequence homology between seeL, szeL, speL and seeM, szeM and speM, respectively. The superantigenic toxins L and M seemed to be widely distributed virulence factors of S. equi subsp. equi, rare among S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus but did not occur among a number of other animal pathogenic streptococcal species. PMID:15953700

Alber, J; El-Sayed, A; Estoepangestie, S; Lämmler, C; Zschöck, M

2005-08-10

169

Persistence and recycling of bioinsecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in contrasting environments: evidence from field monitoring and laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

Sprays of commercial preparations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are widely used for the control of mosquito larvae. Despite an abundant literature on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis field efficiency on mosquito control, few studies have evaluated the fate of spores in the environment after treatments. In the present article, two complementary experiments were conducted to study the effect of different parameters on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence and recycling, in field conditions and in the laboratory. First, we monitored B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence in the field in two contrasting regions in France: the Rhône-Alpes region, where mosquito breeding sites are temporary ponds under forest cover with large amounts of decaying leaf matter on the ground and the Mediterranean region characterized by open breeding sites such as brackish marshes. Viable B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores can persist for months after a treatment, and their quantity is explained both by the vegetation type and by the number of local treatments. We found no evidence of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling in the field. Then, we tested the effect of water level, substrate type, salinity and presence of mosquito larvae on the persistence/recycling of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in controlled laboratory conditions (microcosms). We found no effect of change in water level or salinity on B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis persistence over time (75 days). B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores tended to persist longer in substrates containing organic matter compared to sand-only substrates. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling only occurred in presence of mosquito larvae but was unrelated to the presence of organic matter. PMID:24402370

Duchet, Claire; Tetreau, Guillaume; Marie, Albane; Rey, Delphine; Besnard, Gilles; Perrin, Yvon; Paris, Margot; David, Jean-Philippe; Lagneau, Christophe; Després, Laurence

2014-04-01

170

Invasion and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during early stages of Johne's disease in calves.  

PubMed

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in cattle and is a serious problem for the dairy industry worldwide. Development of models to mimic aspects of Johne's disease remains an elusive goal because of the chronic nature of the disease. In this report, we describe a surgical approach employed to characterize the very early stages of infection of calves with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. To our surprise, strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were able to traverse the intestinal tissues within 1 h of infection in order to colonize distant organs, such as the liver and lymph nodes. Both the ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes were persistently infected for months following intestinal deposition of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis despite a lack of fecal shedding of mycobacteria. During the first 9 months of infection, humoral immune responses were not detected. Nonetheless, using flow cytometric analysis, we detected a significant change in the cells participating in the inflammatory responses of infected calves compared to cells in a control animal. Additionally, the levels of cytokines detected in both the ileum and the lymph nodes indicated that there were TH1-type-associated cellular responses but not TH2-type-associated humoral responses. Finally, surgical inoculation of a wild-type strain and a mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain (with an inactivated gcpE gene) demonstrated the ability of the model which we developed to differentiate between the wild-type strain and a mutant strain of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis deficient in tissue colonization and invasion. Overall, novel insights into the early stages of Johne's disease were obtained, and a practical model of mycobacterial invasiveness was developed. A similar approach can be used for other enteric bacteria. PMID:17296749

Wu, Chia-wei; Livesey, Michael; Schmoller, Shelly K; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Steinberg, Howard; Davis, William C; Hamilton, Mary Jo; Talaat, Adel M

2007-05-01

171

Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Isolated from Feces, Water and Fish in Mediterranean Spain  

PubMed Central

Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004–2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8–100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993–1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD50 of 3.3×106 CFU fish?1) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

2012-01-01

172

Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104

Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

2011-01-01

173

Genome-Wide DNA Microarray Analysis of Francisella tularensis Strains Demonstrates Extensive Genetic Conservation within the Species but Identifies Regions That Are Unique to the Highly Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to ex- plain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four rec- ognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarc- tica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray

Martien Broekhuijsen; Par Larsson; Anders Johansson; Mona Bystrom; Ulla Eriksson; Eva Larsson; Richard G. Prior; Anders Sjostedt; Richard W. Titball; Mats Forsman; TNO Prins

2003-01-01

174

Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in California coyotes, 1994-1998.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in coyotes (Canis latrans) in California ranged from 51% in central to 34% in southern and 7% in northern California. Seropositive coyotes were more likely to be from coastal than inland counties (p clustered distribution of Bartonella seropositivity in coyotes suggests that B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection is vectorborne. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate which arthropods are vectors and what the mode of transmission is from wildlife to domestic dogs and possibly humans. PMID:10511529

Chang, C; Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Simpson, D C; Smith, C R; Kramer, V L

1999-01-01

175

Finished Genome of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis Strain CP4, an Applied Ethanol Producer.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis is one of the most rigorous ethanol-producing organisms known to date, considered by many to be the prokaryotic alternative to yeast. The two most applied Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis strains, ZM4 and CP4, derive from Recife, Brazil, and have been isolated from sugarcane fermentations. Of these, ZM4 was the first Z. mobilis representative strain to be sequenced and analyzed. Here, we report the finishing of the genome sequence of strain CP4, which is highly similar but not identical to that of ZM4. PMID:24407627

Kouvelis, Vassili N; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Tampakopoulou, Vassileia-Olga; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

2014-01-01

176

Fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis by ribotyping.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To carry out an epidemiologic evaluation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis outbreaks in households and small communities by means of rRNA gene restriction pattern analysis (ribotyping). METHODS: One hundred Enteritidis isolates dating from 1989 to 1994 which could be allocated epidemiologically to different sources or to small community outbreaks were investigated with ribotyping, a fingerprinting method in which bacterial DNA is hybridized with the biotin-labeled plasmid pKK 3535 containing a ribosomal RNA operon of Escherichia coli to determine the ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns. RESULTS: Four different ribotyping patterns were found with the restriction endonuclease Smal and nine with Sphl. Ribotypes of isolates which could be allocated epidemiologically to a common source usually corresponded. Almost 60% of the Enteritidis infections had the ribotyping pattern Sphl-A. In contrast, this pattern was not found in any of the five Enteritidis strains isolated in 1989. The suspicion that Enteritidis phage type 4 infections are caused by consumption of insufficiently heated eggs is supported by the fact that the ribotyping pattern Sph1-A was found in isolates from eggs and from human specimens. CONCLUSIONS: As patterns Sphl-A and Smal-J appeared in 58% and 75% of the isolates, respectively, ribotyping cannot be used for the differentiation between various outbreaks with these two patterns. In cases where the Enteritidis strains showed less frequent patterns, ribotyping seems to be a practical tool for the identification of infection chains. In addition newly appearing ribotyping patterns can give information about the epidemiologic development of Enteritidis infection. PMID:11864109

Lippelt, Meike; de Isele, Theresa Sanabria; Kist, Manfred

1997-04-01

177

Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs. PMID:20419133

Molins, Claudia R; Delorey, Mark J; Yockey, Brook M; Young, John W; Sheldon, Sarah W; Reese, Sara M; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

2010-01-01

178

Virulence Differences Among Francisella tularensis Subsp. tularensis Clades in Mice  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs. PMID:20419133

Molins, Claudia R.; Delorey, Mark J.; Yockey, Brook M.; Young, John W.; Sheldon, Sarah W.; Reese, Sara M.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Petersen, Jeannine M.

2010-01-01

179

Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of pasteurization and the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk have been identified in quantitative risk analysis as the most critical factors influencing the potential presence of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in dairy products. A quantitative assessment of the lethality of pasteurization was undertaken using an industrial pasteurizer designed for research purposes with a validated Reynolds number of 62,112 and flow rates of 3,000 liters/h. M. paratuberculosis was artificially added to raw whole milk, which was then homogenized, pasteurized, and cultured, using a sensitive technique capable of detecting one organism per 10 ml of milk. Twenty batches of milk containing 10(3) to 10(4) organisms/ml were processed with combinations of three temperatures of 72, 75, and 78 degrees C and three time intervals of 15, 20, and 25 s. Thirty 50-ml milk samples from each processed batch were cultured, and the logarithmic reduction in M. paratuberculosis organisms was determined. In 17 of the 20 runs, no viable M. paratuberculosis organisms were detected, which represented > 6-log10 reductions during pasteurization. These experiments were conducted with very heavily artificially contaminated milk to facilitate the measurement of the logarithmic reduction. In three of the 20 runs of milk, pasteurized at 72 degrees C for 15 s, 75 degrees C for 25 s, and 78 degrees C for 15 s, a few viable organisms (0.002 to 0.004 CFU/ml) were detected. Pasteurization at all temperatures and holding times was found to be very effective in killing M. paratuberculosis, resulting in a reduction of > 6 log10 in 85% of runs and > 4 log10 in 14% of runs. PMID:15812001

McDonald, Wendy L; O'Riley, Kimberly J; Schroen, Christopher J; Condron, Robin J

2005-04-01

180

Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to assess spontaneous selfing, self-compatibility and effects of pollen source (hermaphroditic vs. male flowers). Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth and reproductive success was assessed by fruit, seed and seedling numbers and characteristics. The pollinator guild was surveyed and the pollination distance determined both by direct observations and by indirect fluorescent dye dispersal. Key Results The species is probably pollinated by several Hymenoptera, principally by Hypotrigona para. Pollinator flight distances varied from 25 to 69 cm. No evidence for apomixis or spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of insect visitors was found. The self-fertility index (SFI = 0) indicated a total dependence on pollinators for reproductive success. The effects of hand pollination on fruit set, seed number and seedling fitness differed among years. Pollen tube growth and reproductive success did not differ between self- and cross-pollinations. Accordingly, a high self-compatibility index for the fruit set (SCI = 1·00) and the seed number (SCI = 0·98) and a low inbreeding depression at all developmental stages (cumulative ? = 0·126) suggest a high selfing ability. Finally, pollen origin had no effect on fruit and seed sets. Conclusions This andromonoecious species has the potential for a mixed mating system with high dependence on insect-mediated pollination. The selfing rate through geitonogamy should be important. PMID:19671577

Kouonon, Leonie C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, Arsene I.; Bertin, Pierre; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Yao

2009-01-01

181

Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum by Duplex High-Resolution Melt Analysis and Subspecies-Specific Real-Time PCR.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of mycobacterial species and subspecies is essential to evaluate their significance and to perform epidemiological studies. The subspecies of Mycobacterium avium have different attributes but coincide in their zoonotic potential. Our knowledge about M. avium subsp. silvaticum is limited, since its identification is uncertain. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. silvaticum can be discriminated from each other based only on phenotypic characteristics, as they have almost identical genome sequences. Here we describe the development of a diagnostic method which enables the molecular identification of M. avium subsp. silvaticum and discrimination from M. avium subsp. avium based on genomic differences in a duplex high-resolution melt and M. avium subsp. silvaticum-specific mismatch real-time PCR. The developed assay was tested on reference strains and 199 field isolates, which were analyzed by phenotypic methods previously. This assay not only identified all 63 M. avium subsp. silvaticum and 138 M. avium subsp. avium strains correctly but also enabled the detection of mixed M. avium subsp. avium-M. avium subsp. silvaticum cultures. This is the first time that such a large panel of strains has been analyzed, and we also report the first isolation of M. avium subsp. silvaticum from red fox, red deer, wild boar, cattle, and badger. This assay is reliable, rapid, simple, inexpensive, and robust. It eliminates the long-existing problem of ambiguous phenotypic identification and opens up the possibility for detailed and comprehensive strain studies. PMID:25740770

Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám

2015-05-01

182

Reclassification of Staphylococcus jettensis De Bel et al. 2013 as Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. and emended description of Staphylococcus petrasii Pantucek et al. 2013.  

PubMed

The type and clinical strains of two recently described coagulase-negative species of the genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus petrasii and Staphylococcus jettensis, were compared using dnaJ, tuf, gap, hsp60 and rpoB gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotyping, repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and extensive biochemical characterization. Based on the results, the species description of S. petrasii has been emended and S. jettensis should be reclassified as a novel subspecies within S. petrasii for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SEQ110(T) (?=?LMG 26879(T)?=?CCUG 62657(T)?=?DSM 26618(T)?=?CCM 8494(T)). PMID:25261165

De Bel, Annelies; Švec, Pavel; Petráš, Petr; Sedlá?ek, Ivo; Pant??ek, Roman; Echahidi, Fedoua; Piérard, Denis; Vandamme, Peter

2014-12-01

183

Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

2011-01-01

184

Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J  

PubMed Central

The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

2014-01-01

185

Polyphasic taxonomic revision of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex: proposal to emend the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and reclassify current R. syzygii strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii subsp. nov., R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov., banana blood disease bacterium strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. and R. solanacearum phylotype I and III strains as Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov.  

PubMed

The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex has long been recognized as a group of phenotypically diverse strains that can be subdivided into four phylotypes. Using a polyphasic taxonomic approach on an extensive set of strains, this study provides evidence for a taxonomic and nomenclatural revision of members of this complex. Data obtained from phylogenetic analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS gene sequences, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region sequences and partial endoglucanase (egl) gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridizations demonstrate that the R. solanacearum species complex comprises three genospecies. One of these includes the type strain of Ralstonia solanacearum and consists of strains of R. solanacearum phylotype II only. The second genospecies includes the type strain of Ralstonia syzygii and contains only phylotype IV strains. This genospecies is subdivided into three distinct groups, namely R. syzygii, the causal agent of Sumatra disease on clove trees in Indonesia, R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains isolated from different host plants mostly from Indonesia, and strains of the blood disease bacterium (BDB), the causal agent of the banana blood disease, a bacterial wilt disease in Indonesia that affects bananas and plantains. The last genospecies is composed of R. solanacearum strains that belong to phylotypes I and III. As these genospecies are also supported by phenotypic data that allow the differentiation of the three genospecies, the following taxonomic proposals are made: emendation of the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and descriptions of Ralstonia syzygii subsp. nov. (type strain R 001(T)?=?LMG 10661(T)?=?DSM 7385(T)) for the current R. syzygii strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 464(T)?=?LMG 27703(T)?=?DSM 27478(T)) for the current R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis subsp. nov. (type strain UQRS 627(T)?=?LMG 27706(T)?=?DSM 27477(T)) for the BDB strains and Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov. (type strain UQRS 461(T)?=?LMG 9673(T)?=?NCPPB 1029(T)) for the strains of R. solanacearum phylotypes I and III. PMID:24944341

Safni, Irda; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fegan, Mark; Sly, Lindsay; Kappler, Ulrike

2014-09-01

186

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Vatr1 and Vatr2 transcriptional regulators are required for virulence in tomato.  

PubMed

The plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for wilt and canker disease of tomato. Although disease development is well characterized and diagnosed, molecular mechanisms of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence are poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized two C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis transcriptional regulators, Vatr1 and Vatr2, that are involved in pathogenicity of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Vatr1 and Vatr2 belong to TetR and MocR families of transcriptional regulators, respectively. Mutations in their corresponding genes caused attenuated virulence, with the ?vatr2 mutant showing a more dramatic effect than ?vatr1. Although both mutants grew well in vitro and reached a high titer in planta, they caused reduced wilting and canker development in infected plants compared with the wild-type bacterium. They also led to a reduced expression of the ethylene-synthesizing tomato enzyme ACC-oxidase compared with wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and to reduced ethylene production in the plant. Transcriptomic analysis of wild-type C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and the two mutants under infection-mimicking conditions revealed that Vatr1 and Vatr2 regulate expression of virulence factors, membrane and secreted proteins, and signal-transducing proteins. A 70% overlap between the sets of genes positively regulated by Vatr1 and Vatr2 suggests that these transcriptional regulators are on the same molecular pathway responsible for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis virulence. PMID:24940988

Savidor, Alon; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Barash, Isaac; Sessa, Guido

2014-10-01

187

Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2014-02-01

188

Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID:23716614

Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip

2013-01-01

189

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Free-Ranging Birds and Mammals on Livestock Premises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract

Joseph L. Corn; Elizabeth J. B. Manning; Srinand Sreevatsan; John R. Fischer

2005-01-01

190

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne?s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn?s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne?s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

191

Influence of the carbon source on nisin production in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nisin production by Lactucmcus lrrctis subsp. lactis NIZO 22186 was studied in batch fermentation using a complex medium. Nisin production showed primary metabolite kinetics: nisin biosynthesis took place during the active growth phase and completely stopped when cells entered the stationary phase. A stringent correlation could be observed between the expression of the prenisin gene (nisA) and the synthesis of

LUC DE VUYST; ERICK J. VANDAMME

1992-01-01

192

VERTEBRATE TOXICOLOGY OF THE SOLUBILIZED PROTEINS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SUBSP. ISRAELENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review summarizes the studies done with the mammalian toxic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) 28 kDa cytA protein. The data is relevant to hazard identification studies with bacterial pesticides. The data shows that cytA produces lethal physiological changes in...

193

Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and rep...

194

INGESTION AND ADSORPTION OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' BY 'GAMMARUS LACUSTRIS' IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-hour periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. The experiments verified that traditional exp...

195

NEW METHOD OF SEROLOGICAL TESTING FOR MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS (JOHNE'S DISEASE) BY FLOW CYTOMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease (JD) or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of livestock and wild ruminants worldwide. MAP has also been suspected as an etiologic agent of Crohn’s disease in humans. Attem...

196

Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. We report the genome sequence of a plant pathogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043, the causative agent of soft rot and blackleg potato diseases. Approximately 33% of Eca genes are not

K. S. Bell; M. Sebaihia; L. Pritchard; M. T. G. Holden; L. J. Hyman; M. C. Holeva; N. R. Thomson; S. D. Bentley; L. J. C. Churcher; K. Mungall; R. Atkin; N. Bason; K. Brooks; T. Chillingworth; K. Clark; J. Doggett; A. Fraser; Z. Hance; H. Hauser; K. Jagels; S. Moule; H. Norbertczak; D. Ormond; C. Price; M. A. Quail; M. Sanders; D. Walker; S. Whitehead; G. P. C. Salmond; P. R. J. Birch; J. Parkhill; I. K. Toth

2004-01-01

197

Unraveling the Host Response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: One Thread at a Time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

198

Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves after Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the infection process to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is tantamount to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for the control of this disease in the field. The current study compared the effectiveness of oral and intraperitoneal methods of experimental in...

199

Experimental infection of a bovine model with human isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. We developed a bovine ileal cannulation model to facilitate comparison of the immune response to Map and the mechanisms of pathogenesis in cattle and humans. Initial studies showed a T cannula could be maintained

Andrew J. Allen; Kun-Taek Park; George M. Barrington; Kevin K. Lahmers; Gaber S. Abdellrazeq; Heba M. Rihan; Srinand Sreevatsan; Christopher Davies; Mary J. Hamilton; William C. Davis

2011-01-01

200

No Holes Barred: Invasion of the Intestinal Mucosa by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcriptional response. Recent details have given a new appreciation for the dynamic interplay between the host and bacterium that occurs at the outset of infection. An initial look at the global expression pathways of the host has shown a circumvention of the cell communication pathway by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which loosens the integrity of the tight junctions. We now know that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis activates the epithelial layer and also actively recruits macrophages to the site of infection. These notable findings are summarized along with added mechanistic details of the early infection model. We conclude by proposing critical next steps to further elucidate the process of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invasion. PMID:23940208

Bermudez, Luiz E.

2013-01-01

201

Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves. PMID:24689051

Rossier, Christophe; Baehler, Corinne; Schmitt, Sarah

2014-01-01

202

Immunogenicity of Proteome-Determined Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Proteins in Sheep with Paratuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis. Detecting animals with paratuberculosis infections is difficult because the currently available tools have low sensitivity and lack specificity; these tools are prone to generating spurious positive test results caused by exposure to environmental M. avium complex organisms. To generate candidate antigens for incorporation into a specific test for paratuberculosis, subspecies-specific proteins were determined by proteomic comparison of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium. Analysis was aimed at revealing proteins only expressed (or predominant) in the protein profile of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolved approximately 1,000 protein spots from each subspecies. Proteome analysis identified protein spots whose expression profile appeared markedly increased in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 32 were identified by analysis of their tryptic peptide profile by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis. Thirty of these proteins were cloned, and their recombinant proteins were expressed. Ovine paratuberculosis sera were used to assess their immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and dot blot analysis. Seventeen proteins were detected in at least one of the immunoassays, and eleven proteins were detected by ELISA with an optical density in excess of the cutoff of 0.1 in four of six sera tested. The immunoreactivity of these proteins indicates their potential as unique diagnostic antigens for the development of a specific serological detection of paratuberculosis. PMID:18845834

Hughes, Valerie; Bannantine, John P.; Denham, Susan; Smith, Stuart; Garcia-Sanchez, Alfredo; Sales, Jill; Paustian, Michael L.; Mclean, Kevin; Stevenson, Karen

2008-01-01

203

Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

204

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. CITRULLI IN CHINA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of watermelon fruit blotch, was identified in watermelon in China in 2000 (T. Zhao et al., Acta Phytopathol. Sinica 4: 357-64. 2002). Although a considerable amount of watermelon and melon seed is produced in China, no information is availabl...

205

Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis of the Entomocidal Parasporal Crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki†  

PubMed Central

Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to quantitate the soluble parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The method described is rapid, reliable, specific, and extremely accurate, and it can be used to measure crystal toxin in commercial microbial insecticides that contain a mixture of spores, vegetative cells, and carrier materials. Images PMID:16345656

Andrews, R. E.; Iandolo, J. J.; Campbell, B. S.; Davidson, L. I.; Bulla, L. A.

1980-01-01

206

EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF THE CYTOLYTIC FACTOR OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' ON MOSQUITO TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Solubilized crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was fractionated by affinity chromotography using a monoclonal antibody directed against the crystal's 28 kDa peptide. The 28 kDa peptide ws found to be relatively nontoxic to mosquito larvae although it doe...

207

Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...

208

Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac), and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using

Márcia R Soares; Agda P Facincani; Rafael M Ferreira; Leandro M Moreira; Julio CF de Oliveira; Jesus A Ferro; Rogério Meneghini; Fábio C Gozzo

2010-01-01

209

Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

210

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources.  

PubMed

We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

Benahmed, Faiza H; Gopinath, Gopal R; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S; Hanes, Darcy E; Rasmussen, Mark A; Davidson, Maureen K

2014-01-01

211

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

Benahmed, Faiza H.; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G.; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Rasmussen, Mark A.

2014-01-01

212

Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1  

PubMed Central

We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. PMID:25676774

Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

2015-01-01

213

Progress towards a commerical PCS-based seed assay for Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To develop a commercial-scale PCR-based assay for Acidovorax. avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon seed, parameters for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) were optimized. Optimal conditions for target cell recovery included 40 'g of polyclonal anti-AAC antibody per 108 immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) for ...

214

Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

2014-01-01

215

Intraspecific chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of 50 samples of essential oil of individual plants of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica was investigated by GC, GC–MS and 13C NMR. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinyl acetate, ?-3-carene, myrcene and ?-phellandrene were found to be the main constituents. The results were submitted to cluster analysis and discriminant analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be

Serge Rezzi; Carlos Cavaleiro; Ange Bighelli; Ligia Salgueiro; António Proença da Cunha; Joseph Casanova

2001-01-01

216

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

217

Immunologic responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois protein cocktail vaccines in a mouse model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis characterized by severe diarrhea, wasting and a decline in milk production caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculois (MAP). The vaccine currently on the market has some limitations including a severe injection site reactio...

218

Immunologic Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves After Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection models are useful for studying host responses to infection to aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The majority of experimental models for ruminants have utilized an oral inoculation of live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in order to establish infecti...

219

Induction of B Cell Responses Upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal models are useful for studying host responses to infection and aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study was designed to compare the effects of different methods of experimental infection: Oral (Mycobacterium avium subsp. parauberculosis (MAP) strain K-10; Or...

220

The Transport of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis through Saturated Aquifer Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric infection causing diarrhea and wasting in cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. Because Johne’s disease is spread by the ingestion of M. paratuberculosis, a good understanding...

221

Scalp Abscess Due to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, First Report in a Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, a Gram-positive, branching filamentous bacteria, was isolated from a scalp infection in a patient from Pondicherry, India. Phenotypic tests identified the isolate as a Streptomyces species, but 16S rRNA sequence analysis provided the species identification required for tracking of this emerging pathogen. PMID:22278841

Pellegrini, Gerald J.; Graziano, James C.; Ragunathan, Latha; Bhat, Malini A.; Hemashettar, Basavaraj M.

2012-01-01

222

Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of the watermelon pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial blight and fruit blotch of watermelon and other cucurbits, has caused great damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the USA. Understanding the origin of this emerging disease is important for controlling outbrea...

223

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more

Edward B Breitschwerdt; Ricardo G Maggi; Paul M Lantos; Christopher W Woods; Barbara C Hegarty; Julie M Bradley

2010-01-01

224

The nucleotide sequence of a carboxymethylcellulase gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for one of the carboxymethycellulases (CMCase), expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa, has been determined. The structural gene consists of an open reading frame, commencing with an ATG start codon, of 2886 base pairs followed by a TAA stop codon. The gene was shown to code for a signal peptide which closely

Judith Hall; Harry J. Gilbert

1988-01-01

225

Rapid Expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins for Antigen Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulo- matous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We describe here an approach that utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for the rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins for

Lingling Li; Shirin Munir; John P. Bannantine; Srinand Sreevatsan; Sagarika Kanjilal; Vivek Kapur

2007-01-01

226

Rapid Expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins for Antigen Discovery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We here describe an approach that utilizes t...

227

An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

228

Primary transcriptomes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis reveal proprietary pathways in tissue and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistently infect intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes leading to a prolonged subclinical disease. We investigated the intracellular lifestyle of MAP in the intestines and lymph nodes to understand the MAP pathways that function to govern th...

229

Scalp abscess due to Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, first report in a human infection.  

PubMed

Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, a Gram-positive, branching filamentous bacteria, was isolated from a scalp infection in a patient from Pondicherry, India. Phenotypic tests identified the isolate as a Streptomyces species, but 16S rRNA sequence analysis provided the species identification required for tracking of this emerging pathogen. PMID:22278841

Pellegrini, Gerald J; Graziano, James C; Ragunathan, Latha; Bhat, Malini A; Hemashettar, Basavaraj M; Brown, June M

2012-04-01

230

Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

231

Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

2015-01-01

232

Molecular markers to determine ecological fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus thuringiensis (“Bt”) is a ubiquitous soil bacterium with entomopathogenic properties. One strain, Bt subsp. kurstaki (“Btk”), is highly toxic to lepidopteran larvae and used in many commercial products for biological pest control. We designed a set of DNA markers that successfully identifi...

233

Experimental Infection of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of domestic ruminants as well as some non-domestic ruminants. Paratuberculosis is characterized by a protracted subclinical phase followed by clinical signs such...

234

Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted

Christopher P. Bickford; Thomas E. Kolb; Brian W. Geils

2005-01-01

235

Exploring the strain-specific attachment of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on food contact surfaces.  

PubMed

The psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum has emerged as one of the most prevalent specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) of packaged, cold-stored food products in Northern Europe. The whole genome sequencing of the type strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum LMG 18811(T) revealed genes encoding for proteins related to adhesion. In the present study the attachment of six food and environmental isolates was monitored on stainless steel (SS) and glass surfaces incubated (7°C for 5-9days) in two food simulating substrates (i.e. sweet bell pepper juice and boiled eggs in brine). The selection encompassed unique genotypes, isolated from different food products or sampling sites as well as slime-forming biotypes. The evaluation of the attached cells was performed with the bead vortexing method and a viability staining assay coupled with epifluorescence microscopy. On SS surfaces the slime-formers showed the lowest attachment (3.3-4.5logCFU/cm(2)), while strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum ab2, which was isolated from an acetic acid bath in a vegetable salad company, reached significantly higher populations of attached cells exceeding 7logCFU/cm(2). Strain ab2 formed dense cell aggregations on SS after 9days of incubation in sweet bell pepper juice. The attachment ability of L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on surfaces documented in the present study extends our knowledge and understanding of the spoilage potential and intra-subspecies diversity of this microbe. PMID:25625910

Pothakos, Vasileios; Aulia, Yosi Ayu; Van der Linden, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

2015-04-16

236

Reproductive ecology of the Australian herb Trachymene incisa subsp.?incisa (Apiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Apiaceae, subtle variation in reproductive characters such as dichogamy, pollinator specificity and umbel density may cause cryptic specialisation and be responsible for the diversity of life histories and gender expression in the family. To address the paucity of information for Australian species we investigated the reproductive ecology of the native perennial herb, Trachymene incisa Rudge subsp. incisa. T.

Yvonne C. DavilaA; Glenda M. Wardle

2002-01-01

237

Analysis of the Immune Response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johne's disease of cattle is widespread and causes significant economic loss to producers. Control has been hindered by limited understanding of the immune response to the causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and lack of an effective vaccine and sensitive specific diagnostic assays. The present study was conducted to gain insight into factors affecting the immune response to M. avium

Hye Cheong Koo; Yong Ho Park; Mary Jo Hamilton; George M. Barrington; Christopher J. Davies; Jong Bae Kim; John L. Dahl; W. Ray Waters; William C. Davis

2004-01-01

238

Functional Characterization of Iron Dependent Regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we investigated an iron dependent regulator (IdeR) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). IdeR is a transcriptional factor that plays a global iron regulatory role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with a 19-bp recognition sequence. IdeR recognition sites within MAP ge...

239

Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnostics of paratuberculosis, however, PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal material is widely used today, having demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. To insure the most efficient and r...

240

DETECTION OF BOVINE MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES FROM AN INFECTED ANIMAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne’s disease, a chronic, enteric infection that is passed from adults to calves via the fecal-oral route. Eradication of M. paratuberculosis from infected farms has been difficult and is likely due to long-ter...

241

Induction of B Cell Responses upon Experimental Infection of Neonatal Calves with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal models are useful for studying host responses to infection and aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study was designed to compare the effects of different methods of experimental infection: Oral (Mycobacterium avium subsp. parauberculosis (MAP) strain K-10; Or...

242

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Biofilms on Livestock Watering Trough Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric infection that affects ruminants. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of Mycobacterium sp. in nature and the fact that Johne’s disease has been reported worldwide, little rese...

243

Surface Proteome of “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” during the Early Stages of Macrophage Infection  

PubMed Central

“Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” is a robust and pervasive environmental bacterium that can cause opportunistic infections in humans. The bacterium overcomes the host immune response and is capable of surviving and replicating within host macrophages. Little is known about the bacterial mechanisms that facilitate these processes, but it can be expected that surface-exposed proteins play an important role. In this study, the selective biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, streptavidin affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface-exposed proteome of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. This analysis detected more than 100 proteins exposed at the bacterial surface of M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Comparisons of surface-exposed proteins between conditions simulating early infection identified several groups of proteins whose presence on the bacterial surface was either constitutive or appeared to be unique to specific culture conditions. This proteomic profile facilitates an improved understanding of M. avium subsp. hominissuis and how it establishes infection. Additionally, surface-exposed proteins are excellent targets for the host adaptive immune system, and their identification can inform the development of novel treatments, diagnostic tools, and vaccines for mycobacterial disease. PMID:22392927

McNamara, Michael; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

244

Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Longitudinal Study of Three Dairy Herds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were passive shedding animals or whether they were truly infected with MAP. We also evaluated whether these MAP-infected animals could have been infected as adults by ...

245

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity. PMID:25278529

Oliveira, Letícia C.; Saraiva, Tessália D. L.; Soares, Siomar C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Miranda, Fábio; Freire, Matheus; Renan, Wendel; Júnior, Alberto F. O.; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Souza, Bianca M.; Castro, Camila P.; Diniz, Carlos A. A.; Rocha, Clarissa S.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; de Aguiar, Edgar L.; Folador, Edson L.; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Aburjaile, Flavia F.; Gonçalves, Lucas A.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Azevedo, Marcela; Agresti, Pamela C. M.; Silva, Renata F.; Tiwari, Sandeep; Almeida, Sintia S.; Hassan, Syed S.; Pereira, Vanessa B.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Pereira, Felipe L.; Leal, Carlos A. G.; Figueiredo, Henrique C. P.; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson

2014-01-01

246

Review of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a slow growing bacterium that can infect ruminants and remain latent for years without development of any clinical signs or disease. Diagnosis is often based on detection of MAP antibodies in milk or serum samples or culture of bacteria from faeces; however, these diagnostic tools are often not applicable until years after infection. Detection

Heidi Mikkelsen; Claus Aagaard; Søren Saxmose Nielsen; Gregers Jungersen

2011-01-01

247

Zur Blütenmorphologie und Bestäubungsökologie von Veratrum album subsp. lobelianum (Bernh.)Rchb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung BeiVeratrum album subsp.lobelianum (Bernh.)Rchb. wurden im Gebirge Krkonoše (Riesengebirge) Blütenbau, Blütedauer und Blühverlauf studiert; besondere Berücksichtigung fanden dabei Vorkommen von Zwitterblüten und eingeschlechtlichen Blüten, Bau des Nektariums, Art und Weise der Nektarsekretion, Funktionsdauer der Narbe und Absinken der Keimfähigkeit des Pollens während der Anthese.

Erich Daumann

1967-01-01

248

Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at

Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi; Ernani S. Sant; Luiz H. Beirão

249

Continuous production ofl-lactic acid from whey permeate by immobilized Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of l-lactic acid from whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, by fermentation with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei was investigated. A fermentation medium consisting of permeate and supplements, which enables exponential growth of the organisms, was developed. A fast method for determination of free and immobilized biomass in solid-rich media, based on

Wolfgang Krischke; Martin Schröder; Walter Trösch

1991-01-01

250

Iron-sparing Response of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is Strain Dependent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Two genotypically and microbiologically distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) exist – the type I and type II strains that primarily infect sheep and cattle, respectively. Concentration of iron in the cultivation medium has been suggested as one contributin...

251

Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).  

PubMed

The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

2013-03-01

252

Identification of resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli among melon (Cucumis spp.) Plant Introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) is a seed-borne disease that threatens most cucurbit crops. Although, limited resistance has been found in a small number of Plant Introductions (PI) in watermelon (Citrullus spp.), no significant activity ...

253

Development and Application of a Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (formerly known as S. bovis biotype I) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in animals and in up to 15% of healthy humans. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen that can cause infectious endocarditis, mastitis, and septicemia. The number of infections is increasing, but the transmission routes and zoonotic potential remain unknown. To assess the zoonotic potential and characterize the epidemiological structure of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, we established a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. We amplified and sequenced internal fragments of seven housekeeping genes. The resulting sequences were analyzed with BioNumerics software 6.6 by using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages algorithm. A total of 101 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains isolated from animals, humans, and environmental samples were analyzed and divided into 50 sequence types. Our first results highlight the importance of this MLST scheme for investigating the epidemiology, transmission patterns, and infection chains of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. PMID:24789199

Dumke, J.; Hinse, D.; Vollmer, T.; Knabbe, C.

2014-01-01

254

Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Biofilms on Livestock Watering Trough Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of Mycobacterium sp. in nature and the fact that Johne’s disease has been reported worldwide, little research has been done to assess the survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in agricultural environments. The goal of this stu...

255

Purification of native HBHA from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Paratuberculosis remains today a major global problem in animal health, especially for dairy cattle. However, the diagnosis of its etiologic agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), still lacks sensitivity because of the lack of available antigens. Little is known about the virulence factors for this pathogen. In this study we have developed a method to produce and purify the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), a major adhesin of Mycobacteria, from a culture of Map. Findings For this extremely slow-growing Mycobacterium, a culture was established in a 3-liter bioreactor. Using the bioreactor the amount of the Map biomass was increased 5-fold compared to a classical culture in flasks. The map-HBHA was purified from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography on HiTrap columns. Binding of map-HBHA onto heparin-Sepharose can be reduced in the presence of salt. Consequently, all steps of sample preparation and column equilibration were carried out in 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.2). The map-HBHA was eluted by a linear NaCl gradient. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the native form of map-HBHA has posttranslational modifications, including the removal of the initiation methionine, acetylation of the alanine residue at the N-terminal extremity and the presence of methylated lysines in the C-terminal domain of the protein. Conclusions An optimized culture of Map in a bioreactor was established to purify the native map-HBHA from a Map lysate by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The availability of this antigen offers the possibility to study the structure of the protein and to examine its role in pathogenicity, in particular to better understand the specific interactions of Map with the intestinal tissue. The map-HBHA obtained in its native immunogenic form may also be useful to improve the diagnostic test, especially for the development of a new T-cell-based interferon gamma release assays. PMID:23390963

2013-01-01

256

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases. PMID:22078099

2011-01-01

257

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging birds and mammals on livestock premises.  

PubMed

Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract were harvested from birds and small mammals. Cultures were performed by using radiometric culture and acid-fast isolates were identified by 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency characteristics. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from tissues and feces from 39 samples from 30 animals representing nine mammalian and three avian species. The prevalence of infected wild animals by premises ranged from 2.7 to 8.3% in Wisconsin and from 0 to 6.0% in Georgia. Shedding was documented in seven (0.9%) animals: three raccoons, two armadillos, one opossum, and one feral cat. The use of two highly polymorphic short sequence repeat loci for analysis of 29 of the 39 strains identified 10 alleles. One allelic pattern broadly shared in domestic ruminants ("7,5") appeared in approximately one-third of the wildlife M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates studied. Given the few cases of shedding by free-ranging animals compared to the volume of contaminated manure produced by infected domestic ruminant livestock, contamination of the farm environment by infected wildlife was negligible. Wildlife may, however, have epidemiological significance for farms where M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recently has been eliminated or on farms free of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but located in the geographic vicinity of farms with infected livestock. PMID:16269731

Corn, Joseph L; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R

2005-11-01

258

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Free-Ranging Birds and Mammals on Livestock Premises  

PubMed Central

Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract were harvested from birds and small mammals. Cultures were performed by using radiometric culture and acid-fast isolates were identified by 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency characteristics. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from tissues and feces from 39 samples from 30 animals representing nine mammalian and three avian species. The prevalence of infected wild animals by premises ranged from 2.7 to 8.3% in Wisconsin and from 0 to 6.0% in Georgia. Shedding was documented in seven (0.9%) animals: three raccoons, two armadillos, one opossum, and one feral cat. The use of two highly polymorphic short sequence repeat loci for analysis of 29 of the 39 strains identified 10 alleles. One allelic pattern broadly shared in domestic ruminants (“7,5”) appeared in approximately one-third of the wildlife M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates studied. Given the few cases of shedding by free-ranging animals compared to the volume of contaminated manure produced by infected domestic ruminant livestock, contamination of the farm environment by infected wildlife was negligible. Wildlife may, however, have epidemiological significance for farms where M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recently has been eliminated or on farms free of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but located in the geographic vicinity of farms with infected livestock. PMID:16269731

Corn, Joseph L.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R.

2005-01-01

259

Exopolysaccharide Expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352: Evidence for Novel Gene Organization?  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 produces two distinct heteropolysaccharides, phenotypically described as ropy and mucoid, when cultured in nonfat milk. One exopolysaccharide precipitated with 50% ethanol as a series of elongated threads and was composed of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3:2. The second exopolysaccharide precipitated with 75% ethanol as a fine flocculant and consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose with a molar ratio of 67:21:12. A mutant strain, L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240, lacking the ropy phenotype did not produce the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 50% ethanol; however, it produced the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 75% ethanol, indicating that the former exopolysaccharide is essential for the ropy phenotype. Cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 in 10% nonfat milk reached a viscosity of 25 Pa-s after 24 h, while those of the nonropy L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240 mutant did not change. A mutation abolishing ropy exopolysaccharide expression mapped to a region on a plasmid containing two open reading frames, epsM and epsN, encoding novel glycosyltransferases bordered by ISS1 elements oriented in the same direction. Sequencing of this plasmid revealed two other regions involved in exopolysaccharide expression, an operon located between partial IS981 and IS982 elements, and an independent gene, epsU. Two and possibly three of these regions are involved in L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 exopolysaccharide expression and are arranged in a novel fashion different from that of typical lactococcal exopolysaccharide loci, and this provides genetic evidence for exopolysaccharide gene reorganization and evolution in Lactococcus. PMID:17122391

Knoshaug, Eric P.; Ahlgren, Jeff A.; Trempy, Janine E.

2007-01-01

260

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fibronectin attachment protein facilitates M-cell targeting and invasion through a fibronectin bridge with host integrins.  

PubMed

Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and soluble FN enabled targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vivo via these surface integrins. Wild-type and antisense FAP-P mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were injected alone or coinjected with blocking peptides or antibodies into murine gut loops, and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to assess targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Nonopsonized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis preferentially invaded M cells in murine gut loops. M-cell invasion was enhanced 2.6-fold when M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was pretreated with FN. Invasion of M cells by the antisense FAP-P mutant of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was reduced by 77 to 90% relative to that observed for the control strains. Peptides corresponding to the RGD and synergy site integrin recognition regions of FN blocked M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invasion of M cells by 75 and 45%, respectively, whereas the connecting segment 1 peptide was noninhibitory. Antibodies against the alpha5, alphaV, beta1, and beta3 integrin subunits inhibited M-cell invasion by 52 to 73%. The results indicate that targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vivo is mediated primarily by the formation of an FN bridge formed between FAP-P of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and integrins on M cells. PMID:15213112

Secott, T E; Lin, T L; Wu, C C

2004-07-01

261

Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Saintpaul Strain S-70, Isolated from an Aquatic Environment  

PubMed Central

Salmonella is a pathogen of worldwide importance, causing disease in a vast range of hosts, including humans. We report the genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Saintpaul strain S-70, isolated from an aquatic environment. PMID:24336367

Estrada-Acosta, Mitzi; Medrano-Félix, Andrés; Jiménez, Maribel; Gómez-Gil, Bruno; León-Félix, Josefina; Amarillas, Luis

2013-01-01

262

Osteopontin Immunoreactivity in the Ileum and Ileoceccal Lymph Node of Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteopontin (Opn), a highly acidic glycoprotein, promotes cellular adhesion and recruitment and has been shown to be upregulated in the granulomas of mycobacterial infections. Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is associated with granulomatous enteritis. ...

263

Evaluation of Control Points in Youngstock and Adult Dairy Cow Management to Control Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complete a series of prospective controlled on-farm trials to critically evaluate the efficacy and cost-benefit of commonly recommended management practices for reducing the transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in youngstock in infected herds....

264

Effects of seasonal heat stress on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Texas dairy cattle  

E-print Network

variability in serological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that is directly related to heat stress. We further hypothesized that a reciprocal response may occur during periods of heat stress that results in a greater risk of fecal...

Strickland, Summer J.

2005-11-01

265

Contrasting Results of Culture-Dependent and Molecular Analyses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Wood Bison  

PubMed Central

Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. PMID:23686265

De Buck, Jeroen; Elkin, Brett; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Orsel, Karin

2013-01-01

266

Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recovered from goats were originally classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae; however, this subspecies was recently reclassified as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae. Besides biochemical (sensitivity to pyrazinamide) and epidemiological features, strains of this unusual member of the M. tuberculosis complex show a special combination of pncA, oxyR, katG and gyrA gene polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of the

A. Aranaz; Debby Cousins; Ana Mateos; Lucas Dominguez

2003-01-01

267

Localization of proteins in the cell wall of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10 by proteomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a pathogen which causes a debilitating chronic enteritis in ruminants. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that control M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistence during infection are poorly understood and the key steps for developing Johne's disease remain elusive. A proteomic analysis approach, based on one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by LC-MS\\/MS, was used to identify and

Zhiguo He; Jeroen De Buck

2010-01-01

268

UV Light Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk as Assessed by FASTPlaqueTB Phage Assay and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log10 reduction per 1,000 mJ\\/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9

Leslie C. Altic; Michael T. Rowe; Irene R. Grant

2007-01-01

269

Virulence and Immunity Orchestrated by the Global Gene Regulator sigL in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants, a chronic enteric disease responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Global gene regulators, including sigma factors are important in regulating mycobacterial virulence. However, the biological significance of such regulators in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rremains elusive. To better decipher the role of sigma factors in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we targeted a key sigma factor gene, sigL, activated in mycobacterium-infected macrophages. We interrogated an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ?sigL mutant against a selected list of stressors that mimic the host microenvironments. Our data showed that sigL was important in maintaining bacterial survival under such stress conditions. Survival levels further reflected the inability of the ?sigL mutant to persist inside the macrophage microenvironments. Additionally, mouse infection studies suggested a substantial role for sigL in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence, as indicated by the significant attenuation of the ?sigL-deficient mutant compared to the parental strain. More importantly, when the sigL mutant was tested for its vaccine potential, protective immunity was generated in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. Overall, our study highlights critical role of sigL in the pathogenesis and immunity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, a potential role that could be shared by similar proteins in other intracellular pathogens. PMID:24799632

Ghosh, Pallab; Steinberg, Howard

2014-01-01

270

Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells\\/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteur- ized milk samples overall, 5

Irene R. Grant; Alan G. Williams; Michael T. Rowe; D. Donald Muir

2005-01-01

271

Evaluation and histological examination of a Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.  

PubMed

Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. This study aimed to develop a reliable BGC guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. Seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-vaginal routes. Samples were examined using culture, PCR and histology. Abortions ranged from 0% to 100% and re-isolation of causative bacteria from sampled sites varied with strain, dose of bacteria and time to abortion. Histology indicated metritis and placentitis, suggesting that the bacteria induce inflammation, placental detachment and subsequent abortion. Variation of virulence between strains was observed and determined by culture and abortion rates. IP administration of C. fetus subsp. venerealis to pregnant guinea pigs is a promising small animal model for the investigation of BGC abortion. PMID:25599935

Koya, A; de Wet, S C; Turner, S; Cawdell-Smith, J; Venus, B; Greer, R M; Lew-Tabor, A E; Boe-Hansen, G B

2015-04-01

272

Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Characterization of the bacteriocin  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality. PMID:25763065

Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

2014-01-01

273

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

274

Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the dipteran Haematobia irritans.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be larvicidal to horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L. [Diptera:Muscidae]). The toxic activity was particulate, appeared during sporulation, and could be prevented by the addition of streptomycin before sporulation. Density gradient centrifugation in Renografin was used to separate endospores, crystals, and low-density particulate matter (fraction 3) from sporulated preparations. Larvicidal activity was restricted to purified crystals and fraction 3, indicating that delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was active against horn fly larvae. Purified crystals produced mortality during larval feeding stages, but not pupal stages. Fraction 3 produced significant mortality during both larval and pupal stages. The mortality data indicated the presence of at least two dipteran-active toxins. PMID:6742837

Temeyer, K B

1984-01-01

275

Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 microg/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37 degrees C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 microg/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 microg/ml), oregano oil (68.2 microg/ml), carvacrol (72.2 microg/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 microg/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 microg/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y Y; Grant, Irene R; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T; Situ, Chen

2008-10-01

276

Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.  

PubMed Central

Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

1983-01-01

277

Regional persistence of an endemic plant, Erigeron acer subsp. decoloratus , in disturbed riparian habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional persistence of species requires a positive balance between colonizations and local extinctions. In this study, we\\u000a examined the amount of colonizations and extinctions and their likelihood as a function of patch size, isolation, and habitat\\u000a characteristics of a riparian perennial plant, Erigeron acer subsp. decoloratus. We also studied the importance of patch dynamics to the regional population growth. Over

Anne Jäkäläniemi; Pirkko Siikamäki; Anna Kilpiä; Juha Tuomi

2009-01-01

278

Characterization of the Highly Autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Strains CO and 2250  

PubMed Central

Two highly autolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (CO and 2250) were selected and analyzed for their autolytic properties. Both strains showed maximum lysis when grown in M17 broth containing a limiting concentration of glucose (0.4 to 0.5%) as the carbohydrate source. Lysis did not vary greatly with pH or temperature but was reduced when strains were grown on lactose or galactose. Growth in M17 containing excess glucose (1%) prevented autolysis, although rapid lysis of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CO did occur in the presence of 1% glucose if sodium fluoride (an inhibitor of glycolysis) was added to the medium. Maximum cell lysis in a buffer system was observed early in the stationary phase, and for CO, two pH optima were observed for log-phase and stationary-phase cells (6.5 and 8.5, respectively). Autolysins were extracted from the cell wall fraction of each strain by using either 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, or 4 M lithium chloride, and their activities were analyzed by renaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on gels containing Micrococcus luteus or L. lactis subsp. cremoris CO cells as the substrate. More than one lytic band was observed on each substrate, with the major band having an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa for CO. Each lytic band was present throughout growth and lysis. These results suggest that at least two different autolytic enzymes are present in the autolytic L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains. The presence of the lactococcal cell wall hydrolase gene, acmA (G. Buist, J. Kok, K. J. Leenhouts, M. Dabrowska, G. Venema, and A. J. Haandrikman, J. Bacteriol. 177:1554-1563, 1995), in strains 2250 and CO was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Analysis of an acmA deletion mutant of 2250 confirmed that the gene was involved in cell separation and had a role in cell lysis. PMID:16535702

Riepe, H. R.; Pillidge, C. J.; Gopal, P. K.; Mckay, L. L.

1997-01-01

279

An ultrastructural study of the mature spermatozoid of the fern Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes spermatozoids are spirals of about five turns. Keels link the elements of the microtubular ribbon with the plates of the lamellar\\u000a layer (LL) which are uninterrupted, parallel and curved with an inner angle of about 150. Electron-opaque filaments connect\\u000a the microtubules of the multilayered structure (MLS) and the osmiophilic crest, the LL and the MLS-associated

P. Gori; Simonetta Muccifora; Sheridan L. Woo; Lorenza M. Bellani

1997-01-01

280

Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of endemic Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the aerial parts of Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa was evaluated against microorganisms, including multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, using the paper disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the chloroform extract of this plant was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chloroform extract exhibited significant

Aysel Ugur; Nurdan Sarac; Ozgur Ceylan; M. Emin Duru

2010-01-01

281

Cytological mechanisms of 2n egg formation in a diploid genotype of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gametes formed without meiosis in alfalfa would be useful in basic and applied research. Therefore, the cytological analysis of macrosporogenesis of a diploid plant of Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcangeli (named PG-F9), previously selected as a good 2n egg producer, was conducted. A stain-clearing technique was applied which also allowed the analysis of microsporogenesis to be performed. Two mechanisms

S. Tavoletti

1994-01-01

282

Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding the mosquito larvicidal toxins Cry4Aa, Cry11Aa, Cyt1Aa and the regulatory P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were introduced into the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 for expression under control of two strong promoters PpsbA and PA1. The clone pRVE4-ADRC displayed toxicity against fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, the highest ever achieved in cyanobacteria. It was about 2.5-fold

Vadim Khasdan; Eitan Ben-Dov; Robert Manasherob; Sammy Boussiba; Arieh Zaritsky

2003-01-01

283

Hydraulic redistribution in Eucalyptus kochii subsp. borealis with variable access to fresh groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity caused by land clearing is an important cause of land degradation in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Returning\\u000a a proportion of the cleared land to higher water use perennial vegetation is one option for reducing or slowing the salinisation\\u000a of land. Over the course of a year patterns of water use by Eucalyptus kochii subsp borealis (C. Gardner) D. Nicolle,

K. Brooksbank; D. A. White; E. J. Veneklaas; J. L. Carter

2011-01-01

284

Novel Phytases from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697  

PubMed Central

Two novel phytases have been characterized from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The enzymes belong to a new subclass within the histidine acid phytases, are highly specific for the hydrolysis of phytate, and render myo-inositol triphosphate as the final hydrolysis product. They represent the first phytases characterized from this group of probiotic microorganisms, opening the possibilities for their use in the processing of high-phytate-content foods. PMID:22582052

Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Yebra, María J.

2012-01-01

285

Bilateral polyploidization in Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. lusitanica : occurrence, morphological and genetic characteristics of first polyploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary InDactylis glomerata L. subsp.lusitanica, triploid and tetraploid plants were obtained by bilateral sexual polyploidization in crosses between diploid parents known to produce 2n gametes. The polyploid and diploid progeny were compared for allozyme diversity (allele number and heterozygosity), phenological (pollen fertility, inflorescence emergence date), cellular (stomatic cell size) and morphological characters (vegetative biomass, seed weight, total seed number per

F. Bretagnolle; R. Lumaret

1995-01-01

286

Complete genome sequence of a plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033 is of special interest for its ability to promote host plant growth through production of stimulating compounds and suppression of soil borne pathogens by synthesizing antibacterial and antifungal metabolites or priming plant defense as induced systemic resistance. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens UCMB5033 comprises a 4,071,167 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 3,912 protein-coding genes, 86 tRNA genes and 10 rRNA operons. PMID:25197456

Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

2014-01-01

287

Antibacterial Activities of Naturally Occurring Compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 ?g/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37°C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 ?g/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 ?g/ml), oregano oil (68.2 ?g/ml), carvacrol (72.2 ?g/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 ?g/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 ?g/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y. Y.; Grant, Irene R.; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T.; Situ, Chen

2008-01-01

288

Experimental Paratuberculosis in Calves following Inoculation with a Rabbit Isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of wildlife species in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis has been the subject of increased research efforts following the discovery of natural paratuberculosis in free-living rabbits from farms in east Scotland. This paper describes the experimental inoculation of young calves with an isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from a free-living rabbit. After a 6-month incubation period, all

P. M. Beard; K. Stevenson; A. Pirie; K. Rudge; D. Buxton; S. M. Rhind; M. C. Sinclair; L. A. Wildblood; D. G. Jones; J. M. Sharp

2001-01-01

289

Roles of the Surface Layer Proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in Ovine Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the surface (S)-layer proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus has been investigated using an ovine model of abortion. Wild-type strain 23D induced abortion in up to 90% of pregnant ewes challenged subcutaneously. Isolates recovered from both dams and fetuses expressed S-layer proteins with variable molecular masses. The spontaneous S-layer-negative variant, strain 23B, neither colonized nor caused abor-

R. Grogono-Thomas; J. Dworkin; M. J. Blaser; D. G. Newell

2000-01-01

290

Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia  

PubMed Central

The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C.

2013-01-01

291

Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.  

PubMed

Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

1983-02-01

292

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of the essential oil of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson. Analysis of the oil composition revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.3%) dominate, cis-?-guaiene, ?-selinene and (E)-caryophyllene being the most representative. Significant values of antioxidant activity were found using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays.

Luana Quassinti; Giulio Lupidi; Filippo Maggi; Gianni Sagratini; Fabrizio Papa; Sauro Vittori; Armandodoriano Bianco; Massimo Bramucci

2012-01-01

293

Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10(2) to 3.5 x 10(5) cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90 degrees C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72 degrees C and a holding time of 6 s, 70 degrees C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an E(a) of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk(0) of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72 degrees C and a Z value of 7.7 degrees C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at > or =72 degrees C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:17496131

Rademaker, Jan L W; Vissers, Marc M M; Te Giffel, Meike C

2007-07-01

294

Complete Genome Sequence of Type Strain Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida ATCC 43137  

PubMed Central

Soft-tissue infection by Pasteurella multocida in humans is usually associated with a dog- or cat-related injury, and these infections can become aggressive. We sequenced the type strain P. multocida subsp. multocida ATCC 43137 into a single closed chromosome consisting of 2,271,840 bp (40.4% G+C content), which is currently available in the NCBI GenBank under the accession number CP008918. PMID:25342682

Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C. C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Scholz, M. B.; Teshima, H.

2014-01-01

295

Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.  

PubMed

The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

2013-01-01

296

Growth and Energy Generation by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis during Citrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis was observed on media with citrate as the only energy source. At pH 5.6, steady state was achieved in a chemostat on a citrate-containing medium in the absence of a carbohydrate. Under these conditions, pyruvate, acetate, and some acetoin and butanediol were the main fermentation products. This indicated that energy was conserved in L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis during citrate metabolism and presumably during the conversion of citrate into pyruvate. The presumed energy-conserving step, decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, was studied in detail. Oxaloacetate decarboxylase was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme has a native molecular mass of approximately 300 kDa and consists of three subunits of 52, 34, and 12 kDa. The enzyme is apparently not sodium dependent and does not contain a biotin moiety, and it seems to be different from the energy-generating oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Energy-depleted L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis cells generated a membrane potential and a pH gradient immediately upon addition of citrate, whereas ATP formation was slow and limited. In contrast, lactose energization resulted in rapid ATP formation and gradual generation of a proton motive force. These data were confirmed during studies on amino acid uptake. ?-Aminoisobutyrate uptake was rapid but glutamate uptake was slow in citrate-energized cells, whereas lactose-energized cells showed the reverse tendency. These data suggest that, in L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis, a proton motive force could be generated during citrate metabolism as a result of electrogenic citrate uptake or citrate/product exchange together with proton consumption by the intracellular oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Images PMID:16349120

Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Perdon, Leo; Abee, Tjakko

1993-01-01

297

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KLDS4.0325  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KLDS4.0325, a probiotic bacterium isolated from homemade koumiss in Xinjiang, China. We have determined the complete genome sequence of strain KLDS4.0325, which consists of a chromosome and three plasmids and reveals genes that are likely to be involved in dairy fermentation and that have probiotic qualities. PMID:24285665

Yang, Xiaochun; Wang, Yutang

2013-01-01

298

In vitro regeneration of Carlina acaulis subsp. simplex from seedling explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to obtain an efficient system for Carlina acaulis subsp. simplex propagation. The experimental materials were shoot tips, fragments of hipocotyls, cotyledons and roots isolated from 10-day-old\\u000a seedlings. The explants were transferred to the proliferation medium supplemented with different types of cytokinin: BA (13.3 ?M),\\u000a kinetin (13.9 ?M) and zeatin (13.7 ?M) in combination with NAA (0.54 ?M). The

Alina Trejgell; Gra?yna D?browska; Andrzej Tretyn

2009-01-01

299

Toxicity and synergism in transgenic Escherichia coli expressing four genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The genes cyt1Aa and p20, encoding, respectively, cytolytic and accessory proteins of Bacillus thurin- giensis subsp. israelensis, were introduced into previously constructed clones expressing cry4Aa and cry11Aa in Escherichia coli (Ben-Dov et al., 1995). Fifteen clones with all possible combinations of the four genes were obtained and found to express the genes included. Two new combinations, pVE4- ADRC and

Vadim Khasdan; Eitan Ben-Dov; Robert Manasherob; Sammy Boussiba; Arieh Zaritsky

2001-01-01

300

Endocarditis in chickens caused by subclinical infection of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus causes endocarditis in humans and acute septicemia in domestic birds. We describe here the infective endocarditis caused by the bacterium found among clinically healthy broilers at two abattoirs in Japan. The chickens were thought to be healthy because of the lack of clinical symptoms and normal levels of mortality before slaughtering. At the time of inspection, some chickens were condemned because of organ disorders characterized by vegetative valvular endocarditis as well as focal necrosis in heart, liver, and spleen. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus was isolated from the organs as a pure culture, indicating that the bacterium probably was the causative agent of the disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates collected at the abattoirs from chickens grown in nine different farms indicated that the isolates were different variants of the same clonal lineage and may have been derived from the same ancestor. These results suggest that S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus causes infectious endocarditis in chickens and that healthy chickens may possess the bacterium in their normal flora as an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:18459321

Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nishiya, Hideki; Nakajima, Seigo; Nishizono, Mikio; Kawano, Masanori; Okura, Masatoshi; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Nishino, Hiroto; Ishiji, Tomono; Osawa, Ro

2008-03-01

301

Multiplex PCR-Based Method for Identification of Common Clinical Serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica?  

PubMed Central

A multiplex PCR method has been developed to differentiate between the most common clinical serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica encountered in Washington State and the United States in general. Six genetic loci from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and four from S. enterica serovar Typhi were used to create an assay consisting of two five-plex PCRs. The assays gave reproducible results with 30 different serotypes that represent the most common clinical isolates of S. enterica subsp. enterica. Of these, 22 serotypes gave unique amplification patterns compared with each other and the other 8 serotypes were grouped into four pairs. These were further resolved by two additional PCRs. We compared the data from PCR serotyping with conventional serotyping and found that PCR serotyping was nearly as discriminatory as conventional serotyping was. The results from a blind test screening 111 clinical isolates revealed that 97% were correctly identified using the multiplex PCR assay. The assay can be easily performed on multiple samples with final results in less than 5 h and, in conjunction with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, forms a very robust test method for the molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. PMID:16943358

Kim, Seonghan; Frye, Jonathan G.; Hu, Jinxin; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Gautom, Romesh; Boyle, David S.

2006-01-01

302

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.  

PubMed

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

2013-01-01

303

Variants of a genomic island in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida link isolates with their geographical origins.  

PubMed

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a fish pathogen. Analysis of its genomic characteristics is required to determine the worldwide distribution of the various populations of this bacterium. Genomic alignments between the 01-B526 pathogenic strain and the A449 reference strain have revealed a 51-kb chromosomal insertion in 01-B526. This insertion (AsaGEI1a) has been identified as a new genomic island (GEI) bearing prophage genes. PCR assays were used to detect this GEI in a collection of 139 A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Three forms of this GEI (AsaGEI1a, AsaGEI1b, AsaGEI2a) are now known based on this analysis and the sequencing of the genomes of seven additional isolates. A new prophage (prophage 3) associated with AsaGEI2a was also discovered. Each GEI appeared to be strongly associated with a specific geographic region. AsaGEI1a and AsaGEI2a were exclusively found in North American isolates, except for one European isolate bearing AsaGEI2a. The majority of the isolates bearing AsaGEI1b or no GEI were from Europe. Prophage 3 has also a particular geographic distribution and was found only in North American isolates. We demonstrated that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida possesses unsuspected elements of genomic heterogeneity that could be used as indicators to determine the geographic origins of isolates of this bacterium. PMID:25480167

Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Brochu, Francis; Boyle, Brian; Tanaka, Katherine H; Attéré, Sabrina A; Jubinville, Éric; Loch, Thomas P; Winters, Andrew D; Faisal, Mohamed; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

2015-01-30

304

The first structure of a mycobacteriophage, the Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii phage Araucaria.  

PubMed

The unique characteristics of the waxy mycobacterial cell wall raise questions about specific structural features of their bacteriophages. No structure of any mycobacteriophage is available, although ?3,500 have been described to date. To fill this gap, we embarked in a genomic and structural study of a bacteriophage from Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, a member of the Mycobacterium abscessus group. This opportunistic pathogen is responsible for respiratory tract infections in patients with lung disorders, particularly cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus subsp. bolletii was isolated from respiratory tract specimens, and bacteriophages were observed in the cultures. We report here the genome annotation and characterization of the M. abscessus subsp. bolletii prophage Araucaria, as well as the first single-particle electron microscopy reconstruction of the whole virion. Araucaria belongs to Siphoviridae and possesses a 64-kb genome containing 89 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 27 could be annotated with certainty. Although its capsid and connector share close similarity with those of several phages from Gram-negative (Gram(-)) or Gram(+) bacteria, its most distinctive characteristic is the helical tail decorated by radial spikes, possibly host adhesion devices, according to which the phage name was chosen. Its host adsorption device, at the tail tip, assembles features observed in phages binding to protein receptors, such as phage SPP1. All together, these results suggest that Araucaria may infect its mycobacterial host using a mechanism involving adhesion to cell wall saccharides and protein, a feature that remains to be further explored. PMID:23678183

Sassi, Mohamed; Bebeacua, Cecilia; Drancourt, Michel; Cambillau, Christian

2013-07-01

305

Unmarked insertional mutagenesis in the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) is the aetiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease causing important losses in cattle production. The publication of the genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC should facilitate the identification of putative virulence factors. However, real progress in the study of molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity also requires efficient molecular tools for gene inactivation. In the present study, we have developed a transposon-based approach for the random mutagenesis of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. A PCR-based screening assay enabled the characterization of several mutants with knockouts of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity. The initial transposon was further improved by combining it with the transposon ?? TnpR/res recombination system to allow the production of unmarked mutations. Using this approach, we isolated a mutant free of antibiotic-resistance genes, in which the gene encoding the main lipoprotein LppQ was disrupted. The mutant was found to express only residual amounts of the truncated N-terminal end of LppQ. This approach opens the way to study virulence factors and pathogen-host interactions of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and to develop new, genetically defined vaccine strains. PMID:18667575

Janis, Carole; Bischof, Daniela; Gourgues, Géraldine; Frey, Joachim; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

2009-01-01

306

Neonatal invasive Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection with delayed central nervous system complications  

PubMed Central

Group D streptococci are known to cause newborn septicemia and meningitis, but the Streptococcus bovis group strains rarely cause serious neonatal infections in Korea. Central nervous system (CNS) complications of neonatal S. bovis group infection have rarely been reported. In adults, S. bovis group strains cause bacteremia and endocarditis, and are associated with gastrointestinal malignancy. However, only a few studies have reported meningitis and septicemia in infants. Here, we describe a case of bacteremia and meningitis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus with a delayed CNS complication in an infant. A 28-day-old male infant was admitted to the hospital with a 1-day history of fever. Cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine showed the presence of S. bovis group strain-S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. He was discharged after 21 days of intravenous ampicillin and cefotaxime administration. Two weeks later, he was readmitted with a fever and short episodes of tonic-clonic movements. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked bilateral frontal subdural effusion. He was discharged after 31 days of antibiotic therapy, and no neurological sequelae were observed at the 9-month follow-up. In conclusion, we present a rare case of neonatal S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection causing urinary tract infection, septicemia, meningitis, and delayed CNS complications. This case emphasizes the need for physicians to be aware of S. bovis infection in infants. PMID:25729397

Park, Jung-Weon; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Eui-Chong; Seong, Moon-Woo

2015-01-01

307

Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.  

PubMed

Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants. PMID:15597742

Mattinen, Laura; Tshuikina, Marina; Mäe, Andres; Pirhonen, Minna

2004-12-01

308

New Type of Antimicrobial Protein Produced by the Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis  

PubMed Central

It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease. PMID:23851100

Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

2013-01-01

309

Ingestion and Adsorption of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Gammarus lacustris in the Laboratory.  

PubMed

Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-h periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. During a postexposure holding period, fecal pellets were removed and plated on tryptic soy agar to determine B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spore content. The experiments verified that traditional exposure procedures assure ingestion of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores and provided a mean dose estimate of 1,948 spores ingested per test animal with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 891 to 4,296 (1-h exposure, 5.0 mg/liter). It was also found that dose level is highly dependent upon both exposure duration and concentration and that relatively short exposures can result in a relatively long-term retention of spores postexposure (>/=30 days). Body burden experiments established that large numbers of spores adsorb to the bodies of test animals during exposure and may in part explain the long-term retention of spores in the test system postexposure. These results imply that in field applications of microbial control agents, toxicologically unaffected but exposed organisms might transport the agent to untreated sites, expanding the effective treatment area and the number of organisms exposed. PMID:16347242

Brazner, J C; Anderson, R L

1986-12-01

310

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, under Laboratory Conditions  

PubMed Central

Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were studied in laboratory exposures to two commercial formulations, Vectobac-G and Mosquito Attack. Mortality among fatheads exposed to 2.0 × 106 to 6.5 × 106 CFU/ml with both formulations was attributed to severe dissolved oxygen depletion due to formulation ingredients rather than to direct toxicity from the parasporal crystal. No adverse effects were observed at 6.4 × 105 CFU/ml and below. Fathead minnows rapidly accumulated high numbers of spores with 1 h of exposure to 2.2 × 105 CFU of Mosquito Attack per ml, producing whole-body counts of 4.0 × 106 CFU per fish. Comparison of counts on gastrointestinal tract samples and whole-body samples and high numbers of spores in feces indicated that ingestion was the major route of exposure. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spore counts decreased rapidly after transfer of fish to clean water, with a drop of over 3 orders of magnitude in 1 day. Spores were rarely detected in fish after 8 days but were detectable in feces for over 2 weeks. These findings suggest that fish could influence the dissemination of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, and possibly other microbial agents, in the aquatic environment. PMID:16348271

Snarski, Virginia M.

1990-01-01

311

Ingestion and Adsorption of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Gammarus lacustris in the Laboratory  

PubMed Central

Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-h periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. During a postexposure holding period, fecal pellets were removed and plated on tryptic soy agar to determine B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spore content. The experiments verified that traditional exposure procedures assure ingestion of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores and provided a mean dose estimate of 1,948 spores ingested per test animal with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 891 to 4,296 (1-h exposure, 5.0 mg/liter). It was also found that dose level is highly dependent upon both exposure duration and concentration and that relatively short exposures can result in a relatively long-term retention of spores postexposure (?30 days). Body burden experiments established that large numbers of spores adsorb to the bodies of test animals during exposure and may in part explain the long-term retention of spores in the test system postexposure. These results imply that in field applications of microbial control agents, toxicologically unaffected but exposed organisms might transport the agent to untreated sites, expanding the effective treatment area and the number of organisms exposed. PMID:16347242

Brazner, John C.; Anderson, Richard L.

1986-01-01

312

Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors Synthesized by Two Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata  

PubMed Central

The entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata suppress insect immune responses by inhibiting the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which results in preventing biosynthesis of immune-mediating eicosanoids. This study identified PLA2 inhibitors derived from culture broths of these two bacteria. Both X. nematophila and P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broths possessed significant PLA2-inhibitory activities. Fractionation of these bacterial metabolites in the culture broths using organic solvent and subsequent chromatography purified seven potent PLA2 inhibitors, three of which (benzylideneacetone [BZA], proline-tyrosine [PY], and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine [FGV]) were reported in a previous study. Four other compounds (indole, oxindole, cis-cyclo-PY, and p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid) were identified and shown to significantly inhibit PLA2. X. nematophila culture broth contained these seven compounds, while P. temperata subsp. temperata culture broth contained three compounds (BZA, acetylated FGV, and cis-cyclo-PY). BZA was detected in the largest amount among these PLA2 compounds in both bacterial culture broths. All seven bacterial metabolites also showed significant inhibitory activities against immune responses, such as phenoloxidase activity and hemocytic nodulation; BZA was the most potent. Finally, this study characterized these seven compounds for their insecticidal activities against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Even though these compounds showed relatively low toxicities to larvae, they significantly enhanced the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis. This study reports bacterial-origin PLA2 inhibitors, which would be applicable for developing novel insecticides. PMID:22447611

Seo, Samyeol; Lee, Sunghong; Hong, Yongpyo

2012-01-01

313

Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes (Hamamelidaceae) Based on AFLP Analysis  

PubMed Central

Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes is an endangered species in China. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of this species was investigated using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Nei's gene diversity ranged from 0.1290 to 0.1394. The AMOVA indicated that 75.06% of variation was distributed within populations, while the between-group component 5.04% was smaller than the between populations-within-group component 19.90%. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between populations. Genetic and geographical distances were not correlated. PCA and genetic structure analysis showed that populations from East China were together with those of the Nanling Range. These patterns of genetic diversity and levels of genetic variation may be the result of D. c. subsp. longipes restricted to several isolated habitats and “excess flowers production, but little fruit set”. It is necessary to protect all existing populations of D. c. subsp. longipes in order to preserve as much genetic variation as possible. PMID:25250583

Yu, Yi; Fan, Qiang; Shen, Rujiang; Guo, Wei; Jin, Jianhua; Cui, Dafang; Liao, Wenbo

2014-01-01

314

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. ?-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. PMID:25306364

Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

2015-03-01

315

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 ?g/g extract and 12644 ?g/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 ?g/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23603383

Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ay?egül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

2013-08-01

316

Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum. PMID:25555343

Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

2015-02-01

317

Effect of soil slope on the appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water running off grassland soil after application of contaminated slurry.  

PubMed

The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m(2) were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

Salgado, M; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Troncoso, E; Mitchell, R M; Ramirez, L; Naguil, A; Zamorano, P; Collins, M T

2013-06-01

318

Effect of Soil Slope on the Appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Water Running off Grassland Soil after Application of Contaminated Slurry  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.

2013-01-01

319

Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be distinguished by the types of HBHA they produce, which differ in size and adherence properties, thereby providing new evidence that strengthens the genotypic differences between the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:23974028

Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille

2013-01-01

320

Emulsifying, rheological and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205.  

PubMed

The rheological, emulsification and certain physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205 were studied and compared with those of guar gum and xanthan gum. The two strains were grown in skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) casein hydrolysate at 37 °C for 24h; they both produced heteropolysaccharides with different molecular mass and composition. The carbohydrate content of both polymers was more than 92% and no protein was detected. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 showed highly branched entangled porous structure under scanning electron microscopy. Higher intrinsic viscosity was observed for the EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 compared to the EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and guar gum. Both polymers showed pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behaviour in an aqueous solution. The EPS of B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 produced more stable emulsions with orange oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil and xylene compared to guar and xanthan gum. The EPS of B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 is the most promising one for applications in the food industry, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, higher apparent viscosity in aqueous solution, porous dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity. PMID:24751074

Prasanna, P H P; Bell, A; Grandison, A S; Charalampopoulos, D

2012-09-01

321

Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato. PMID:21062112

Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

2011-03-01

322

Cloning and sequence analysis of a protective M-like protein gene from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, a Lancefield group C streptococcus, is a frequently isolated opportunist pathogen from a variety of animal hosts, including the horse. Previous studies have indicated that equine strains carry antigens with characteristics of the antiphagocytic M proteins on the Lancefield groups A and G streptococci. We have cloned a protective M-like protein gene (SzPW60) of an equine strain of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus W60 and determined its sequence. This gene encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 40,123 which protects mice against subsp. zooepidemicus but not subsp. equi, stimulates antibodies which opsonize subsp. zooepidemicus but not equi, and reacts with antiserum to the protein of the parent strain. The predicted amino acid structure shows significant homology with the carboxy termini of groups A and G M proteins but no other homology. The M-like protein, although showing an extensive region of alpha helix, lacks the A, B, and C repeats found in group A M proteins and has a shorter signal sequence. A proline-rich region upstream from the LPSTGE motif contains 20 repeats of the tetrapeptide PEPK. The presence of this repeat region may account for the slow migration of the M-like protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:7890407

Timoney, J F; Walker, J; Zhou, M; Ding, J

1995-01-01

323

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Exo-?-1,3-Galactanase, an Enzyme for the Degradation of Type II Arabinogalactan  

PubMed Central

Type II arabinogalactan (AG-II) is a suitable carbohydrate source for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, but the degradative enzymes have never been characterized. In this study, we characterized an exo-?-1,3-galactanase, BLLJ_1840, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 from B. longum subsp. longum JCM1217. The recombinant BLLJ_1840 expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed ?-1,3-linked galactooligosaccharides but not ?-1,4- and ?-1,6-linked galactooligosaccharides. The enzyme also hydrolyzed larch wood arabinogalactan (LWAG), which comprises a ?-1,3-linked galactan backbone with ?-1,6-linked galactan side chains. The kcat/Km ratio of dearabinosylated LWAG was 24-fold higher than that of ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 is a novel type of exo-?-1,3-galactanase with a higher affinity for the ?-1,6-substituted ?-1,3-galactan than for nonsubstituted ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 has 27% to 28% identities with other characterized exo-?-1,3-galactanases from bacteria and fungi. The homologous genes are conserved in several strains of B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis but not in other bifidobacteria. Transcriptional analysis revealed that BLLJ_1840 is intensively induced with BLLJ_1841, an endo-?-1,6-galactanase candidate, in the presence of LWAG. This is the first report of exo-?-1,3-galactanase in bifidobacteria, which is an enzyme used for the acquisition of AG-II in B. longum subsp. longum. PMID:24837371

Sakaguchi, Takenori; Sakamoto, Ayami; Shimokawa, Michiko; Kitahara, Kanefumi

2014-01-01

324

Prevalence and Acquisition of the Genes for Zoocin A and Zoocin A Resistance in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

PubMed Central

Zoocin A is a streptococcolytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain 4881. The zoocin A gene (zooA) and the gene specifying resistance to zoocin A (zif) are adjacent on the chromosome and are divergently transcribed. Twenty-four S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains were analyzed to determine the genetic difference between three previously characterized as zoocin A producers (strains 4881, 9g and 9h) and the twenty-one non-producers. LT-PCR and Southern hybridization studies revealed that none of the non-producer strains possessed zooA or zif. RAPD and PFGE showed that the 24 strains were a genetically diverse population with 8 RAPD profiles. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains 9g and 9h appeared genetically identical to each other, but quite different from 4881. Sequences derived from 4881 and 9g showed that zooA and zif were integrated into the chromosome adjacent to the gene flaR. A comparison of these sequences with the genome sequences of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains H70 and MGCS10565 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047 suggests that flaR flanks a region of genome plasticity in this species. PMID:19357799

O’Rourke, Anna-Lee D.; Simmonds, Robin S.; Gargis, Amy S.; Sloan, Gary L.

2009-01-01

325

La presenza di colesterolo nella frazione sterolica dell'olio dei semi di Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum e Solanum dulcamara L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of cholesterol in the sterolic fraction in the oil of the seeds of Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum and Solanum dulcamara L.—The sterol fraction of oil in Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum and Solanum dulcamara L. seeds has been analysed by GLC. The amounts of cholesterol we have found are 8% and 23% respectively, in relation to the

Paola Gastaldo; Paola Profumo; Enrico Tiscornia; Maria Angela Pagano

1977-01-01

326

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian Strain 57/13, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is generally considered one of most pathogenic Mycoplasma species, and it is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Here, we present the annotated genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian strain 57/13, isolated in 1992 during CBPP outbreaks in Italy. PMID:25814605

Orsini, M.; Krasteva, I.; Marcacci, M.; Ancora, M.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Gentile, B.; Lista, F.; Pini, A.; Scacchia, M.; Sacchini, F.

2015-01-01

327

Persistence and Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii Spores on Corroded Iron in a Model Drinking Water System?  

PubMed Central

Persistence of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores on corroded iron coupons in drinking water was studied using a biofilm annular reactor. Spores were inoculated at 106 CFU/ml in the dechlorinated reactor bulk water. The dechlorination allowed for observation of the effects of hydraulic shear and biofilm sloughing on persistence. Approximately 50% of the spores initially adhered to the corroded iron surface were not detected after 1 month. Addition of a stable 10 mg/liter free chlorine residual after 1 month led to a 2-log10 reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii, but levels on the coupons quickly stabilized thereafter. Increasing the free chlorine concentration to 25 or 70 mg/liter had no additional effect on inactivation. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores injected in the presence of a typical distribution system chlorine residual (?0.75 mg/liter) resulted in a steady reduction of adhered B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii over 1 month, but levels on the coupons eventually stabilized. Adding elevated chlorine levels (10, 25, and 70 mg/liter) after 1 month had no effect on the rate of inactivation. Decontamination with elevated free chlorine levels immediately after spore injection resulted in a 3-log10 reduction within 2 weeks, but the rate of inactivation leveled off afterward. This indicates that free chlorine did not reach portions of the corroded iron surface where B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores had adhered. B. atrophaeus subsp. globigii spores are capable of persisting for an extended time in the presence of high levels of free chlorine. PMID:17308186

Szabo, Jeffrey G.; Rice, Eugene W.; Bishop, Paul L.

2007-01-01

328

Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures  

PubMed Central

Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations. PMID:23872557

Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J. H.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Pronk, Jack T.; Smid, Eddy J.; Bron, Peter A.

2013-01-01

329

Phytochemical Composition and Antinociceptive Activity of Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana in Rats  

PubMed Central

In traditional medicine, Bauhinia glauca subsp. hupehana has long been used as an analgesic agent in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of B. glauca subsp. hupehana (BHE) in rats and its chemical fingerprint. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was assessed in mice using chemically and heat–induced pain models, such as the acetic acid–induced writhing, hot plate, tail–flick and glutamate tests. Naltrexone hydrochloride, a non–selective opioid receptor antagonist, was utilized to determine the involvement of the opioid system. In addition to this, the involvements of the cGMP and ATP–sensitive K+ channel pathways were also detected using methylene blue and glibenclamide. The oral administration of BHE (at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant and dose–related inhibitions in both the chemically and heat–induced pain models. Interestingly, in the abdominal constriction test, when the dose of BHE was increased to 800 mg/kg (p.o., n = 10), the inhibition rate was 100%. The antinociceptive mechanism may involve the cGMP pathway and ATP sensitive K+ channel pathway. The central antinociceptive effect was not antagonized by naltrexone. One phenolic acid, one lignin and five flavonoids were isolated from BHE. The antinociceptive activity of BHE was most likely due to the presence of the flavonoids. The acute toxicity results showed that BHE was safe at a high dose (2 g/kg, p.o.). The current investigation demonstrates that B. glauca subsp. hupehana is a potential candidate for the development of novel, non–opioid, analgesic phytomedicines. PMID:25658740

Xu, Jinlong; Zhao, Qizhi; Wei, Lei; Yang, Yu; Xu, Rui; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhao, Yimin

2015-01-01

330

Molecular characterization of the nisin resistance region of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis DRC3.  

PubMed Central

The nisin resistance determinant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis DRC3 was localized onto a 1.3-kb EcoRI-NdeI fragment by subcloning and interrupting the NdeI site by cloning random NdeI fragments into it; the nisin resistance determinant was then sequenced. The nucleotide sequence revealed a large open reading frame containing 318 codons. Putative transcription and translation signal sequences were located directly upstream from the initiation codon. Immediately downstream of the termination codon was a palindromic region resembling a rho-independent termination sequence. This 957-nucleotide open reading frame and its associated transcription and translation signal sequences were cloned into plasmid-free L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and conferred an MIC of 160 IU of nisin per ml. This level of nisin resistance is equivalent to that of the initial nisin-resistant subclone, pFM011, used for further subcloning in this study. The inferred amino acid sequence would result in a protein with a molecular mass of 35,035 Da. This value was in agreement with the molecular mass of a protein detected after in vitro transcription and translation of DNA encoding the nisin resistance gene, nsr. This protein contained a hydrophobic region at the N terminus that was predicted to be membrane associated but did not contain a typical signal sequence cleavage site. No significant homology was detected when the DNA sequence of the nsr gene and the amino acid sequence of its putative product were compared with other available sequences. When subjected to Southern hybridization, a 1.2-kb DraI fragment encoding the nsr gene did not hybridize with the genomic DNA of the nisin-producing strain L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454. Images PMID:1903915

Froseth, B R; McKay, L L

1991-01-01

331

DrsG from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Inhibits the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37  

PubMed Central

SIC and DRS are related proteins present in only 4 of the >200 Streptococcus pyogenes emm types. These proteins inhibit complement-mediated lysis and/or the activity of certain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A gene encoding a homologue of these proteins, herein called DrsG, has been identified in the related bacterium Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Here we show that geographically dispersed isolates representing 14 of 50 emm types examined possess variants of drsG. However, not all isolates within the drsG-positive emm types possess the gene. Sequence comparisons also revealed a high degree of conservation in different S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types. To examine the biological activity of DrsG, recombinant versions of two major DrsG variants, DrsGS and DrsGL, were expressed and purified. Western blot analysis using antisera raised to these proteins demonstrated both variants to be expressed and secreted into culture supernatants. Unlike SIC, but similar to DRS, DrsG does not inhibit complement-mediated lysis. However, like both SIC and DRS, DrsG is a ligand of the cathelicidin LL-37 and is inhibitory to its bactericidal activity in in vitro assays. Conservation of prolines in the C-terminal region also suggests that these residues are important in the biology of this family of proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the activity of an AMP-inhibitory protein in S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and suggests that inhibition of AMP activity is the primary function of this family of proteins. The acquisition of the complement-inhibitory activity of SIC may reflect its continuing evolution. PMID:24664506

Smyth, Danielle; Cameron, Ainslie; Davies, Mark R.; McNeilly, Celia; Hafner, Louise; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.

2014-01-01

332

Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd  

PubMed Central

Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability. PMID:22176659

2011-01-01

333

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-01-01

334

High phylogenetic proximity of isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis over a two decades-period.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of 47 human isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) was determined by MIRU-VNTR genotyping. Sixteen unique VNTR patterns and eight clusters including a total 39 isolates were detected; six clusters included strains isolated during at least a 15-year period. Minimum spanning tree analysis showed that 14 VNTR patterns, occurring either as clustered or unique isolates, differed from the nearest one for one allelic variation and that the remaining two patterns differed for two allelic variations. The high phylogenetic proximity of the isolates, even over a long time period, indicates that the MAH genotype is highly homogeneous and conserved. PMID:23416257

Rindi, Laura; Buzzigoli, Andrea; Medici, Chiara; Garzelli, Carlo

2013-06-01

335

Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavanone glycoside, naringenin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and a new flavonol glycoside, 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside were isolated together with 12 known compounds, 5 flavone glycoside; hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-methylglucuronopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, a flavonol; kaempferol, two flavone; apigenin, and luteolin, a flavanone glycoside; eriodictyol-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside, and three phenol glycoside; arbutin, salidroside, and 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside from Centaurea urvillei subsp. urvillei. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was

Derya Gülcemal; Özgen Alanku?-Çal??kan; Canan Karaalp; Ahmet Uygar Örs; Petek Ballar; Erdal Bedir

2010-01-01

336

First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-12-01

337

Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae bone and joints sepsis. A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Osteoarticular infections caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae are rarely seen in humans but young children and immunocompromised adults are at particular risk of acquiring this bacteria. Reptiles and their by-products (e.g. meat preparations or medications) are particularly likely to harbor Salmonella. We report on a case of septic arthritis of the hip transmitted by a reptile in a 10-month-old child. We carry out a recall of the complex nomenclature of Salmonella, a review of the literature and provide information on the recommended precautions for reducing the risk of transmission of Salmonella from reptiles to humans. PMID:19395336

Schneider, L; Ehlinger, M; Stanchina, C; Giacomelli, M-C; Gicquel, P; Karger, C; Clavert, J-M

2009-05-01

338

Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks.  

PubMed

IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal; Pavlik, Ivo

2013-01-01

339

Genetic IS901 RFLP diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates from four pheasant flocks  

PubMed Central

IS901 RFLP analysis of 36 Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) isolates from 15 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and two goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from four pheasant farms was performed. Using this method, six different IS901 RFLP types (E, F, G, M, Q, and V) were identified. The distribution of IS901 RFLP profiles was tightly linked to individual flocks. Matching IS901 RFLP profiles observed in the present study indicate MAA transmission between pheasants and goshawks in the same locality. In two flocks, different pheasants within a flock as well as in various organs of five individual pheasants were found to have two distinct IS901 RFLP profiles. PMID:23388436

Moravkova, Monika; Lamka, Jiri; Slany, Michal

2013-01-01

340

Structure of a zwitterionic O-polysaccharide from Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea 3240.  

PubMed

A phosphorylated O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of an entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea 3240 and studied by sugar analysis, dephosphorylation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear trisaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: ?3)-?-d-GalpNAc4PEtN-(1?4)-?-d-GlcpA-(1?3)-?-d-FucpNAc4N-(1? where GlcA indicates glucuronic acid, FucNAc4N 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxygalactose, and PEtN 2-aminoethyl phosphate. PMID:25699972

Kondakova, Anna N; Kirsheva, Nadezhda A; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ivanov, Sergey A; Anisimov, Andrey P; Knirel, Yuriy A

2015-04-30

341

Chemical Composition and Seasonal Variation of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves (LV), flowers (FL) and fruits (FR) of Hypericum hircinum subsp. majus from Marche (Italy), were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Ninety-two volatile components were identified in the oils, representing 81.41–94.36% of the total oils. The major compounds were cis-?-guaiene (23.25–41.23%) and ?-selinene (8.48–25.20%) in LV, ?-selinene

F. Maggi; B. Tirillini; S. Vittori; G. Sagratini; F. Papa

2010-01-01

342

Complete genome sequence of the ethanol-producing Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis centrotype ATCC 29191.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis is an ethanologenic bacterium that has been studied for use in biofuel production. Of the sequenced Zymomonas strains, ATCC 29191 has been described as the phenotypic centrotype of Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis, the taxon that harbors the highest ethanol-producing Z. mobilis strains. ATCC 29191 was isolated in Kinshasa, Congo, from palm wine fermentations. This strain is reported to be a robust levan producer, while in recent years it has been employed in studies addressing Z. mobilis respiration. Here we announce the finishing and annotation of the ATCC 29191 genome, which comprises one chromosome and three plasmids. PMID:23045486

Desiniotis, Andreas; Kouvelis, Vassili N; Davenport, Karen; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne A; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Typas, Milton A; Pappas, Katherine M

2012-11-01

343

High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines (S. A. Bustin et al., Clin. Chem. 55:611–622, 2009, doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797). The HT-J assay has been approved for use in JD control programs in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:24352996

Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

2014-01-01

344

Genomic deletion marking an emerging subclone of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in France and the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica is widely disseminated in North America and the boreal and temperate regions of the Eurasian continent. Comparative genomic analyses identified a 1.59-kb genomic deletion specific to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Spain and France. Phylogenetic analysis of strains carrying this deletion by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strains comprise a highly related set of genotypes, implying that these strains were recently introduced or recently emerged by clonal expansion in France and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:17890329

Dempsey, M P; Dobson, M; Zhang, C; Zhang, M; Lion, C; Gutiérrez-Martín, C B; Iwen, P C; Fey, P D; Olson, M E; Niemeyer, D; Francesconi, S; Crawford, R; Stanley, M; Rhodes, J; Wagner, D M; Vogler, A J; Birdsell, D; Keim, P; Johansson, A; Hinrichs, S H; Benson, A K

2007-11-01

345

Genomic Deletion Marking an Emerging Subclone of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in France and the Iberian Peninsula? †  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica is widely disseminated in North America and the boreal and temperate regions of the Eurasian continent. Comparative genomic analyses identified a 1.59-kb genomic deletion specific to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Spain and France. Phylogenetic analysis of strains carrying this deletion by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strains comprise a highly related set of genotypes, implying that these strains were recently introduced or recently emerged by clonal expansion in France and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:17890329

Dempsey, M. P.; Dobson, M.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, M.; Lion, C.; Gutiérrez-Martín, C. B.; Iwen, P. C.; Fey, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Niemeyer, D.; Francesconi, S.; Crawford, R.; Stanley, M.; Rhodes, J.; Wagner, D. M.; Vogler, A. J.; Birdsell, D.; Keim, P.; Johansson, A.; Hinrichs, S. H.; Benson, A. K.

2007-01-01

346

Biochemical and genetic evidence for the transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to the species Mycobacterium bovis Karlson and Lessel 1970 (approved lists 1980) as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov.  

PubMed

We propose to replace the species designation Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae (Aranaz et al. 1999) by Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov., since isolates of this subspecies share their main growth, biochemical and genetic characteristics with M. bovis and not with M. tuberculosis. These include negative biochemical test results for niacin accumulation and nitrate reduction as well as genetic features like the presence of an M. bovis-specific mutation in the oxyR locus, absence of the mtp40 sequence and a specific mutation in the gyrB gene, all of which have been described as characteristics for the differentiation of M. bovis. The only obvious biochemical character that differentiates the caprae subtype from other M. bovis isolates is susceptibility to pyrazinamide (PZA), which is due to the lack of a single point mutation in the pncA gene. However, susceptibility to PZA among clinical isolates of M. bovis isolates has been reported previously and, thus, may now been explained by a PZA-susceptible subspecies of M. bovis. We conclude that the species designation M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae is misleading and not correct in light of the biochemical and genetic characteristics and propose that the accurate designation of isolates of this subtype is M. bovis subsp. caprae. PMID:11931153

Niemann, Stefan; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

2002-03-01

347

Volatiles fingerprint of Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha by headspace-solid phase microextraction GC-MS.  

PubMed

Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha is a protected species, whose essential oil is used in liqueur industry. Volatile profiles of fresh leaves and flowers from wild plants in comparison with regenerated in vitro plants introduced in experimental fields within an Italian national park were evaluated by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles appear to be qualitatively similar. The content of thujones, the characteristic metabolites of this species, is comparable with that obtained by analysis of essential oils. Principal component analysis of the HS-SPME-GC-MS data supports the possibility of differentiating scent blends of genetically identical plants, and even flowers and leaves from the same individual. HS-SPME-GC-MS is shown to be a very efficient method to analyse and to describe the pattern of components of A. umbelliformis subsp. eriantha cultivars' scents. It represents a rapid screening method highly recommended for the study of protected species, because it is non-destructive and it only requires small amounts of fresh material. PMID:23962361

Reale, Samantha; Pace, Loretta; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; De Angelis, Francesco; Marcozzi, Giordana

2014-01-01

348

A Metabolic Enzyme as a Primary Virulence Factor of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony  

PubMed Central

During evolution, pathogenic bacteria have developed complex interactions with their hosts. This has frequently involved the acquisition of virulence factors on pathogenicity islands, plasmids, transposons, or prophages, allowing them to colonize, survive, and replicate within the host. In contrast, Mycoplasma species, the smallest self-replicating organisms, have regressively evolved from gram-positive bacteria by reduction of the genome to a minimal size, with the consequence that they have economized their genetic resources. Hence, pathogenic Mycoplasma species lack typical primary virulence factors such as toxins, cytolysins, and invasins. Consequently, little is known how pathogenic Mycoplasma species cause host cell damage, inflammation, and disease. Here we identify a novel primary virulence determinant in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (SC), which causes host cell injury. This virulence factor, released in significant amounts in the presence of glycerol in the growth medium, consists of toxic by-products such as H2O2 formed by l-?-glycerophosphate oxidase (GlpO), a membrane-located enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of glycerol. When embryonic calf nasal epithelial cells are infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in the presence of physiological amounts of glycerol, H2O2 is released inside the cells prior to cell death. This process can be inhibited with monospecific anti-GlpO antibodies. PMID:16166545

Pilo, Paola; Vilei, Edy M.; Peterhans, Ernst; Bonvin-Klotz, Laetitia; Stoffel, Michael H.; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Frey, Joachim

2005-01-01

349

A metabolic enzyme as a primary virulence factor of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony.  

PubMed

During evolution, pathogenic bacteria have developed complex interactions with their hosts. This has frequently involved the acquisition of virulence factors on pathogenicity islands, plasmids, transposons, or prophages, allowing them to colonize, survive, and replicate within the host. In contrast, Mycoplasma species, the smallest self-replicating organisms, have regressively evolved from gram-positive bacteria by reduction of the genome to a minimal size, with the consequence that they have economized their genetic resources. Hence, pathogenic Mycoplasma species lack typical primary virulence factors such as toxins, cytolysins, and invasins. Consequently, little is known how pathogenic Mycoplasma species cause host cell damage, inflammation, and disease. Here we identify a novel primary virulence determinant in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (SC), which causes host cell injury. This virulence factor, released in significant amounts in the presence of glycerol in the growth medium, consists of toxic by-products such as H2O2 formed by l-alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase (GlpO), a membrane-located enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of glycerol. When embryonic calf nasal epithelial cells are infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in the presence of physiological amounts of glycerol, H2O2 is released inside the cells prior to cell death. This process can be inhibited with monospecific anti-GlpO antibodies. PMID:16166545

Pilo, Paola; Vilei, Edy M; Peterhans, Ernst; Bonvin-Klotz, Laetitia; Stoffel, Michael H; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Frey, Joachim

2005-10-01

350

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates  

PubMed Central

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

2014-01-01

351

Multi-Method Approach for Characterizing the Interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki  

PubMed Central

Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin. PMID:24739804

Rocha, Liliana O.; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser.; Reis, Gabriela M.; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B.; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-01-01

352

Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Ledwo?, Aleksandra; Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

2014-01-01

353

Production of a Thermostable and Alkaline Chitinase by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HBK-51  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the isolation and identification of chitinase-producing Bacillus from chitin-containing wastes, production of a thermostable and alkaline chitinasese, and enzyme characterization. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HBK-51 was isolated from soil and was identified. Chitinase was obtained from supernatant of B. thuringiensis HBK-51 strain and showed its optimum activity at 110°C and at pH 9.0. Following 3 hours of incubation period, the enzyme showed a high level of activity at 110°C (96% remaining activity) and between pH 9.0 and 12.0 (98% remaining activity). Considering these characteristics, the enzyme was described as hyperthermophile-thermostable and highly alkaline. Two bands of the enzyme weighing 50 and 125?kDa were obtained following 12% SDS-PAGE analyses. Among the metal ions and chemicals used, Ni2+ (32%), K+ (44%), and Cu2+ (56%) increased the enzyme activity while EDTA (7%), SDS (7%), Hg2+ (11%), and ethyl-acetimidate (20%) decreased the activity of the enzyme. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HBK-51 is an important strain which can be used in several biotechnological applications as a chitinase producer. PMID:23304523

Kuzu, Secil Berna; Güvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Denizci, Aziz Akin

2012-01-01

354

Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I) sunflower oil (37 ºC, 3h) induced by 4,4?-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACVA) and (II) liposomes induced by 2,2?-azobis(2- amidino-propane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) was studied. n-Butanol extract had the best antioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II). The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both grampositive and gram-negative bacteria.

?etkovi?, Gordana S.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna M.; Djilas, Sonja M.; Tumbas, Vesna T.; Markov, Siniša L.; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub D.

2007-01-01

355

Cloning and characterization of a p-cymene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens.  

PubMed

p-Cymene monooxygenase is the enzyme system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-cymene to 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (p-cumic alcohol), the initial step in the assimilation of p-cymene by Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens. Cloning and sequencing of single NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase gene (cymA) present in P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens was described earlier. In this study, analysis of the upstream sequence of cymA revealed two open reading frames, designated as cymB (495 bp) and cymM (1128 bp). Database searches with the cymM gene product showed similarity to integral-membrane di-iron enzymes, while that with cymB showed no significant similarity to other known proteins with the exception of epoxystyrene isomerases. Expression of all three components (cymMBA) in Escherichia coli confirmed its ability for p-cymene methyl group hydroxylation, while expression of cymM and cymA along with the partially truncated cymB gene showed an 85% decrease in the hydroxylation capacity. Our results suggest for the first time that the small protein, CymB, having no conserved domains in protein databases, is involved as enhancer/activator in p-cymene hydroxylation. PMID:21035544

Dutta, Tapan K; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Roy, Madhumita; Ghosal, Debajyoti; Khara, Pratick; Gunsalus, Irwin C

2010-12-01

356

Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.  

PubMed

The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

2015-01-01

357

The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?  

PubMed

Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. PMID:25488371

Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

2015-05-01

358

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis?  

PubMed Central

Bartonella infections are common in rodents. From 1994 to 2006, longitudinal studies of a rodent community, consisting mainly of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were conducted in southwestern Colorado to study hantaviruses. Blood samples from deer mice captured one or more times during the period 2003 to 2006 (n = 737) were selected to study bartonellae in deer mice. Bartonellae were found to be widely distributed in that population, with an overall prevalence of 82.4% (607/737 mice). No correlation was found between bartonella prevalence and deer mouse weight or sex. Persistent or successive infections with bartonellae were observed in deer mice captured repeatedly, with a prevalence of 83.9% (297/354), and the infection appeared to last for more than 1 year in some of them. Persistent infection with bartonellae may explain the high prevalence of these bacteria in deer mice at this site and, perhaps, elsewhere. Genetic analysis demonstrated that deer mouse-borne bartonella isolates at this site belong to the same species, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, demonstrating a specific relationship between B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis and deer mice. PMID:21239553

Bai, Ying; Calisher, Charles H.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

359

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

360

An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia with 70~90% morbidity and 50% mortality occurred in an animal shelter in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Clinically, the affected dogs showed severe respiratory distress within 48 h after arriving in the shelter. The dead were found mainly with nasal bleeding and hematemesis. At necropsy, hemothorax and hemorrhagic pneumonia along with severe pulmonary consolidation was observed, though histopathological analysis showed mainly hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia. Lymphoid depletion was inconsistently seen in the spleen, tonsil and bronchial lymph node. Gram-positive colonies were shown in blood vessels or parenchyma of cerebrum, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Also, Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the various organs in which the bacterium was microscopically and histologically detected. In addition, approximately 0.9 Kb specific amplicon, antiphagocytic factor H binding protein, was amplified in the bacterial isolates. In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. PMID:19687630

Yoon, Soon-Seek; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Joo, Yi-Seok

2009-01-01

361

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Swine Associated with Peat Used for Bedding  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding. PMID:25431762

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

2014-01-01

362

Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot  

PubMed Central

Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned out region of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and by complementation of Out- mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Out- mutants of Ecb168, which did not secrete pectate lyase into the culture medium, were obtained when deletions internal to either HindIII fragment were introduced into the genome of Ecb168 through marker exchange mutagenesis. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were complemented to the Out+ phenotype by introduction of the corresponding cloned HindIII fragment. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were less virulent than the Out+ parental strain on potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives inhibited the growth of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture, indicating that the uncharacterized antibiotic(s) responsible for antagonism was exported through an out-independent mechanism. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives reduced the establishment of large populations of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in wounds of potato tubers and suppressed tuber soft rot caused by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. PMID:16349316

Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

1994-01-01

363

Culture- and Quantitative IS900 Real-Time PCR-Based Analysis of the Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Controlled Dairy Cow Farm Environment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 103 were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 102 after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable. PMID:22773642

Moravkova, M.; Babak, V.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

2012-01-01

364

A DIAGNOSTIC REAL-TIME TAQMAN PCR ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF PANTOEA STEWARTII SUBSP. STEWARTII IN CORN SEED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive and specific real-time PCR assay was developed for Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss), the causal agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight of sweet corn and maize. Working in the same intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the ribosomal DNA as an existing conventional PCR assay...

365

Are plants more responsive to decreased than to increased rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau? Evidence from Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carex duriuscula subsp. stenophylloides is a sedge species in alpine grassland ecosys- tems on the Tibetan Plateau. Here we examine its physiological and growth responses to variation in simulated rainfall in a growing season. Compared with the present local rainfall, increased rainfall had no effect on any measured trait except for long-term water use efficiency, and decreased rainfall significantly reduced

Zheng-Sheng He; Wei-Ming He; Ling-Ling Xu; Pei-Li Shi; Xian-Zhou Zhang; Yong-Tao He; Zhi-Ming Zhong; Ming Dong

366

Survival of the Causative Agent of Johne’s Disease (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) in Biofilms on Trough Materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The continued global increase in the number of cases of Johne’s disease among dairy cattle suggests that there remain hidden sources of contamination in the farm environment where susceptible animals may be routinely exposed to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent o...

367

EFFICACY OF CURRENT PASTEURIZATION STANDARDS FOR THE HEAT INACTIVATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ULTRA-HIGH TEMPERATURE MILK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of a chronic enteritis in ruminants (Johne’s disease), has been linked to Crohn’s disease in humans. This microorganism is shed primarily in the feces by infected animals but is also shed in the milk at much lower levels. Therefore, ...

368

Evaluation of two mutants of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for Johne's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we used targeted gene disruption to develop candidate mutants with impaired capacity to survive ex vivo and in vivo to test as a vaccine. We selected relA and pknG, genes known to be important virulence

Kun Taek Park; Andrew J. Allen; John P. Bannantine; Keun Seok Seo; Mary J. Hamilton; Gaber S. Abdellrazeq; Heba M. Rihan; Amanda Grimm; William C. Davis

2011-01-01

369

Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Strain CECT 7210, a Probiotic Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 is a probiotic strain able to inhibit rotavirus in vitro and protect against viral infection in both cell cultures and mice. Here, we report its complete genome sequence, as deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. An analysis of the sequence may provide insights into its functional activity. PMID:25838473

Chenoll, Empar; Rivero, Montserrat; Codoñer, Francisco M; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Moreno Muñoz, Jose Antonio

2015-01-01

370

Antigenicity of recombinant maltose binding protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins with and without factor Xa cleaving  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that MAP expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such prot...

371

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two decontamination chemicals, hexadecylpyridinium choride (HPC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), were compared for their efficacy of reducing the growth of non-specific microorganisms in milk while minimally affecting the recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ...

372

Optimization of methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is primarily shed into the feces but it has also been isolated from the milk and colostrum of cows. Because of this, there exists concern about transfer of the organism from dam to calf and about the prevalence of MAP in the milk supply. The prevalen...

373

Shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows over complete lactation cycles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary mode of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is fecal-oral. However, MAP is also shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows. The objective of this study was to identify if an association exists between stage of MAP infection and days in lactation with ...

374

Evaluation of two mutants of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as candidates for a live attenuated vaccine for Johne's disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Efforts to control Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we examined the potential of targeted gene disruption as a method to develop candidate vaccines with impaired c...

375

Parturition invokes Changes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-one multiparous and two primiparous Holstein cows were grouped according to infection status with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative microorganism for Johne’s disease (JD). The effect of parturition and infection on the percentages of CD4+, CD8+, and T-cells, B-...

376

Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

377

Variable-Number Tandem Repeats That Are Useful in Genotyping Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Newport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was analyzed for direct repeats, and 54 sequences containing variable-number tandem repeat loci were identified. Ten primer pairs that anneal upstream and downstream of each selected locus were designed and used to amplify PCR targets in isolates of S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport. Four of the 10 loci

D. Witonski; R. Stefanova; A. Ranganathan; G. E. Schutze; K. D. Eisenach; M. D. Cave

2006-01-01

378

Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain CECT 8145, Able To Improve Metabolic Syndrome In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145 is able to reduce body fat content and improve metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into its safety status and functional role. PMID:24675853

Chenoll, E.; Codoñer, F. M.; Silva, A.; Martinez-Blanch, J. F.; Martorell, P.; Ramón, D.

2014-01-01

379

Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain CECT 8145, Able To Improve Metabolic Syndrome In Vivo.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145 is able to reduce body fat content and improve metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into its safety status and functional role. PMID:24675853

Chenoll, E; Codoñer, F M; Silva, A; Martinez-Blanch, J F; Martorell, P; Ramón, D; Genovés, S

2014-01-01

380

The status and ecology of a Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos woodland in the northern mountains of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan is found in mountain areas from Turkey through to India and as an isolated population on Jebel Akhadar in the northern mountains of Oman. Juniperus is one of the dominant plant species in these mountains and a major landscape feature of several proposed National Nature and Scenic Reserves and of Hayl Juwari, a

Martin Fisher; Andrew S. Gardner

1995-01-01

381

Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

382

Genome Sequence of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, Isolated from a Nonscalded Curd Pressed Cheese  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the production of many fermented foods, such as dairy products. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, isolated from nonscalded curd pressed cheese. This genome sequence provides information in relation to dairy environment adaptation. PMID:25377704

Velly, H.; Abraham, A.-L.; Loux, V.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.; Fonseca, F.; Bouix, M.

2014-01-01

383

Duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Stenocarpella maydis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of two seedborne maize pathogens in a single assay. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) (syn. Erwinia stewartii) is the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize. Stewart's wilt i...

384

A NOVEL ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS INFECTIONS (JOHNE'S DISEASE) IN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ELISAs for the diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), were developed using whole bacilli treated with formaldehyde (called WELISA) or surface antigens obtained by treating MAP bacilli with formaldehyde and then brief sonication (called SELISA)...

385

Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

386

Early Immune Markers Associated with Experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in a Neonatal Calf Model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to observe early markers of cell-mediated immunity in naïve calves infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and how expression of these markers evolved over the 12-month period of infection. Methods of experimental infection included: Control (n...

387

Efficacy of novel lipid-formulated whole bacterial cell vaccines against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP], the causative agent of enteric Johne's disease, incurs significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Prophylactic vaccination can be employed as a control means, however mineral oil-based vaccines currently in practice have limited efficacy, produce strong antibody responses that confound serological diagnostic testing, and cause severe injection site reactions. In the present study, the safety

J. Frank T. Griffin; Alan D. Hughes; Simon Liggett; Philip A. Farquhar; Colin G. Mackintosh; Douwe Bakker

2009-01-01

388

Application of the C 18 -Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method to Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Ruminant Tissue Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M.

Charles G. Thornton; Kerry M. MacLellan; Judith R. Stabel; Christine Carothers; Robert H. Whitlock; Selvin Passen

2002-01-01

389

Seroprevalence of paratuberculosis in young kids using ‘Bison type’, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen in plate ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antigens (native—S 5, ‘Bison type’ and commercial antigens ‘Bovine’), were compared for screening of kids against paratuberculosis infection. Using MAP (S 5) antigen (‘Bison type’) in plate ELISA, 47 serum samples driven from farmer's herds of Jakhrana, Sirohi, and Marwari breeds in their home tract in Rajasthan state were screened. Of the 47 kids

S. V. Singh; A. V. Singh; P. K. Singh; V. K. Gupta; S. Kumar; J. Vohra

2007-01-01

390

Immune Responses in Mice to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Following Vaccination with a Novel 74F Recombinant Polyprotein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s Disease (JD) is a chronic infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Here, we report the cloning and expression of a 74kDa recombinant polyprotein (Map74F) and its protective efficacy against MAP infection in mice. Map74F was generated by th...

391

Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs  

PubMed Central

The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

2001-01-01

392

Effect of alternative strategies for the disinfection of tomato seed infected with bacterial canker ( Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is a lack of effective seed treatments for bacterial pathogens, with Cu-based compounds (the only chemical treatments permitted under organic farming standards) only providing partial control. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of alternative treatments for the control of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), a major seed-borne bacterial disease in tomato. Treatments assessed

A.-M. Kasselaki; D. Goumas; L. Tamm; J. Fuchs; J. Cooper; C. Leifert

2011-01-01

393

Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the Uni...

394

Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from feces has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis for many years. However, direct fecal PCR is becoming more widely used today, demonstrating similar sensitivity and specificity to culture. To ensure ef...

395

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

396

First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. PMID:25359917

Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Allard, Marc W.

2014-01-01

397

PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CORN AND RICE STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. AVENAE BY DNA/DNA HYBRIDIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is the causal agent of diseases of several important economic crops, including bacterial streak of corn (Zea mays) and bacterial stripe of rice (Oryza sativa). To determine the phylogenetic relationship of these two pathogens, a highly reproducible S1 exonuclea...

398

Draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1, a fecal bacterium of giant pandas.  

PubMed

Enterobacter cloacae, a common pathogenic bacterium, is a Gram-negative bacillus. We analyzed the draft genome of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1 from the feces of a giant panda in China. Genes encoding a ?-lactamase and efflux pumps, as well as other factors, have been found in the genome. PMID:23209197

Yan, Yue; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-He; Pan, Guang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Wang; Ma, Qing-Yi; Hou, Rong; Tan, Xue-Mei

2012-12-01

399

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM 5805T, a Strain That Induces Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Activation.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM 5805(T) is a dairy lactic acid bacterium that induces plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation. Here, we report the 2.55-Mb draft genome and annotation of Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805(T). This genome information will provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory function of this strain. PMID:25792049

Fujii, Toshio; Tomita, Yasuyuki; Ikushima, Shigehito; Horie, Akira; Fujiwara, Daisuke

2015-01-01

400

Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from Feral Cats on a Dairy Farm with Map-infected Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paratuberculosis is an economical- ly important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six rac- coons (Procyon lotor), and three

Mitchell V. Palmer; William C. Stoffregen; Jeremy G. Carpenter; Judith R. Stabel

2005-01-01

401

Parturition Invokes Changes in Peripheral blood Mononuclear Cell Populations in Holstein Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is estimated to infect more than 22% of US dairy herds. Once infected, cows may remain in the asymptomatic subclinical state until a period of stress, such as parturition. Parturition has a major impact on the number of ...

402

Genome Sequences of Strain ATCC 29281 and Pin and Northern Red Oak Isolates of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina  

PubMed Central

Two bacteria identified as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina were isolated from oak trees showing symptoms of drippy blight. Here, we present their draft genome assemblies, as well as that of the type strain of this species. To our knowledge, these are the first published genome sequences of this subspecies of Lonsdalea quercina. PMID:24926062

Ibarra Caballero, Jorge; Zerillo, Marcelo M.; Snelling, Jacob; Cranshaw, Whitney; Boucher, Christina

2014-01-01

403

Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recovered from goats were originally classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae; however, this subspecies was recently reclassified as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae. Besides biochemical (sensitivity to pyrazinamide) and epidemiological features, strains of this unusual member of the M. tuberculosis complex show a special combination of pncA, oxyR, katG and gyrA gene polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of the gyrB gene in these strains reveals special nucleotide substitutions not found in other members of the M. tuberculosis complex that can be used to differentiate caprine mycobacterial strains from M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex. M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae now appears not to be restricted to Spanish goats, as strains of this organism have been isolated from cattle, wild boar and pigs. Its occurrence has also been reported in France, Austria and Germany. Two studies on the evolution of the M. tuberculosis complex based on the presence/absence of regions of difference have shown that the group of caprine isolates (or its ancestor) is older than M. bovis (or its ancestor). These findings reinforce the original suggestion that the caprine mycobacterial strains are a taxon of the M. tuberculosis complex, independent of M. bovis. Within the current context of the existing nomenclature of the M. tuberculosis complex, it is proposed that M. tuberculosis subsp. caprae be elevated to species status, as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov. PMID:14657105

Aranaz, Alicia; Cousins, Debby; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

2003-11-01

404

Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs that are contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within...

405

SYBR GREEN AND TAQMAN ASSAYS FOR SENSITIVE DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS FROM OTHER MYCOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sensitive real-time sequence detection methods based on two different chemistries were developed for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). One is based on the detection of SYBR Green bound to PCR products and the second method is more specific, detecting the cleavage of a fluorogenic (T...

406

Macrophage Transcriptional Response to Species-Adapted Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis Isolates: The Role of Pathogen Genotype in Host Response  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcriptional response of human and bovine macrophages to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) isolates from cattle and sheep were examined using DNA microarrays. M. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s Disease, a chronic infection of ruminant anima...

407

Immunization with a DNA Vaccine Cocktail Induces a Th1 Response and Protects Mice Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several novel antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been studied as vaccine components and their immunogenicity has been evaluated. Previously, we reported that 85 antigen complex (85A, 85B, and 85C), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 35kDa protein could induce significant lymph...

408

Spatiotemporal patterns of seed dispersal in a wind-dispersed Mediterranean tree (Acer opalus subsp. granatense): implications for regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal can severely limit the quantity of plant recruits and their spatial distribution. However, our understanding of the role of dispersal in regeneration dynamics is limited by the lack of knowledge of seed deposition patterns in space and time. In this paper, we analyse the spatiotemporal variability of seed dispersal patterns in the Mediterranean maple, Acer opalus subsp. granatense

Lorena Gómez-Aparicio; Jose M. Gómez; Regino Zamora

2007-01-01

409

A LONG TERM, SUB-CLINICAL, OUTBREAK OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. ENTERICA CERRO IN A PENNSYLVANIA DAIRY HERD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella is a prominent foodborne pathogen in the US and dairy cattle have frequently been identified as reservoirs for this organism. Here we describe a long term outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro that was detected in a Pennsylvania dairy herd during routine monitoring as pa...

410

Draft Genome Sequence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 Strain VTCCBAA264 Isolated from Bubalus bubalis in North India  

PubMed Central

The Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida B:2 serotype causes hemorrhagic septicemia in bubalines with high morbidity and mortality in the Indian subcontinent. We report the draft genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida strain VTCCBAA264 isolated from the small-intestine of a buffalo calf that died of high fever. PMID:25081265

Shanmugasundaram, K.; Boora, Ashok; Bera, B. C.; Shukla, B. N.; Anand, Taruna; Singha, Harisankar; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Virmani, N.; Barua, S.; Ahir, V. B.; Koringa, P. G.; Sajnani, M. R.; Bhat, Vaibhav D.; Rana, N.; Singh, K. P.; Malik, P.; Singh, R. K.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

411

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC178, a Phyllosphere Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain CC178 is a phyllosphere bacterium with antagonistic activity against a wide range of plant fungal pathogens. The genome of strain CC178 is 3,916,828 bp in size and harbors 3,972 genes. Six giant gene clusters are dedicated to the nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial polypeptides and polyketides. PMID:25573933

Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Sang-Yeob; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Wan-Gyu

2015-01-01

412

Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens and that have been improperly cooked can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the Unit...

413

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis attenuated mutants against challenge in a mouse model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), results in serious economic losses worldwide especially in cattle, sheep and goats. To control the impact of JD on the animal industry, an effective vaccine with minimal adverse effects is urgently required. In order ...

414

Evolutionary trends in two strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis PT13a that vary in virulence potential.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the world's leading cause of salmonellosis. Eggs contaminated by apparently healthy hens can result in illness in humans who consume them. Although the incidence of this pathogen within the United States has not been as high as it ...

415

Variation in the molecular weight of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida antigens when cultured under different conditions in vitro  

PubMed Central

The antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae (Ph. d.) subsp. piscicida, cultured in four different growth media [tryptone soya broth (TSB), glucose-rich medium (GRM), iron-depleted TSB (TSB + IR-), and iron-depleted GRM (GRM + IR-)] was compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using sera obtained from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised against live or heat-killed Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The antigenic expression of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida was found to differ depending on the culture medium used. A significantly higher antibody response was obtained with iron-depleted bacteria by ELISA compared with non-iron depleted bacteria obtained from the sera of sea bass raised against live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera from sea bass raised against live bacteria showed a band at 22 kDa in bacteria cultured in TSB + IR- or GRM+ IR- when bacteria that had been freshly isolated from fish were used for the screening, while bands at 24 and 47 kDa were observed with bacteria cultured in TSB or GRM. When bacteria were passaged several times on tryptic soya agar prior to culturing in the four different media, only bands at 24 and 47 kDa were recognized, regardless of the medium used to culture the bacteria. It would appear that the molecular weight of Ph. d. subsp. piscicida antigens change in the presence of iron restriction, and sera from sea bass infected with live bacteria are able to detect epitopes on the antigens after this shift in molecular weight. PMID:17679772

Thompson, Kim D.; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A.

2007-01-01

416

Suspicion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between cattle and wild-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) by multitarget genotyping.  

PubMed

Multitarget genotyping of the etiologic agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is necessary for epidemiological tracing of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). The study was undertaken to assess the informative value of different typing techniques and individual genome markers by investigation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between wild-living red deer and farmed cattle with known shared habitats. Fifty-three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II isolates were differentiated by short sequence repeat analysis (SSR; 4 loci), mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR; 8 loci), and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on IS900 (IS900-RFLP) using BstEII and PstI digestion. Isolates originated from free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Eifel National Park (n = 13), six cattle herds living in the area of this park (n = 23), and five cattle herds without any contact with these red deer (n = 17). Data based on individual herds and genotypes verified that SSR G2 repeats did not exhibit sufficient stability for epidemiological studies. Two common SSR profiles (without G2 repeats), nine MIRU-VNTR patterns, and nine IS900-RFLP patterns were detected, resulting in 17 genotypes when combined. A high genetic variability was found for red deer and cattle isolates within and outside Eifel National Park, but it was revealed only by combination of different typing techniques. Results imply that within this restricted area, wild-living and farmed animals maintain a reservoir for specific M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes. No host relation of genotypes was obtained. Results suggested that four genotypes had been transmitted between and within species and that one genotype had been transmitted between cattle herds only. Use of multitarget genotyping for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains and sufficiently stable genetic markers is essential for reliable interpretations of epidemiological studies on paratuberculosis. PMID:22179249

Fritsch, Isabel; Luyven, Gabriele; Köhler, Heike; Lutz, Walburga; Möbius, Petra

2012-02-01

417

Utility of Sequencing the erm(41) Gene in Isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus with Low and Intermediate Clarithromycin MICs.  

PubMed

The erm(41) gene confers inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus, calling into question the usefulness of macrolides for treating M. abscessus subsp. abscessus infections. With an extended incubation (14 days), isolates with MICs of ?8 ?g/ml are considered macrolide resistant by current CLSI guidelines. Our goals were to determine the incidence of macrolide susceptibility in U.S. isolates, the validity of currently accepted MIC breakpoints, and the erm(41) sequences associated with susceptibility. Of 349 isolates (excluding those with 23S rRNA gene mutations), 85 (24%) had clarithromycin MICs of ?8 ?g/ml. Sequencing of the erm(41) genes from these isolates, as well as from isolates with MICs of ?16 ?g/ml, including ATCC 19977(T), revealed 10 sequevars. The sequence in ATCC 19977(T) was designated sequevar (type) 1; most macrolide-resistant isolates were of this type. Seven sequevars contained isolates with MICs of >16 ?g/ml. The T28C substitution in erm(41), previously associated with macrolide susceptibility, was identified in 62 isolates (18%) comprising three sequevars, with MICs of ?2 (80%), 4 (10%), and 8 (10%) ?g/ml. No other nucleotide substitution was associated with macrolide susceptibility. We recommend that clarithromycin susceptibility breakpoints for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus be changed from ?2 to ?4 ?g/ml and that isolates with an MIC of 8 ?g/ml have repeat MIC testing or erm sequencing performed. Our studies suggest that macrolides are useful for treating approximately 20% of U.S. isolates of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Sequencing of the erm gene of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus will predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. PMID:25653399

Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Howard, Susan T; Nash, Kevin; Parodi, Nicholas; Strong, Anita; Gee, Martha; Smith, Terry; Wallace, Richard J

2015-04-01

418

New method of serological testing for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Johne's disease (JD) or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of livestock and wild ruminants worldwide. Attempts to control JD have proven inordinately difficult due to low levels of sensitivity by currently available diagnostic tests, which are also incapable of detecting prepatent MAP infections. In the present work, we describe the use of a flow cytometry method (FCM) for serological diagnosis of subclinical and clinical JD in cattle. The FCM was capable of distinguishing MAP-infected from MAP-non-infected cattle as well as MAP from M. scrofulaceum and M. avium subsp. avium. Results of the FCM were compared to that of a commercially available ELISA using 82 serum samples from JD-positive and JD-negative dairy and beef cattle farms that were separated into the following groups: (1) sera from a JD-free farm; (2) sera from JD-positive farms that had tested negative by ELISA; and (3) sera from JD-positive farms that tested JD-positive by ELISA. The FCM found that groups 1-3 were 6.6%, 73.3%, and 97.3% positive for MAP infections, respectively. By using 30 fecal culture-negative samples from a JD-free farm and 21 fecal culture-positive samples from JD-positive farms, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the FCM were calculated to be 95.2% and 96.7%, respectively. A retrospective study of 10 JD-positive cows showed that the FCM detected MAP infections 6-44 months earlier than the fecal culture test. Further, the FCM specifically detected MAP infections in serum samples as early as 170 days after experimental inoculation of calves with MAP and did not react with calves inoculated with other mycobacteria. Production of IgG against MAP was detected by FCM in all the calves inoculated with MAP 240 days after inoculation, whereas positive anti-MAP IgG production was not detected in control calves or calves experimentally infected with M. avium subsp. avium or M. bovis. The FCM assay is rapid and is completed in less than 4 h. Moreover, the FCM is objective, technically easy and can be automated for handling large numbers of samples. This novel assay might form the basis of a highly sensitive and subspecies-specific test for the diagnosis of JD. PMID:16156706

Eda, S; Elliott, B; Scott, M C; Waters, W R; Bannantine, J P; Whitlock, R H; Speer, C A

2005-01-01

419

Suppression-Subtractive Hybridization as a Strategy To Identify Taxon-Specific Sequences within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster: Design and Validation of an M. capricolum subsp. capricolum-Specific PCR Assay?  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetically related Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony are two small-ruminant pathogens involved in contagious agalactia. Their respective contributions to clinical outbreaks are not well documented, because they are difficult to differentiate with the current diagnostic techniques. In order to identify DNA sequences specific to one taxon or the other, a suppression-subtractive hybridization approach was developed. DNA fragments resulting from the reciprocal subtraction of the type strains were used as probes on a panel of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony strains to assess their intrataxon specificity. Due to a high intrataxon polymorphism and important cross-reactions between taxa, a single DNA fragment was shown to be specific for M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and to be present in all M. capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates tested in this study. A PCR assay targeting the corresponding gene (simpA51) was designed that resulted in a 560-bp amplification only in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia). simpA51 was further improved to generate a multiplex PCR (multA51) that allows the differentiation of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae from M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. Both the simpA51 and multA51 assays accurately identify M. capricolum subsp. capricolum among other mycoplasmas, including all members of the M. mycoides cluster. simpA51 and multA51 PCRs are proposed as sensitive and robust tools for the specific identification of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. PMID:18234866

Maigre, Laure; Citti, Christine; Marenda, Marc; Poumarat, François; Tardy, Florence

2008-01-01

420

Treatment with antibiotics is detrimental to the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultured from milk and colostrum of dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibiotic cocktails are frequently used as secondary decontaminants prior to the culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study investigated whether secondary incubation with an antibiotic cocktail containing vancomycin, nalidixic acid, and amphotericin B after primary exp...

421

Novel quorum-sensing-controlled genes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: identification of a fungal elicitor homologue in a soft-rotting bacterium.  

PubMed

Seven new genes controlled by the quorum-sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) have been identified in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Using TnphoA as a mutagen, we enriched for mutants defective in proteins that could play a role in the interaction between E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and its plant hosts, and identified NipEcc and its counterpart in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. These are members of a growing family of proteins related to Nep1 from Fusarium oxysporum which can induce necrotic responses in a variety of dicotyledonous plants. NipEcc produced necrosis in tobacco, NipEca affected potato stem rot, and both affected virulence in potato tubers. In E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, nip was shown to be subject to weak repression by the LuxR family regulator, EccR, and may be regulated by the negative global regulator RsmA. PMID:15828686

Pemberton, C L; Whitehead, N A; Sebaihia, M; Bell, K S; Hyman, L J; Harris, S J; Matlin, A J; Robson, N D; Birch, P R J; Carr, J P; Toth, I K; Salmond, G P C

2005-04-01

422

Effect of Feeding Heat-Treated Colostrum on Preweaning Health, Economics and Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Calves: Phase I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction and Objectives Colostrum provides protective immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may also represent an early source of pathogen exposure including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Pilot studies have suggest...

423

Modulation of Cytokine Expression and Lymphocyte Subsets During the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm observations suggest that dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) may demonstrate increased signs of clinical disease during the weeks following parturition. To date, limited research is available characterizing host immunity in periparturient dairy cows ...

424

Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Nyman and Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench (Labiatae).  

PubMed

The two studied Calamintha species showed different polyphenolic content and sterol composition. Calamintha grandiflora possessed twice the polyphenolic content of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa, while the latter contained a higher number of sterols. Among them, stigmast-5-en-3?-ol was found to be the major constituent. The methanolic extract of C. grandiflora was more potent than the C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa methanolic extract in a DPPH assay, while the activity of the C. grandiflora EtOAc fraction was weaker than its C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa counterpart. Fractions of C. nepeta subsp. glandulosa showed higher activity using a ?-carotene bleaching test. The petrol ether fraction of C. grandiflora showed significant inhibition of NO production. PMID:21861645

Conforti, Filomena; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Federica; Uzunov, Dimitar; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

2012-01-01

425

Antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of extract and isolates from Zygogynum pancheri subsp. arrhantum.  

PubMed

One new sesquiterpenoid (5R(*),8R(*),9R(*),10R(*))-cinnamolide (8), and seven known compounds, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavonone (1), 8-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-6,7-(2?,2?-dimethylchromene)-tetralone (2), 8-hydroxy-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-6,7-(2?,2?-dimethylchromene)-tetralone (3), 1?-E-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl-bemadienolide (4), 1?-O-(E-cinnamoyl)-6?-hydroxy-9-epi-polygodial (5), 1?-O-(E-cinnamoyl)-6?-hydroxypolygodial (6), and 1?-O-E-cinnamoylpolygodial (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of barks of Zygogynum pancheri subsp. arrhantum (Winteraceae). The structures of these molecules were assigned predominantly based on spectral data. The structure of compound 8 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant antioxidant activity, whereas compounds 1 and 4-7 showed significant ?-amylase inhibitory activity. PMID:25034255

Keskes, Henda; Litaudon, Marc; Cherif, Atef; Belhadj, Sahla; Hamdi, Besma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Dumontet, Vincent; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; Damak, Mohamed; Allouche, Noureddine

2014-12-01

426

Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

2015-01-01

427

Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

2015-02-01

428

Complete genome sequence of the Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum virulent bacteriophage PM1.  

PubMed

PM1, a novel virulent bacteriophage that infects Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, was isolated. Its morphological features were examined by electron microscopy, which indicated that this phage belongs to the family Myoviridae. It has a 55,098-bp genome, including a 2,665-bp terminal repeat. A total of 63 open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted, but only 20 ORFs possessed homology with functional proteins. There is one tRNA coding region, and the GC-content of the genome is 44.9 %. Most ORFs in bacteriophage PM1 showed high homology to enterobacteria phage ?EcoM-GJ1 and Erwinia phage ?B EamM-Y2. Like these bacteriophages, PM1 encodes an RNA polymerase, which is a hallmark of T7-like phages. There is no integrase or repressor, suggesting that PM1 is a virulent bacteriophage. PMID:24643332

Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Lee, Dong Hwan; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Ryu, Sangryeol; Heu, Sunggi

2014-08-01

429

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 ?-Fucosidases Are Active on Fucosylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides  

PubMed Central

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 utilizes several small-mass neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), several of which are fucosylated. Whereas previous studies focused on endpoint consumption, a temporal glycan consumption profile revealed a time-dependent effect. Specifically, among preferred HMOs, tetraose was favored early in fermentation, with other oligosaccharides consumed slightly later. In order to utilize fucosylated oligosaccharides, ATCC 15697 possesses several fucosidases, implicating GH29 and GH95 ?-l-fucosidases in a gene cluster dedicated to HMO metabolism. Evaluation of the biochemical kinetics demonstrated that ATCC 15697 expresses three fucosidases with a high turnover rate. Moreover, several ATCC 15697 fucosidases are active on the linkages inherent to the HMO molecule. Finally, the HMO cluster GH29 ?-l-fucosidase possesses a crystal structure that is similar to previously characterized fucosidases. PMID:22138995

Sela, David A.; Garrido, Daniel; Lerno, Larry; Wu, Shuai; Tan, Kemin; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

2012-01-01

430

[Detection and analysis of sulfur metabolism genes in Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans representatives].  

PubMed

The lithotrophic capacity of the betaproteobacteria Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans was confirmed at genetic level: functional genes of sulfur metabolism were detected (aprBA, soxB, and sqr, coding for adenylyl phosphosulfate reductase, thiosulfate-cleaving enzyme, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, respectively), and the expression of aprA and soxB genes was demonstrated. An evolutionary scenario for soxB genes in Sphaerotilus representatives is suggested based on comparative analysis of codon occurrence frequency, DNA base composition (G + C content), and topology of phylogenetic trees. The ancestor bacterium of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group was capable of lithotrophic growth in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds. However, in the course of further evolution, the sulfur metabolism genes, including the soxB gene, were lost by some Sphaerotilus strains. As a result, the lithotrophic Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group split into two phylogenetic lineages, lithotrophic and organotrophic ones. PMID:25509396

Belousova, E V; Chernousova, E Iu; Dubinina, G A; Turova, T P; Grabovich, M Iu

2013-01-01

431

Immunogenicity of eight Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific antigens in DNA vaccinated and Map infected mice.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis of the small intestine in domestic and wild ruminants, causes substantial losses to livestock industry. Control of this disease is seriously hampered by the lack of adequate diagnostic tools and vaccines. Here we report on the immunogenicity of eight Map specific antigens, i.e. MAP1693c, Ag3, MAP2677c (identified by post-genomic and immunoproteomic analysis of Map secretome) and Ag5, Ag6, MAP1637c, MAP0388 and MAP3743 (identified by bioinformatic in silico screening of the Map genome). Strong, antigen-specific IFN-? responses were induced in mice vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding MAP1693c, MAP1637c, MAP0388 and MAP3743. In contrast, T cell responses in Map infected mice were directed preferentially against Ag5 and to a lesser extent against MAP3743. None of the tested DNA vaccines conferred protection against subsequent challenge with Map. PMID:22088673

Roupie, Virginie; Viart, Sophie; Leroy, Baptiste; Romano, Marta; Trinchero, Nicolas; Govaerts, Marc; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Wattiez, Ruddy; Huygen, Kris

2012-01-15

432

Draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is the etiologic agent of tularemia and a highly virulent category A biothreat agent. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177, isolated from the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned this isolate to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. Automatic annotation of the 1,813,372 bp draft genome revealed 2,103 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes. PMID:24501637

Coolen, Jordy P M; Sjödin, Andreas; Maraha, Boulos; Hajer, Gerard F; Forsman, Mats; Verspui, Ellen; Frenay, Hendrina M E; Notermans, Daan W; de Vries, Maaike C; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Paauw, Armand; Roeselers, Guus

2013-07-30

433

Draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is the etiologic agent of tularemia and a highly virulent category A biothreat agent. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177, isolated from the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned this isolate to the genomic group B.FTNF002–00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. Automatic annotation of the 1,813,372 bp draft genome revealed 2,103 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes. PMID:24501637

Coolen, Jordy P. M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Maraha, Boulos; Hajer, Gerard F.; Forsman, Mats; Verspui, Ellen; Frenay, Hendrina M.E.; Notermans, Daan W.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Reubsaet, Frans A.G.; Paauw, Armand

2013-01-01

434

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sheep Strains Isolated from Cyprus Sheep and Goats.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

2015-04-01

435

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the light of its type-three secretion system  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for the typical furunculosis. The type-three secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence system. In this work, we review structure and function of this highly sophisticated nanosyringe in A. salmonicida. Based on the literature as well as personal experimental observations, we document the genetic (re)organization, expression regulation, anatomy, putative functional origin and roles in the infectious process of this T3SS. We propose a model of pathogenesis where A. salmonicida induces a temporary immunosuppression state in fish in order to acquire free access to host tissues. Finally, we highlight putative important therapeutic and vaccine strategies to prevent furunculosis of salmonid fish. PMID:24119189

Vanden Bergh, Philippe; Frey, Joachim

2014-01-01

436

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson essential oil.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of the essential oil of Hypericum hircinum L. subsp. majus (Aiton) N. Robson. Analysis of the oil composition revealed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.3%) dominate, cis-?-guaiene, ?-selinene and (E)-caryophyllene being the most representative. Significant values of antioxidant activity were found using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The essential oil revealed antiproliferative activity as evaluated on human glioblastoma (T98G), human prostatic adenocarcinoma (PC3), human squamous carcinoma (A431) and mouse melanoma (B16-F1) tumour cell lines by MTT assay. PMID:22480321

Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo; Sagratini, Gianni; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo

2013-01-01

437

Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4  

PubMed Central

Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker assisted selection for traits. PMID:20507605

2010-01-01

438

In vivo morphological and antigenic characteristics of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to examine the morphology and antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida by culturing the bacterium in vivo in the peritoneal cavity of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) within dialysis bags with either a low molecular weight (LMW) cut-off of 25 kDa or a high molecular weight (HMW) cut-off of 300 kDa. Differences were observed in the growth rate between the bacteria cultured in vivo or in vitro. Bacteria cultured in vivo were smaller and produced a capsular layer, which was more prominent in bacteria cultured in the HMW bag. Antigenicity was examined by Western blot analysis using sera from sea bass injected with live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera recognised bands at 45 and 20 kDa in bacteria cultured in vivo in the LMW bag. Bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag did not express the 45 kDa band when whole cell extracts were examined, although the antigen was present in their extracellular products. In addition, these bacteria had a band at 18 kDa rather than 20 kDa. Differences in glycoprotein were also evident between bacteria cultured in vitro and in vivo. Bacteria cultured in vitro in LMW and HMW bags displayed a single 26 kDa band. Bacteria cultured in the LMW bag in vivo displayed bands at 26 and 27 kDa, while bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag possessed only the 27 kDa band. These bands may represent sialic acid. The significance of the changes observed in the bacterium's structure and antigenicity when cultured in vivo is discussed. PMID:18487938

Thompson, Kim D.; Volpatti, Donatella; Galeotti, Marco; Adams, A.

2008-01-01

439

Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from wild animal species.  

PubMed

Mycobacterial isolates were obtained by radiometric culture from 33 different species of captive or free-ranging animals (n = 106) and environmental sources (n = 3) from six geographic zones within the United States. The identities of all 109 isolates were confirmed by using mycobactin J dependence and characterization of five well-defined molecular markers, including two integration loci of IS900 (loci L1 and L9), one Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis)-specific sequence (locus 251), and one M. avium subsp. avium-specific marker (IS1245), as well as hsp65 and IS1311 restriction endonuclease analyses. Seventy-six acid-fast isolates were identified as M. paratuberculosis, 15 were identified as belonging to the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (but not M. paratuberculosis), and the remaining 18 were identified as mycobacteria outside the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex. Fingerprinting by multiplex PCR for IS900 integration loci clustered 67 of the 76 M. paratuberculosis strains into a single clade (designated clade A18) and had a Simpson's diversity index (D) of 0.53. In contrast, sequence-based characterization of a recently identified M. paratuberculosis short sequence repeat (SSR) region enabled the differentiation of the M. paratuberculosis isolates in clade A18 into seven distinct alleles (D = 0.75). The analysis revealed eight subtypes among the 33 species of animals, suggesting the interspecies transmission of specific strains. Taken together, the results of our analyses demonstrate that SSR analysis enables the genetic characterization of M. paratuberculosis isolates from different host species and provide evidence for the host specificity of some M. paratuberculosis strains as well as sharing of strains between wild and domesticated animal species. PMID:15071028

Motiwala, Alifiya S; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Strother, Megan; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Kapur, Vivek; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2004-04-01

440

Genetic and Physiological Responses of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress  

PubMed Central

Consumer interest in probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing, but industry efforts to secure high cell viability in foods is undermined by these anaerobes' sensitivity to oxidative stress. To address this limitation, we investigated genetic and physiological responses of two fully sequenced Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, BL-04 and DSM 10140, to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress. Although the genome sequences for these strains are highly clonal, prior work showed that they differ in both intrinsic and inducible H2O2 resistance. Transcriptome analysis of early-stationary-phase cells exposed to a sublethal H2O2 concentration detected significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression of 138 genes in strain BL-04 after 5 min and 27 genes after 20 min. Surprisingly, no significant changes in gene expression were detected in DSM 10140 at either time. Genomic data suggested that differences in H2O2 stress resistance might be due to a mutation in a BL-04 gene encoding long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase. To explore this possibility, membrane fatty acids were isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results confirmed that the strains had significantly different lipid profiles: the BL-04 membrane contained higher percentages of C14:0 and C16:0 and lower percentages of C18:1n9. Alteration of the DSM 10140 membrane lipid composition using modified growth medium to more closely mimic that of BL-04 yielded cells that showed increased intrinsic resistance to lethal H2O2 challenge but did not display an inducible H2O2 stress response. The results show that deliberate stress induction or membrane lipid modification can be employed to significantly improve H2O2 resistance in B. animalis subsp. lactis strains. PMID:23772066

Oberg, Taylor S.; Ward, Robert E.; Steele, James L.

2013-01-01

441

Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013  

PubMed Central

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2?>NO?>N2O?>N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

442

Capillary zone electrophoresis for enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt.  

PubMed

Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus is a priority due to their importance in yogurt production. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) of both bacteria could be achieved in 7.2 min with a resolution of 3.2 in the background electrolyte (BGE) containing 4.5mM Tris(hydroxymethyl) amminomethane (TRIS)-4.5 mM boric acid-0.1 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) (TBE) buffer (pH 8.4) and 0.05% (v/v) polyethylene oxide (PEO), using a capillary of 47.5 cm (effective length) x 100 microm i.d., injection of 50 mbar x 3s followed by -5kV x 120s, a voltage and temperature of 20 kV and 25 degrees C, respectively. Appropriate amounts of PEO in the BGE, sample preparation (i.e. vortex) and introduction were key factors for their separation. A short hydrodynamic injection followed by applying reversed polarity voltage could compress the bacteria into narrow zones, which were detected as separated single peaks. Method linearity (r(2)>0.99), precision (%RSDs<9.3%), recovery (%R=91.7-106.7%) and limit of quantitation (1.0 x 10(6) colony forming unit per mL (CFU/mL)) were satisfactory. Results from the CE analysis of both bacteria in yogurt were not statistically different from those of the plate count method (P>0.05). The CE method can be used as an alternative for quantitation of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus in yogurt since it was reliable, simple, cost and labor effective and rapid, allowing the analysis of 3 samples/h (comparing to 2d/sample by plate count method). PMID:19243999

Lim, Orathai; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Suntornsuk, Leena

2009-03-15

443

Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity  

PubMed Central

Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes—a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51—and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n = 5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ? 0.05) between the sexes included interleukin-1?/? (IL-1?/?), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-?) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex. PMID:24814797

McMahon, K. Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M.

2014-01-01

444

Characterization of nitrite degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.  

PubMed

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4(+). The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2(-)>NO->N2O->N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4(+). PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

445

Identification and characterization of three previously undescribed crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed

The total protoxin complement in the parasporal body of mosquitocidal strain, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan 367, was determined by use of a polyacrylamide gel block coupled to mass spectrometry. A total of eight protoxins were identified from this strain, including five reported protoxins (Cry11Ba, Cry19Aa, Cry24Aa, Cry25Aa, and Cyt2Bb), as well as three previously undescribed (Cry30Ca, Cry60Aa, and Cry60Ba) in this isolate. It was interesting that the encoding genes of three new protoxins existed as cry30Ca-gap-orf2 and cry60Ba-gap-cry60Aa. The cry30Ca and a downstream orf2 gene were oriented in the same direction and separated by 114 bp, and cry60Ba was located 156 bp upstream from and in the same orientation to cry60Aa. The three new protoxin genes were cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and expressed in an acrystalliferous strain under the control of cyt1A gene promoters and the STAB-SD stabilizer sequence. Recombinant strain containing only cry30Ca did not produce visible inclusion under microscope observation, while that containing both cry30Ca and orf2 could produce large inclusions. Cry60Aa and Cry60Ba synthesized either alone or together in the acrystalliferous host could yield large inclusions. In bioassays using the fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Cry60Aa and Cry60Ba alone or together had estimated 50% lethal concentrations of 2.9 to 7.9 ?g/ml; however, Cry30Ca with or without ORF2 was not toxic to this mosquito. PMID:23524673

Sun, Yunjun; Zhao, Qiang; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Hu, Quanfang; Federici, Brian A; Park, Hyun-Woo

2013-06-01

446

Cloning, expression and toxicity of a mosquitocidal toxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. medellin (Btmed) produces parasporal crystalline inclusions which are toxic to mosquito larvae. It has been shown that the inclusions of this bacterium contain mainly proteins of 94, 68 and 28-30 kDa. EcoRI partially digested total DNA of Btmed was cloned by using the Lambda Zap II cloning kit. Recombinant plaques were screened with a mouse polyclonal antibody raised against the 94 kDa crystal protein of Btmed. One of the positive plaques was selected, and by in vivo excision, a recombinant pBluescript SK(-) was obtained. The gene encoding the 94 kDa toxin of Btmed DNA was cloned in a 4.4 kb DNA fragment. Btmed DNA was then subcloned as a EcoRI/EcoRI fragment into the shuttle vector pBU4 producing the recombinant plasmid pBTM3 and used to transform by electroporation Bt subsp. israelensis (Bti) crystal negative strain 4Q2-81. Toxicity to mosquito larvae was estimated by using first instar laboratory reared Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae challenged with whole crystals. Toxicity results indicate that the purified inclusions from the recombinant Bti strain were toxic to all mosquito species tested, although the toxicity was not as high as the one produced by the crystal of the Btmed wild type strain. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicate that the inclusions produced by the recombinant strain Bti (pBTM3) were mainly composed of the 94 kDa protein of Btmed, as it was determined by Western blot. PMID:9332588

Restrepo, N; Gutierrez, D; Patiño, M M; Thiéry, I; Delécluse, A; Orduz, S

1997-01-01

447

The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP3464 gene encodes an oxidoreductase involved in invasion of bovine epithelial cells through the activation of host cell Cdc42.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of cattle takes place through the intestinal mucosa. To identify M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes associated with the invasion of bovine epithelial cells in vitro, we screened a library of transposon mutants. Several mutants of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were identified which invaded Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells less efficiently than wild-type (wt) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The deltaOx mutant had the transposon located in the MAP3464 gene, a putative oxidoreductase gene whose expression is upregulated upon bacterial contact with MDBK cells. Complete restoration of invasion comparable to that for the wt bacterium was achieved by introducing a copy of the complete oxidoreductase operon into the deltaOx mutant. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis indicated that wt M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis activates Cdc42 and RhoA pathways of internalization 15 and 60 min after infection of the host cell, respectively. The deltaOx mutant, however, failed to activate the Cdc42 pathway. To determine whether an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis protein delivered to the host cell mediates the entry of the wt bacterium by activation of the Cdc42 pathway, affinity precipitation of active Cdc42 from MDBK-infected cells followed by mass spectrometry was carried out. We identified a 17-amino-acid bacterial peptide associated with the Cdc42 of cells infected with wt M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but not with the deltaOx mutant. The sequence of the peptide matches MAP3985c, a hypothetical protein, possibly functioning as a putative Cdc42 effector. These findings reveal a novel signaling pathway activated during M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis entry that links the product of MAP3464 gene to activation of Cdc42 in the host cell. PMID:17938223

Alonso-Hearn, Marta; Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E

2008-01-01

448

Isolation of High-Affinity Single-Chain Antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Surface Proteins from Sheep with Johne's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johne's disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, causes significant economic losses to the livestock farming industry. Improved investigative and diagnostic tools—necessary to understand disease processes and to identify subclinical infection—are much sought after. Here, we describe the production of single-chain antibodies with defined specificity for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis surface proteins. Single-chain antibodies (scFv) were generated from

Sven Berger; Dominik Hinz; John P. Bannantine; J. F. T. Griffin

2006-01-01

449

Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.  

PubMed

The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 10(1) to 10(5) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or "miniclump" status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

Grant, Irene R; Williams, Alan G; Rowe, Michael T; Muir, D Donald

2005-06-01

450

Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA  

PubMed Central

A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources. PMID:12089057

Alippi, Adriana M.; López, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

2002-01-01

451

Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.  

PubMed

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10(6)-10(8)CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa. PMID:24131584

Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2013-10-15

452

Genome-Wide DNA Microarray Analysis of Francisella tularensis Strains Demonstrates Extensive Genetic Conservation within the Species but Identifies Regions That Are Unique to the Highly Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies. PMID:12843022

Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Pär; Johansson, Anders; Byström, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G.; Sjöstedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W.; Forsman, Mats

2003-01-01

453

Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis.  

PubMed

Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida. We developed a DNA microarray based on 1,832 clones from a shotgun library used for sequencing of the highly virulent strain F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4. This allowed a genome-wide analysis of 27 strains representing all four subspecies. Overall, the microarray analysis confirmed a limited genetic variation within the species F. tularensis, and when the strains were compared, at most 3.7% of the probes showed differential hybridization. Cluster analysis of the hybridization data revealed that the causative agents of type A and type B tularemia, i.e., F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, respectively, formed distinct clusters. Despite marked differences in their virulence and geographical origin, a high degree of genomic similarity between strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica was apparent. Strains from Japan clustered separately, as did strains of F. tularensis subsp. novicida. Eight regions of difference (RD) 0.6 to 11.5 kb in size, altogether comprising 21 open reading frames, were identified that distinguished strains of the moderately virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and the highly virulent subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. One of these regions, RD1, allowed for the first time the development of an F. tularensis-specific PCR assay that discriminates each of the four subspecies. PMID:12843022

Broekhuijsen, Martien; Larsson, Pär; Johansson, Anders; Byström, Mona; Eriksson, Ulla; Larsson, Eva; Prior, Richard G; Sjöstedt, Anders; Titball, Richard W; Forsman, Mats

2003-07-01

454

Structural characterization of the O-chain polysaccharide from an environmentally beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71 was isolated from the root of a tomato plant and it was able to control in vivo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici responsible for the tomato crown and root rot. Recently, strain M71 was evaluated even for its efficacy in controlling Seiridium cardinale, the causal agent of bark canker of common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). Strain M71 ability to persist on the tomato rhizosphere and on the aerial part of cypress plants could be related to the nature of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present on the outer membrane and in particular to the O-specific polysaccharide. A neutral O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide from P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71. By means of compositional analyses and NMR spectroscopy, the chemical repeating unit of the polymer was identified as the following linear trisaccharide. PMID:22036123

Pieretti, Giuseppina; Puopolo, Gerardo; Carillo, Sara; Zoina, Astolfo; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Evidente, Antonio; Corsaro, Maria Michela

2011-12-13

455

Physiological Aspects of Cadmium and Nickel Toxicity in the Lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula Subsp. mitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effect of Cd2+ and Ni2+ containing solutions on selected physiological parameters (metal uptake, chlorophyll a fluorescence, assimilation pigment composition, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance production, and ergosterol content)\\u000a in the lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis growing on historic copper mine-spoil heaps at ?ubietová-Podlipa, Slovakia. Physiological measurements did not confirm

Martin Ba?kor; Jozef Ková?ik; Juraj Piovár; Tommaso Pisani; Stefano Loppi

2010-01-01

456

Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528. PMID:25720681

Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W.; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R.; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Brown, Eric W.

2015-01-01

457

Optimisation of riboflavin production by the marine yeast Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3 using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the optimisation of the process parameters for riboflavin production by the marine yeast strainCandida membranifaciens subsp.flavinogenie W14-3 was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Designs (CCD). We found that the\\u000a amount of xylose, pH, temperature and shaking speed had great influence on riboflavin production by strain W14-3. Therefore,\\u000a a response surface design

Zhe Chi; Lin Wang; Liang Ju; Zhenming Chi

2008-01-01

458

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly