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1

Carbon and oxygen isotopes of Maastrichtian Danian shallow marine carbonates: Yacoraite Formation, northwestern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maastrichtian Danian limestones of the Yacoraite Formation (northwestern Argentina) show carbon and oxygen isotopic values consistent with shallow marine conditions. The members of the formation respond to different sedimentary environments and are characterised by distinctive stable isotopes and geochemistry. The basal Amblayo Member is composed of high-energy dolomitic limestones and limestones with positive isotopic values (+2‰ ?13C, +2‰ ?18O). The top of the member reveals an isotopic shift of ?13C (-5‰) and ?18O (-10‰), probably related to a descent in the sea level. The sandy Güemes Member has isotopically negative (-2‰ ?13C, -1‰ ?18O) limestones, principally controlled by water mixing, decreased organic productivity, and compositional changes in the carbonates. The isotopically lighter limestones are calcitic, with a greater terrigenous contribution and different geochemical composition (high Si Mn Fe Na, low Ca Mg Sr). These isotopic and lithological changes relate to the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition. The Alemanía Member, composed of dolomitic limestones and pelites, represents a return to marine conditions and shows a gradual increase in isotopic values, reaching values similar to those of the Amblayo Member. The Juramento Member, composed of stromatolite limestones, shows isotopic variations that can be correlated with the two well-defined, shallowing-upward sequences of the member.

Marquillas, Rosa; Sabino, Ignacio; Nobrega Sial, Alcides; Papa, Cecilia Del; Ferreira, Valderez; Matthews, Stephen

2007-04-01

2

Geochemistry and structure of the Hawley Formation: Northwestern Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

The Hawley Formation in northwestern Massachusetts is composed of mafic and felsic, (trondhjemitic) igneous units and black sulfidic schists and quartzites. The dominant lithology is a thinly foliated hbd-plag.-chi-qtz.-Fe carbonate schist with or without hornblende fasicules. Locally, this schist has alternating folia of chl/hbd and plag. and probably has a volcaniclastic protolith. Distinct pillows and tuffs are observed locally. In general, these schists have flat REE patterns at 10X chondrite and plot as IABs on discrimination diagrams. In the eastern part of the Hawley, some amphibolites show concave upward REE patterns, plot in the IAT or boninite field on discrimination diagrams, and appear to have boninitic affinities. The felsic lithologies are trondhjemitic and are intrusive into the IAT/boninite amphibolites. The intrusive nature is based on the presence of mafic xenoliths and intruded rafts of country rock in the trondhjemite as well as the occurrence of thin tabular trondhjemite bodies in sharp contact with the surrounding amphibolite. The trondhjemite varies from coarse-grained weakly foliated qtz-plag.-biotite gneiss with probable relict igneous zoned plagioclases to finer-grained well foliated qtz-plag.-garnet-hbd gneiss. REE patterns for the trondhjemites are weakly U-shaped with moderate to pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The trondhjemites, surrounding amphibolites, and black sulfidic schists and quartzites of the eastern part of the Hawley are intruded by massive, granular, medium grained, plagioclase phenocryst amphibolites with chilled margins. These intrusive sills predate or are coeval with the dominant foliation in the Hawley. Both sills and country rock contain a contact-parallel foliation as well as a later foliation at a low angle to the earlier foliation. The sill amphibolites are high TiO2 high Zr varieties that plot as MORBs to WPBs on discrimination diagrams and exhibit slightly LREE enriched MORB-like to T-MORB REE patterns.

Kim, J.; Jacobi, R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

3

Regional source rock potential of lacustrine Oligocene Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the petroleum source rock potential of the freshwater lacustrine sediments, including mudstones, oil shales, and lignites, of the Kishenehn basin of northwestern Montana and southeast British Columbia. Outcrop samples of the Tertiary Kishenehn Formation include excellent, albeit immature, petroleum source rocks. Average total organic carbon contents and hydrogen indices exceed 6% and 500 mg\\/g, respectively, and numerous

J. A. Curiale; S. W. Sperry; J. T. Senftle

1988-01-01

4

Simplified stratigraphic cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirteen stratigraphic cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado are presented in this report. Originally published in a much larger and more detailed form by Self and others (2010), they are shown here in simplified, page-size versions that are easily accessed and used for presentation purposes. Modifications to the original versions include the elimination of the detailed lithologic columns and oil-yield histograms from Fischer assay data and the addition of ground-surface lines to give the depth of the various oil shale units shown on the cross section.

Dietrich, John D.; Johnson, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

5

Shelf-facies microbiotas from the Odjick and Rocknest Formations (Epworth Group; 1. 89 Ga), northwestern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderately well preserved microfossils are reported from two formations of the Epworth Group, Wopmay Orogen, northwestern Canada. An assemblage in an open marine, hematitic stromatolitic unit in the uppermost part of the Odjick Formation contains Huroniospora spp., Gunflintia sp., and Frutexites sp. This assemblage, which is remarkable for its preservation in a carbonate matrix, is similar to one found in

H. J. Hofmann; J. P. Grotzinger

1985-01-01

6

Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation due to brine rejection in the coastal polynya on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea was studied using two bottom moorings during the winter of 1999–2000. A steady salinity and density increase that continued for over a month was observed at the shallower mooring. The maximum density of ?$\\\\theta$ = 26.92 kg m?3 was

Andrey Y. Shcherbina; Lynne D. Talley; Daniel L. Rudnick

2004-01-01

7

Sedimentology and petroleum occurrence, Schoolhouse Member, Maroon Formation (Lower Permian), northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Permian Schoolhouse Member of the Maroon Formation (formerly considered the Schoolhouse Tongue of the Weber Sandstone) forms a partly exhumed petroleum reservoir in the Eagle basin of northwestern Colorado. The Schoolhouse consists mainly of yellowish gray to gray, low-angle to parallel bedded, very fine to fine-grained sandstone of eolian sand-sheet origin; interbedded fluvial deposits are present in most sections. The sand-sheet deposits of the Schoolhouse Member are sedimentologically and petrologically similar to those in the underlying red beds of the main body of the Maroon Formation, and the Schoolhouse is considered the uppermost sand sheet in the Maroon depositional sequence. The bleached and oil-stained Schoolhouse member is distinguished from the underlying Maroon red beds on the basis of its diagenetic history, which is related to regional hydrocarbon migration and development of secondary porosity. Geological and geochemical data suggest that Schoolhouse Member oils have upper Paleozoic sources, including the intrabasinal Belden Formation. 13 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, S.Y.; Schenk, C.J.; Anders, D.L.; Tuttle, M.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-02-01

8

Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation due to brine rejection in the coastal polynya on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea was studied using two bottom moorings during the winter of 1999-2000. A steady salinity and density increase that continued for over a month was observed at the shallower mooring. The maximum density of sigma$\\\\theta$ = 26.92 kg m-3 was

Andrey Y. Shcherbina; Lynne D. Talley; Daniel L. Rudnick

2004-01-01

9

Regional source rock potential of lacustrine Oligocene Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the petroleum source rock potential of the freshwater lacustrine sediments, including mudstones, oil shales, and lignites, of the Kishenehn basin of northwestern Montana and southeast British Columbia. Outcrop samples of the Tertiary Kishenehn Formation include excellent, albeit immature, petroleum source rocks. Average total organic carbon contents and hydrogen indices exceed 6% and 500 mg/g, respectively, and numerous samples contain type I kerogen. All samples studied are thermally immature to marginally mature, having vitrinite reflectance values of 0.28 to 0.51% R{sub 0}. Organic geochemical and petrographic analyses of the Kishenehn sediments allow estimates of detailed depositional setting and specific biological input to the sediment column. The southernmost sediments in the basin contain the least land-plant organic matter input and possess the richest petroleum source potential. Although vitrinite reflectance values are not particularly sensitive to maturity differences in this sample set, molecular geochemical data were found to be useful in evaluating fine maturity distinctions and are used here to establish the order of Kishenehn outcrops on the basis of maturity. This use of molecular markers as maturation and depositional setting indicators for freshwater lacustrine environments has widespread application in thrust belts. The results of this study will be useful in exploration of over two dozen intermontane basins throughout the northern extent of the US Overthrust belt. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Curiale, J.A.; Sperry, S.W.; Senftle, J.T. (Unocal, Brea, CA (USA))

1988-12-01

10

Shelf-facies microbiotas from the Odjick and Rocknest Formations (Epworth Group; 1. 89 Ga), northwestern Canada  

SciTech Connect

Moderately well preserved microfossils are reported from two formations of the Epworth Group, Wopmay Orogen, northwestern Canada. An assemblage in an open marine, hematitic stromatolitic unit in the uppermost part of the Odjick Formation contains Huroniospora spp., Gunflintia sp., and Frutexites sp. This assemblage, which is remarkable for its preservation in a carbonate matrix, is similar to one found in a stromatolitic chert facies in the approximately coeval Gunflint Iron Formation of Ontario. Taxa in four members of the overlying Rocknest Formation occur in cherty dolostones of inner-shelf shallowing-upward cycles capped by small digitate stromatolites. These assemblages are environmentally restricted and comprise the spheroidal taxa Huroniospora spp., Melasmatosphaera magna, Sphaerophycus sp., and Palaeoanacystis sp., the filamentous taxa Archaeotrichion sp., Eomycetopsis sp, Siphonophycus sp., Brevitrichoides sp., Biocatenoides incrustata, Gunflintia. sp., and Archaeonema sp., the spinose acritarch Eomicrhystridium sp., and rare specimens of 2 unidentified and problematic forms. These assemblages represent the northwestern most occurrences of Aphebian (early Proterozoic) microfossils now known in North America. The presence of Frutexites in a hematitic unit of the Odjick Formation conforms to previous reports of this taxon from iron-rich sedimentary rocks, ranging in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; one occurrence from the Upper Devonian in Australia reportedly has an iridium anomaly associated with it.

Hofmann, H.J.; Grotzinger, J.P.

1985-01-01

11

Clay mineral assemblages and analcime formation in a Palaeogene fluvial lacustrine sequence (Maíz Gordo Formation Palaeogen) from northwestern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Palaeogene Maíz Gordo Formation is one of the main lacustrine events recorded in northwestern Argentina. It consists of sandstone, mudstone, and limestone beds 200 m thick, deposited in a brackish alkaline lake and braided alluvial systems. The Maíz Gordo Lake evolved mainly as a closed system, with brief periods as an open one. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study samples from seven sites, corresponding respectively to proximal, intermediate, and transitional positions of the fluvial environment and marginal and inner-lake environment, focusing on the clay mineralogy and analcime formation. The basinward zonation of diagenetic minerals identified in the Maíz Gordo Lake was: mordenite ? analcime ? K-feldspar. Although not a typical zonation of saline alkaline lakes, it does indicate an increase in salinity and alkalinity towards the centre. In proximal fluvial settings, smectite predominates at the base of the sequence, with scarce kaolinite. Towards the top, a striking increase in kaolinite content suggests a change from a relatively arid climate with alternating humid and dry seasons, towards a warm and humid climate. Kaolinite content clearly decreases in a basinward direction. Such a variation is attributable to changes in hydro-geochemistry, denoting the progressive influence of the brackish and alkaline lake water on interstitial pores. SEM images of intermediate fluvial samples reveal authigenesis of illite at the expense of kaolinite booklets. In littoral and inner-lake settings the clay fraction is composed of muscovite, sometimes with subordinate smectite. Analcime occurs in variable amounts in all sedimentary facies, in rock pores or filling veins. It forms subhedral square to hexagonal, or anhedral rounded crystals, denoting that they coarsened at low to moderate degrees of supersaturation. Although the mordenite identified in a fluvial level would have been the precursor of analcime in the Maíz Gordo Basin, no textural evidence of analcime formation through replacement of mordenite or other precursor zeolite was found. Hence it is more probable that analcime formation took place by direct authigenic precipitation or through the reaction between interstitial brines and clay minerals or plagioclase.

Do Campo, M.; Del Papa, C.; Jiménez-Millán, J.; Nieto, F.

2007-09-01

12

Four-toed theropod footprints and a paleomagnetic age from the Whetstone Falls Member of the Harebell Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Maastrichtian), northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harebell Formation is a syntectonic sequence of conglomeratic sediments deposited in a narrow, rapidly subsiding trough that formed in the latest Cretaceous along the eastern margin of the ancestral uplift of what are today the Teton and Gros Ventre Mountains of northwestern Wyoming. On at least two occasions subsidence temporarily exceeded the rate of sediment supply and the area

J. D. Harris; K. R. Johnson; J. Hicks; L. Tauxe

1996-01-01

13

Morphology and formation of spreading cracks on pillow lavas at Cape Grim, northwestern Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tertiary basaltic pillow lobes at Cape Grim, northwestern Tasmania, Australia display well-preserved spreading cracks in the glassy crust. The spreading cracks are lens-shaped or rectangular in plan view. In cross section, they consist of a graben-like depression with a broad floor bounded by steep scarps. The floor of spreading crack contains an axial crack and a number of ridges that are arranged symmetrically with respect to the axial crack. The ridges within spreading cracks are inferred to have formed by the regular, repeated production and splitting of new crust at the centre of the spreading crack. This new interpretation of ridges in spreading cracks differs from the previous interpretation in which they are regarded as elongate normal fault blocks. Our interpretation provides new insight into the propagation mechanisms of pillow lavas.

Goto, Yoshihiko; McPhie, Jocelyn

2012-09-01

14

Pedologic Cover of Western and Northwestern Serbia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Factors of soil formation; Soil types in Western and Northwestern Serbia; Soil conservation and melioration; Soil productivity and zoning. The region of western and northwestern Serbia whose soils are treated in this work covers almost half of S...

D. Tanasijevic G. Antonovic Z. Aleksic N. Pavicevic D. Filipovic

1968-01-01

15

NEW MIDDLE CAMBRIAN MOLLUSCS FROM THE LÁNCARA FORMATION OF THE CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS (NORTH-WESTERN SPAIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abundant and highly diverse fauna is characteristic for the nodular limestones of the upper member of the Láncara Formation. It consists of echinoderms, trilobites, brachiopods, molluscs, sponge- and chancelloriid re- mains, and other small shelly fossils. Whereas the trilobites of the Láncara Formation are well investigated, in- formation on other faunal groups is clearly underrepresented. In this paper the

Thomas WOTTE

16

Reservoir Properties of the Zonguldak Formation, Located in the Western Black Sea Region, Northwestern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zonguldak Formation (Westfalian-Stefanian), which is situated in the Western Black Sea basin, is considered to have hydrocarbon potential for coalbed methane (Yalcin and Inan 2001). Additionally, the shale levels of the delta environment of Alacaagzi Formation (Namurian), underline the Zonguldak Formation is considered to have a source rock potential (Derman and Iztan 1997; Sahinturk and Ozcelik 1983). The delta plain of the Zonguldak Formation consists of shales, coals and siliciclastic rocks which have deposited in the lake, marsh and river environment, having ranging from 1000 to 1400 m thickness. The coals and siliciclastics which belong to the formation have persistence in both onshore and offshore. Nevertheless, there have not been published data related to the reservoir rock potential of siliciclastic levels of the Zonguldak Formation which is recognized to have CBM potential. Three deep research wells (Gegendere-1, Amasra -1 and Cakraz-1) have been drilled by TPAO on research area of the Western Black Sea Region to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the Zonguldak Formation. The Yilanli, Alacaagzi, Zonguldak, Cakraz, and Yemislicay formations have been penetrated in the wells. Methane was detected during drilling; but there was no economic detection from DST. The lithology of the Zonguldak formation was characterized through the core and cutting samples taken from the three wells and also thin sections. The petrographic studies were conducted on 44 thin sections, taken from core and cutting samples, indicating that they are fine to medium grained, moderate sorted, litharenite, sublitarenite, feldspathic arenite, carbonaceous mudstone, and quartz arenite composition. Cement materials are mainly clay matrix, and slightly calcite and silica. The XRD and SEM analyze show that the clay types are kaolinite, illite, chlorite and smectite, and high API values from GR logs support that siliciclastics levels have high content clay matrix. Petrographic determinations show that porosity ratio is less than 1%. The core plug samples taken from the Amasra-1 were used to better understanding about the petrophysical properties. Porosity and permeability values are 1,7-2,4% and 0.01-0.03 md, respectively. The petrographic, petropysical, minerological and reservoir rocks analyses on the siliciclastic levels of the Zonguldak Formation indicate that the formation has a poor reservoir potential in the studied wells.

Küçükku?, N.; Ayy?ld?z, T.

2012-04-01

17

Shrubland formations and associations in mediterranean-desert transitional zones of northwestern Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area between Ensenada and EI Rosario (Baja California, Mexico) has long been considered as a transitional zone in which two great ecoclimatic regions (Mediterranean and Tropical-Desert) overlap. The floristic and biotypical diversity of this area was evaluated by analyzing its shrubland formations from a phytosociological point of view. This phytosociological study, carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method and

M. Peinado; F. Alcaraz; J. L. Aguirre; J. Delgadillo; I. Aguado

1995-01-01

18

A New Basal Sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from Quebrada del Barro Formation (Marayes-El Carrizal Basin), Northwestern Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Argentinean basal sauropodomorphs are known by several specimens from different basins; Ischigualasto, El Tranquilo, and Mogna. The Argentinean record is diverse and includes some of the most primitive known sauropodomorphs such as Panphagia and Chromogisaurus, as well as more derived forms, including several massospondylids. Until now, the Massospondylidae were the group of basal sauropodomorphs most widely spread around Pangea with a record in almost all continents, mostly from the southern hemisphere, including the only record from Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe here a new basal sauropodomorph, Leyesaurus marayensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic unit that crops out in northwestern Argentina. The new taxon is represented by a partial articulated skeleton that includes the skull, vertebral column, scapular and pelvic girdles, and hindlimb. Leyesaurus is diagnosed by a set of unique features, such as a sharply acute angle (50 degrees) formed by the ascending process of the maxilla and the alveolar margin, a straight ascending process of the maxilla with a longitudinal ridge on its lateral surface, noticeably bulging labial side of the maxillary teeth, greatly elongated cervical vertebrae, and proximal articular surface of metatarsal III that is shelf-like and medially deflected. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Leyesaurus as a basal sauropodomorph, sister taxon of Adeopapposaurus within the Massospondylidae. Moreover, the results suggest that massospondylids achieved a higher diversity than previously thought. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogenetic results differ with respect to previous analyses by rejecting the massospondylid affinities of some taxa from the northern hemisphere (e.g., Seitaad, Sarahsaurus). As a result, the new taxon Leyesaurus, coupled with other recent discoveries, suggests that the diversity of massospondylids in the southern hemisphere was higher than in other regions of Pangea. Finally, the close affinities of Leyesaurus with the Lower Jurassic Massospondylus suggest a younger age for the Quebrada del Barro Formation than previously postulated.

Apaldetti, Cecilia; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Pol, Diego

2011-01-01

19

Depositional facies of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation, northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of the basal fluvial sediments of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation in western Texas and eastern New Mexico was controlled by topography on the underlying erosional surface. Paleovalley-fill facies consist of gravelly and sandy braided-stream deposits interbedded with and overlain by eolian sediments deposited as sand sheets and loess. Uplands on the pre-Ogallala erosional surface are overlain primarily by similar

Thomas C. Gustavson; Dale A. Winkler

1988-01-01

20

Depositional facies of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation, northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of the basal fluvial sediments of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation in western Texas and eastern New Mexico was controlled by topography on the underlying erosional surface. Paleovalley-fill facies consist of gravelly and sandy braided-stream deposits interbedded with and overlain by eolian sediments deposited as sand sheets and loess. Uplands on the pre-Ogallala erosional surface are overlain primarily by similar eolian sediments. Calcic paleosols, consisting mostly of glaebules and rhizoconcretions of CaCO3, occur throughout the eolian facies. Massive to laminated and locally pisolitic, brecciated, and recemented pedogenic calcretes occur primarily near or at the top of the Ogallala Formation. Eolian facies preserve numerous superposed calcretes and calcic paleosols, reflecting slow episodic aggradation on a savanna or grassland under and to subhumid climatic conditions. The change from fluvial to mostly eolian sedimentation probably resulted from diversion of streams that deposited fluvial sediments of the Ogallala Formation to form the Pecos and Canadian rivers. Source areas for eolian sediments may initially have been floodplains of Ogallala braided streams and later the floodplains of the newly formed Pecos and Canadian rivers.

Gustavson, Thomas C.; Winkler, Dale A.

1988-03-01

21

Depositional facies of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation, northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of the basal fluvial sediments of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Formation in western Texas and eastern New Mexico was controlled by topography on the underlying erosional surface. Paleovalley-fill facies consist of gravelly and sandy braided-stream deposits interbedded with and overlain by eolian sediments deposited as sand sheets and loess. Uplands on the pre-Ogallala erosional surface are overlain primarily by similar eolian sediments. Calcic paleosols, consisting mostly of glaebules and rhizoconcretions of CaCO/sub 3/, occur throughout the eolian facies. Massive to laminated and locally pisolitic, brecciated, and recemented pedogenic calcretes occur primarily near or at the top of the Ogallala Formation. Eolian facies preserve numerous superposed calcretes and calcic paleosols, reflecting slow episodic aggradation on a savannah or grassland under arid to subhumid climatic conditions. The change from fluvial to mostly eolian sedimentation probably resulted from diversion of streams that deposited fluvial sediments of the Ogallala Formation to form the Pecos and Canadian rivers. Source areas for eolian sediments may initially have been flood plains of Ogallala braided streams and later the flood plains of the newly formed Pecos and Canadian rivers. 38 references.

Gustavson, T.C.; Winkler, D.A.

1988-03-01

22

Diagenetic processes in the Cenozoic sedimentary formations associated with the Chicxulub Impact Crater, northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is a place for studying the control exerted by the large Terminal Cretaceous Chicxulub Impact Crater on both sediment deposition and diagenesis during the Cenozoic Era. The Crater and associated impact breccia have been well preserved beneath a blanket of Cenozoic carbonate rocks with a thickness of up to 1100 m in the center and

Mihai Lefticariu; Eugene C. Perry; Liliana Leftticariu

23

The Inskip Formation, the Harmony Formation, and the Havallah Sequence of Northwestern Nevada - An Interrelated Paleozoic Assemblage in the Home of the Sonoma Orogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An area between the towns of Winnemucca and Battle Mountain in northwestern Nevada, termed the arkosic triangle, includes the type areas of the middle to upper Paleozoic Inskip Formation and Havallah sequence, the Upper Devonian to Mississippian Harmony Formation, the Sonoma orogeny, and the Golconda thrust. According to an extensive body of scientific literature, the Havallah sequence, a diverse assemblage of oceanic rocks, was obducted onto the continent during the latest Permian or earliest Triassic Sonoma orogeny by way of the Golconda thrust. This has been the most commonly accepted theory for half a century, often cited but rarely challenged. The tectonic roles of the Inskip and Harmony Formations have remained uncertain, and they have never been fully integrated into the accepted theory. New, and newly interpreted, data are incompatible with the accepted theory and force comprehensive stratigraphic and tectonic concepts that include the Inskip and Harmony Formations as follows: middle to upper Paleozoic strata, including the Inskip, Harmony, and Havallah, form an interrelated assemblage that was deposited in a single basin on an autochthonous sequence of Cambrian, Ordovician, and lowest Silurian strata of the outer miogeocline. Sediments composing the Upper Devonian to Permian sequence entered the basin from both sides, arkosic sands, gravel, limestone olistoliths, and other detrital components entered from the west, and quartz, quartzite, chert, and other clasts from the east. Tectonic activity was expressed as: (1) Devonian uplift and erosion of part of the outer miogeocline; (2) Late Devonian depression of the same area, forming a trough, probably fault-bounded, in which the Inskip, Harmony, and Havallah were deposited; (3) production of intraformational and extrabasinal conglomerates derived from the basinal rocks; and (4) folding or tilting of the east side of the depositional basin in the Pennsylvanian. These middle to upper Paleozoic deposits were compressed in the Jurassic, causing east-verging thrusts in the eastern part of the depositional basin (Golconda thrust) and west-verging thrusts and folds in the western part. Hypotheses involving a far-traveled allochthon that was obducted from an ocean or back-arc basin are incompatible with modern observations and concepts.

Ketner, Keith B.

2008-01-01

24

The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kharapeh gold deposit is located along the northwestern margin of the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SSZ) in the West Azerbaijan\\u000a province, Iran. It is an epizonal orogenic gold deposit formed within the deformed zone between central Iran and the Arabian\\u000a plate during the Cretaceous–Tertiary Zagros orogeny. The deposit area is underlain by Cretaceous schist and marble, as well\\u000a as altered andesite

Shojaeddin Niroomand; Richard J. Goldfarb; Farid Moore; Mohammad Mohajjel; Erin E. Marsh

2011-01-01

25

Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine Permian and Jurassic strata. The Otuk Formation in DDH 927 gradationally overlies gray siliceous mudstone of the Siksikpuk Formation (Permian, based on regional correlations) and underlies black organic-rich mudstone of the Kingak(?) Shale (Jurassic?, based on regional correlations). The informal shale, chert, and limestone members of the Otuk are recognized in DDH 927, but the Jurassic Blankenship Member is absent. The lower (shale) member consists of 28 m of black to light gray, silty shale with as much as 6.9 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC). Thin limy layers near the base of this member contain bivalve fragments (Claraia sp.?) consistent with an Early Triassic (Griesbachian-early Smithian) age. Gray radiolarian chert dominates the middle member (25 m thick) and yields radiolarians of Middle Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian) and Late Triassic (Carnian-late middle Norian) ages. Black to light gray silty shale, like that in the lower member, forms interbeds that range from a few millimeters to 7 centimeters in thickness through much of the middle member. A distinctive, 2.4-m-thick interval of black shale and calcareous radiolarite ~17 m above the base of the member has as much as 9.8 weight percent TOC, and a 1.9-m-thick interval of limy to cherty mudstone immediately above this contains radiolarians, foraminifers, conodonts, and halobiid bivalve fragments. The upper (limestone) member (29 m thick) is lime mudstone with monotid bivalves and late Norian radiolarians, overlain by gray chert that contains Rhaetian (latest Triassic) radiolarians; Rhaetian strata have not previously been documented in the Otuk. Rare gray to black shale interbeds in the upper member have as much as 3.4 weight percent TOC. At least 35 m of black mudstone overlies the limestone member; these strata lack interbeds of oil shale and chert that are characteristic of the Blankenship, and instead they resemble the Kingak Shale. Vitrinite reflectance values (2.45 and 2.47 percent Ro) from two samples of black shale in the chert member indicate that these rocks reached a high level of thermal maturity within the dry gas window. Regional correlations indicate that lithofacies in the Otuk Formation vary with both structural and geographic position. For example, the shale member of the Otuk in the Wolverine Creek plate includes more limy layers and less barite (as blades, nodules, and lenses) than equivalent strata in the structurally higher Red Dog plate of the EMA, but it has fewer limy layers than the shale member in the EMA ~450 kilometers (km) to the east at Tiglukpuk Creek. The limestone member of the Otuk is thicker in the Wolverine Creek plate than in the Red Dog plate and differs from this member in EMA sections to the east in containing an upper cherty interval that lacks monotids; a similar interval is seen at the top of the Otuk Formation ~125 km to the west (Lisburne Peninsula). Our observations are consistent with the interpretations of previous researchers that Otuk facies become more distal in higher structural positions and that within a given structural level more distal facies occur to the west. Recent paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that the Otuk accumulated at a relatively high paleolatitude with a bivalve fauna typical of the Boreal realm. A suite of ?13Corg (carbon isotopic composition of carbon) data (n=38)

Dumoulin, Julia A.; Burruss, Robert C.; Blome, Charles D.

2013-01-01

26

The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kharapeh gold deposit is located along the northwestern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) in the West Azerbaijan province, Iran. It is an epizonal orogenic gold deposit formed within the deformed zone between central Iran and the Arabian plate during the Cretaceous-Tertiary Zagros orogeny. The deposit area is underlain by Cretaceous schist and marble, as well as altered andesite and dacite dikes. Structural analysis indicates that the rocks underwent tight to isoclinal recumbent folding and were subsequently co-axially refolded to upright open folds during a second deformation. Late- to post-tectonic Cenozoic granites and granodiorites occur northeast of the deposit area. Mineralization mainly is recognized within NW-trending extensional structures as veins and breccia zones. Normal faults, intermediate dikes, and quartz veins, oriented subparallel to the axial surface of the Kharapeh antiform, indicate synchronous extension perpendicular to the fold axis during the second folding event. The gold-bearing quartz veins are >1 km in length and average about 6 m in width; breccia zones are 10-50 m in length and ?1 m in width. Hydrothermal alteration mainly consists of silicification, sulfidation, chloritization, sericitization, and carbonatization. Paragenetic relationships indicate three distinct stages—replacement and silicification, brecciation and fracture filling, and cataclastic brecciation—with the latter two being gold-rich. Fluid inclusion data suggest mineral deposition at temperatures of at least 220-255°C and depths of at least 1.4-1.8 km, from a H2O-CO2±CH4 fluid of relatively high salinity (12-14 wt.% NaCl equiv.), which may reflect metamorphism of passive margin carbonate sequences. Ore fluid ?18O values between about 7‰ and 9‰ suggest no significant meteoric water input, despite gold deposition in a relatively shallow epizonal environment. Similarities to other deposits in the SSZ suggest that the deposit formed as part of a diachronous gold event during the middle to late Tertiary throughout the SSZ and during the final stages of the Zagros orogeny. The proximity of Kharapeh to the main tectonic suture of the orogen, well-developed regional fold systems with superimposed complex fracture geometries, and recognition of nearby volcanogenic massive sulfide systems that suggest a region characterized by sulfur- and metal-rich crustal rocks, collectively indicate an area of the SSZ with high favorability for undiscovered gold resources.

Niroomand, Shojaeddin; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Moore, Farid; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Marsh, Erin E.

2011-04-01

27

Lower Cretaceous rebbachisaurid sauropods from Cerro Aguada del León (Lohan Cura Formation), Neuquén Province, northwestern Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe sauropod material from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Puesto Quiroga Member of the Lohan Cura Formation, exposed at the Cerro Aguada del León locality (La Picaza area, Neuquén Province, Argentina). The remains consist of disarticulated elements of at least three individuals, and are assigned to an indeterminate species of the rebbachisaurid diplodocoid Limaysaurus gen. nov. Elements from various parts

Leonardo Salgado; Alberto Garrido; Sergio E. Cocca; Juan R. Cocca

2004-01-01

28

3D slicing of radiogenic heat production in Bahariya Formation, Tut oil field, North-Western Desert, Egypt.  

PubMed

A 3D block of radiogenic heat production was constructed from the subsurface total gamma ray logs of Bahariya Formation, Western Desert, Egypt. The studied rocks possess a range of radiogenic heat production varying from 0.21 ?Wm(-3) to 2.2 ?Wm(-3). Sandstone rocks of Bahariya Formation have higher radiogenic heat production than the average for crustal sedimentary rocks. The high values of density log of Bahariya Formation indicate the presence of iron oxides which contribute the uranium radioactive ores that increase the radiogenic heat production of these rocks. The average radiogenic heat production produced from the study area is calculated as 6.3 kW. The histogram and cumulative frequency analyses illustrate that the range from 0.8 to 1.2 ?Wm(-3) is about 45.3% of radiogenic heat production values. The 3D slicing of the reservoir shows that the southeastern and northeastern parts of the study area have higher radiogenic heat production than other parts. PMID:23291561

Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A

2012-12-20

29

Palynofacies and hydrocarbon generation potential of the upper Triassic Kurrachine Formation and lower part of the Baluti Formation, Mosul Block, Northwestern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three exploration wells were selected near Mosul city (Az-29, Bm-15, and Kd-1) to study the palynozones and hydrocarbon generation\\u000a potential of the Upper Triassic Baluti and Kurrachine Formations. This study was completed in two phases: The first was a\\u000a study of palynofacies and their paleoenvironmental indications, degree of preservation, diversity of palynomorphs, and organic\\u000a maturity of the rocks according to

Thamer K. Al-Ameri; Qusay H. Al-Dolaimy; Amer Jassim Al-Khafaji

2009-01-01

30

Tertiary geodynamical evolution of northwestern Greece: paleomagnetic results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from 29 sites sampled in Lower to Upper Oligocene flysch sections of the Ionian Zone in northwestern Greece. They indicate a clockwise rotation of about 45° of the entire region. A comparison with previously published results relative to both younger and older formations shows that this rotation has occurred in two phases of comparable amplitude,

Catherine Kissel; Carlo Laj; Carla Müller

1985-01-01

31

Modeling an air pollution episode in northwestern United States: Identifying the effect of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compound emission changes on air pollutants formation using direct sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality impacts of VOCs and NOx emissions from major sources over the northwestern United States are simulated. The comprehensive nested modeling system is comprised of three models: CMAQ, WRF and SMOKE. In addition, the DDM-3D is used to determine the sensitivities of pollutant concentrations to changes in precursor emissions during a severe smog episode in July of 2006. The

Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Marcus Trail; Yongtao Hu; Athanasios Nenes; Armistead G. Russell

2012-01-01

32

Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Volcanology and Development of the Archean Manitou Group, Northwestern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Archean Manitou Group occurs as a northeast-southwest trending arcuate belt in the central part of the Wabigoon greenstone belt, northwestern Ontario. The Manitou Group is mainly conglomerate, sandstone, tuff, tuff-breccia, and argillite, with minor lavas (somewhat alkaline), and iron formation. Mapping has established four formations: the Cane Lake, Sunshine Lake, Uphill Lake, and Mosher Bay. The Uphill Lake includes

Philip Rae Teal

1979-01-01

33

Modeling Recovery Rates and Pathways for Woody Debris Recruitment in Northwestern Washington Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled large woody debris (LWD) recruitment and pool formation in northwestern Washington streams after simulated stand-clearing disturbance using two computer models: Forest Vegetation Simulator for stand development and Riparian-in-a-Box for LWD recruitment, depletion, and pool formation. We evaluated differences in LWD recruitment and pool formation among different combinations of channel size, successional pathway, and stand management scenario. The models

Timothy J. Beechie; George Pess; Paul Kennard; Robert E. Bilby; Susan Bolton

2000-01-01

34

Uranium Geochemical Exploration in Northwestern Luzon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reconnaissance geochemical stream water and sediment survey which was conducted in northwestern Luzon was able to detect ten uranium anomalous areas. These anomalous areas are located along a north-south trending zone of Miocene marine clastics and sedi...

G. Santos L. Fernandez M. Ogena G. Tauli

1980-01-01

35

Turbellaria of Northern Alaska and Northwestern Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five species of turbellarians are recorded for northwestern arctic to subarctic America, all of which belong to different genera, viz. Castrada spinulosa Hofsten 1907, Mesostoma lingua (ABILDGAARD) 1789, Gyratrix hermaphroditus EHRENBERG 1831, Otomesostom...

C. Holmquist

1967-01-01

36

Scholarship, Policy, and Personal Development at Northwestern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the author's experiences in the evaluation training program at Northwestern University (1978-1980) in a postdoctoral fellowship in methodology and evaluation research. Also discusses the value of the friendships and professional relationships formed at that time. (SLD)|

Leviton, Laura C.

2003-01-01

37

Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar

Zongyao Rui; Richard J. Goldfarb; Yumin Qiu; Taihe Zhou; Renyi Chen; Franco Pirajno; Grace Yun

2002-01-01

38

Subduction of the Eastern Panama Basin and Seismotectonics of Northwestern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spreading along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary since the breakup of the Farallon plate in the Miocene has resulted in the formation of the Panama basin and a complex interaction of plates in and near northwestern South America. Current plate boundaries have been defined, and segments of subducted lithosphere identified through selection of hypocentral locations of earthquakes, considering only welllocated events,

Wayne D. Pennington

1981-01-01

39

Northwestern European Paleogene magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and paleogeography: Calcareous nannofossil evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy is used to correlate the Paleogene chronostratigraphic units of northwestern Europe and standard nannofossil biozones. Such biostratigraphic correlations show that the lithostratigraphic sequence is discontinuous and allows interpretation of the paleogeography of northwestern Europe during the Paleogene and evaluation of the influence of global sea-level (eustatic) changes on northwestern European stratigraphy. A well-documented unconformity occurs near

Marie-Pierre Aubry

1985-01-01

40

Northwestern University School of Speech: A History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents a concise history of the first 100 years of development of the school of speech at Northwestern University (Illinois). Following an introduction that provides an overview of the school, the first chapter focuses on both the efforts of Robert McLean Cumnock to found a school of oratory on the principles of elocution and the…

Rein, Lynn Miller

41

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

42

The age and tectonic setting of the Puncoviscana Formation in northwestern Argentina: An accretionary complex related to Early Cambrian closure of the Puncoviscana Ocean and accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TIMS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of selected parts of the Puncoviscana Formation suggest its deposition took place mainly during the Early Cambrian, coeval with 540-535 Ma calc-alkaline Pampean arc volcanism mainly preserved as tuff beds in the oldest identified parts of this unit. Syn- to post-tectonic plutons constrains the Tilcarian-Pampean orogeny to have occurred between ca. 530 Ma and deposition of the unconformably overlying Middle-Upper Cambrian Meson Group. Deposition of the Puncoviscana Formation continued after the onset of the Tilcarian-Pampean orogeny. We propose that the Puncoviscana Formation rocks older than 530 Ma were deposited in the arc-trench gap of the west-facing Pampean arc and/or the associated trench, whereas the rocks younger than 530 Ma were deposited in a syn-collision foreland basin. The Puncoviscana Formation rocks were progressively assembled into a west-younging accretionary complex, consistent with the style of deformation and low-grade metamorphism. The age of the syn-collision plutons (?530 Ma) suggest the foredeep deposits record the transition from trench to foreland basin, due to arrival of the Arequipa-Antofalla block at the west-facing trench at ca. 530 Ma. Our geochronological and Pb-isotope investigations suggest that the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane was a coherent, ribbon-shaped crustal block that also included the western part of the Pampia terrane. A compilation of existing U-Pb zircon studies suggests that the Pampean arc extended along the length of the proto-Andean margin of West Gondwana, represented by the previously amalgamated Amazonia and Rio de La Plata cratons, and probably was initiated during the late Ediacaran after 600 Ma.Following earlier workers, we reaffirm that the Arequipa-Antofalla block was originally separating Laurentia and Amazonia in Rodinia. It probably rifted from Laurentia during the Ediacaran between 600 and 570 Ma, following an earlier departure of Amazonia (˜650 Ma?). The separation of Arequipa-Antofalla from Amazonia and Laurentia opened the Puncoviscana and Iapetus oceans respectively.

Escayola, Mónica P.; van Staal, Cees R.; Davis, William J.

2011-12-01

43

Uranium mine waste water: potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area.

Hiss, W. L.

1977-01-01

44

Ecotypic response to ultramafic soils by some plant species of northwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils high in magnesium derived from ultramafic rocks (serpentine, peridotite, and dunite) in northwestern United States support\\u000a endemic as well as wide-ranging but edaphically indifferent(bodenvag) species. The latter occur widely on diverse rock formations of the region. Severalbodenvag species are shown to respond ecotypically to ultramafic soils. Of 18 species tested, all but three are differentiated into\\u000a strains either tolerant

Arthur R. Kruckeberg

1967-01-01

45

Dust Storm Reduction due to Precipitation and Temperature Enhancement in Northwestern China: A Direct Climatic Impact of Absorbing Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust storms originating in the Gobi desert and northwestern China critically impact weather, climate, and public health in China and neighboring Pacific Rim countries. The frequent occurrence of dust storms has been attributed to both deforestation and the changing environment. Dust storm formation is determined by a number of factors, including dryness, wind field, soil type, and precipitation, with precipitation

Y. Gu; K. Liou; W. Chen; H. Liao

2009-01-01

46

Flood of September 2008 in Northwestern Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During September 12-15, 2008, rainfall ranging from 2 to more than 11 inches fell on northwestern Indiana. The rainfall resulted in extensive flooding on many streams within the Lake Michigan and Kankakee River Basins during September 12-18, causing two deaths, evacuation of hundreds of residents, and millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, six counties in northwestern Indiana were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at four locations recorded new record peak streamflows as a result of the heavy rainfall. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, annual exceedance probabilities, and recurrence intervals are tabulated in this report for 10 USGS streamgages in northwestern Indiana. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at six streamgages. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Munster, Dyer, Hammond, Highland, Gary, Lake Station, Hobart, Schererville, Merrillville, Michiana Shores, and Portage, high-water-park data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available.

Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.

2010-01-01

47

North by Northwestern: initial experience with PACS at Northwestern Memorial Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the initial phases and configuration of the Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS) deployed at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. The primary goals of the project were to improve service to patients, improve service to referring physicians, and improve the process of radiology. Secondary goals were to enhance the academic mission, and modernize institutional information systems. The system consists

David S. Channin; Rodney C. Hawkins; Dieter R. Enzmann

2000-01-01

48

Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

Majid, A.H.

1987-05-01

49

Deformations of the northwestern Pacific plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The style and age of deformations of the sedimentary cover and basaltic basement in the northwestern basin of the Pacific Ocean were studied based on seismic data coordinated with the results of deep-water drilling. The deformations are widespread not only on the oceanic slope of the trench as a plate boundary, but also within the plate especially close to the large Hokkaido, Tuscarora, and Seismikov fracture zones and the Hokkaido Swell. The most intense deformation took place at the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary. Abundant diapirs related to the plastic serpentinite layer at base of the crust indicate that gravity tectonics primarily develops here.

Patrikeev, V. N.

2013-09-01

50

New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina.  

PubMed

Eleven mosquito species, namely Aedes hastatus, Ae. fulvus, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. juxtamansonia, Culex aliciae, Cx. delpontei, Cx. oedipus, Cx. pedroi, Mansonia flaveola, Uranotaenia leucoptera, and Wyeomyia oblita, are recorded for the first time from northwestern Argentina. In addition, 3 species, Cx. brethesi, Limatus durhami, and Ur. nataliae, are reported for the first time from Salta Province. These records extend the geographical distribution of these 3 species to Salta Province. This study also extends the geographical distributions of Cq. nigricans, Cx. chidesteri, and Ma. humeralis to Jujuy Province and of Ae. meprai, Ae. milleri, Ae. oligopistus, Cx. brethesi, Cx. fernandezi, and Cx. tatoi to Tucumán Province. PMID:22894121

Dantur Juri, María J; Stein, Marina; Rossi, Gustavo C; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Zaidenberg, Mario; Sallum, María A Mureb

2012-06-01

51

Geology of the Lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sed...

W. J. Hail

1990-01-01

52

Biogeochemistry of a treeline watershed, northwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1950, mean annual temperatures in northwestern Alaska have increased. Change in forest floor and soil temperature or moisture could alter N mineralization rates, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON), and their export to the aquatic ecosystem. In 1990, we began study of nutrient cycles in the 800-ha Asik watershed, located at treeline in the Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. This paper summarizes relationships between topographic aspect, soil temperature and moisture, inorganic and organic N pools, C pools, CO2 efflux, growing season net N mineralization rates, and stream water chemistry. Forest floor (O2) C/N ratios, C pools, temperature, and moisture were greater on south aspects. More rapid melt of the soil active layer (zone of annual freeze-thaw) and permafrost accounted for the higher moisture. The O2 C and N content were correlated with moisture, inorganic N pools, CO2 efflux, and inversely with temperature. Inorganic N pools were correlated with temperature and CO2 efflux. Net N mineralization rates were positive in early summer, and correlated with O2 moisture, temperature, and C and N pools. Net nitrification rates were inversely correlated with moisture, total C and N. The CO2 efflux increased with temperature and moisture, and was greater on south aspects. Stream ion concentrations declined and DOC increased with discharge. Stream inorganic nitrogen (DIN) output exceeded input by 70%. Alpine stream water nitrate (NO-3) and DOC concentrations indicated substantial contributions to the watershed DIN and DOC budgets.

Stottlemyer, R.

2001-01-01

53

Biogeochemistry of a treeline watershed, northwestern Alaska.  

PubMed

Since 1950, mean annual temperatures in northwestern Alaska have increased. Change in forest floor and soil temperature or moisture could alter N mineralization rates, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON), and their export to the aquatic ecosystem. In 1990, we began study of nutrient cycles in the 800-ha Asik watershed, located at treeline in the Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. This paper summarizes relationships between topographic aspect, soil temperature and moisture, inorganic and organic N pools, C pools, CO2 efflux, growing season net N mineralization rates, and stream water chemistry. Forest floor (O2) C/N ratios, C pools, temperature, and moisture were greater on south aspects. More rapid melt of the soil active layer (zone of annual freeze-thaw) and permafrost accounted for the higher moisture. The O2 C and N content were correlated with moisture, inorganic N pools, CO2 efflux, and inversely with temperature. Inorganic N pools were correlated with temperature and CO2 efflux. Net N mineralization rates were positive in early summer, and correlated with O2 moisture, temperature, and C and N pools. Net nitrification rates were inversely correlated with moisture, total C and N. The CO2 efflux increased with temperature and moisture, and was greater on south aspects. Stream ion concentrations declined and DOC increased with discharge. Stream inorganic nitrogen (DIN) output exceeded input by 70%. Alpine stream water nitrate (NO3-) and DOC concentrations indicated substantial contributions to the watershed DIN and DOC budgets. PMID:11790005

Stottlemyer, R

54

Upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian sections of the northwestern Rostov region. Article 1. Description, paleontological assemblages, and lithobiostratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian reference sections are described in the Glubokaya and Kalitva river basins and in the Znamenka 1-A Borehole located in the northwestern Rostov region. The sections are composed of the upper Campanian Kagal'nik, Belgorod, Pavlovka, Sukhodol and lower Maastrichtian Efremovo-Stepanovka formations. They are characterized by successive stratigraphically significant macro- and microfossil assemblages: belemnites, calcareous nannoplankton, benthic foraminifers, and radiolarians. The Pavlovka and, particularly, Sukhodol formations contain a specific assemblage of coarsely-agglutinated benthic foraminifers. The first data obtained on radiolarians in upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian sections of the northwestern Rostov region revealed four assemblages, two of which were previously unknown from Upper Cretaceous sediments of the East European Platform. Most sections enclose a hiatus at the base of the Sukhodol Formation, which comprises two upper Campanian benthic foraminiferal zones. The problem of recognition of the lower Maastrichtian boundary on the East European Platform is considered in accordance with international GSSP requirements.

Benyamovskiy, V. N.; Alekseev, A. S.; Ovechkina, M. N.; Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Podgaetskii, A. V.; Pronin, V. G.

2012-07-01

55

Vertebrate-bearing eolian unit from the Ogallala Group (Miocene) in northwestern Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Couch Formation is part of the lower of two formations composing the Ogallala Group in Blanco and Yellowhouse canyons in northwestern Texas. An eolian origin for the upper Couch Formation is indicated by its mean grain size, pedogenic carbonate nodules, massive bedding, and blanketlike morphology. The unit conforms poorly to the usual eolian depositional models; it resulted from a combination of the processes involved in loess and sand-sheet formation. Grassland or savanna vegetation probably existed over the area and aided in sediment trapping. Vertebrates are unusual in eolian units, but the adaptations and mode of preservation of those in the upper Couch Formation also support an eolian interpretation. This and other widespread silty sand sheets in the Ogallala indicate major fluctuations in depositional style, possibly climatically controlled. Lateral continuity and preservation of vertebrates give silty sand sheets great potential as correlation tools.

Winkler, Dale A.

1987-08-01

56

Institute for Policy Research: Northwestern University  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1968, the Institute for Policy Research (IPR) at Northwestern University is an interdisciplinary public policy research institute that supports dozens of research projects dealing with a range of issues, including poverty, race, adolescent studies, philanthropy, and community development. The site will be invaluable to persons interested in these fields (especially those interested in the Midwest and Chicago), as complete information is offered about ongoing research programs, affiliated centers (such as the Joint Center for Poverty Research), and a list of staff members and faculty associates. As with many policy research institutes, the publications section contains the most important substantive material, as users may browse working papers, policy briefs, newsletters, and publications from affiliated centers. The IPR Working Paper series extends back until 1995, and contains over 100 reports in total.

57

New insights on the tectonics of northwestern West Philippine Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand better the morphotectonics and the characteristics of the structure of the northwestern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), we have collected multi-beam bathymetric, geomagnetic data and deep seismic reflection profiles. The bathymetric images show obvious NE-SW trending fracture zones and NW-SE direction seafloor fabrics. Furthermore, an overlapping spreading center (OSC) near 22°20’N; 125°E has been identified. The morphology indicates an excess supply of magma and intermediate to fast spreading rate during its formation. The seamounts distribution reveals symmetric distributed in the opposite direction near 21°52’N and 124°26’E. This phenomenon indicates the plate propagating direction; moreover, it has pointed out the possible location of the spreading center. We have also analyzed the newly collected geomagnetic data. The magnetic anomaly results show that the direction of the magnetic lineations is NW-SE and the magnetic anomaly pattern displays a pattern of symmetry. This direction may correspond to the earliest spreading stage of the WPB.

Doo, W.; Hsu, S.; Tsai, C.; Yeh, Y.; Chang, C.

2009-12-01

58

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1993, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at all of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to partially evaluate the statu...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1996-01-01

59

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1994, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at most of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to evaluate the status and tre...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1996-01-01

60

A Synoptic Climatoloty for Snowstorms in Northwestern Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide a climatological aid for forecasting snow in northwestern Nevada. A total of 112 snowstorms affecting Reno, Lovelock, or Winnemucca were analyzed to determine if these storms could be categorized into separate types...

B. L. Nelson P. M. Fransioli C. M. Sakamoto

1972-01-01

61

Structural Configuration of the Northwestern Caribbean Plate Boundary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interpretation of 6,700 km of magnetic total intensity lines collected between the Cayman Trough and coastal Honduras indicates that two distinct systems of transcurrent faults control the configuration of the northwestern Caribbean plate boundary. A ...

P. R. Pinet

1971-01-01

62

Factors Related to Fish Growth in Northwestern Wisconsin Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average fish growth was compared with physical, limnological, and fish abundance data from 115 northwestern Wisconsin lakes. The target species was bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), but data were also collected on northern pike (Esox lucius), rock bass (Amb...

H. E. Snow M. D. Staggs

1994-01-01

63

Geomagnetic variation anomalies in north-western Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary geomagnetic variation data analysis has been made in the Piedmont-Ligurian area in north-western Italy. Data were collected by means of two instruments: an Askania portable variograph and a LaCour fixed station operated in the Roburent geomagnetic observatory. The portable variograph has been moved to several locations in north-western Italy. Parkinson vectors were drawn for 8, 20 and 60

Emanuele Bozzo; Antonio Meloni

1989-01-01

64

Compositional and crystallographic data on REE-bearing coffinite from the Grants uranium region, northwestern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired substitution of Y and P in coarse-grained coffinite from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Grants uranium region, northwestern New Mexico, indicates that coffinite forms an isomorphous series with xenotime, which is isostructural with thorite and zircon. Quantitative electron-microprobe analyses of coffinite crystals (>10 μm) demonstrate that significant amounts of Ca, Y, and rare-earth elements (REEs) proxy for

P. L. Hansley; J. J. Fitzpatrick

2009-01-01

65

The variation of morphological features and mineralogical components of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert of Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly complex life forms were found in older biological soil crusts in the Gurbantaunggut Desert in Northwestern China.\\u000a These crusts may play a critical role in mineral erosion and desert soil formation by modifying the weathering environment\\u000a and ultimately affecting mineralogical variance. To test this hypothesis, variations in the morphological features and mineralogical\\u000a components of successional biological soil crusts at

Rongyi Chen; Yuanming Zhang; Yuan Li; Wenshou Wei; Jing Zhang; Nan Wu

2009-01-01

66

SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in Northwestern Fujian, Cathaysia block, China: Tectonic implications and the need to redefine lithostratigraphic units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwestern Fujian Province is one of the most important Pre-Palaeozoic areas in the Cathaysia Block of South China. Metavolcano-sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of different types, ages and metamorphic grades (granulite to upper greenschist facies) are present, and previously were divided into several Formations and Groups. Tectonic contacts occur between some units, whereas (deformed) unconformities have been reported between others. New

Yusheng Wan; Dunyi Liu; Meihui Xu; Jianmin Zhuang; Biao Song; Yuruo Shi; Lilin Du

2007-01-01

67

Facies analysis of the lower cycles of the Mesaverde Group (Upper Cretaceous) in northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The uppermost 180 m of the Mancos Shale and overlying 390 m of the Iles Formation of the Mesaverde Group in northwestern Colorado were deposited at the west margin of an epicontinental seaway that spanned North America 66-98 million years ago from the circumboreal seaway on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. Sedimentation in the seaway was controlled by uplift in source areas to the west, subsidence in the basin, and eustatic sea level changes. Sedimentation rates were relatively high, averaging about 220m/million years; marine cycles of deposition occurred in northwestern Colorado that correspond to the Claggett, Judith River, and Bearpaw regressions of Montana. The upper Mancos shale and lower Iles Formation can be subdivided into ten facies based on five criteria: (1) Lithology, texture, and thickness relations (geometry); (2) sedimentary structures and contacts; (3) trace and body fossils; (4) paleocurrent data; and (5) adjoining facies (underlying, overlying, and laterally). Each facies has distinct attributes which characterize a specific depositional environment. Environments represented by facies include (A) offshore shoreface transition (prodelta); (B) shallow marine sand bars; (C) destructional delta front; (D) constructional delta front (sheet sands and mouth bars); (E) beach foreshore-shoreface deposits; (F) interdistributary marsh and swamp deposits and fluvial floodplain; (G) distributary channels; (H) crevasse splays; (J) fluvial streams; and (K) tidally influenced distributary channel. Facies analysis of outcrop data shows that transgressions and regressions occurred, some of which are related to major (eustatic) sea level changes and others that reflect only local causes. These events in northwestern Colorado are summarized in following chapters, and an attempt is made to show their relationship to broad regional patterns of sedimentation.

Kiteley, L. W.

1983-01-01

68

Seismic evidence for blind thrusting of the northwestern flank of the Venezuelan Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface geology and seismic and well data from the northwestern flank of the Venezuelan Andes indicate overthrusting of Andean basement rocks toward the adjacent Maracaibo Basin along a blind thrust fault. The frontal monocline is interpreted as the forelimb of a northwestward verging fault-related fold deformed over a crustal-scale ramp. The Andean block has been thrust 20 km to the northwest and uplifted 10 km on a ramp that dips about 20°-30° southeastward. The thrust fault ramps up through crystalline basement rocks to a decollement horizon within the shaly units of the Cretaceous Colon-Mito Juan formations. Backthrusts in the monocline produce a wedge geometry and reduce the amount of blind slip required on the decollement northwest of the Andes. The rigid Andean uplift was caused by northwest-southeast compressive tectonic forces related to the convergence of the Caribbean plate, the Panama volcanic arc, and northwestern South America. The thick (up to 6 km) molasse deposits accumulated in the foredeep basin indicate that the Venezuelan Andes started to rise as early as the early Miocene. However, a late Miocene intramolasse unconformity marks the beginning of the formation of the monocline and the greatest uplift. The crustal-scale fault-related fold model may explain structural features seen in other areas of basement-involved foreland deformation.

de Toni, Bruno; Kellogg, James

1993-12-01

69

76 FR 26717 - NorthWestern Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. PR11-102-001] NorthWestern Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 29, 2011, NorthWestern Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

2011-05-09

70

76 FR 28017 - NorthWestern Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. PR11-102-002] NorthWestern Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 5, 2011, NorthWestern Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

2011-05-13

71

North by Northwestern: initial experience with PACS at Northwestern Memorial Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the initial phases and configuration of the Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS) deployed at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. The primary goals of the project were to improve service to patients, improve service to referring physicians, and improve the process of radiology. Secondary goals were to enhance the academic mission, and modernize institutional information systems. The system consists of a large number of heterogeneous imaging modalities sending imaging studies via DICOM to a GE medical Systems PathSpeed PACS. The radiology department workflow is briefly described. The system is currently storing approximately 140,000 studies and over 5 million images, growing by approximately 600 studies and 25,000 images per day. Data reflecting use of the short term and long term storage is provided.

Channin, David S.; Hawkins, Rodney C.; Enzmann, Dieter R.

2000-05-01

72

Solar and lunar geomagnetic variations in the northwestern part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hourly mean values of X, Y and Z components of the geomagnetic field from two observatories and the total intensity, F, of the geomagnetic field from eight monitoring stations were analysed to study the behaviour of solar and lunar geomagnetic variations in the northwestern part of Turkey. The Chapman-Miller method was applied to the data first as a whole and then by grouping it to Lloyd's seasons to calculate seasonal dependence of the harmonics. Amplitudes of solar and lunar harmonics increase from winter months to summer months. The first two harmonics of both solar and lunar origins were calculated annually to compare with sunspot relative numbers to see annual and semi-annual variation. The solar harmonics show very good sunspot dependence, but lunar harmonics do not. It means that both ionospheric and ring current systems have an important role in the formation of solar harmonics, but lunar harmonics are affected by ionospheric current system only in the northwestern part of Turkey. We would not expect and we do not find much ocean effect at these observatories since they are all remote from oceans with significant tides.

??elik, Cengiz; Tunçer, Mustafa Kemal; Tolak-?iftçi, Elif; Zobu, Metin; Oshiman, Naoto; Tank, S. Bülent

2012-04-01

73

The Role of Water Chemistry in Wetland Morphology in Northwestern Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What processes formed rectilinear, patterned wetlands in the Maya lowlands of Northwestern Belize? This research analyzes the surface and ground water chemistry of the Three Rivers region in Northwestern Belize to test multiple working hypotheses about wetland morphology in the region. Because this is a region with extensive Ancient Maya settlement, we test three main hypotheses: natural processes formed the wetland field patterns, ancient Maya farmers transformed this landscape, or a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors shaped this landscape. For the Three Rivers Region of Belize, our results show chemically distinct water sources that include waters that are limited for agricultural and domestic uses, and other waters that are acceptable for these uses. Distinct ground and surface water chemistry in the lowlands provides a natural mechanism for explaining landscape change, but does not invalidate the hypothesis of human modification of the landscape. From the Preclassic into the Classic Maya Period, sea level rise drove the water table to rise, which had profound impacts on Maya land use. In sum, we overview Maya Lowlands water quality and discuss specific field and lab research in Belize to understand better the factors of wetland formation in this region.

Beach, S. L.; Beach, T. P.; Howard, D. A.

2006-12-01

74

Internal phosphorus loading to shallow Edinboro Lake in northwestern Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer stratification phosphorus budget for eutrophic Edinboro Lake in northwestern Pennsylvania was determined. Phosphorus loading from internal sources contributed 141 kg, (79%) and 55 kg, (68%) of the mass phosphorus increase in the lake in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Calculated anaerobic sediment release rates of total phosphorus were 9.9 and 3.7 mg ? m-2 ? day-1 for these two

Kevin J. Garberl; Richard T. Hartman

1985-01-01

75

Diversity of stream-living insects in northwestern Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on species richness and diversity of aquatic insects are presented for 42 streams from four drainage areas in northwestern Panami. 189 taxa were collected, many of which are undescribed species. Nearly 45% of the taxa were found in only one of the drainage areas. Diversities, as measured by alpha of the log series, and similarities, measured by number of

R. WILLSFLOWERS

1991-01-01

76

Summer mean circulation of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mellor et al. (1982) method is applied to a new high-resolution analysis of the temperature and salinity fields in order to determine the summer transport and ciculation of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. This high-resolution analysis is carried out using an objective analysis scheme which is a modification of that used by Levitus (1982). In view of the strong toographic

Thierry H. Reynaud; Andrew J. Weaver; Richard J. Greatbatch

1995-01-01

77

Basement structure of the north-western Yermak Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of Northeast Greenland and Svalbard was achieved by large strike slip movements in Cenozoic times. Evidence for these movements can be found onshore both on North Greenland and Svalbard. However, the role of the Yermak Plateau in this process is quite speculative. New multichannel seismic (10 km spacing) and aeromagnetic data (7.5 km spacing) across the north-western part

W. Jokat; W. Geissler; M. Voss

2008-01-01

78

Vegetation History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken on Laysan Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to investigate its flora before his- torical observations. Substantial impacts occurred to the island as a result of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century guano mining, commercial feather col- lecting, and denudation of vegetation by feral rabbits. An account of Laysan's historically known vegetation is presented, followed by

John Stephen. Athens; James V. Ward; Dean W. Blinn

2007-01-01

79

Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation

Mohamed El Wartiti; Amina Malaki; Mohamed Zahraoui; Abdelilah El Ghannouchi; Felice di Gregorio

2008-01-01

80

Analysis of Dermatomycoses in Lanzhou District of Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin mycoses, perticularly dermatophytoses, in Lanzhou district, Northwestern China, was investigated during July 2002–June 2003. The specimens from patients suspected of having dermatomycoses were examined microscopically in KOH preparations and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Among 1443 suspected cases, 594 were KOH positive and 221 cultures of fungi were isolated. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton rubrum

Niu Tao-Xiang; Luo Zhi-Cheng; Wu Sao-Mao; Li Wen-Zhu

2005-01-01

81

Native Shrubs: Suitability for Revegetating Road Cuts in Northwestern Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four years after planting, Wood's rose (82 percent), red-osier dogwood (94 percent), and thimbleberry (73 percent) had the highest survival of the 18 species of native shrubs planted on steep road cuts in Northwestern Montana. Two penstermon species and W...

R. D. Hungerford

1984-01-01

82

Emergence of African Swine Fever Virus, Northwestern Iran  

PubMed Central

In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied

2010-01-01

83

American Exploration: North-western Wyoming and Yellowstone Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE letter from Capt. W. A. Jones in NATURE, vol. xviii. p. 667, seems to show a feeling of irritation on his part at the notice of his Report upon a reconnaissance in North-western Wyoming, which appeared in your columns some months ago. There was not in that notice any expression which could be interpreted into a want of recognition

Arch. Geikie

1878-01-01

84

Natural gases in mercury deposits of Donbass and Northwestern Caucasus  

SciTech Connect

A short review of information on the composition and genesis of natural gases in the Northwestern Caucasus and Donbass mercury deposits is presented. These differences in gas composition, as well as the distinct predominance of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in hydrothermally altered rocks, may be used for predicting gas-bearing capacity of deposits and for mercury prospecting in new areas. (JMT)

Fridman, A.I.; Makhlova, N.K.; Plotnikov, I.A.

1981-02-01

85

Resettling Farm Households in Northwestern Vietnam: Livelihood Change and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how a resettlement programme in northwestern Vietnam has affected the livelihood assets, strategies and outcomes of the resettled and host households. Data were collected using informal interviews, followed by a structured survey of 56 resettled and 52 host households. Results show a significant decline in natural capital for the resettled households and a lesser decline for the

Thi Minh Hang Bui; Pepijn Schreinemachers

2011-01-01

86

Late Pleistocene Glaciations in the Northwestern Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleistocene fluvial landforms and riparian ecosystems in central California responded to climate changes in the Sierra Nevada, yet the glacial history of the western Sierra remains largely unknown. Three glacial stages in the northwestern Sierra Nevada are documented by field mapping and cosmogenic radionuclide surface-exposure (CRSE) ages. Two CRSE ages of erratic boulders on an isolated till above Bear Valley

L. Allan James; Jon Harbor; Derek Fabel; Dennis Dahms; David Elmore

2002-01-01

87

Kinship and Association in Social Foraging Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The producer-scrounger model suggests that the number of producers (animals that search for food) and scroungers (animals that consume food found by producers) may be an evolutionarily stable strategy. We investigated the role of kinship and social affiliation on these strategies by combining microsatellite DNA-based measures of relatedness with focal animal behavioral sam- pling of northwestern crows in the field.

RENEE ROBINETTE HA; PAUL BENTZEN; JENNIFER MARSH; JAMES C. HA

2003-01-01

88

8. BUILDING 332, INTERIOR, HALLWAY NEAR MAIN ENTRANCE IN NORTHWESTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. BUILDING 332, INTERIOR, HALLWAY NEAR MAIN ENTRANCE IN NORTHWESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH, WITH LOBBY TO LEFT AND CONFERENCE ROOM TO RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Dry Provisions Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, Between G & L Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

89

Sociocultural dimensions of leprosy in North-Western Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine some socio-cultural factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of the community toward leprosy was carried out in north-western Botswana, where cases of leprosy have been known to exist over the years. The study was largely qualitative, using ethnographic approaches. The research was tailored in a way to capture the ethnic diversity of the region, in particular two

J. A. Kumaresan; E. T. Maganu

1994-01-01

90

Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects

Sundell

1986-01-01

91

A Miocene basanite peperitic dyke at Stanley, northwestern Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Miocene basanite dyke at Stanley, northwestern Tasmania, Australia, displays well preserved peperite texture. The dyke is 2 m wide and has intruded basaltic breccia (“host sediment”). One contact of the dyke is fluidally shaped, and amoeboid apophyses 10–25 cm long extend into the host sediment, whereas the other contact is characterized by blocky peperite texture comprising tabular to wedge-shaped

Yoshihiko Goto; Jocelyn McPhie

1996-01-01

92

Medicinal Plant Resources in Chhakinal Watershed in the Northwestern Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional knowledge, uses, monetary costs, and benefits associated with medicinal plants were analyzed in the Chhakinal watershed of Northwestern Himalaya. Of 29 plant species used in folk medicine, only 3 species, Juglans regia, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, and Morchella esculenta were noted to have market value. The medicinal value of four species, Dioscorea deltoidea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Jurinea macrocephala, were

R. M. Dobriyal; G. S. Singh; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

1997-01-01

93

A multipurpose high-rate GPS observatory for northwestern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a proposed joint atmospheric and geophysical high-rate GPS observatory in northwestern Mexico complementing and extending analogous networks in the United Stated. The observatory would measure atmospheric water vapor during the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) as well as crustal velocities within and across the Gulf of California and the Mexican Basin and Range region for geodetic applications. The

E. R. Kursinski; R. A. Bennett; A. Hahmann

2003-01-01

94

DIETARY OVERLAP BETWEEN WOLVES AND COYOTES IN NORTHWESTERN MONTANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied effects of recolonizing wolves (Canis lupus) in the North Fork of the Flathead area of northwestern Montana on the diets of coyotes (C. latrans) from 1994 to 1997. Wolf and coyote diets differed in frequency of occurrence of prey species during 3 of the 4 summers and winters (P< 0.001) during the study. Coyote diets contained more murid

Wendy M. Arjo; Daniel H. Pletscher; Robert R. Ream

2002-01-01

95

Subtropical mode water in the northwestern pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the in situ XBT and other data sets, by analyzing the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and using the conservative potential vorticity (PV) as a tool, a clear description of the formation process of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW) is presented for explaining the well known ‘Stommel Demon’. The forming of NPSTMW reflects well the ventilation process of the isotherms of the permanent thermocline. The formation process can be divided into the ‘ventilation’ phase and the ‘formation’ phase. In the first phase (October-March), with large heat losses at the sea surface from October, the mixed layer deepens and correspondingly, the water mass with low PV emerges and sinks. After continual cooling from October to March, the mixed layer reaches its maximum value (>300 m) in March. Then, in the second phase (April June), the mixed layer shoals rapidly from April, a large part of the low PV water mass is sheltered from further air-sea interaction by the emerging seasonal thermocline, and thus forms new NPSTMW. Further analysis indicates that the formation region of warm NPSTMW (17 18°C) is limited between 140° 150°E), while the relatively cold NPSTMW (16 17°C) originates in a wider longitude range (140° 170°E). Climate features of NPSTMW are presented with the use of climatological Levitus (1994 a, b) dataset. It is shown that NPSTMW lies, in the region of (130° 170°E, 22° 34°N) with core temperature ranging from about 16 19°C and potential density around 25 25.8??. NPSTMW has a three-dimensional structure lying below the seasonal thermocline (about 100 m deep) and reaches almost to 350 m depths.

Aijun, Pan; Qinyu, Liu

2003-10-01

96

Seroprevalence of trichinellosis in domestic animals in northwestern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Trichinellosis is an important emerging or re-emerging zoonotic disease in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, data on trichinellosis are scarce. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of trichinellosis in the domestic lifecycle in two provinces of northwestern Vietnam, where recently isolated outbreaks of human trichinellosis occurred. Serum samples were obtained from 558 pigs, 125 dogs and 98 cats, transported on filter paper, and tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA and Western blot, using larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to Trichinella was 5.6%, 4% and 0% in pigs, dogs and cats, respectively. In pigs, positive cases were distributed in 8/20 districts of the two provinces. This study suggests that Trichinella spp. is circulating in the domestic life cycle in northwestern Vietnam. Further study is recommended to investigate the presence of Trichinella in a sylvatic cycle, and to identify the occurring Trichinella species. PMID:23265187

Thi, N Vu; De, N V; Praet, N; Claes, L; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

2012-11-29

97

Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

Hail, W.J.

1990-01-01

98

Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide\\u000a key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the\\u000a general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating\\u000a methods of site conservation

Mohamed El Wartiti; Amina Malaki; Mohamed Zahraoui; Abdelilah El Ghannouchi; Felice Di Gregorio

2008-01-01

99

Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia  

PubMed Central

According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

2012-01-01

100

Geophysical evidence of an impact crater in northwestern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent positive terrain correlated free-air gravity anomaly over regionally depressed topography may identify a mascon centered on (4.15 N, 69.5W) in the Vichada plain, Guiana Shield in Northwestern South America. The topographic depression was recognized by LANDSAT images, showing a complex crater with two rings of 30 km and 50 km of diameter. Being one third of the size

O. Hernandez; R. R. von Frese; S. Khurama

2007-01-01

101

Palaeontology and Zooarchaeology of Mezmaiskaya Cave (Northwestern Caucasus, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave, situated at 1300–1350m above sea level in the northwestern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains. Most remains were recovered from layers containing Mousterian artefacts that date to the late Middle Pleniglacial (35,000bpand older). The faunal assemblage reflects a very low degree of weathering,

Robin L. Burgess

1996-01-01

102

Multisensor monitoring of plume dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from various space-borne sensors to monitor the marine ecosystem in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, at the\\u000a Costa Dorada, between the City of Barcelona and the estuary of the river Ebro. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that\\u000a the combination of different remote sensing data (acquired at different electromagnetic frequencies) allows for an improved\\u000a monitoring system,

Martin Gade; Vittorio Barale; Helen M. Snaith

2003-01-01

103

Health behaviours of school children in northwestern Poland in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3568 final class primary school in northwestern Poland were investigated between January and June 2000.\\u000a \\u000a The youths fulfilled the questionnaire concerned health behaviour issues. The 56% of school children do not drink milk daily,\\u000a 68% do not eat raw vegetables, and 35% do not take any food at school. Every second boy and every fourth girl brushes his\\/her\\u000a teeth

B. Garanty-Bogacka; W. Wieczorek; M. Syrenicz; B. Ciechanowska; B. Krupa; A. Gebala; J. Goral

2003-01-01

104

Seismicity and tectonics in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portable Array for Numerical Digital Analysis (PANDA) network, a digitally recorded seismic array, operated for nine months in Jujuy province of northwestern Argentina. The network was deployed along the eastern edge of the Altiplano-Puna plateau in a major N-S thrust belt that is transitional in style between the thin-skinned deformation of the Bolivian foreland to the north and basement-involved

Thomas Cahill; Bryan L. Isacks; Dean Whitman; Jean-Luc Chatelain; Alejandro Perez; Jer Ming Chiu

1992-01-01

105

Childhood brucellosis in north-western Greece: A retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two cases of childhood brucellosis which occurred in north-western Greece during the 15-year period 1979–1993, are reviewed. It is believed that they represent very closely the total incidence of the disease in the region which has a population of 100,000 children aged 0–14 years old. Brucellosis-affected children were almost exclusively from goat-or shepherd families and of both sexes and all

E. Galanakis; K. L. Bourantas; S. Leveidiotou; P. D. Lapatsanis

1996-01-01

106

Biology of Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI ) represent the northern three-quarters of the Hawaiian Archipelago. This part of\\u000a the Hawaiian chain stretches across 2,000 km of the North Pacific between 23 and 29 degrees north latitude and consists of\\u000a nine major islets, coral islands and\\/or atolls. Numerous reefs, submerged banks and seamounts also exist between and around\\u000a the main islands. Together

Richard W. Grigg; Jeffrey Polovina; Alan M. Friedlander; Steven O. Rohmann

107

Late paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China. Sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on areas adjacent to the Tian Shan (shan is Chinese for mountains) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, and provides new field data on Carboniferous and Permian outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks of the southern Junggar, northwestern Turpan, and northern Tarim basins that bear directly on the history of late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation. We present here a multifaceted sedimentary basin analysis, including sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, and sandstone provenance analyses, and reconstructions of late Paleozoic basin subsidence. These data provide a unique record not only of the basins themselves, but also of the evolution of the adjacent orogenic belts. This study is based on fieldwork during the summers of 1987, 1988, 1991, and 1992 by workers from Stanford University, the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, and the Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Although reconnaissance in nature, the data presented here provide a basis for evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of northwestern China and provide a starting point for more comprehensive future studies. 72 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Carroll, A.R. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Graham, S.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Ying, D.; Zhou, D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

108

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Becker, C. J. Runkle, D. L.; Rea, Alan

1997-01-01

109

African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

Ishengoma, Johnson M.

2005-05-01

110

The Center for Talent Development at Northwestern University: An Example of Replication and Reformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes implementation of the talent search model developed by Julian Stanley at the Center for Talent Development of Northwestern University. While remaining true to the basic components of the talent search, the talent center at Northwestern has emphasized using talent search as a means to influence programming in local schools…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2005-01-01

111

The Center for Talent Development at Northwestern University: An Example of Replication and Reformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes implementation of the talent search model developed by Julian Stanley at the Center for Talent Development of Northwestern University. While remaining true to the basic components of the talent search, the talent center at Northwestern has emphasized using talent search as a means to influence programming in local schools…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2005-01-01

112

Genetic diversity in a germplasm collection of Brassica rapa subsp rapa L. from northwestern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Galicia (northwestern Spain), Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. includes turnips, turnip greens, and turnip tops. The objectives of this study are (i) to determine the genetic diversity and morphological resemblances among the B. rapa landraces of northwestern Spain in order to have information relative to the resources preserved, and (ii) to evaluate their agronomic characteristics, considering the three potential

Guillermo Padilla; María Elena Cartea; Víctor Manuel Rodríguez; Amando Ordás

2005-01-01

113

Map of water table in Graham County, northwestern Kansas, March 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map of the water table in Graham County provides current (1980) information on water levels in the unconsolidated deposits. Graham County has an area of 900 square miles in northwestern Kansas. The principal source of water for domestic, stock, municipal, and irrigation use if from wells in the shallow unconsolidated deposits. The aquifers occur chiefly in the Ogallala Formation of Miocene age and in deposits of Quaternary age. Water in the aquifers generally downgradient from west to east. In the Ogallala Formation, water also moves toward the stream valleys that drain the uplands. The altitude of the water table varies seasonally in response to changes in recharge and discharge. Major sources of recharge are subsurface flow from the west, leakage from streams, and infiltration of moisture from precipitation. Discharge includes subsurface flow to the east, transpiration by plants, evaporation from the aquifer where the water table is near the land surface, flow from seeps, and pumpage from wells. The altitude of the water table is based on water-level measurements made during March 1979. (USGS)

Spinazola, Joseph M.

1981-01-01

114

Thermal rift inheritance in the north-western Pyrenees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How the thermal state of extended continental lithosphere controls the thermal evolution of collisional orogens is still poorly constrained. Here, we provide new low-temperature (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology data in the Mauléon basin of the north-western Pyrenees, which has possibly resulted from the inversion of a hyper-extended margin. Both detrital and in-situ zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages on Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and on two samples from the Labourd Massif. These data show two important and rapid phases of cooling, the first during the Albian and Albo-Cenomanian, the second during the Eocene. These cooling events reflect both cooling and/or denudation mainly from the Axial Zone and Northern Pyrenees. Taking sediment thickness and a heat diffusion setting into account, the first cooling phase appears to be characterized by an abnormally high thermal gradient of ~80°/km, contemporaneous with the thermal event responsible for the HT-BP metamorphism. This phase lasted until the inversion initiated due to plate convergence in the Late Cretaceous. Our zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages finally suggest that exhumation in the north-western Pyrenees started as early as 50 Ma.

Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël

2013-04-01

115

Geomagnetic variation anomalies in north-western Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary geomagnetic variation data analysis has been made in the Piedmont-Ligurian area in north-western Italy. Data were collected by means of two instruments: an Askania portable variograph and a LaCour fixed station operated in the Roburent geomagnetic observatory. The portable variograph has been moved to several locations in north-western Italy. Parkinson vectors were drawn for 8, 20 and 60 min respectively, considering bay-like events recorded at single stations. Fourier parameters and anomaly maps for 32 and 64 min have been obtained after selecting similar events in order to simulate a magnetometric array. Results show trends that suggest possible correlations with three main geological features of the investigated area: (1) a coast effect probably also related to the lithospheric thickness of the Ligurian Sea; (2) a possible highly conductive channel connected to the Alpine system that could be analogous to anomalous structures found in Europe; and (3) an effect of the lower crust being obducted in the Ivrea body and subducted in the Southern Alps.

Bozzo, Emanuele; Meloni, Antonio

1989-03-01

116

Early Mesozoic structure and stratigraphy of the northwestern Florida shelf  

SciTech Connect

The pre-Mesozoic basement of the northwestern Florida shelf is composed of attenuated continental crust deformed during the late Triassic and Early Jurassic rifting of the Gulf of Mexico. Two distinct areas with different rift basin orientations are defined on the northwestern Florida shelf. The northeastern set of rifts has axes parallel to the rift basins of the Atlantic margin. The southwestern rift axes are orthogonal to the first set. These two areas are separated by an undisturbed northwest-southwest linear zone previously termed the Bahama fault zone. Margins of a major asymmetric rift basin, north of the Middle Ground arch, parallel the Bahamas fault zone. The asymmetric plan view and degree of crustal extension calculated for this basin suggests the Middle Ground arch formed by a counterclockwise rotation of 16{degree}. The geometries of the Upper Jurassic postrift sediments are related to rift morphology. Louann Salt updip limits are parallel to or coincident with the margins of the rift basins and the salt is thickest over the deepest portions of the rift basins. The distribution of Smackover-Haynesville and Cotton Valley Group sediments is strongly influenced by the underlying rift basins.

Reitz, B.K. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

117

Prevalence of anemia in First Nations children of northwestern Ontario.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among First Nations children of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective review of all hemoglobin determinations between 1990 and 1992 in the Sioux Lookout Zone. SETTING: The Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital, a secondary care referral hospital for 28 remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, affiliated with the University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Program. PARTICIPANTS: All First Nations children age 3 to 60 months who had produced venipuncture or fingerprick blood samples between 1990 and 1992 (614 children had a total of 1223 hemoglobin determinations). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anemia by age, sex, geographical location, and diagnosis. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin value less than 110g/L. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia peaked in the age range of 6 to 24 months with prevalence rates of 51.7% to 79.3%. Conditions most commonly associated with anemia were respiratory tract infections. Children living in communities in the western part of the Sioux Lookout Zone were 1.64 times more likely to have anemia (95% confidence interval 1.15, 2.35) than children in the other communities. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia appears to be a serious public health problem among preschool children in the Sioux Lookout Zone.

Whalen, E. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; Harris, S. B.

1997-01-01

118

Seismic anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies of the seismic structure of continental crust assume that the wave speeds are isotropic at seismic wavelengths. The ability to measure surface wave propagation speed from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise provides new opportunities to image the crust and uppermost mantle. We investigate radial anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada from group-velocity curves of Love and Rayleigh waves obtained from ambient-noise cross-correlation. We test the null hypothesis that the Love and Rayleigh group-speed curves can be simultaneously fit by an earth model containing isotropic seismic velocities throughout the crust. Group velocity is predicted for 200 000 one-dimensional earth models, which are generated by randomly varying the crustal shear velocity and radial anisotropy within a prescribed range. The goodness-of-fit of the predictions is assessed by comparison with two sets of observed dispersion curves that correspond to two tectonically distinct terranes: the Archean/early Proterozoic craton and the transition from craton to Cordillera. The majority of best-fitting models contain VSH > VSV (4-5 per cent) in the middle crust. The finding that the middle/lower crust is seismically anisotropic across a large swath of northwestern Canada, combined with recent observations of anisotropic crust in much of the western United States, suggests that anisotropy may be ubiquitous in the continental crust.

Dalton, Colleen A.; Gaherty, James B.

2013-04-01

119

Steatosis and steatohepatitis in postmortem material from Northwestern Greece  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the prevalence of steatosis and steatohepatitis in a series of autopsies in Northwestern Greece. METHODS: Liver biopsy material from a total of 600 autopsies performed over a period of 2 years (2006-2008) to define the cause of death was subjected to histological examination. Patient demographic data were also collected. Tissue sections were stained with different dyes for the evaluation of liver architecture, degree of fibrosis and other pathological conditions when necessary. RESULTS: Satisfactory tissue samples for histological evaluation were available in 498 cases (341 male, 157 female) with a mean age of 64.51 ± 17.78 years. In total, 144 (28.9%) had normal liver histology, 156 (31.3%) had evidence of steatosis, and 198 (39.8%) had typical histological findings of steatohepatitis. The most common causes of death were ischemic heart disease with or without myocardial infarction (43.4%), and traffic accidents (13.4%). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of steatosis and steatohepatitis was detected in postmortem biopsies from Northwestern Greece. Since both diseases can have serious clinical consequences, they should be considered as an important threat to the health of the general population in Greece.

Zois, Christos D; Baltayiannis, Gerasimos H; Bekiari, Anna; Goussia, Anna; Karayiannis, Peter; Doukas, Michalis; Demopoulos, Demetrios; Mitsellou, Antigoni; Vougiouklakis, Theodoros; Mitsi, Vasiliki; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

2010-01-01

120

Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25% higher. An a priori knowledge of anisotropy was found to have inconclusive impact on the effectiveness of kriging. It was, however, hypothesized that a preferential sampling strategy that honored anisotropy could be necessary to reach a more definitive conclusion in regards to this issue. PMID:19473745

Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

2009-05-26

121

Stratigraphic Analysis of Upper Cretaceous Rocks in the Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar: Implications for Ancient and Modern Faunas.  

PubMed

Upper Cretaceous strata of the Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar, yield some of the most significant and exquisitely preserved vertebrate fossils known from Gondwana. The sedimentology of these strata and their stratigraphic relations have been the focus of renewed geological investigations during the course of five expeditions since 1993. We here designate stratotypes and formalize the terrestrial Maevarano Formation, with three new members (Masorobe, Anembalemba, Miadana), and the overlying marine Berivotra Formation. The Maevarano Formation accumulated on a broad, semiarid alluvial plain bounded to the southeast by crystalline highlands and to the northwest by the Mozambique Channel. The Berivotra Formation was deposited in an open marine setting that evolved from a clastic- to a carbonate-dominated shelf, resulting in deposition of the overlying Betsiboka limestone of Danian age. New stratigraphic data clearly indicate that the Maevarano Formation correlates, at least in part, with the Maastrichtian Berivotra Formation, and this in turn indicates that the most fossiliferous portions of the Maevarano Formation are Maastrichtian in age, rather than Campanian as previously reported. This revised age for the Maevarano vertebrate assemblage indicates that it is approximately contemporaneous with the vertebrate fauna recovered from the Deccan basalt volcano-sedimentary sequence of India. The comparable age of these two faunas is significant because the faunas appear to be more similar to one another than either is to those from any other major Gondwanan landmass. The revised age of the Maevarano Formation, when considered in the light of our recent fossil discoveries, further indicates that the ancestral stocks of Madagascar's overwhelmingly endemic modern vertebrate fauna arrived on the island in post-Mesozoic times. The basal stocks of the modern vertebrate fauna are conspicuously absent in the Maevarano Formation. Finally, the revised age of the Maevarano Formation serves to expand our global perspective on the K/T event by clarifying the age of a diverse, and arguably the best preserved, sample of Gondwanan vertebrates from the terminal Cretaceous. PMID:10769157

Rogers; Hartman; Krause

2000-05-01

122

Regional setting of Niobrara Formation in Northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is currently produced from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation in northeastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, and several small fields in Nebraska. As a part of studies of low-permeability gas reservoirs in the northern Great Plains, the regional geologic setting of the Niobrara has been investigated in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Structural contours of the Ardmore Bentonite Bed

Shurr

1984-01-01

123

Geologic setting of petroleum source rocks in Permian Phosphoria formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permian Phosphoria Formation in the northwestern interior United States contains two phosphatic and organic-carbon-rich shale members - the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member and the Retort Phosphatic Shale Member. These rocks were formed at the periphery of a foreland basin between the Paleozoic continental margin and the North American cratonic shelf. Maximum organic-carbon concentration is as much as 30

Maughan

1984-01-01

124

Surficial geology of the northwestern Canadian continental shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwestern Canadian continental shelf, including Dixon Entrance, Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound, can be divided into four surficial geological units all overlying Tertiary bedrock within the Queen Charlotte Basin. They include: (1) glacial till, deposited primarily in the troughs between banks and considered to be late Wisconsinan in age; (2) glaciomarine mud, deposited in the troughs as ice retreated from the shelf; (3) Queen Charlotte sands and gravels, outwash deposition in the north and sublittoral sand deposition in the south during sea level low stand and subsequent reworking during transgression; and (4) Queen Charlotte muds, deposited within the troughs of the region from late Wisconsinan times until present. These units are a result of a glaciation ending 15,000 13,000 years BP followed by relative sea level lowering by approximately 100 m, that persisted until 10,500 years ago, and a subsequent transgression that occurred over approximately 1500 years in a series of steps.

Barrie, J. V.; Bornhold, B. D.; Conway, K. W.; Luternauer, J. L.

1991-08-01

125

Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.  

PubMed

The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:21270011

Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

2011-01-01

126

Origin of arches in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico basin  

SciTech Connect

The San Marcos and Sabine arches are prominent north- to northwest-trending basement uplifts in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico basin that may be late Mesozoic to Cenozoic foreland or intraplate folds rather than domes over plutons or buoyant basement blocks. These arches are subparallel to and contemporaneous with orogenic episodes in the northwest-trending fold-thrust belt of Mexico. Arch movement was also contemporaneous with rapid convergence between the North American and Pacific plates. Arch development in the gulf as a result of tectonic compression is plausible in view of increasing recognition of wide zones of foreland and intraplate deformation in continents. Current tectonic models of the development of the gulf inaccurately predict gradual, decelerating subsidence when these arches were most active.

Laubach, S.E.; Jackson, M.L.W. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1990-07-01

127

Floods of January 15-17, 1974, in Northwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Rain and snowmelt caused several streams in northwestern Montana to flood during January 15-17, 1974. The flooding was caused by a major rainstorm that extended from Montana through Idaho and Washington. The most damage occurred in the Kootenai River drainage, centering around the town of Libby. Also unusually high flows occurred on some streams in the Clark Fork basin. Throughout the area, ice jams contributed to much of the overbank flooding. Both the towns of Troy and Libby were partly flooded, but damage was greatest in and near Libby. Flood damage was estimated to be $4.9 million. No flood fatalities were listed. Most of the smaller streams equaled or exceeded a 50-year flood. A summary of flood stages and discharges for 24 sites in the Kootenai River drainage and 8 sites in the Clark Fork drainage is tabulated. A map shows the extent of flooding in the Libby area. (Woodard-USGS)

Johnson, M. V.; Omang, R. J.

1974-01-01

128

Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina  

PubMed Central

We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats.

Levis, Silvana; Calderon, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

2003-01-01

129

Deep crustal structure of northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a large-offset seismic experiment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Texas, using large-capacity air guns and ocean-bottom seismographs in order to map the salt-disrupted structure of the thickly sedimented shelf and slope. The authors shot five lines, each approximately 90 km long with four or more instruments, over an area extending from mid-shelf to the continental rise. They analyzed and interpreted the acquired data using two-dimensional ray tracing to match the theoretical and observed arrival times of refracted and reflected waves, refining both shallow structures as well as the depths to the deeper refractors of initial models constructed with conventional methods.

Nakamura, Y.; Sawyer, D.S.; Shaub, F.J.; MacKenzie, K.; Oberst, J.

1988-09-01

130

Previously unrecognized ornithuromorph bird diversity in the early cretaceous changma basin, gansu province, northwestern china.  

PubMed

HERE WE REPORT ON THREE NEW SPECIES OF ORNITHUROMORPH BIRDS FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS XIAGOU FORMATION IN THE CHANGMA BASIN OF GANSU PROVINCE, NORTHWESTERN CHINA: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

2013-10-11

131

Geology of northwestern Mindoro and its offshore islands: Implications for terrane accretion in west Central Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In over four decades, terrane studies of Mindoro Island have evolved from one terrane- to three terrane-models. Recent mapping of northwestern Mindoro and the islands of Lubang and Ambil roughly agrees with a 1990 suggestion that the island is composed of two terranes: the Central Range and the San Jose Platform. However, in contrast to this older model, our study, which takes into consideration the petrochemical and paleontological characteristics of the units, subdivides Northwest Mindoro into the Amnay Ophiolite and the Halcon Metamorphic terranes. Southwest-verging thrust faults parallel to the currently active Manila Trench demarcate the younger Amnay Ophiolite from the latter. Components of the older Mangyan Ophiolitic Complex, formerly thought to represent a terrane distinct from the metamorphic body, are now suggested to occur as disrupted bodies enclosed within the schists of the Halcon Metamorphics. The timing of incorporation of these megaclast materials and the regional metamorphism that occurred is constrained by the deposition of the sedimentary sequences of the Late Eocene Lasala Formation. Petrochemical studies of these younger sedimentary units reveal their continent-derived character. Therefore, accretion of the Cretaceous Mangyan Ophiolitic Complex marks the collision between the Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere and mainland Asia that is considered to be the protolith of the Halcon Metamorphics. A subsequent collision occurred which led to the amalgamation of the Amnay Ophiolite suite to the metamorphosed terrane.

Canto, A. P. B.; Padrones, J. T.; Concepcion, R. A. B.; Perez, A. D. C.; Tamayo, R. A.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Queaño, K. L.; Yumul, G. P.

2012-11-01

132

Biostratigraphy of a Middle Miocene-Pliocene sequence from Cumarebo area, Falcon State, northwestern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The southern Caribbean region offers little in the way of continuous sequences for the late Neogene. An upward facies shallowing trend unfavorable for planktonic foraminifers and erosional truncation seems to be almost a rule for such sediments. A fairly complete sedimentary sequence mainly represented by clays, silts, and carbonate rocks from the Cumarebo region, Falcon State, northwestern Venezuela, was chosen to study the biostratigraphy of the late Neogene using foraminifers. More than one hundred surface samples were analyzed throughout. The study of foraminiferal fossil assemblages and other microfossils was also used to define paleoenvironments of deposition. Four formations are involved in this work. From base to top they are the Socorro, Caujarao, El Veral, and Tucupido. From the study of planktonic foraminifers, six biostratigraphic zones were recognized: Globorotalia mayeri Zone, Globorotalia menardii Zone, Globorotalia acostaensis Zone, Globorotalia humerosa Zone, Globorotalia margaritae Zone, and Globorotalia miocenica Zone. These zones indicate that the age of the sequence ranks from late middle Miocene to middle Pliocene. Generally speaking, with some variations, the paleoenvironments of the sequence show a shallowing trend from marine upper-middle bathyal to middle neritic. These results make an important contribution to the stratigraphy and geologic history of the Cumarebo area, which is related to the Agua Salada basin, and may help clarify the paleogeography and paleotectonic evolution of this region for petroleum exploration.

Giffuni, G. (INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1991-03-01

133

Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.

Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

2013-01-01

134

Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studied Carboniferous units comprise metasedimentary (Guaraco Norte Formation), pyroclastic (Arroyo del Torreón Formation), and sedimentary (Huaraco Formation) rocks that crop out in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina. They form part of the basement of the Neuquén Basin and are mostly coeval with the Late Paleozoic accretionary prism complex of the Coastal Cordillera, south-central Chile. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon yielded a maximum depositional age of 374 Ma (Upper Devonian) for the Guaraco Norte Formation and 389 Ma for the Arroyo del Torreón Formation. Detrital magmatic zircon from the Guaraco Norte Formation are grouped into two main populations of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian) ages. In the Arroyo del Torreón Formation, zircon populations are also of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian), as well as of Late Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages. In both units, there is a conspicuous population of Devonian magmatic zircon grains (from 406 ± 4 Ma to 369 ± 5 Ma), indicative of active magmatism at that time range. The ?Hf values of this population range between -2.84 and -0.7, and the TDM-(Hf) are mostly Mesoproterozoic, suggesting that the primary sources of the Devonian magmatism contained small amounts of Mesoproterozoic recycled crustal components. The chemical composition of the Guaraco Norte Formation corresponds to recycled, mature polycyclic sediment of mature continental provenance, pointing to a passive margin with minor inputs from continental margin magmatic rocks. The chemical signature of the Huaraco Formation indicates that a magmatic arc was the main provenance for sediments of this unit, which is consistent with the occurrence of tuff—mostly in the Arroyo del Torreón Formation and very scarcely in the Huaraco Formation—with a volcanic-arc signature, jointly indicating the occurrence of a Carboniferous active arc magmatism during the deposition of the two units. The Guaraco Norte Formation is interpreted to represent passive margin deposits of mostly Lower Carboniferous age (younger than 374 Ma and older than 326 Ma) that precede the onset of the accretionary prism in Chile and extend into the earliest stage of the accretion, in a retrowedge position. The Arroyo del Torreón and Huaraco formations are considered to be retrowedge basin deposits to the early frontal accretionary prism (Eastern Series) of Chile. The presence of volcanism with arc signature in the units provides evidence of a Mississippian magmatic arc that can be correlated with limited exposures of the same age in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentina). The arc would have migrated to the West (Coastal Batholith) during Pennsylvanian-Permian times (coevally with the later basal accretionary prism/Western Series). The source of a conspicuous population of Devonian detrital zircon interpreted to be of magmatic origin in the studied units is discussed in various possible geotectonic scenarios, the preferred model being a magmatic arc developed in the Chilenia block, related to a west-dipping subduction beneath Chilenia before and shortly after its collision against Cuyania/Gondwana, at around 390 Ma and not linked to the independent, Devonian-Mississippian arc, developed to the south, in Patagonia.

Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

2012-11-01

135

ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION AT FIVE REMOTE SITES IN NORTHWESTERN NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of a study to measure the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the atmosphere at several sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains of northwestern North Carolina are presented. Ambient air was sampled repeatedly at five geographically and botanically different remote...

136

Evaluation Training at Northwestern (And Beyond?): Sages, Golden Ages, and Stages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recounts the author's experiences as a graduate student in social psychology at Northwestern University at the time the training program for program evaluation was being established. Explains the importance of the early training for the evaluator's career. (SLD)|

Mark, Melvin M.

2003-01-01

137

76 FR 27171 - Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co.; Notice of Partial Relief from Emergency Order No. 21  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [FRA Emergency Order...Notice No. 4] Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co.; Notice of Partial Relief...Emergency Order No. 21 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA),...

2011-05-10

138

Northwestern University technical progress reports, December 1, 1990--November 30, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses research in High Energy Physics at Northwestern University. Topic discusses are charmonium production, photoproduction, deep inelastic muon scattering, particle decays, cp violation, standard model, neutrino mass, Do detectors, and o...

J. Rosen M. Block D. Buchholz B. Gobbi H. Schellman

1991-01-01

139

Utilizing Wood Residue for Energy Generation in Northwestern Montana: A Feasibility Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wood residue in northwestern Montana is a potential source of fuel for power generation. The most promising sources of residue are fine mill residue and bark, with quantities dependent upon lumber production, and top, limb, and cull material available thr...

C. E. Keegan T. P. Jackson R. P. Withycombe R. L. Barger A. L. Chase

1987-01-01

140

Health Systems Plan for Northwestern Pennsylvania. Volume I. Health Service Area 7 Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health concerns are examined in this first volume of a three-volume health systems plan (HSP) prepared by Health Systems, Inc. of Northwestern Pennsylvania. An introductory section explores the mandate of the health systems agency, characteristics of the ...

1978-01-01

141

Selected Water Resources Data, Clarion River and Redbank Creek Basins, Northwestern Pennsylvania - Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents selected basic data collected during a study of the water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins in northwestern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic information including data on aquifers, water levels, and yields is presented f...

T. F. Buckwalter C. H. Dodge G. R. Schiner

1979-01-01

142

Tycoons and contraband: informal cross-border trade in West Nile, north-western Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents ethnographic evidence on the activities of the “tycoons” – large-scale cross-border contraband traders in north-western Uganda. It shows how engagement with state officials, but also integration in the broader community are two crucial aspects which explain the functioning of informal cross-border trade or “smuggling” in north-western Uganda. In doing so, it shows how, although there is a

Kristof Titeca

2012-01-01

143

Genetic variability and diversification process in local pear cultivars from northwestern Spain using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first known large-scale molecular study of simple sequence repeats loci based on pear cultivars from the northwestern\\u000a Iberian Peninsula. Most of the Spanish pear crop (one of the largest in Europe) is based on the Spanish cultivar Blanquilla\\u000a and various other foreign cultivars. However, local cultivars can still be found in old orchards in northwestern Spain. Between

Allívia Rouse Ferreira dos Santos; Ana M. Ramos-Cabrer; M Belen Díaz-Hernández; Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo

144

Ambient Seismic Noise Levels of the Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were successfully installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. Both the observatories fill important observational gaps, since no other land

M. Shinohara; T. Kanazawa; E. Araki; K. Suyehiro; H. Shiobara; T. Yamada; K. Nakahigashi; H. Mikada; Y. Fukao

2002-01-01

145

Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals.  

PubMed

The thick, richly fossiliferous succession of the upper Windermere Supergroup, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada, provides a test of integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic frameworks in terminal Proterozoic correlation. The C- and Sr-isotopic abundances of lower Keele Formation carbonates approximate those for other pre-Varanger samples, confirming that the simple disc-like fossils of the underlying Twitya Formation predate all known diverse Ediacaran faunas. "Tepee" and Sheepbed carbonates record strong post-glacial isotopic excursions; in contrast, delta13C values for Gametrail through Risky carbonates vary only within the narrow range of about +l% to +2%. A second negative excursion occurs in Ingta Formation carbonates that immediately underlie the paleontologically determined Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The upper Windermere profile as a whole compares closely with curves determined for other terminal Proterozoic successions. The lowermost diverse Ediacaran assemblages in the Sheepbed Formation correlate chemostratigraphically with the oldest fauna in Namibia, but the two assemblages differ in taxonomic composition. Blueflower assemblages correlate both chemostratigraphically and taxonomically with faunas from Australia, China, Siberia, and elsewhere. Increasing data support the hypothesis that paleontological and geochemical data together provide a reliable means of correlating terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks throughout the world. PMID:11539403

Narbonne, G M; Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H

1994-10-01

146

Summer mean circulation of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mellor et al. (1982) method is applied to a new high-resolution analysis of the temperature and salinity fields in order to determine the summer transport and circulation of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. This high-resolution analysis is carried out using an objective analysis scheme which is a modification of that used by Levitus (1982). In view of the strong topographic control exhibited by the circulation features in the area (i.e., the shelf break Labrador and Greenland currents), the scheme preferentially searches for data along, rather than across, isobaths. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° by 1/3°, with 37 vertical levels. The data were obtained from the Marine Environment Data Service archived data and was supplemented by a subset of the National Oceanographic Data Center data from J. Reid and by additional data for the 1980s from Fukumori and Wunsch (1991). Summer mean transports of 49 and 46 Sv are found in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Sea, respectively. Most of the transport through the region is determined by the transport through the eastern boundary, emphasizing the importance of the eastern Atlantic for determining the circulation in the west. The local wind stress forcing plays a relatively unimportant role in driving the transport in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. The current structure is obtained by combining the results from the Mellor et al. (1982) method together with a level of no motion (at the bottom) calculation. Using these two methods, the bottom currents are evaluated, and hence the current structure for the whole domain is determined. The results show that the bottom currents follow the planetary potential vorticity (ƒ/H) lines closely. The strongest currents are found along the shelf breaks, offshore from the coasts of Greenland and Labrador. The results also indicate the presence of cross-shelf flow on the western side of the Labrador Sea. The cross-shelf transport (˜5 Sv) of fresh shelf waters may well be important in modifying the salinity characteristics, and hence convective properties, of the central Labrador Sea.

Reynaud, Thierry H.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Greatbatch, Richard J.

1995-01-01

147

A multipurpose high-rate GPS observatory for northwestern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a proposed joint atmospheric and geophysical high-rate GPS observatory in northwestern Mexico complementing and extending analogous networks in the United Stated. The observatory would measure atmospheric water vapor during the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) as well as crustal velocities within and across the Gulf of California and the Mexican Basin and Range region for geodetic applications. The NOAA-sponsored NAME scheduled for several summers beginning in 2004 addresses the challenging issue of determining and improving the predictability of warm season precipitation in the mountainous region of the Northwestern Mexico and Southwestern US. Much of the rainfall in the region comes during the North American Monsoon each summer. Rainfall in the region is particularly difficult to model and predict because the orography and the complex land-sea geometry of the region with moisture sources in the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California and the eastern subtropical Pacific Ocean. The GPS provides accurate, near-continuous observations of water vapor in clear and cloudy air needed to sample the large diurnal variations in the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. GPS in combination with wind and other measurements scattered in and around the region will provide much needed constraints to determine quantitatively the sources supplying moisture for precipitation within the NAME area. Tectonic applications of this continuous GPS network in Mexico include high-precision determinations of plate boundary deformation in and around the Gulf of California and possible diffuse deformation within the Mexican Basin and Range province. Because of the high sampling rate (1 Hz), the network will also provide data for seismological applications, including surface wave studies (e.g., Larson et al., SCIENCE, 2003) and potential near-field displacement records. Furthermore the network would complement the US-based Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) facility by extending continuous GPS coverage into northern Mexico and other relatively smaller-scale continuous GPS networks in southern Mexico as well as provide important data for surveying and mapping applications. Several years of observations are required to capture the substantial year-to-year variations in the monsoon and yield accurate estimates of tectonic motion. Both objectives can be accomplished relatively inexpensively with the simple and robust GPS observations made in collaboration with investigators in Mexico.

Kursinski, E. R.; Bennett, R. A.; Hahmann, A.

2003-12-01

148

Exhumation of the northwestern Fairweather Range, southeast Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigates spatial and temporal patterns in exhumation along the transpressive plate boundary Fairweather Fault, Alaska, USA. The Fairweather transform fault forms the eastern boundary between the obliquely colliding Yakutat Terrane and the North American plate. Deformation on the Fairweather Fault initiated around 30 Ma and has been suggested to be a transpressive dextral strike-slip fault zone that formed the Fairweather Range. This 300 km long and 50 km wide mountain range is characterized by > 4000 m high peaks and deep glacial valleys that drain into the North Pacific. Previously published low-temperature thermochronometer data suggest that deformation and exhumation is not restricted to one side of the fault. Maximum estimated exhumation rates of up to 2 mm/yr occur within 10 km of the fault and extend about 300 km along strike. We collected 15 sand samples from modern glacial drainages spanning 80 km along strike of the northwestern part of the Fairweather Range to quantify spatial variations in deformation and exhumation of this range. Zircon fission track age distributions are measured to quantify the long-term exhumation patterns along this fault. The aim of this study is to gain better special coverage for the cooling age signals in this glaciated and remote region. We concentrate on the northern part of the Fairweather Range because it comprises the partitioning of strain as the strike-slip motion of the Fairweather Fault changes to convergence and thrust tectonics when it merges into the St. Elias Range. Calculation of final grain-age distributions from these samples is in progress. We will present detrital zircon fission track ages along the northwestern ca. 80 km of the Fairweather Fault and including the transition into the St. Elias Range. Based on existing bedrock samples we anticipate the youngest age populations to be <5 Ma and in catchments that cover the Fairweather Fault itself. Older age populations are also anticipated >15 Ma in catchments that are located farther away from the fault. Additionally, we expect to see changes in the amount of exhumation and its distribution with respect to the fault zone along the strike. Deviations in the new detrital samples compared to existing bedrock samples could be due a) localized areas of enhanced or retarded exhumation due to temporal variations on Fairweather Fault slip, b) deformation and exhumation of rocks on previously unrecognized structures, and/or c) spatial variations in the intensity of glacial erosion along strike of the Fairweather Fault.

Falkowski, S.; Enkelmann, E.; Ehlers, T. A.

2012-04-01

149

Mammals from the St. Mary River Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The St. Mary River Formation (Fm) crops out in restricted parts of southwestern Alberta and northwestern Montana. Mammals are poorly known from the formation, but material collected from Alberta has played a role in recognizing an ‘Edmontonian’ Land Mammal Age between the better sampled Judithian (?79–74 Ma) and Lancian (?67–65 Ma) land mammal ages. New and well-preserved multituberculate and metatherian

John P. Hunter; Ronald E. Heinrich; David B. Weishampel

2010-01-01

150

Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation as well as remembering that rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, landforms form an integral part of the natural world. The significance of certain sites for aesthetic or tourism reasons is obvious. There are numerous geosites, which could contribute to effective exploitation of geotourism, often in conjunction with ecotourism. The strategy employed to such sites involves close consultation with all communities in the vicinity of the respective geosite and is not only aimed at tourism and education, but also at sustainable improvement of the infrastructure of the people of this area. Geological heritage sites, properly managed, can generate employment and new economic activities, especially in regions in need of new or additional sources of income.

El Wartiti, Mohamed; Malaki, Amina; Zahraoui, Mohamed; El Ghannouchi, Abdelilah; di Gregorio, Felice

2008-07-01

151

Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China.  

PubMed

From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130

Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

2009-12-01

152

Deglaciation of the northwestern White Mountains, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mode of deglaciation in the northwestern White Mountains of New Hampshire has been controversial since the mid 1800's. Early workers believed that active ice deposited the Bethlehem Moraine complex in the Ammonoosuc River basin during recession of the last ice sheet. In the 1930's this deglaciation model was replaced by the concept of widespread simultaneous stagnation and downwastage of Late Wisconsinan ice. The present authors reexamined the Bethlehem Moraine complex and support the original interpretation of a series of moraines deposited by active ice. We found other moraine clusters of similar age to the northeast in the Johns River and Israel River basins. Ice-marginal deposits that probably correlate with the Bethlehem Moraine also occur west of Littleton. The Bethlehem Moraine complex and equivalent deposits in adjacent areas were formed by readvance and oscillatory retreat of the Connecticut Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This event is called the Littleton-Bethlehem Readvance. Throughout the study area, sequences of glaciolacustrine deposits and meltwater drainage channels indicate progressive northward recession of the glacier margin. Radiocarbon dates from nearby New England and Quebec suggest that the ice sheet withdrew from this part of the White Mountains between about 12,500 and 12,000 14C yr BP. We attribute the Littleton-Bethlehem Readvance to a brief climatic cooling during Older Dyas time, close to 12,000 BP.

Thompson, W. B.; Fowler, B. K.; Dorion, C. C.

1999-01-01

153

Geomorphic surfaces in the northwestern Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Thick, residual, colluvial and alluvial soils derived from ophiolitic rocks mantle at least four geomorphic surfaces in the Siskiyou and marble mountains, in northwestern California and Illinois Valley, in southwestern Oregon. Analysis of digital elevation data provides constraints on the distribution and origin of these surfaces. Because of the geomorphic expression and soil mechanical properties of the surfaces, a map of slope gradients less than 22 degrees closely approximates the distribution of geomorphic surfaces as they are known from field observations. Preliminary definition of individual surfaces is based upon classification of the slop-map by elevation ranges. The Klamath Peneplain'' of Diller (1902) and associated soils, recently referred to as Klamath Saprolite'', are recognized near summit elevation (1,500 meters) across the area. Regional uplift and erosion has resulted in extensive, large earthflow landslides derived from these soils. Alluvial and residual deposits on the floor of the Illinois Valley occur at the same elevation (300 meters) as incised alluvial and colluvial terrace deposits along the Klamath River and tributary streams. At least two additional surfaces have been identified in the Siskiyou and Marble Mountains at approximately elevation 750 and 1,000 meters. Analysis of digital elevation data, combined with the map of earthflow landslides, allows rapid preliminary mapping of geomorphic surfaces in this terrain.

Baldwin, K.S. (Forest Service, Happy Camp, CA (United States)); Ricks, C.L. (Forest Service, Gold Beach, OR (United States))

1993-04-01

154

Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003-2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show a significant acceleration in mass loss at elevations above 1200 m. Both the improved mass loss estimate along the ice sheet margin and the acceleration at higher elevations have implications for predictions of the elastic adjustment of the lithosphere caused by present-day ice mass changes. Our study shows that the use of ICESat data alone to predict elastic uplift rates biases the predicted rates by several millimeters per year at GPS locations along the northwestern coast.

Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Korsgaard, Niels J.; KjæR, Kurt H.; BjøRk, Anders A.; Hurkmans, Ruud; Broeke, Michiel R.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Angelen, Jan H.

2013-02-01

155

Hydrogeologic framework of the Maku area basalts, northwestern Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maku area in northwestern Iran is characterized by young lava flows which erupted from Mount Ararat in Turkey. These fractured volcanic rocks overlie alluvium associated with pre-existing rivers and form a good basalt-alluvium aquifer over an area of 650 km2. Groundwater discharge occurs from 12 large springs, ranging from 20 to 4,000 L s-1, and from some extraction wells. Permian and Oligo-Miocene age limestones along the northern boundary of the Bazargan and Poldasht Plains basalts are intensively karstified and groundwater from these high lands easily enters the basalt-alluvium aquifers. The transmissivity of the basalt-alluvium aquifer ranges from 24 to 870 m2 d-1, indicating heterogeneity. Groundwater of the aquifer is a sodium-bicarbonate and mixed cation-bicarbonate type and the concentration of fluoride is higher than the universal maximum admissible concentrations for drinking. In order to determine the chemical composition and identify the source of the high fluoride concentrations in the groundwater of the basaltic area, water samples from the springs, wells and rivers were analyzed. The results indicate that the high fluoride water enters the study area from the Sari Su River.

Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Fijani, Elham

2009-06-01

156

Precambrian basement control on joint domains in northwestern Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Joint attitudes in Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian carbonates in northwestern Ohio reveal a marked north-south-trending joint domain boundary in Lucas and Wood Counties. East of the domain boundary, first-formed systematic joints trend N45/sup 0/W; west of this boundary, first-formed systematics trend N40/sup 0/E. The line of change in joint trends follows the Lucas County monocline-Bowling Green fault complex and the projected position of the Grenville front from the Canadian shield. Basement well information and gravity and magnetic data indicate a major change in Precambrian rock types across the domain boundary that is coincident with the projected position of the Grenville front. Observed joint patterns are interpreted to result from extensional tectonics associated with the evolution of the Findlay arch and Michigan basin. Recurrent movements on the Bowling Green fault during the early and middle Paleozoic may have been caused by reactivation of Grenville-age faults, which ultimately localized the joint domain boundary along the Lucas County monocline-Bowling Green fault trend.

Dean, S.L.; Armstrong, W.B.; Kulander, B.R.

1986-08-01

157

Nutrients and phytoplankton in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mostly oligotrophic character of the Mediterranean Sea is altered drastically in areas receiving the outflow from large rivers. The Gulf of Lions, receiving discharges from the Rhoˆne River, has nutrient and phytoplankton concentration much higher than the adjacent open northwestern Mediterranean Sea. A surface layer of freshwater, with thickness that varies with the meteorological conditions between 2 and 40 m, overlies the deeper open seawater; this is advected onto the shelf and influences an area that covers the eastern half of the Gulf of Lions. Most of the waters affected by the river discharges show property relationships indicating conservative behaviour, with very little or no loss of nutrients through phytoplankton uptake, particularly in winter. Phytoplankton populations in winter are sparse, with maximum densities just above and below the boundary between the fresh- and seawater. Diatoms are the main group of organisms, although dinoflagellates, coceolithophorids and cyanobacteria are abundant. Small heterotrophs (cilliates, tintinnids, etc.) are also abundant and are positively correlated with the diatoms. A water balance model, linking the river discharge to the advective fluxes of water and nutrients, is proposed. The primary productivity supported by such fluxes is estimated.

Cruzado, Antonio; Velasquez, Zoila R.

1990-09-01

158

Paleostress pattern and salt tectonics within a developing foreland basin (north-western Subhercynian Basin, northern Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysing the paleostress field in sedimentary basins is important for understanding tectonic processes and the planning of drilling campaigns. The Subhercynian Basin of northern Germany is a perfect natural laboratory to study the paleostress field in a developing foreland basin. The simple layer-cake geometry of the basin-fill is dominated by several piercing and non-piercing salt structures. We derived the paleostress field from the orientation of fracture sets, faults, slickensides and stylolites. On a regional scale, the basin-fill is characterized by a horizontal compressional paleostress vector that is mainly NNE-SSW-oriented, which reflects the Late Cretaceous inversion phase in Central Europe. We show that the local paleostress field is distinctly perturbated due to the salt structures. Along the edge of the salt pillows, the maximum horizontal paleostress vector is deflected by up to 90° from the regional trend. In the case of the Elm salt pillow, it forms a radial pattern. Restoration of balanced cross-sections demonstrates at least 9 % of the shortening of the north-western part of the Subhercynian Basin was achieved by folding. The salt structures in the north-western Subhercynian Basin are the result of varying stress conditions. Initial extension in the Triassic caused first salt movements that prevailed during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Most important is the Late Cretaceous contractional phase that shortened the diapirs and led to the formation of the salt pillows between diapirs due to detachment folding. We derive four main controlling factors for such salt-dominated contractional basins: (1) the wedge-shape basin-fill is the product of the dynamic load at the southern margin of the basin, (2) a basal salt layer fed the diapirs and acted as a detachment horizon during the later shortening, (3) detachment folding was the dominating deformation mechanism during contraction, and (4) the pre-existing diapirs controlled the position of the detachment folds.

Brandes, Christian; Schmidt, Carolin; Tanner, David Colin; Winsemann, Jutta

2013-06-01

159

Missing shortening in the thick-skinned retroarc thrust belt of the central Andes, northwestern Argentina, ~25°S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very large discrepancy exists among estimated retroarc shortening magnitudes in the thin-skinned thrust belt of Bolivia and the thick-skinned thrust belt of northwestern Argentina. Fieldwork and structural analysis from this study at ~25°S latitude in northwestern Argentina confirm the presence of a mainly west verging, thick-skinned style of shortening in the region which, taken together with thermochronological data ((U-Th)/He in zircon and apatite and published apatite fission track results), imply up to 10 km of rapid, Miocene exhumation. Although these results suggest that significant exhumation occurred in the region, displacements on mapped, discrete faults are insufficient in magnitude (by ~15-20%) to generate the observed ~58 km thick crust (Yuan et al., 2002). We suggest that additional, unrecognized shortening or crustal addition is required in the region to explain the thick crust and occurred by 1) crustal flow from neighboring regions of thickened crust; 2) passive roof thrusting whereby major, likely mid-crustal shortening was fed to higher structural levels; 3) tectonic underplating of trench or forearc rocks; and/or 4) significant penetrative strain not accommodated by through going faults. We do not discard other mechanisms of crustal thickening and/or addition in the region, but magnitudes of upper crustal shortening required by excess area calculations are best explained by penetrative deformation within rheologically weak metaturbidites of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Puncoviscana Formation. Although penetrative strain was generally not considered in cross section restorations in the retroarc of Bolivia, a relative lack of these rheologically weak rocks there probably precludes penetrative deformation as a significant mode of deformation and may partially reconcile the discrepancy in along-strike shortening magnitudes. Significant shortening has been accommodated by penetrative strain in other orogens worldwide, including western North America (e.g., Mitra, 1994; Duebendorfer and Meyer, 2002) and southwestern China (e.g., Burchfiel et al., 2007), and may reflect an often overlooked yet fundamental style of crustal deformation.

Pearson, D. M.; Kapp, P. A.; Decelles, P. G.; Reiners, P. W.

2010-12-01

160

Mafic alkalic magmatism in central Kachchh, India: a monogenetic volcanic field in the northwestern Deccan Traps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatism in Kachchh, in the northwestern Deccan continental flood basalt province, is represented not only by typical tholeiitic flows and dikes, but also plug-like bodies, in Mesozoic sandstone, of alkali basalt, basanite, melanephelinite and nephelinite, containing mantle nodules. They form the base of the local Deccan stratigraphy and their volcanological context was poorly understood. Based on new and published field, petrographic and geochemical data, we identify this suite as an eroded monogenetic volcanic field. The plugs are shallow-level intrusions (necks, sills, dikes, sheets, laccoliths); one of them is known to have fed a lava flow. We have found local peperites reflecting mingling between magmas and soft sediment, and the remains of a pyroclastic vent composed of non-bedded lapilli tuff breccia, injected by mafic alkalic dikes. The lapilli tuff matrix contains basaltic fragments, glass shards, and detrital quartz and microcline, with secondary zeolites, and there are abundant lithic blocks of mafic alkalic rocks. We interpret this deposit as a maar-diatreme, formed due to phreatomagmatic explosions and associated wall rock fragmentation and collapse. This is one of few known hydrovolcanic vents in the Deccan Traps. The central Kachchh monogenetic volcanic field has >30 individual structures exposed over an area of ˜1,800 km2 and possibly many more if compositionally identical igneous intrusions in northern Kachchh are proven by future dating work to be contemporaneous. The central Kachchh monogenetic volcanic field implies low-degree mantle melting and limited, periodic magma supply. Regional directed extension was absent or at best insignificant during its formation, in contrast to the contemporaneous significant directed extension and vigorous mantle melting under the main area of the Deccan flood basalts. The central Kachchh field demonstrates regional-scale volcanological, compositional, and tectonic variability within flood basalt provinces, and adds the Deccan Traps to the list of such provinces containing monogenetic- and/or hydrovolcanism, namely the Karoo-Ferrar and Emeishan flood basalts, and plateau basalts in Saudi Arabia, Libya, and Patagonia.

Kshirsagar, Pooja V.; Sheth, Hetu C.; Shaikh, Badrealam

2010-11-01

161

Mafic alkalic magmatism in central Kachchh, India: a monogenetic volcanic field in the northwestern Deccan Traps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatism in Kachchh, in the northwestern Deccan continental flood basalt province, is represented not only by typical tholeiitic flows and dikes, but also plug-like bodies, in Mesozoic sandstone, of alkali basalt, basanite, melanephelinite and nephelinite, containing mantle nodules. They form the base of the local Deccan stratigraphy and their volcanological context was poorly understood. Based on new and published field, petrographic and geochemical data, we identify this suite as an eroded monogenetic volcanic field. The plugs are shallow-level intrusions (necks, sills, dikes, sheets, laccoliths); one of them is known to have fed a lava flow. We have found local peperites reflecting mingling between magmas and soft sediment, and the remains of a pyroclastic vent composed of non-bedded lapilli tuff breccia, injected by mafic alkalic dikes. The lapilli tuff matrix contains basaltic fragments, glass shards, and detrital quartz and microcline, with secondary zeolites, and there are abundant lithic blocks of mafic alkalic rocks. We interpret this deposit as a maar-diatreme, formed due to phreatomagmatic explosions and associated wall rock fragmentation and collapse. This is one of few known hydrovolcanic vents in the Deccan Traps. The central Kachchh monogenetic volcanic field has >30 individual structures exposed over an area of ˜1,800 km2 and possibly many more if compositionally identical igneous intrusions in northern Kachchh are proven by future dating work to be contemporaneous. The central Kachchh monogenetic volcanic field implies low-degree mantle melting and limited, periodic magma supply. Regional directed extension was absent or at best insignificant during its formation, in contrast to the contemporaneous significant directed extension and vigorous mantle melting under the main area of the Deccan flood basalts. The central Kachchh field demonstrates regional-scale volcanological, compositional, and tectonic variability within flood basalt provinces, and adds the Deccan Traps to the list of such provinces containing monogenetic- and/or hydrovolcanism, namely the Karoo-Ferrar and Emeishan flood basalts, and plateau basalts in Saudi Arabia, Libya, and Patagonia.

Kshirsagar, Pooja V.; Sheth, Hetu C.; Shaikh, Badrealam

2011-07-01

162

Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwestern Ohio watersheds.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) budgets for large watersheds are often used to predict trends in riverine P export. To test such predictions, we calculated annual P budgets for 1975-1995 for soils of the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds of northwestern Ohio and compared them with riverine P export from these watersheds. Phosphorus inputs to the soils include fertilizers, manure, rainfall, and sludge while outputs include crop removal and nonpoint-source export via rivers. Annual P inputs decreased due to reductions in fertilizer and manure inputs. Annual outputs increased due to increasing crop yields. Net P accumulation decreased from peak values of 13.4 and 9.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) to 3.7 and 2.6 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) for the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds, respectively. Thus, P budget analysis suggests that riverine P export should have increased throughout the study period, with smaller increases during more recent years. However, detailed water quality studies show that riverine export of total phosphorus (TP) has decreased by 25 to 40% and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by 60 to 89%, both due primarily to decreases from nonpoint sources. We suggest that these decreases are associated with farmers' adoption of practices that minimize transport of recently applied P fertilizer and of sediments via surface runoff, coupled with changes in winter weather conditions. In comparison with most Midwestern watersheds, rivers draining these watersheds have high unit area yields of TP, low unit area yields of SRP, and high ratios of nonpoint source- to point source-derived P. PMID:11837450

Baker, David B; Richards, R Peter

163

Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects the southern Beartooth uplift with the northwesternmost Owl Creek uplift and separates the Bighorn basin to the east from the Absaroka basin to the west. The eastern flank of the cody arch is bounded by a major west-dipping thrust fault. The western flank is locally a subhorizontal shelf but overall gently dips to the west-southwest into deeper parts of the Absaroka basin. In contrast to most petroleum basins, the Absaroka basin is topographically a rugged mountain range, created by erosion of a thick sequence of Eocene volcanic rocks that fill the center of the basin and lap onto the adjacent uplifts. Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have produced several billion barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind River basins are probably present within the Absaroka basin and should have similar production capabilities. The Absaroka basin may have greater potential than adjacent basins because the volcanics provide additional traps and reservoirs. Domes in Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks beneath the volcanics and stratigraphic traps at the angular unconformity between the volcanics and underlying reservoirs are primary exploration targets. Unique geologic, geophysical, permitting, access, and drilling problems are encountered in all aspects of exploration.

Sundell, K.A.

1986-08-01

164

Seasonal thermocline in the China Seas and northwestern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatological seasonal variations of the thermocline in the China Seas and northwestern Pacific Ocean were studied using historical data from 1930 through 2001 (707,624 profiles). The quantitative roles of surface thermal buoyancy (Bq), haline buoyancy flux (Bp), and total buoyancy flux (B) against the wind-induced mixing (?) in different seasons and regions were also explored using the buoyancy ratio (R = ?Bq/Bp?) and the Monin-Obukhov depth ratio (?), respectively. The thermocline has obvious seasonal variations in the study area north of 20°N. There is no thermocline along the west coast of the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and northern East China Sea from December to March resulting from surface cooling and wind mixing. The significantly different variation of the thermocline strength on and off the Chinese shelf is mainly caused by the fact that the thermal stratification is enhanced by bottom tidal mixing on the shelf. The ? indicates that the thermocline depth on the Chinese shelf is mainly dominated by B in summer, while it is dominated by ? in winter. It reveals an opposite feature in the Kuroshio region; the dominating factor is B in winter, associated with the large heat buoyancy loss there. South of 20°N, the dominating factor is similar to that on the shelf, with the more obvious B dominant characteristic during the monsoon transition periods. The R demonstrates that B is mainly controlled by Bq all year round, with some sporadically Bp-dominated regions in the tropical area in winter and in the BS and eastern YS in September.

Hao, Jiajia; Chen, Yongli; Wang, Fan; Lin, Pengfei

2012-02-01

165

Outdoor radioactivity and health risks in Balikesir, northwestern Turkey.  

PubMed

External irradiation from radionuclides naturally present in the environment or released from man-made practices or events is usually an important component of the exposure of human populations. These exposures derive primarily from gamma radiation arising from the decay of these radionuclides at locations outside the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the radioactivity levels and health risks due to terrestrial radionuclides in the soil of Balikesir, one of the largest cities of the country, northwestern Turkey. For this purpose, activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil and outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) have been investigated in the city of Balikesir. In addition, maps for the radionuclide activity concentrations of soil and the outdoor gamma dose rate distributions have been plotted for the region. The average activities of radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, (235)U and (137)Cs in the soil were determined to be 37.6 ± 10.8, 54.7 ± 15.1, 674.5 ± 203.2, 3.6 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the region. The average outdoor gamma dose rates due to terrestrial and cosmic radiations were found to be 78.5 ± 12.4 and 48.9 ± 5.8 nGy h(-1) with the total of 127.4 ± 18.9 nGy h(-1) in the region. Annual effective dose due to environmental outdoor gamma radiation exposures was determined to be 156.3 nSv. The mean estimated cancer risk values were found to be 0.063 × 10(-2) for the region using risk factors of ICRP 103. The results of the study were discussed with the studies done in other cities of Turkey and the worldwide averages. PMID:21441564

Kapdan, E; Varinlioglu, A; Karahan, G

2011-03-26

166

Treeline biogeochemistry and dynamics, Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The extensive boreal biome is little studies relative to its global importance. Its high soil moisture and low temperatures result in large below-ground reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Presently, such high-latitude ecosystems are undergoing the largest temperature increases in global warming. Change in soil temperature or moisture in the large pools of soil organic matter could fundamentally change ecosystem C and N budgets. Since 1990, we have conducted treeline studies in a small (800 ha) watershed in Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. Our objectives were to (1) gain an understanding of treeline dynamics, structure, and function; and (2) examine the effects of global climate change, particularly soil temperature, moisture, and N availability, on ecosystem processes. Our intensive site studies show that the treeline has advanced into turdra during the past 150 years. Inplace and laboratory incubations indicate that soil organic-layer mineralization rates increase with a temperature change >5 degrees C. N availability was greatest in soils beneath alder and lowest beneath willow or cottongrass tussocks. Watershed output of inorganic N as NO3 was 70 percent greater than input. The high inorganic-N output likely reflects soil freeze-thaw cycles, shallow flowpaths to the stream, and low seasonal biological retention. Concentrations and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streamwater increased during spring melt and in autumn, indicating a seasonal accumulation of soil and forest-floor DOC and a shallower flowpath for meltwater to the stream. In sum, our research suggests that treeling transitionzone processes are quite sensitive to climate change, especially those functions regulating the C and N cycles.

Stottlemyer, R.; Binkley, D.; Steltzer, H.

2002-01-01

167

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Northwestern States Portland Cement Company Site, Mason City, IA. (First Remedial Action), June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Northwestern States Portland Cement site, a cement manufacturing facility, is in Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Calmus Creek flows between the Northwestern States Portland Cement Company (NWSPCC) facility and another cement manufacturing plant ...

1990-01-01

168

Range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex ( Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) in northwestern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic geological and climatic history of northwestern North America has made it a focal region for phylogeography. We conducted a range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex (Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) across its range in northwestern North America to understand its evolutionary history and the distribution of clades to inform conservation of R. pretiosa and Great Basin

W. Chris Funk; Christopher A. Pearl; Hope M. Draheim; Michael J. Adams; Thomas D. Mullins; Susan M. Haig

2008-01-01

169

Administrative and economic dimensions of regionalization: case of Leningrad Province and North-Western Federal District of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North-Western Federal District (NWFD) was created in 2000 within the framework of administrative and territorial division reforming. NWFD appeared together with 6 other districts: Central, Privolzhski, Southern, Urals?, Siberian and Far Eastern. The District included 2 economic regions: North-Western and Northern and united 11 Federation Units: Kaliningrad, Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod, Vologda, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk provinces, Karelia and Komi Republics,

Felix Fedorovich Rybakov; Sergei Felixovich Sutyrin; Nikita Evgenjevich Lisitsyn

2003-01-01

170

33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern...Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern...jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget Sound, Hood Canal,...

2010-07-01

171

33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern...Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern...jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget Sound, Hood Canal,...

2009-07-01

172

Dense shelf water cascades in two northwestern Mediterranean submarine canyon heads during winters 2007 and 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons incised in continental margins are considered to be preferential pathways for the exchange of water and particles between the coastal area and the open sea. Hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes in submarine canyons depend upon several forcing conditions in the region such as general circulation, seafloor morphology and atmospheric regime. The off-shelf sediment transport trough submarine canyons, due to storms and river floods, can be significant and recently dense shelf-water cascading (DSWC) has been also identified as an important transport mechanism able to generate high sediment fluxes in submarine canyons. DSWC is seasonal, resulting from the formation of dense water by cooling and/or evaporation over the shelf, and occurs on both high- and low latitude continental margins. The Palamós and the Cap de Creus submarine canyon heads were instrumented during two consecutive winters to study their respective role in the dynamics of the sediment transport on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The Cap de Creus submarine canyon has been intensively studied during the past years as it acts as a major transport conduit during storms and DSWC events. On the contrary, little information exists about the sediment transport processes operating within the Palamós submarine canyon during winter conditions. Observational work during this study consisted of a series of field measurements carried out with instrument moorings during winters 2007 and 2008 at the heads of both submarine canyons, at around 300 m depth. These moorings were equipped with a current meter with temperature, conductivity, pressure and turbidity sensors, placed at 5 m above the seafloor. Multibeam bathymetry from both canyon heads was also acquired and used to determine the canyon axis morphology, which was considered to compute down-canyon fluxes. Forcing conditions were obtained from oceanographic buoys and gaps in the wave height and peak period time series were filled with models outputs. Daily river discharges from nearby rivers were also analyzed. Sediment transport events during winters 2007 and 2008 were quite similar, and several DSWC events were identified and compared among them. Down-canyon current velocities of > 60 cm/s were detected in the Cap de Creus Canyon, and velocities of > 40 cm/s in the Palamós Canyon. Increases in current speed were associated with subtle drops in temperature (~ 1 °C) related to DSWC, and peaks of suspended sediment concentration. Values up to 170 mg/l were recorded during both studied winters at the Cap de Creus canyon head coinciding with the first DSWC event concurrent with an eastern storm. During both study periods no relation was found between sediment transport events and nearby river discharges. The amount of sediment transported during DSWC events at the Cap de Creus Canyon was one order of magnitude greater than the one observed at the Palamós Canyon. This corroborates the fact that most of the off-shelf sediment transport in the northwestern Mediterranean during DSWC events occurs at the southwestern end of the Gulf of Lions, through the Cap de Creus submarine canyon.

Ribo, Marta; Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Lo Iacono, Claudio

2010-05-01

173

The Northwestern Slope Valleys Region, Mars: A Prime Target for the Future Exploration of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars is a water-enriched planet theorized to have had Earth-like conditions during its embryonic stages of evolution (Early into Middle Noachian or > 3.8 GA). The Earth-like conditions include: (1) plate tectonism, (2) an active hydrosphere resulting in higher erosion rates and the presence of layered sedimentary deposits, and (3) a potential biosphere. Due to its smaller size and lower gravity, its thermal energy rapidly declined, sending the planet into a permanent monoplate regime. The Tharsis superplume, Elysium superplume, and structural discontinuities in the lithosphere are sites of long-lived energy releases and hydrothermal activity. Furthermore, as its atmosphere thinned and cooled, and water was lost to hydrodynamic escape, the Earth-like hydrological cycle transitioned into a persisting cold desert climate, approximating the present-day climate of the Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Stratigraphic, hydrogeomorphic, and paleotectonic information indicate an active Mars (e.g., late-stage superplume activity) that experienced punctuated periods of magmatic-driven hydrologic activity long after the Earth-like hydrologic regime had ended. Existing geologic, geomorphic, geophysical, topographic, impact cratering, spectral, and elemental information collectively point to a prime target site for future exploration that has the potential to yield significant geologic, paleoclimatic, paleohydrologic, and exobiologic information. The Northwestern Slope Valleys (NSVs) region archives traits similar to terrestrial field sites where the processes associated with: (1) fluvial, eolian, and hydrothermal activity, (2) modification due to landslides and glaciers, and (3) the formation of diverse rock assemblages (e.g., provenances include Noachian Thaumasia highlands mountain range and Europe-sized sedimentary basin and Noachian-Amazonian basaltic and possibly silica-enriched volcanoes and lava flow fields) are recorded. The region is especially remarkable since it encapsulates at least three distinct paleohydrologic regimes: Noachian-Early Hesperian NSVs flooding (~108 - 1010 m3/sec), Late Hesperian-Early Amazonian Mangala Valles flooding (~107 m3/sec), Amazonian sapping channel formation (~103 m3/sec), and recent groundwater seeps (<102 m3/sec), all of which expose deposits for in-situ study and sample return. Terrestrial analogs include: (1) Wet Beaver Creek, Arizona, which reveals intriguing geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic similarities to a well-developed martian sapping channel, Abus Vallis, and (2) the Gray Mountain FIDO rover test site, which records diverse geological terrains similar to what might be encountered at the proposed NSVs prime target site.

Dohm, J. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Hare, T. M.; Mahaney, W. C.

2002-12-01

174

Phylogenetic reconstruction within Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in northwestern Russia.  

PubMed

A selection of genetic markers was used to study the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains in northwestern Russia. A total of 221 of 434 epidemiologically unlinked isolates studied in 1996-2001 belonged to the Beijing family as determined by standard spoligotyping (signals 35-43). Ninety-six percent of these Beijing isolates ("typical") were closely related in IS6110-RFLP (D > 0.85) while 9 remaining isolates (2 different profiles, "atypical") were more distant from the rest (D = 0.6-0.7). Further analysis was performed on a selection of 12 typical and both atypical Beijing strains with different IS6110-RFLP profiles (2 isolates each). All 28 Beijing isolates studied had the KatG 463Leu allele, an intact mtp40 fragment of the mpcA gene, and an identical structure of the DR locus (15 DVRs) with an upstream IS6110 copy in opposite orientation. The IS6110-RFLP based neighbor-joining (distance) and quartet-puzzling (maximum-likelihood) trees showed that the branch lengths were considerably longer for atypical Beijing strains. Typical Beijing strains had the 1.02 kb Rv3135 PPE-family gene and two IS1547 copies (iplA and iplB) one of them (iplB) disrupted by IS6110 insertion. Atypical Beijing strains had the 1.97 kb Rv3135 gene and a single intact IS1547/iplA copy. We suggest that the M. tuberculosis Beijing family strains currently circulating in the northwest of Russia are relatively ancient and thus appear to be endemic in this region since evolutionarily distant time. The prevalent typical Beijing strains (96%) are likely to be of monophyletic origin and their ongoing dissemination has started recently: these strains differ in rapidly evolving IS6110-RFLP but have identical structure of other polymorphic genome regions studied. The atypical Beijing strains (4%) are evolutionary older; they probably had a common (unknown) ancestor with typical Beijing strains. PMID:12558181

Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaya, Olga; Otten, Tatiana; Vyazovaya, Anna; Limeschenko, Elena; Steklova, Lidia; Vyshnevskyi, Boris

2002-12-01

175

Epidemiology of pleural mesothelioma in North-western Italy (Piedmont)  

PubMed Central

Rubino, G. F., Scansetti, G., Donna, A., and Palestro, G. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 436-442. Epidemiology of pleural mesothelioma in North-western Italy (Piedmont). Fifty-four cases of mesothelioma of the pleura admitted to the Chest Surgery Centre or to the Department of Medicine of the University of Turin from 1960 to 1970 are reported. Thoracotomy was performed in 22. In the other 32 the diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiographic, and cytological findings and on the results of biopsy. In 50 cases (18 women and 32 men), the majority of whom had always or mostly lived in Piedmont, it was possible to ascertain the family history, previous residence, and occupation, mainly with the aid of information given by the patient's relatives. A similar investigation was made by the same interviewers into 50 other patients of the same sex and age admitted to the same institutions, using an identical technique. In the group with mesothelioma (only two of whom survived more than two years after the diagnosis had been made) occupational exposure to asbestos was demonstrated unequivocally in five men. Three other patients, including one woman, had lived with persons employed in the asbestos industry (16%). Exposure for occupational reasons seemed very likely in another patient, who had been a fireman in the Turin Arsenal for 40 years. One man in the control group had worked for two years in a cement-asbestos manufacturing company (2%). A re-appraisal of the histological sections and examination of new preparations made in the 22 cases operated on was done in the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the University of Turin, also with the purpose of confirming the diagnosis. This re-appraisal revealed the presence of asbestos bodies in the mesothelioma in one case, a woman who had never been exposed to asbestos for occupational or domestic reasons but who had always lived in one of the two regions of the Province of Turin with the highest number of asbestos industries. Images

Rubino, G. F.; Scansetti, G.; Donna, A.; Palestro, G.

1972-01-01

176

Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River formation of Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins--the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northeastern Utah. The ancient lakes served as a basin for the accumulation of tremendous quantities of aquatic organisms. The predominance of microscopic fresh-water algae

1931-01-01

177

The formation and growth of seabird colonies: Audouin's gull as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Simulations of a stochastic, individual-based predictive model were used to invest- igate the ecological processes relating to the formation and growth of colonies (local populations) of Audouin's Gull ( Larus audouinii Payraudeau). A colony was established in 1981 at the Ebro Delta (in the north-western Mediterranean) and since then, the colony has grown dramatically at an average rate

Daniel Oro; Graeme D. Ruxton

2001-01-01

178

Transition in the cause of Fever from malaria to dengue, northwestern ecuador, 1990-2011.  

PubMed

In tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. However by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern Ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. This finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue. PMID:24047566

Cifuentes, Sara G; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Milbrath, Meghan; Baldeón, Manuel E; Coloma, Josefina; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

2013-10-01

179

Review of Gizzard Shad Population Dynamics at the Northwestern Edge of Its Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum is widely distributed in North America, and South Dakota marks the northwestern edge of its native range. To date, most research regarding population dynamics of gizzard shad has been con- ducted in more southerly waters. We reviewed the dynamics and biology of giz- zard shad populations in South Dakota and compared this information with that reported

Melissa R. Wuellne R; W. Willis

180

Spatial distribution in sediment characteristics and benthic activity on the northwestern Black Sea shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the River Danube as a major source of nutrients and suspended solids to the continental shelf of the Black Sea has been analyzed. In the framework of the EC project EROS-2000, sediment cores from 33 stations on the northwestern continental shelf were sampled in August 1995. Spatial patterns in structural sediment characteristics, macrobenthos composition and benthic mineralization

J. W. M. Wijsman; P. M. J. Herman; M. T. Gomoiu

1999-01-01

181

Residential Preferences and the Population Turnaround in Nonmetropolitan Areas: A Case Study in Northwestern Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken in northwestern Wisconsin in 1974 to investigate whether the population turnaround in the 19-county area was an indication of people moving according to residential preference, as might be assumed from national surveys showing desire for urban to rural migration and higher rate of population growth in nonmetropolitan areas.…

Lambert, Virginia A.

182

Effects of partial cutting on the ectomycorrhizae of Picea glauca forests in northwestern Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of various harvesting practices (including those designed to emulate natural disturbances) on ectomycorrhizae (ECM) associated with white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in northwestern Alberta, Canada. Treatments included clearcuts, partial cuts (dispersed green-tree retention with 20%, 50%, and 75% residual live trees, and aggregated green-tree retention), unharvested control sites, and a burned stand. The percentage

Lance W. Lazaruk; Gavin Kernaghan; S. Ellen Macdonald; Damase Khasa

2005-01-01

183

Structural influence on hydrocarbon entrapment in the northwestern Red Sea, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northwestern part of the Egyptian Red Sea has attracted the attention of many geologists because it lies at the triple junction of the main rifts between the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Gulf of Suez. The geometry of the fault system in this area of the basin clearly indicates an extensional setting. The area has a southwestward

M. G. Salah; A. S. Alsharhan

1996-01-01

184

Survey of Fishes in the Oklahoma Panhandle and Harper County, Northwestern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the fishes of the Panhandle and Harper County in Northwestern Oklahoma produced 33 species representing 12 families. Sixteen additional species have been reported by others or have been stocked in lakes, for a total of 48 known species. Only seven were new records for the region. A description of the Cimarron and North Canadian River Systems, a

Jimmie Pigg

185

Education, Employment and Empowerment: The Case of a Young Woman in Northwestern China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a marginalized region of the world, the rural Gansu Province of northwestern China provides an informative canvas on which to examine and understand the ways in which education contributes to the lives of local Muslim women and supports their goals for work. Specifically, this article highlights the role education plays in the life of one…

Maslak, Mary Ann

2011-01-01

186

DISTRIBUTION OF NATURALIZED CARDUUS NUTANS (COMPOSITAE) MAPPED IN RELATION TO GEOLOGY IN NORTHWESTERN OHIO12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within recent years the nodding thistle or musk thistle (Carduus nutans L.) has be- come naturalized and abundant in northwestern Ohio in at least two areas, the Castalia- Bellevue-Sandusky area and the Carey area. In the summers of 1967 and 1968, the total detailed distribution of Carduus nutans in these two areas was mapped by noting its occur- rence and

RONALD L. STUCKEY; JANE L. FORSYTH

187

IMPACTS OF A HIGHWAY EXPANSION PROJECT ON WOLVES IN NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted to evaluate the impacts of upgrading 71 km of US Highway 53 (US 53) from 2-lanes into 4-lanes on wolves (Canis lupus) in northwestern Wisconsin. Our main objectives were to assess the impacts of the highway project on resident and dispersing timber wolves, and to identify critical habitats and travel corridors for wolves. FiftyBnine timber wolves (33

Bruce Kohn; Jacqueline Frair; David Unger; Thomas Gehring

188

[Fasciolosis in European hares (Lepus europaeus) in North-Western Germany].  

PubMed

In this case report pathomorphological findings of acute and chronic stages of fasciolosis are described in a European hare (Lepus europaeus) hunted in NorthWestern Germany. Acute hepatic lesions consisted of coagulation necrosis with haemorrhages and surrounding infiltrations of granulocytes and histiocytes. Subacute to chronic changes were characterized predominantly by pyogranulomatous inflammations with extensive fibrosis. Adult parasites and eggs were detectable. PMID:19244829

Ziege, Susanne; Brauneis, Maria; von Keyserling, Michael; Wohlsein, Peter

2009-02-01

189

Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

Brian Frederick Kutas

2004-01-01

190

Reproductive Ecology of Pseudemys floridana and Trachemys scripta (Testudines: Emydidae) in Northwestern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cooter, Pseudemys floridana, and the Pond Slider, Trachemys scripta, are two abundant freshwater turtles in the southeastern United States, but little is known of their reproductive ecology in northwestern Florida. I studied their nesting phenology and behavior, clutch size and frequency, rates of nest predation, and hatchling overwintering behavior from 2001-2003 at Lake Jackson, Leon County, Florida. Both species

Matthew J. Aresco

2004-01-01

191

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon is less studied of all the fishery regions on the island. So far, their migratory ways from feeding and wintering areas to the spawning rivers have not been ascertained. The results of monitoring for pink salmon have shown that by some biological indices, commercial-statistic data, and also by the data of satellites NOAA-10, NOAA-12, NOAA-14, their commercial catches near the northwestern Sakhalin are formed by fish groups migrating both through the Amur Estuary from the south, and through the Sakhalin Bay from the north. The base of spawning fish in rivers of northwestern Sakhalin is formed by the summer pink salmon migrating from the north. A preliminary computation of distinguished pink salmon groups (summer southern and northern autumn) shows a ratio 0.1:5.7:1 in odd years and 1:2:1 in even years.

Ivanov, Alexander N.; Shershnev, Alexej; Kaplanova, Nina P.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

2002-03-01

192

ARTICLE Influences of climate on fire regimes in montane forests of north-western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To identify the influence of interannual and interdecadal climate variation on the occurrence and extent of fires in montane conifer forests of north-western Mexico. Location This study was conducted in Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.)- dominated mixed-conifer forests in the central and northern plateau of the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Fire occurrence was

Carl N. Skinner; Jack H. Burk; Michael G. Barbour; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Scott L. Stephens

193

Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Northwestern Syntax Screening Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwestern Syntax Screening Test (NSST), a measure that has been a source of considerable controversy since its publication, has also been one of the most widely used clinical screening tools of syntactic development. As part of the evaluation of a preschool in tervention program, the NSST was administered to approximately 700 pupils at the beginning and end of the

Alice E. Klein

1980-01-01

194

A food ethnography of the Otammari in north?western Benin: A systematic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive study on coping with seasonal food insecurity, a food ethnographic study of the Otammari in the Atacora province of north?western Benin was carried out, comprising elements of the food system such as supply, preservation, storage, preparation, distribution and consumption. Cultural norms and values concerning food (food habits) are described and compared with other studies on

Marti J. van Liere; Inge D. Brouwer; Adel P. den Hartog

1996-01-01

195

Biogeographic relationships of Pliocene and Pleistocene North-western African mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

North-western Africa, today included in the Palaearctic realm, is well separated from the Ethiopian province by the Sahara, but the distribution of large mammals shows that these biogeographic domains cannot simply be extrapolated to the late Cenozoic. In the latest Miocene and earliest Pliocene, there were close connections with central Africa, but also remarkable similarities with East Africa, in some

Denis Geraads

2010-01-01

196

Settling, dissolution and burial of biogenic silica in the sediments off Somalia (northwestern Indian Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle fluxes of biogenic silica through the water column, silica burial fluxes into the sediments, and the flux of dissolved silica across the sediment-water interface estimated from pore water profiles are used to assess the behaviour of biogenic silica at two stations 80 and 270 km offshore along a transect off the Somali coast in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Particulate

Erica Koning; Geert-Jan Brummer; Wim Van Raaphorst; Johan Van Bennekom; Willem Helder; Jolanda Van Iperen

1997-01-01

197

Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and

Sheyla Mirabal; Maria Regueiro; Alicia M Cadenas; L Luca Cavalli-Sforza; Peter A Underhill; Dmitry A Verbenko; Svetlana A Limborska; Rene J Herrera

2009-01-01

198

Trace metal distributions in shelf waters of the northwestern Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of dissolved and leachable particulate trace metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni) and total particulate Mn and Fe were made on seawater samples collected from the northwestern Black Sea during the EROS 2000 expedition conducted in July–August 1995. The investigation concentrated on waters of the shelf and shelf edge, but included one deeper water (1440m)

S. P. C Tankéré; F. L. L Muller; J. D Burton; P. J Statham; C Guieu; J.-M Martin

2001-01-01

199

Seismic Hazard Analysis using Discrete Faults in Northwestern Pakistan: Part I – Methodology and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first of two companion papers that evaluate the seismic hazard in northwestern Pakistan. The area, located at the western edge of the Himalayas, has numerous active faults including the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Mantle Thrust (MMT). This paper describes the methodology used to perform regional deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses. Here, seismic sources

Youssef M. A. Hashash; Byungmin Kim; Scott M. Olson; Irshad Ahmad

2012-01-01

200

Distribution and zoogeography of the marine cladoceran Podon schmackeri in the northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and zoogeography of Podon schmackeri in the northwestern Pacific was studied on the basis of materials collected during the Cooperative Study of the Kuroshio and Adjacent Regions, 1965 to 1974. P. schmackeri was mainly distributed in waters along the coast of the Asian continent from the south of Vietnam to northern waters adjacent to Japan and the Kuroshio Extension.

S. W. Kim; T. Onbé

1989-01-01

201

Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Nile Basin, situated in the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, contains ? 1400 m thick Mesozoic sedimentary section underlain by Neoproterozoic basement rocks and overlain by Early-Late Oligocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks. This study outlines the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin based on field and remote sensing studies along the Gorge of the Nile. The Blue

N. D. S. GANI; M. G. Abdelsalam; S. Gera; M. R. Gani

2009-01-01

202

Farmers' Knowledge of Soil Erosion and Control Measures in the Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines farmers' perception and knowledge of the soil erosion process and its impacts and control techniques in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is based on interviews with 119 farmers and informal discussions with 12 farmers from four villages. Of the interviewed farmers, over 83 percent stated that soil erosion was damaging their agricultural lands. Visible soil erosion

Woldeamlak Bewket

2011-01-01

203

Longshot experiments to study velocity anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere of the northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several long-range explosion seismology experiments have been conducted in the northwestern Pacific basin, where one of the oldest oceanic lithospheres is postulated to exist. The experiments were conducted from 1974 to 1980. Highly sensitive ocean-bottom seismographs which had been developed for longshot experiments were used. The lengths of the profiles ranged from 1000 to 1800 km, and the directions were

H. Shimamura; T. Asada; K. Suyehiro; T. Yamada; H. Inatani

1983-01-01

204

WATER TABLE EFFECTS ON PHOSPHORUS RELEASE AND TRACE GAS FLUX IN A NORTHWESTERN MINNESOTA SHALLOW MARSH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A freshwater marsh, created by artificially draining a 105-ha shallow lake (Rice Lake), is a suspected source of phosphorus (P) to the Detroit Lake watershed, a major recreational destination for northwestern Minnesota. P loadings to the main drainage canal increase during the summer months, when th...

205

Food Habits of Wolves in Relation to Livestock Depredations in Northwestern Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized many areas of the Midwestern United States, prompting concern over the possible risk wolves may pose to livestock producers. To better understand the risks wolves may pose to livestock, we initiated a 3-y study examining the food habits of wolves in an agricultural area of northwestern Minnesota and their relation to depredation records of livestock

ANDREAS S. CHAVEZ; ERIC M. GESE

2005-01-01

206

Modeling non-catastrophic individual-tree mortality for Pinus radiata plantations in northwestern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual-tree mortality model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in northwestern Spain was developed. The model relies on data from three inventories of a network of 130 permanent plots. The equation that predicts the probability of complete survival is a logistic function, which depends on tree size and competition (diameter, mean-squared diameter, stand basal area, dominant height

Felipe Crecente-Campo; Peter Marshall; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro

2009-01-01

207

Tidal asymmetry in sediment resuspension on a macrotidal beach in northwestern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted on a macrotidal beach in northwestern Australia to investigate the relation between sediment resuspension and sea bed morphology. Continuous measurements of waves, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were carried out over a period of several hours around high tide, concurrent with half-hourly visual observations of the sea bed morphology. The incident waves had a significant

Gerhard Masselink; Charitha Pattiaratchi

2000-01-01

208

Biogenic opal indicating less productive northwestern North Pacific during the glacial ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic opal and ice-rafted detritus (IRD) data from sediments in the Okhotsk Sea and the neighboring North Pacific revealed the remarkable reduction in opal production and southward advancement of sea-ice covered area during the last glacial maximum, resulting also southward shift of high biological productive area in the northwestern North Pacific. It implies that the substantial reduction in outflux of

Hisashi Narita; Masayasu Sato; Shizuo Tsunogai; Masafumi Murayama; Minoru Ikehara; Takeshi Nakatsuka; Masaaki Wakatsuchi; Naomi Harada; Yukika Ujiié

2002-01-01

209

Gastro-intestinal nematode infections in a goat breeding farm in North-Western Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal egg counts were used to study patterns of nematode infestation of adult female goats and their offspring according to season, pregnancy and lactation or age on a goat farm (n=2000) in north-western Sri Lanka. Average rainfall in the area is 825 mm and temperature is between 23 and 33°C throughout the year. The only nematode species present on the

D. VAN AKEN; J. DE Borer; J. Vercruysse; P. Dorny

1990-01-01

210

Deep-water sedimentary environments of the northwestern Weddell Sea and South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transects have been sampled using short cores (multi and box), seabed photography, video sequences, and sediment profile images across the northwestern Weddell Sea and South Sandwich Forearc, Antarctica. A total of 12 core stations were examined for sediment structure, texture and composition to determine their depositional history. Four of the core stations from the Weddell Continental Slope, Abyssal Plain

John A. Howe; Tracy M. Shimmield; Robert Diaz

2004-01-01

211

Some features of the dynamics of cyclonic and seismic activity in the northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of investigation of the distributions of annual values of cyclonic and seismic activities in the northwestern Pacific. Their dynamics show similar cyclicity. The preliminary results suggest the following conclusion: when cyclonic activity increases over several sequential seasons, the total seismic activity decreases, whereas the total seismic energy of weak earthquakes increases simultaneously. The investigations were

M. I. Yaroshevich

2008-01-01

212

Geologic evolution of Uinta-Piceance basin province, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Uinta-Piceance basin province (UPBP) has a complex Phanerozoic history characterized by five distinct phases of basin development (1) The UPBP formed part of a continental platform shelf on the northwestern flank of North America during the early and middle Paleozoic. Cambrian through Mississippian strata consist mainly of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite; contain major unconformities; and thicken westward. (2)

S. Y. Johnson; M. L. Tuttle; B. H. Bryant; R. F. Dubiel; T. D. Fouch; K. J. Franczyk; V. J. S. Grauch; M. A. Grout; R. C. Johnson; C. M. Molenaar; D. J. Nichols; K. M. Nichols; V. F. Nuccio; F. Peterson; J. K. Pitman; W. J. Jr. Perry; C. J. Potter; D. L. Sawatzky; R. W. Jr. Scott; E. R. Verbeek; R. B. Wanty

1990-01-01

213

FREEZE/THAW EFFECTS ON RILL AND GULLY EROSION IN THE NORTHWESTERN WHEAT AND RANGE REGION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrology of the cropland of the Northwestern Wheat and Range Region (NWRR) of the Pacific Northwest USA is uniquely defined by the mixture of rainfall and snowmelt runoff events that can occur on frozen, thawing or non-frozen soil during any of the winter months of November through March. Runoff pl...

214

Accelerating Human Impacts on the Water Resources in the Heihe River Basin, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

River discharge and groundwater level data are collected within the Heihe River basin in Northwestern China. The surfacewater-groundwater interaction, particularly in the lower desert reaches, is analyzed with the help of isotope data of water of this river. In the irrigation season, the river was usually dried up in the lower desert reaches. The river water in the lower reaches

Tomohiro AKIYAMA

2009-01-01

215

Evidence for bimodal hybrid zones between two species of char (Pisces: Salvelinus) in northwestern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma, Pisces: Salmonidae) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) have widely overlapping, but largely parapatric ranges in water- sheds in northwestern North America from Washington State to northern British Columbia. Genetic analysis of natural populations using diagnostic molecular markers revealed widespread local sympatry and hybridization with hybrids comprising 0-25% of the local samples. In a detailed analysis of

Z. Redenbach; E. B. Taylor

2003-01-01

216

Estimate of Maximum Wind Speeds of Tornadoes in Three Northwestern States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an attempt to estimate the maximum wind speeds of potential tornadoes expected in three Northwestern states, all tornadoes and funnel clouds reported in Storm Data during a 20 year period, 1950 through 1969 were examined. Each storm was reevaluated usi...

T. T. Fujita

1970-01-01

217

Relationships among Plant Available Phosphorus, Fertilizer Sales, and Water Quality in Northwestern Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

management practices in a watershed. Fields and small agronomic watersheds have also been studied, with an Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river emphasis on the effect of management on spatial rela- water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applica- tions of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble tionships of

Frank G. Calhoun; Jerry M. Bigham; Brian K. Slater

2002-01-01

218

Macroinfaunal biomass and energy flow in a shallow reef flat of the northwestern Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrofaunal biomass of the Lucero reef flat in the northwestern Philippines accounted for 9 to 52% of total sediment organic matter, and did not exhibit any significant temporal trend. The polychaetes and crustaceans consistently alternated as biomass dominants; the latter group showed monthly and seasonal variations along with the chaetognaths, molluscs, chordates, and chelicerates, among the major groups (p<0.05). Faunal

Hildie Maria E. Nacorda; Helen T. Yap

1996-01-01

219

Patterns of Habitation and Burial Activity in the Ban Rai Rock Shelter, Northwestern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excavation of the Ban Rai rock shelter reported here is part of the Highland Archaeology Project, which is investigating cultural chronology and palaeoenvironment in the district of Pang Mapha in northwestern Thailand (Shoocongdej 2000, 2001, 2002a, 2002b ). The site had been surveyed and studied by a number of researchers previously (Fine Arts Department 1987; Krajaechan 2001; Sawatsalee 1998;

Cherdsak Treerayapiwat

2005-01-01

220

Late quaternary vegetational change in the Kotzebue sound area, northwestern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Two sediment cores from Kaiyak and Squirrel lakes in northwestern Alaska yielded pollen records that date to ca. 39,000 and 27,000 yr B.P., respectively. Between 39,000 and 14,000 yr B.P., the vegetation around these lakes was dominated by Gramineae and Cyperaceae with some Salix and possibly Betula nana/glandulosa forming a local, shrub component of the vegetation. Betula pollen percentages increased about 14,000 yr B.P., indicating the presence of a birch-dominated shrub tundra. Alnus pollen appeared at both sites between 9000 and 8000 yr B.P., and Picea pollen (mostly P. mariana) arrived at Squirrel Lake about 5000 yr B.P. The current forest-tundra mosaic around Squirrel Lake was established at this time, whereas shrub tundra existed near Kaiyak Lake throughout the Holocene. When compared to other pollen records from northwestern North America, these cores (1) represent a meadow component of lowland, Beringian tundra between 39,000 and 14,000 yr B.P., (2) demonstrate an early Holocene arrival of Alnus in northwestern Alaska that predates most other Alnus horizons in northern Alaska or northwestern Canada, and (3) show an east-to-west migration of Picea across northern Alaska from 9000 to 5000 yr B.P.

Anderson, P.M.

1985-01-01

221

Global Positioning System (GPS) estimates of crustal deformation in the Marmara Sea region, Northwestern Anatolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Marmara Sea region the relative motion between the Anatolian and Eurasian lithosphere has been measured by means of the modern techniques of space geodesy using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In order to resolve in detail the kinematic field within the active earthquake belts of Northwestern Anatolia, two GPS campaigns were carried out across a dense network consisting

Christian Straub; Hans-Gert Kahle

1994-01-01

222

Evaluation of MODIS derived perpendicular drought index for estimation of surface dryness over northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, drought status of northwestern China is evaluated using the Terra–Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with a newly developed method called perpendicular drought index (PDI), which is defined as a line segment that is parallel with the soil line and perpendicular to the normal line of soil line intersecting the coordinate origin in the two?dimensional scatter plot

Q. Qin; A. Ghulam; L. Zhu; L. Wang; J. Li; P. Nan

2008-01-01

223

THE ASTERACEAE OF NORTHWESTERN PICO ZUNIL, A CLOUD FOREST IN WESTERN GUATEMALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2003 to 2005, 46 genera and 96 species of native Asteraceae were collected on the northwestern slopes of Pico Zunil, a montane cloud forest habitat in southwestern Guatemala. Combining the present survey with past collections, a total of 56 genera and 126 species of Asteraceae have been reported from Pico Zunil, five of which are naturalized Old World species.

Taylor Sultan Quedensley; Thomas B. Bragg

2007-01-01

224

A Geographic Information System to Identify Areas for Alternative Crops in Northwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the third largest industry in Wyoming after mining and tourism (R. Micheli, Wyoming Department of Agriculture Director, pers. commun. ). The Bighorn Basin, located in northwestern Wyoming, is one of the largest agricultural production areas of the state. This area accounts for 27% of the value of crops produced in Wyoming (Wyoming Agricultural Statistics Service 1998). The Bighorn

J. A. Young; B. M. Christensen; M. S. Schaad; M. E. Herdendorf; G. F. Vance; L. C. Munn

1999-01-01

225

Atmospheric input of dissolved and particulate metals to the northwestern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of trace elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined for aerosols, dry deposition, precipitation and total deposition samples collected from five stations on islands and in the coastal zone of the northwestern Mediterranean. Average concentrations of metals are very homogeneous over the sampled area, in particular at the three coastal sites. Cd

C. Guieu; R. Chester; M. Nimmo; J.-M. Martin; S. Guerzoni; E. Nicolas; J. Mateu; S. Keyse

1997-01-01

226

First Assessment of Mountains on Northwestern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, as Potential Astronomical Observing Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellesmere Island, at the most northerly tip of Canada, possesses the highest mountain peaks within 10° of the pole. The highest is 2616 m, with many summits over 1000 m, high enough to place them above a stable low-elevation thermal inversion that persists through winter darkness. Our group has studied four mountains along the northwestern coast that have the additional

Eric Steinbring; Ray Carlberg; Bryce Croll; Greg Fahlman; Paul Hickson; Liviu Ivanescu; Brian Leckie; Thomas Pfrommer; Matthias Schoeck

2010-01-01

227

EGG PREDATION BY NORTHWESTERN CROWS: ITS ASSOCIATION WITH HUMAN AND BALD EAGLE ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation by Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) on the eggs of Double- crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Pelagic Cormorants (P. pelagicus), Glaucous- winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Pigeon Guillemots (Cepphus columba) was studied in the summers of 1976-1980. Crows took eggs to specific sites on their territories where they ate them and where we counted the shells. In 1980, the crows took

NICOLAAS A. M. VERBELK

228

Wide plate margin deformation, southern Central America and northwestern South America, CASA GPS observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global positioning system data from southern Central America and northwestern South America were collected during 1991, 1994, 1996, and 1998 in Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. These data reveal wide plate boundary deformation and escape tectonics occurring along an approximately 1400km length of the North Andes, locking of the subducting Nazca plate and strain accumulation in the Ecuador–Colombia

Robert Trenkamp; James N. Kellogg; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; Hector P. Mora

2002-01-01

229

Evaluation of Rectangular and Circular Escape Vents in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted in Hawaii during 1984-1 987 to investigate the possibility that escape vents fitted in traps used by the commercial lobster fishery in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands would reduce the catch and mortality of sublegal spiny lobsters Panulim margrnatus (<50 mm tail width) and slipper lobsters Scyllurides spp. (< 56 mm tail width) without significantly reducing legal catch.

ALAN R. EVERSON; ROBERT A. SKILLMAN; JEFFREY J. POLOVINA

1992-01-01

230

Hydrogeological investigations and numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the karstic aquifer of northwestern Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A freshwater lens underlain by saltwater exists beneath the entire northern Yucatan karst plain, Mexico. Water levels recorded in this plain, during the period June 1987 - April, 1989, were used to map the water table, identify inland hydrogeologic boundaries, and estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens using the Ghyben-Herzberg relation. The water table under most of northwestern Yucatan

Luis E. Marín; E. C. Perry; H. I. Essaid; Birgit Steinich

231

Forest responses to climate change in the northwestern United States: Ecophysiological foundations for adaptive management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change resulting from increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is expected to result in warmer temperatures and changed precipitation regimes during this century. In the northwestern U.S., these changes will likely decrease snowpack, cause earlier snowmelt, increase summer evapotranspiration, and increase the frequency and severity of droughts. Elevated [CO2] and warmer temperatures may have positive effects on growth

Daniel J. Chmura; Paul D. Anderson; Glenn T. Howe; Constance A. Harrington; Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; David C. Shaw; J. Brad St. Clair

2011-01-01

232

Investigation of upper mantle discontinuities near northwestern Pacific subduction zones using precursors to sSH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tangential component recordings of deep and intermediate depth earthquakes are analyzed for the presence of sS precursors. It is established that these precursors can be used to determine mantle stratification above subduction zones. For the northwestern Pacific area under study, oceanic crust beneath Izu Japan, continental crust under North Korea with 36 km crustal thickness and 18 percent shear wave

Zhi Zhang; Thorne Lay

1993-01-01

233

Morphology and propagation styles of Miocene submarine basanite lavas at Stanley, northwestern Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene submarine basanite pillows, lava lobes, megapillows and sheet lavas in the Stanley Peninsula, northwestern Tasmania, Australia, are well-preserved in three dimensions. The pillows have ropy wrinkles, transverse wrinkles, symmetrical wrinkles, contraction cracks and three types of spreading cracks on their surfaces, and concentric and radial joints in the interior. The lava lobes have ropy wrinkles and contraction cracks on

Yoshihiko Goto; Jocelyn McPhie

2004-01-01

234

Dinosaurs and other tetrapods in an Early Cretaceous bauxite-filled fissure, northwestern Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bauxite mine at Cornet near Oradea in northwestern Romania produced thousands of bones in an excavation in 1978, mainly from ornithopod dinosaurs and rarer pterosaurs. Bird specimens reported previously from this fauna are equivocal. The fossils are disarticulated bones in good condition which occur highly concentrated in lenses within bauxite clays, which are dated as Berriasian (earliest Cretaceous). The

M. J. Benton; E. Cook; D. Grigorescu; E. Popa; E. Tallódi

1997-01-01

235

ATMOSPHERIC, CLIMATIC, AND ECOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON EXTREME WILDFIRE YEARS IN THE NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland fire is an important disturbance agent in forests of the American Northwest. Historical fire suppression efforts have contributed to an accumulation of fuels in many Northwestern forests and may result in more frequent and\\/or more severe wildfire events. Here we investigate the extent to which atmospheric and climatic variability may contribute to variability in annual area burned on 20

Ze'ev Gedalof; David L. Peterson; Nathan J. Mantua

2005-01-01

236

Water flux in three spoil materials under natural precipitation in northwestern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water contents in three distinct spoil materials on nearly level sites within the Navajo Coal Mine, northwestern New Mexico, were measured over a 4-yr period to evaluate moisture flux and assess the potential for gravitational flow. The three spoils were sandy, brown shale, and gray shale materials derived from eolian loamy sands and sedimentary strata. Spoil water contents were measured

R. Aquilar; D. G. Scholl; E. F. Aldon

1990-01-01

237

Stable Isotopic Constraints of the Turpan Basin in Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic analysis of sedimentary rocks can be used to reconstruct past geologic changes in the elevation and climate of topographic features such as mountain ranges and plateaus. The Tibetan Plateau is an ideal field laboratory for conducting this type of study because of the Plateau’s extreme topographic relief and relatively recent geologic growth. Here we present oxygen and carbon isotope compositions from a suite of sedimentary rock samples taken from the western Turpan Basin in northwestern China. This area of the basin collects sediment from weathering and erosion of the Bogda Shan located to the north. The goal of this study is to analyze changes in the stable isotope composition as a function of stratigraphic position to reconstruct paleoelevations and paleoclimates in this part of the Tibetan Plateau. The sedimentary rock samples analyzed in this study are Late Jurassic to Neogene age and are primarily mudstone, siltstone, fine sandstone along with lesser limestone. Samples were powered and then dissolved with phosphoric acid at 72?C. The liberated CO2 gas was then analyzed using a Finnigan Delta Plus XL mass spectrometer with a gasbench inlet system. Oxygen isotope values range from -13.72 to -1.62‰ (PDB) and exhibit a large scale trend to more negative values toward the top of the stratigraphic sequence. Superimposed on this large scale trend are systematic variations in isotopic composition as a function of age. The most positive ?18O values occur at approximately 160, 115, 60, and 5 ma. Conversely, ?18O minima are observed at 150, 90, and 40 ma. ?13C values range from -10.69‰ to 1.40‰ (PDB). The most positive ?13C values (-4.3 to 1.4) occur from 120-160 ma. Younger samples display small scale variations with age with notable ?13C minima of -10.7, -14.7, and -7.6‰ at 108, 80, and 17 ma, respectively. The variable ?18O and positive ?13C values from the Jurassic (145-160 ma) are consistent with an arid climate and high atmospheric PCO2 levels during the warm Mesozoic Era. The overall decrease in ?18O values observed during the Cretaceous (145-65 ma) can be explained by the global climatic transition from a warm Mesozoic to a relatively cool Cenozoic Era. We take into account other possible influences on the isotopic record including detrital effects, diagensis, and evaporation, but infer the primary control on the isotopic records to be changes in climate during these time periods. Because the magnitude of oxygen isotope changes is consistent with that expected due to global climate change, we infer that there were not significant changes in the elevation of the Bogda Shan during this time period. This conclusion is also supported by the similar grain size/lithology (siltstone-finer grained sandstones) from bottom to top through the stratigraphic sequence, consistent with dormant topography prior to the Tertiary Period.

Schaen, A. J.

2010-12-01

238

OVERVIEW OF MAMMALIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE PALEOCENE-EOCENE FORT UNION AND WILLWOOD FORMATIONS OF THE BIGHORN AND CLARKS FORK BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 2200 fossil vertebrate localities are known from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and from the Paleocene and lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn and Clarks Fork basins in northwestern Wyoming. Many localities yield faunas adequate to enable reference to one of the twenty distinct land-mammal zones representing the Puercan, Torrejonian, Tiffanian, Clarkforkian, and Wasatchian land-mammal ages spanning Paleo-

PHILIP D. GINGERICH; WILLIAM C. CLYDE

2001-01-01

239

Impact of improved technology on potential reserves of tight gas in East Texas and Northwestern Louisiana. Final topical report, October 1, 1989-September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The East Texas/Northwestern Louisiana area has been one of the most active tight gas plays over the past decade. Advances in formation evaluation and stimulation technologies offer the prospect of increased reserves at reduced costs from remaining tight gas resource. The purpose of the study was to estimate the remaining potential production from the low permeability portions of the Cotton Valley and Travis Peak Formations, the largest tight gas formations in the area. For a 14,000 square mile study area that straddles the Texas/Louisiana border and the Sabine Uplift, a remaining estimated 2.8 Tcf is technically recoverable from the Cotton Valley Sand and 1.2 Tcf from the Upper Travis Peak. These estimates were based on a regional geologic appraisal of currently producing reservoirs. Typical wells were analyzed and used as the basis to extrapolate expected future production from the remaining undeveloped areas of these reservoirs. The analysis incorporated potential improvements in formation evaluation and stimulation technologies and current costing and industry financial parameters to estimate potential reserves at alternative wellhead prices. Reservoir data and analysis results can be used to identify which geological and technical parameters are most important to efficient recovery of East Texas tight sands. Three case studies are also presented of improved technologies in the study area over the past decade. The studies indicate that technology improvements have been made in the design and implementation of new stimulation technologies, as well as in formation evaluation and reservoir management.

Haas, M.R.

1990-12-01

240

Cenozoic orogenic phases in the northwestern framing of the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Cenozoic orogenic phases marked by deformations and rearrangement of geological structures, by unconformities and hiatuses, and by the cyclicity of ancient sedimentary and volcanic formations are distinguished in the vast territory of a transitional zone between Northeast Asia and the Pacific, from Sakhalin in the south to Chukotka in the north.

Gladenkov, Yu. B.

2013-07-01

241

Life in the sublittoral zone of long-lived Lake Pannon: paleontological analysis of the Upper Miocene Szák Formation, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life and depositional environments in the sublittoral zone of Lake Pannon, a large, brackish Paratethyan lake from the Late\\u000a Miocene, were reconstructed from fossils and facies of the Szák Formation. This formation is exposed in several, roughly coeval\\u000a (9.4–8.9 Ma) outcrops, located along strike of the paleo-shelf-break in northwestern Hungary. The silty argillaceous marl\\u000a of the formation was deposited below storm

István Cziczer; Imre Magyar; Radovan Pipík; Madelaine Böhme; Stjepan ?ori?; Koraljka Bakrac; Mária Süto-Szentai; Miklós Lantos; Pál Müller

2009-01-01

242

33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated...165.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-07-01

243

Population Size and Trends for Nesting Ospreys in Northwestern Mexico: Region-wide Surveys, 1977, 1992/1993 and 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico. With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San ...

A. C. Veraan C. J. Henny D. W. Anderson J. L. E. Cartron

2007-01-01

244

Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries, maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma. Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. Alluvial and terrace deposits are composed of interfingering lenses of clay, sandy clay, and cross-bedded poorly sorted sand and gravel. The aquifer is composed of hydraulically connected alluvial and terrace deposits that unconformably overlie the Permian-age Formations. The aquifer boundaries are from a ground-water modeling report on the alluvial and terrace aquifer along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma and published digital surficial geology data sets. The aquifer boundary data set was created from digital geologic data sets from maps published at a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates, and ground-water level elevation contours are from the ground-water modeling report. Water-level elevation contours were digitized from a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The maps were published at a scale of 1:900,000. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

Adams, G. P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, J. R.

1997-01-01

245

Seismic refraction and potential field modeling of the northwestern Basin and Range transition zone, Nevada and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic-velocity and potential-field modeling along an E-W profile provides new constraints on the crustal structure of the northwestern Basin and Range transition zone. Our data span the change in tectonic setting from low-magnitude (<15%) Basin and Range extension in northwestern Nevada to relatively unextended volcanic plateaus in northeastern California, effectively filling the gap in geophysical data between the 1986 PASSCAL

J. M. Glen; D. D. Lerch; S. S. Klemperer; D. A. Ponce

2005-01-01

246

Data Recovery from Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific and Ambient Seismic NoiseLevel Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin, and the WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. The seismic network with 1000-km interval in the western Pacific has been completed by the construction

M. Shinohara; E. Araki; T. Kanazawa; K. Suyehiro; T. Yamada; K. Mochizuki; K. Nakahigashi

2006-01-01

247

Diagenetic history of the Korallenoolith (Malm) of northwestern Germany: Implications from in-situ trace element and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have collected rock samples from the abandoned Konrad iron ore mine near Salzgitter/Germany, to elucidate the diagenetic history of the Korallenoolith formation in northwestern Germany. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence investigations showed that the rocks contain a wide range of particles, from primary biogenic material to various generations of interparticle cements and cements in fissures and fractures. The diagenetic environment of cement precipitation was reconstructed using in-situ trace element microanalyses with PIXE, using the Bochum proton microprobe. Furthermore, the different components were analysed for their radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures. ‘Rim cements’ around echinoid fragments display several stages of cement precipitation. Early cement generations show high Sr concentrations and low 87Sr/86Sr values. In contrast, later generations have relatively low Sr values, around 300 ppm, and iron concentrations of up to 3%. Fissure cements represent an even later stage of diagenetic history. They consist of calcite, anhydrite and celestite and are characterised by significantly higher 87Sr/86Sr values. The results of combined trace element and isotopic measurements indicate that the biogenic material was deposited in a shallow marine environment with normal salinity and a relatively high primary availability of iron. The early generations of diagenetic cements have similar, marine, signatures and were therefore precipitated in a closed system, where the trace element and isotopic properties were inherited from the dissolved precursor phases. In contrast, the later generations of rim cements and particularly the fissure cements show completely different and variable chemical signatures. They were precipitated in an open system from formation waters.

Bruhn, Frank; Veizer, Ján; Buhl, Dieter; Meijer, Jan

2005-04-01

248

The relationship between tectonic system and geochemical anomalies in Northwestern China and its implication for mineral exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Junggar tectonic system (WJTS) in northwestern China is an eastward extending of the Balkhash orocline in central Asia truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip Chingiz-Junggar fault during the Mesozoic. It is a domino-type tectonic system composed of the NE-extending left-lateral strike-slip Darabut, Mayile, and Baerleike faults and tectonic blocks among them, due to strike-slip fault-related folding of continental ribbons in the Late Paleozoic. The West Junggar metallogenic belt (WJMB), with the occurrence of some large and super-large deposits such as the Baogutu porphyry Cu, Hatu Au, Saertuohai Cr, and Yangzhuang Be deposits, is also an important metallogenic belt formed in the Late Paleozoic. In this paper, the characteristics of the WJTS and its relationship to the geochemical anomalies are analyzed. The results show that, the distribution of geochemical blocks, element anomalies, and the formation and distribution of the NE-extending WJMB and sub-belts, and Cu, Au, Mo, and Cr deposits, is controlled by the formation and evolution of the WJTS in the Late Paleozoic. Antisymmetric distribution of the Miaoergou - Hongshan plutons and the geochemical Au blocks, indicates the important modification and migration of the granitic plutons and element Au during the left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Darabut fault. The circular rotational fault system surrounding the Miaoergou pluton, results in hotwheel-like distributions of the element anomalies of Cu, Pb, etc. Meanwhile, the distribution of Au deposits in the WJMB is controlled by the fracture zones in the fault system of the WJTS. The understanding of the relationship between tectonic system and geochemical anomalies will benefit the future exploration for mineral deposits in the WJMB.

Chen, Xuanhua; Nie, Lanshi; Wang, Xueqiu; Chen, Zhengle; Han, Shuqin; Li, Bing

2013-04-01

249

Structural relationship of the Beartooth Mountains and Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Geologic structure along the Beartooth Mountain front and adjacent Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming has been the subject of considerable debate for many years. Directional drilling by Amoco Production Company, located on the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, indicates three things. (1) Western Big Horn basin Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections recumbently folded 2 mi (3.2 km) under the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, measured horizontally from the surface exposure of the Beartooth fault. (2) The main Beartooth fault dips 19{degrees} northwest at a depth of 8,300 to 8,400 ft (2,530 to 2,560 km), 1 mi (1.6 km) from the surface exposure of the main Beartooth fault. (3) The main Beartooth fault appears to be a component of a complex fault system which horizontally displaces and faults-out formations in both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic section on the upper limb of the recumbent fold. In addition to the drilling data, interior Beartooth Mountain faults, with dominant northeast and east-west structural orientation, show reactivation of left-lateral movement, intersecting the Beartooth front and offsetting Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections 1-2 mi (1.6-3.2 km) horizontally. Reactivation of some of these faults seems to coincide with the intrusion of Tertiary (Eocene ) igneous bodies along some of the same structural trends. Beartooth front fold orientation and fault movement correlated with a reexamination of internal block fault systems lend additional weight to the argument of horizontal compression as a major factor in late Laramide formation of geologic structure along the northeast face of the Beartooth Mountains.

Clark, D.M. (Exodus-Exploration Inc., Billings, MT (United States))

1991-06-01

250

[Distribution of fleas in rodent colonies in the northwestern Precaspian region].  

PubMed

Distribution of fleas by their rodents hosts was investigated by field experiments using the method of individual labeling both the parasites and the hosts. The experimental site was situated in sand landscapes of the northwestern Precaspian region. Pattern of the contacts between rodents leading to the exchange of their ectoparasites was established. Average distance of the rodent migration from the site of its previous record was 54 m, while the distance of flea transfer for the same period was 142 m. The probability of host exchange by a flea under under its periodic attacks on host amounted to the value 0.500-0.889. The parameters of flea spreading in the northwestern Precaspian region and in the sand landscapes between Volga and Ural were shown to be similar. The ability of the flea Xenopsylla conformis to parasitizing on social vole without a significant decrease of its abundance was revealed. PMID:20349635

Kuznetsov, A A; Osipov, V P; Kniazeva, T V; Sintsov, V K; Matrosov, A N

251

Orographic effects on the northwestern Pacific monsoon: Role of air-sea interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orographic effects on northwestern Pacific climate are investigated with atmospheric and coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. In response to the removal of global orography, both models simulate a widespread decrease of summer rainfall over the Asian Continent. Over the subtropical northwestern Pacific, however, the response is opposite between the atmospheric and coupled models during spring and early summer. Sea surface temperature (SST) cooling is responsible for these differences between the atmospheric and coupled response. The SST cooling is triggered by winter stationary wave response to the mountain removal and amplified during spring by the wind-evaporation-SST feedback, altering the atmospheric response through summer. These results illustrate the importance of air-sea interaction and provide useful guidance for interpreting paleoclimate changes in response to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and Rift Valley of Africa.

Okajima, Hideki; Xie, Shang-Ping

2007-11-01

252

Flooding in northwestern Hillsborough and southern Pasco counties, Florida, in 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy rainfall in the late spring and summer of 1979 caused severe flooding in northwestern Hillsborough and southern Pasco counties, including north Tampa. May 7-9 rainfall for some stations had a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years; the August and September rainfall total had a recurrence interval in excess of 50 years. The frequency of flooding of streams and lakes in the study area for the May 7-9 storm ranged from less than 2 to 25 years; for the period August to October, recurrence intervals ranged from 3 to 25 years. Areas of maximum flooding for a 48-square-mile area of northwestern Hillsborough and southern Pasco Counties are indicated on 12 sheets of aerial photography. Drainage patterns, control structures, drainage basins, and existing and proposed urban developments are shown and related to flooding. Stage and streamflow hydrographs are shown for 12 lakes and 2 streams. (USGS)

Murphy, W. R., Jr.; Evans, R. P.; Whalen, James K.

1984-01-01

253

Allele frequencies for six miniSTR loci of Northwestern Chinese Han populations.  

PubMed

MiniSTR loci has demonstrated to be an effective approach to recover genetic information from degraded sample, due to the improved PCR efficiency of their reduced PCR product sizes. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for the six miniSTR loci D10S1248, D2S441, D1S1677, D9S1122, D10S1435 and D17S1301 were investigated in 154 Northwestern Chinese Han populations. All loci showed a moderate degree of polymorphism with observed heterozygosity >0.6 and did not show departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for Northwestern Chinese Han populations. The accumulated powers of discrimination for the six loci were 0.999998. PMID:19782318

Bai, Xue; Cong, Bin; Li, Shujin; Guo, Xia; Li, Xia; He, Lujun

2009-06-25

254

Patterns of use and damage by exotic deer on native plant communities in northwestern Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ungulate overabundance can strongly alter composition and structure of forest communities through selective damage independently\\u000a of the herbivory history of the recipient system. In the early 1900s, red and fallow deer (Cervus elaphus and Dama dama, respectively) were introduced to northwestern Patagonia. We studied patterns of relative habitat use, damage, and species\\u000a selection by introduced deer populations in three major

M. Noelia Barrios-Garcia; M. Andrea Relva; Thomas Kitzberger

255

Seismic tomography beneath the orogenic belts and adjacent basins of northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional velocity images of the crust and upper mantle beneath orogenic belts and adjacent basins of the northwestern\\u000a continent of China are reconstructed by seismic tomography, based on arrival data of P wave recorded in seismic networks in\\u000a Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu of China and Kyrgyzstan. The velocity images of upper crust demonstrate the tectonic framework on\\u000a the ground surface. High

Yi Xu; Futian Liu; Jianhua Liu; Ruomei Sun

2001-01-01

256

Changing climate affects vegetation growth in the arid region of the northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northwestern China is a typical dry-land region of Inner Asia, where significant climate change has been observed over the past several decades. How the regional vegetation, particularly the grassland-oasis-desert complex, responds to such climatic change is poorly understood. To address this question, we investigated spatio-temporal changes in vegetation growth and their responses to a changing climate by biome and

X. Zhao; K. Tan; S. Zhao; J. Fang

2011-01-01

257

Mafic alkalic magmatism in central Kachchh, India: a monogenetic volcanic field in the northwestern Deccan Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magmatism in Kachchh, in the northwestern Deccan continental flood basalt province, is represented not only by typical tholeiitic\\u000a flows and dikes, but also plug-like bodies, in Mesozoic sandstone, of alkali basalt, basanite, melanephelinite and nephelinite,\\u000a containing mantle nodules. They form the base of the local Deccan stratigraphy and their volcanological context was poorly\\u000a understood. Based on new and published field,

Pooja V. Kshirsagar; Hetu C. Sheth; Badrealam Shaikh

2011-01-01

258

NEST-SITE CHARACTERISTICS OF HAMMOND'S AND PACIFIC SLOPE FLYCATCHERS IN NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty nests of Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and 88 nests of Pacific- slope (E. difficilis) Flycatchers were located in different-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga men- ziesii)\\/tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) dominated forests at 12 study sites in northwestern California during the breeding seasons of 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1988. In contrast to Pacific- slope Flycatchers, Hammond's used nest trees that averaged two to three times

HOWARD F. SAKAI; BARRY R. NOON

259

Geosites And Touristic Development Of The Northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas Of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils providing\\u000a key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the\\u000a general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating\\u000a methods of site conservation, as

Mohamed El Wartiti; Amina Malaki; Mohamed Zahraoui; Felice Gregorio; Jo Waele

260

Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal

M. Aksissou

2003-01-01

261

Bacterial Communities from Shoreline Environments (Costa da Morte, Northwestern Spain) Affected by the Prestige Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities

Jorge Alonso-Gutierrez; Antonio Figueras; Joan Albaiges; Nuria Jimenez; Marc Vinas; Anna M. Solanas; Beatriz Novoa

2009-01-01

262

Reproductive success of wild Lesser Rheas ( Pterocnemia Rhea pennata pennata ) in north-western Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive success of a wild Lesser Rhea population (Pterocnemia -Rhea- pennata pennata) during two reproductive seasons (2004\\/2005 and 2005\\/2006) in north-western Patagonia, Argentina. The parameters recorded\\u000a included population and nest density, clutch size, hatching success, chick survival (up to 3 months of age) and percentage\\u000a of chicks that reached the juvenile stage after the winter. We also

Fernando R. Barri; Monica B. Martella; Joaquín L. Navarro

2009-01-01

263

Arctic haze, mercury and the chemical composition of snow across northwestern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled three layers of snow at 16 sites along a 1200km transect from Nome to Barrow across northwestern Alaska. Samples were analyzed for major element concentrations, specific conductance and pH. Samples from five of the sites were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Pb, Cd, SO42? and non-sea salt SO42? concentrations were significantly higher in layers deposited later in the

Thomas A. Douglas; Matthew Sturm

2004-01-01

264

Characterization of macromolecular organic matter in sediment traps from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curie point-pyrolysis-gas chromatography (CuPy-GC) and Curie point-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CuPy-GC\\/MS) were applied to chemically characterize the macromolecular content of large particles collected from sediment traps in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea at 100, 200, 1000, and 2000 m depth. The samples were also examined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A field sample rich in the diatom Biddulphia sinensis was used as

S. Peulvé; J. W. de Leeuw; M.-A. Sicre; M. Baas; A. Saliot

1996-01-01

265

Population changes of early successional forest species after shifting cultivation in Northwestern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population changes of early successional forest species, Wendlandia paniculata, Schima wallichii, Camellia tsaii, and Lithocarpus ducampii, were described and analyzed in a chronosequence of 1–30 year-old secondary forests representing regrowth after shifting\\u000a cultivation in northwestern Vietnam, utilizing 51 temporary plots for stem census. Another five temporary plots were used\\u000a for stem census in surrounding old-growth forest for comparison. In the

Tran Van Do; Akira Osawa; Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ba Van; Bui Thanh Hang; Cam Quoc Khanh; Le Thi Thao; Diep Xuan Tuan

2011-01-01

266

Vertical distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caesium-137, 239,240Pu and 241Am concentration profiles (0–1000m) have been determined in unfiltered large volume water samples collected from the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean). Results showed that radiocaesium concentration decreases quickly through the water column while the transuranic concentration increases with depth, showing a faster migration to the bottom layers. Comparing our results with those reported by other authors (1975–1980), radiocaesium

J. Molero; J. A. Sanchez-Cabeza; J. Merino; L. L. Pujol; P. I. Mitchell; A. Vidal-Quadras

1995-01-01

267

Ethnobotany of the Tacana: Quantitative inventories of two permanent plots of Northwestern Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ecological and ethnobotanical descriptions of two permanent 1-ha plots located in Amazonian forest near two Tacana\\u000a communities situated north and west of the Madidi National Park in the Iturralde Province, Department of La Paz of northwestern\\u000a Bolivia. We interviewed 13 Tacana men and women to identify and enumerate uses of all of the trees, palms, and lianas ?

Saara J. DeWalt; GeneviÈve Bourdy; Lia R. ChÁvez de Michel; Celin Quenevo

1999-01-01

268

Serological Survey of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Among Slaughtered Pigs in Northwestern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection among slaughtered pigs in the largest slaughterhouse located in Taoyuan County of northwestern Taiwan was conducted using the latex agglu- tination (LA) test during 1998. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 28.8% (32\\/111) with LA titers of 1:32 (6, 18.8%), 1:64 (10, 31.2%), 1:128 (9, 28.1%), 1:256 (6, 18.8%), and 1:512

Chia-Kwung Fan; Kua-Eyre Su; Yu-Jen Tsai

2004-01-01

269

Aquatic invertebrates of Lake Gregory, northwestern Australia, in relation to salinity and ionic composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Gregory is a large semi-permanent lake system in arid north-western Australia. Its catchment extends into humid areas\\u000a and as a result the lake has dried only twice in the last 25 years. Although the system is mostly fresh, parts of it become\\u000a saline as they dry. We identified aquatic invertebrates and undertook chemical analysis of water samples from several

S. A. Halse; R. J. Shiel; W. D. Williams

1998-01-01

270

Sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene sediments, Northwestern Green Canyon, Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequence stratigraphic study of Pleistocene sediments in northwestern portion of the Green Canyon Area has identified five depositional sequences: 1.1-0.8, 0.8-0.7, 0.7-0.5, 0.5-0.4, and 0.4-0.3 Ma. Detailed seismic and geologic facies maps were constructed for reach of these sequences. The data base for this study comprises 882 miles (1419 km) of multifold seismic, petrophysical information from 20 wells and

A. F. Naravvro; P. Weimer

1995-01-01

271

Mitochondrial DNA control region in native population from the province of Jujuy (northwestern Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The province of Jujuy is located in northwestern Argentina. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup composition in 100 autochthonous individuals living at altitudes between 1200 and 3500m above sea level, in San Salvador de Jujuy, Quebrada de Humahuaca and Puna. The purpose was to explore the influence of non-Native American maternal lineages. Additionally, we evaluated the efficacy of analyzing the

Sergio Cardoso; Maite Merino; Luis Gómez; Miguel A. Alfonso-Sánchez; José E. Dipierri; Emma Alfaro; Laura Valverde; Adrian Odriozola; Claudio M. Bravi; José A. Peña; Marian M. de Pancorbo

2009-01-01

272

A partial skeleton of an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamanna, M.C., You, H.?L., Harris, J.D., Chiappe, L.M., Ji, S.?A., Lü, J.?C., and Ji, Q. 2006. A partial skeleton of an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (3): 423-434. Although recent discoveries from Lower Cretaceous sediments in northeastern China have greatly improved our un? derstanding of the initial stages of avian diversification in

MATTHEW C. LAMANNA; JERALD D. HARRIS; LUIS M. CHIAPPE; QIANG JI

273

Abrupt changes of intermediate-water oxygen in the northwestern Pacific during the last 27 kyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) currently exists at intermediate water depths on the northern Japanese margin in the northwestern\\u000a Pacific. The OMZ results largely from a combination of high surface–water productivity and poor ventilation of intermediate\\u000a waters. We investigated the late Quaternary history (last 27 kyr) of the intensity of this OMZ using changes in benthic foraminiferal\\u000a carbon isotopes and

Yui Ishizaki; Ken’ichi Ohkushi; Takashi Ito; Hodaka Kawahata

2009-01-01

274

Morphological analysis of alpine communities of the north-western Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of four alpine communities in the north-western Caucasus was subjected to a morphological analysis.\\u000a The communities are an alpine lichen heath type (ALH), aFestuca varia grassland type (FVG), aGeranium-Hedysarum meadow type (GHM) and a snowbed community (SBC). Eighty-two species were studied, using the following morphological parameters:\\u000a vegetative mobility, presence of rosettes, architectural model, life form according toRaunkiaer

Galina A. Pokarzhevskaya

1995-01-01

275

Stem taper functions for maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Galicia (Northwestern Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 31 taper functions from 3 different groups of models (single, segmented and variable-form taper functions) were\\u000a fitted to diameter-height data from 203 Pinus pinaster trees sampled across even-aged stands in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Most of the taper functions analyzed showed problems\\u000a of multicollinearity as indicated by the condition number. A second-order autoregressive CAR(2) error process was incorporated

A. Rojo; X. Perales; F. Sánchez-Rodríguez; J. G. Álvarez-González; K. von Gadow

2005-01-01

276

Vertical distribution and temporal variation of dissolved organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1991 and 1992, detailed vertical profiles of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content were obtained monthly, in the North-Western Mediterranean at the DYFAMED-1 site (43°25'N, 07°52'E). DOC was measured using a high temperature catalytic oxidation method. In the 150-2000 m layer, DOC distribution was quite uniform, with a content of about 0.6--0.7 mg C 1-1. In surface waters, DOC concentration

G. Copinmontegut; BERNARD AVRIL

1993-01-01

277

Fluctuations of landings and environmental conditions in the north-western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the monthly catches and CPUE of 13 studied commercial species in the coastal waters of the north-western Mediterranean were significantly positively correlated with run-off of local rivers (Rhône and Muga) and the wind mixing index during the spawning season, with time lags of less than a year (transfer function analyses). Rhône and Ebre interannual fluctuations in run-off were

Josep Lloret; Jordi Lleonart; Ignasi Sole; Jean-Marc Fromentin

2001-01-01

278

Relationship between soil physiochemistry and land degradation in the lower Heihe River basin of northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of soil-water physiochemistry (pH, total salt content, ion types, and ion ratios) across the lower Heihe River\\u000a basin of northwestern China indicated that the distribution of different soil hydrochemical types typically correlated with\\u000a that of different levels of soil desertification, specifically: 1) lands with the potential for desertification showed a Cl?-SO42?-Na+-Mg2+ soil-water ion complement, 2) those under on-going desertification

Qi Feng; Wei Liu; Haiyang Xi

2009-01-01

279

Effects of cadmium on limb regeneration in the Northwestern salamander Ambystoma gracile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to determine the effects of cadmium on leg regeneration in larvae of the Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile. Cadmium significantly affected limb regrowth (LOAEL=lowest observed adverse effect level) at 193.1 µg\\/L in a 24-day test and at 44.6 µg\\/L in a 10-day test. There were no significant adverse effects (NOAEL=no observed adverse effects level) at 48.9 µg\\/L in

A. V. Nebeker; G. S. Schuytema; S. L. Ott

1994-01-01

280

Molecular and Morphological Diversity of Fusarium Species in Finland and North-Western Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 the range of the total Fusarium contamination percentage of infected seeds was between 0% and 44%, while in 2002 the contamination level was 2–25% in naturally infected Finnish samples and 5–14.5% in six samples from northwestern Russia. The most common Fusarium species in barley were F. avenaceum, F. arthrosporioides, F. sporotrichioides and F. culmorum, while in spring wheat

T. Yli-Mattila; S. Paavanen-Huhtala; P. Parikka; P. Konstantinova; T. Y. Gagkaeva

2004-01-01

281

Children, adolescents and young adults suicide data from Epirus, northwestern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide trends among individuals ? 24 years of age in the region of Epirus, northwestern\\u000a Greece, from January 1998 to December 2008. Twenty-one cases were classified as suicides out of 242 total deaths (8.7%). The\\u000a male to female suicide ratio was 4.25 (17 males and 4 females). The preferred suicide method for those aged ? 19 years involved

Theodore Vougiouklakis; Christina Tsiligianni; Vassiliki A. Boumba

2009-01-01

282

Changing climate—changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe the effects of global climate change for one specific pathogen: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is postulated that an increase of T. gondii prevalence in humans can occur in some regions of North-Western Europe as a result of changing environmental conditions.\\u000a Such a change can be predicted by using Global Climate Change models. We have

Bastiaan G. Meerburg; Aize Kijlstra

2009-01-01

283

Anthropogenic air pollution observed near dust source regions in northwestern China during springtime 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082°N, 100.276°E, 1460 m a.s.l.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO: 265 ppb; SO2: 3.4 ppb; NOy*: 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked

Si-Chee Tsay; Joshua S. Fu; Russell R. Dickerson; Qiang Ji; Shaun W. Bell; Yang Gao; Wu Zhang; Jianping Huang; Zhanqing Li; Hongbin Chen

2010-01-01

284

Sensory quality of turnip greens and turnip tops grown in northwestern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Galicia (northwestern Spain), Brassica rapa var. rapa L. includes turnip greens and turnip tops as vegetable products that are characterized by a particular sulfurous aroma, pungent\\u000a flavor, and a bitter taste. In this work, 12 local varieties grown as turnip greens and turnip tops were evaluated to define\\u000a the sensory attributes, to relate them with secondary metabolites, and to

Marta Francisco; Pablo Velasco; Ángeles Romero; Lourdes Vázquez; María Elena Cartea

2009-01-01

285

Middle and lower troposphere aerosol characteristics and ozone concentrations over northwestern Greece during STAAARTE 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation aerosol particle distributions were measured on 14 June 1997 during two research flights over northwestern Greece, including the greater Thessaloniki area (GTA). At flight altitudes of about 5000m (<550mb), accumulation mode number particle size distributions appeared to be unimodal with a maximum in the first bin of the measured number size distribution with a mid-point of 0.11?m. At lower

S. Koloutsou-Vakakis; C. G. Helmis; V. Assimakopoulos; H. Güsten

2001-01-01

286

Genetic diversity and ecological distribution of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) in northwestern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to investigate in more detail wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) accessions from northwestern\\u000a South America (Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru) because prior research had shown this region to be the meeting place\\u000a of the two major gene pools (Middle American and Andean) of common bean. Explorations were conducted in these countries to\\u000a collect additional materials

Daniel G. Debouck; Orlando Toro; Oscar M. Paredes; William C. Johnson; Paul Gepts

1993-01-01

287

Magnoliid reproductive organs from the Cenomanian-Turonian of north-western Kazakhstan: Magnoliaceae and Illiciaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenomanian-Turonian sediments from the Sarbay locality in north-western Kazakhstan have yielded a rich assemblage of plant fossils including well preserved flowers, fruits, and seeds of angiosperms. This work describes fossil seeds assigned to theMagnoliaceae and theIlliciaceae. Three new species of the extinct magnoliaceous genusLiriodendroidea, L. asiatica, L. costata, andL. tenuitesta, are established and new information on the previously described species,L.

S. Frumin; E. M. Friis

1999-01-01

288

Surface water mixing estimated from 228Ra and 226Ra in the northwestern North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the horizontal distributions of 228Ra and 226Ra in surface waters of the northwestern North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea. Ratios of 228Ra\\/226Ra were relatively large in the Tsugaru Current (0.6–0.8) and Okhotsk Sea (0.4–0.5), and small in the Western Subarctic Gyre (<0.2) and the Oyashio (0.25–0.3). 228Ra\\/226Ra ratios in western Subarctic Water (SAW) rose slightly upon mixing with

Hajime Kawakami; Masashi Kusakabe

2008-01-01

289

Was the Coppermine Homocline of northwestern Canada uplifted as part of a Middle Proterozoic forebulge  

SciTech Connect

Application of the principles of elastic plate bending to subsurface geometric information and outcrop in northwestern Canada suggests that Proterozoic crust was loaded and deflected during orogenic activity between about 1.6 and 1.1 Ga. Exposed Hudsonian (ca. 1.8-2.0 Ga) basement separating younger but coeval stratigraphic sequences in the Coppermine Homocline on the west and Bathurst Inlet on the east can be explained as a forebulge associated with the loading.

Cook, F.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1991-01-01

290

Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface\\u000a water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic\\u000a information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite;

Joseph E. Bunnell; Calin A. Tatu; Rebecca N. Bushon; Donald M. Stoeckel; Amie M. G. Brady; Marisa Beck; Harry E. Lerch; Benton McGee; Bradford C. Hanson; Runhua Shi; William H. Orem

2006-01-01

291

Effects of two offshore gas platforms on soft-bottom benthic communities (northwestern Adriatic Sea, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrozoobenthos living around two offshore gas platforms, Barbara NW (pB) and Calipso (pC) located in the northwestern Adriatic Sea were investigated for three years after their construction to detect eventual effects due to the platforms. The sampling stations were spaced at increasing distance from the platforms up to 1000 m. Both multivariate and univariate analysis showed an initial defaunation (short-term

Sarine Manoukian; Alessandra Spagnolo; Giuseppe Scarcella; Elisa Punzo; Roberta Angelini; Gianna Fabi

2010-01-01

292

Chloroplast phylogeography of Helianthemum songaricum (Cistaceae) from northwestern China: implications for preservation of genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chloroplast intergenic spacers (trnD-trnT and rps16-trnK) were used to study the phylogeographical structure of Helianthemum\\u000a songaricum in northwestern China, with 12 haplotypes detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. songaricum comprised two lineages, one distributed in the Yili Valley and the other in the western Ordos Plateau. Nested clade phylogeographic\\u000a analysis likewise indicated that haplotypes in the Yili Valley and

Zhihao Su; Mingli Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

293

Geology of Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Disseminated Gold Deposits in Northwestern Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen sedimentary rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits (e.g., Dongbeizhai, Qiuluo, Manaoke, Laerma, Gala and Lianhecun) and about 50 prospects have been discovered in northwestern Sichuan Province, China since the late 1970s. They are hosted in complex rock series such as fine-grained clastic rocks, subvolcanic rocks, and ophiolitic melange, mainly of Triassic age. Mineral associates include pyrite, arsenopyrite, marcasite, realgar, orpiment, stibnite,

Xiao-Chun Wang; Zhe-Ru Zhang

2001-01-01

294

Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cangshang gold deposit of the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ~040° and dips 40-75°SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody

Xiao'ou Zhang; Peter A. Cawood; Simon A. Wilde; Ruqi Liu; Hailin Song; Wen Li; Lawrence W. Snee

2003-01-01

295

Interstadial mammoth remains and associated pollen and insect fossils, Kotzebue Sound area, northwestern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proboscidian (mammoth or mastodon) skeleton from the Baldwin Peninsula, northwestern Alaska, is associated with plant remains 26,900 (+2,400, -3,400) C14 yr old (AU-90). Pollen from the same level records shrub tundra dominated by dwarf birch, sedges, and grasses; spruce pollen is lacking, and alder is represented only by a few stray grains, indicating that forest vegetation lay hundreds of

D. M. Hopkins; R. E. Giterman; J. V. Matthews Jr.

1976-01-01

296

Effects of Changing Cultivation System on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Cotton Field of Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has being a change in cotton cultivative practice in the northwestern China, i.e., from the traditional cultivation (TF) of no mulching with flood-irrigation to the modern cultivation (PM) of plastic film mulching with drip-irrigation. Little is known how this change affects soil carbon dynamics. This paper presents a field study that includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil

Z. Li; X. Wang; C. Tian

2010-01-01

297

Structural properties of two types of mangrove stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove stands in Puttalam lagoon and Dutch bay, two interconnected lagoons situated on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka have been classified broadly into two groups, i.e., estuarine and island\\/mainland-fringing stands. Structural diversity of six mangrove stands, representing the two types was studied in terms of floristic composition, density, basal area, mean stand diameter, tree height, standing above-ground biomass and

M. D. Amarasinghe; S. Balasubramaniam

1992-01-01

298

Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity studies were carried out from September, 1985 to August, 1987 in two mangrove stands, i.e. estuarine and island fringing, in Dutch bay, a lagoon situated on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Net above-ground primary productivity was measured by monitoring litterfall and above-ground biomass increment. The average annual rate of litterfall in the estuarine and island-fringing mangrove stands are

M. D. Amarasinghe; S. Balasubramaniam

1992-01-01

299

Distribution and seasonal dynamics of arsenic in a shallow lake in northwestern New Jersey, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) occurred during warm months in water from the outlet of Lake Mohawk in northwestern\\u000a New Jersey. The shallow manmade lake is surrounded by residential development and used for recreation. Eutrophic conditions\\u000a are addressed by alum and copper sulfate applications and aerators operating in the summer. In September 2005, arsenite was\\u000a dominant in hypoxic to anoxic

Julia L. Barringer; Zoltan Szabo; Timothy P. Wilson; Jennifer L. Bonin; Todd Kratzer; Kimberly Cenno; Terri Romagna; Marzooq Alebus; Barbara Hirst

2011-01-01

300

Late Holocene faulting and earthquake recurrence in the Reelfoot Lake area, northwestern Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faults, folds, and sand dikes have been identified in late Holocene sediments exposed in an exploratory trench excavated across Reelfoot scarp in northwestern Tennessee. In excess of 3 m of vertical displacement believed to be of deep-seated origin occurs across a 0.5-m-wide zone of east-dipping normal faults near the scarp base. The zone includes the only faults of probable tectonic

DAVID P. RUSS

1979-01-01

301

Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi stand development during secondary succession, in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, at low and mid elevations between 36°–43°S, the forests are composed of the xeric cypress Austrocedrus chilensis and the mesic southern beech Nothofagus dombeyi. The effects of the strong east-west environmental gradient, caused by the Andes' rain shadow and the changing topography, on the relative composition and dynamics of these evergreen temperate forests are striking, and

A. Dezzotti

1996-01-01

302

Warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean associated with the El Niño event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates possible warming effects of an El Niño event on the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the\\u000a northwestern Indian Ocean. Most pure positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events (without an El Niño event co-occurring) have\\u000a a maximum positive SSTA mainly in the central Indian Ocean south of the equator, while most co-occurrences with an El Niño\\u000a event

Yuan Yuan; Wen Zhou; Hui Yang; Chongyin Li

2008-01-01

303

Petroleum systems of the northwestern Tachira Depression, Venezuelan Andes  

SciTech Connect

The tectonic evolution and sedimentation of the Tachira Depression was controlled by Paleozoic crustal scale discontinuities, partly or fully inverted during the pre-Andean (Paleocene) and Andean (Neogene) deformations. Outcrop samples were analyzed for source rock evaluation. La Luna, Los Cuervos and Carbonera formations are excellent potential oil sources. However, La Luna and Los Cuervos were the oil-generating units according to ID-modelling (BasinMod), defining La Luna-K/T(!) and Los Cuervos-K/T(!) systems. La Luna contains good to excellent oil prone kerogen type I-II, while Los Cuervos contains gas-oil prone type II-III. Oil seeps, expelled at the peak of oil generation stage (0.85-0.90 %R{sub o}), were derived from marine sources and genetically correlated to La Luna. No correlation of seeps with Los Cuervos was found. Although it exists to the southeast (Burgua depression). Potential clastic and carbonatic Cretaceous (K) and Tertiary (T) reservoirs and regional seals of the Colon and Leon Formations are widespread in the depression. Modelling results indicate that migration started during the Middle Miocene, related to the Andean tectonic loading. The subsequent migration took place northward, to be finally stopped against the Capacho and Bocono fault systems.

Ostos, M. [E.I.G. Litos C.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Callejon, A.; Vivan, M.A. [Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela)] [and others

1996-08-01

304

Is There any Relationship Between the Santa Elena Depression and Chicxulub Impact Crater, Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terminal Cretaceous Chicxulub Impact Crater had a strong control on the depositional and diagenetic history of the northern Yucatan Platform during most of the Cenozoic Era. The Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin (henceforth Basin), which approximately coincides with the impact crater, is circumscribed by a concentration of karstic sinkholes known as the Ring of Cenotes. Santa Elena Depression (henceforth Depression) is the name proposed for the bowl-shaped buried feature, first contoured by geophysical studies, immediately south of the Basin, in the area where the Ticul 1 and UNAM 5 wells were drilled. Lithologic, petrographic, and biostratigraphic data on PEMEX, UNAM, and ICDP cores show that: 1) Cenozoic deposits are much thicker inside the Basin than inside the Depression, 2) in general, the Cenozoic formations from inside the Depression are the thickest among those outside the Basin, 3) variably dolomitized pelagic or outer-platform wackestone or mudstone occur both inside the Basin and Depression, 4) the age of the deeper-water sedimentary carbonate rocks is Paleocene-Eocene inside the Basin and Paleocene?-Early Eocene inside the Depression, 5) the oldest formations that crop out are of Middle Eocene age at the edge of the Basin and Early-Middle Eocene age inside the Depression, 6) saline lake deposits, that consist chiefly of anhydrite, gypsum, and fine carbonate, and also contain quartz, chert, clay, zeolite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, and fragments of wood, are present in the Cenozoic section of the UNAM 5 core between 282 and 198 m below the present land surface, 7) the dolomite, subaerial exposure features (subaerial crusts, vugs, karst, dedolomite), and vug-filling cement from the Eocene formations are more abundant inside the Depression than inside the Basin. The depositional environments that are proposed for explaining the Cenozoic facies succession within the Santa Elena Depression are: 1) deeper marine water (Paleocene?-Early Eocene), 2) relatively isolated saline lake (Middle Eocene), and 3) shallow marine water (Middle-Late Eocene?). In places, the deeper-water facies are similar to those within the Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin. The shallow-water facies is similar to those occurring outside the Basin. In general, quartz and silicates are rare in the Cenozoic sedimentary carbonate of the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. Therefore, their presence in the UNAM 5 core could be attributed to either impact breccia reworking or silicic volcanic processes. Quartz, chert, zeolite, and clay also are common in the suevite breccia of both Yax-1 and UNAM 5 cores. The fact that the Santa Elena Depression was a distinct sedimentary basin during much of the Paleogene could be explained by any or a combination of the following hypotheses: 1) In spite of being located outside the cenote ring, the Depression is a sub-basin of the larger and deeper Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin and is therefore located within the Chicxulub Impact Crater, 2) the Depression coincides with an impact crater distinct from the Chicxulub Impact Crater, 3) the Depression formed after the Chicxulub bolide impact due to slumping, crater wall failure, or larger-scale tectonic processes. The lack of conclusive evidence for multiple impact breccia layers in the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, corroborated with the presence on top of the impact breccia from UNAM 5 core of deeper-water limestone similar to that of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age from Yax-1 core, would be more consistent with either the first or third hypothesis.

Lefticariu, L.

2005-05-01

305

Compound structural history of Sweetgrass arch, northwestern Montana  

SciTech Connect

The present form of the Sweetgrass arch is the cumulative produce of a geologic history which began in the late Precambrian. At that time, the area of the arch formed the eastern limit for the belt strata, which were deposited on the Precambrian continental shelf. These thick (40,000 ft, 12 km) deposits depressed the underlying lithosphere sufficiently to cause a mild upwarping at the adjacent shelf hingeline, the area of the arch. During the Paleozoic, the arch was a relative high between the Williston basin to the east and continued shelf sedimentation to the west, and the arch was mildly uplifted in Walcott's 1970 process of amplified topography. With the formation of the Sevier overthrust belt in Late Jurassic time, this ancestral arch provided a susceptible area at an optimum distance for the formation of a forebulge on an elastically flexed lithosphere. This forebulge (the arch) was mildly uplifted in response to the supracrustal loads created to the west by overthrusting. Although uplift events at the arch can be tentatively correlated with thrust events in the eastward migrating overthrust belt, the arch remained stationary, and the load to forebulge distance did not remain constant as flexural theory would predict. This was probably caused by early curvature at the arch in excess of elastic limits, creating brittle and plastic components in the local lithosphere, which thus became more susceptible to flexure than the adjacent areas, localizing the arch. With the onset of the Laramide orogeny, involving basement as well as thin-skinned tectonics, horizontal compressive forces tightened and significantly uplifted the existing arch.

Lorenz, J.C.

1983-08-01

306

Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the basin and range province in northwestern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional synthesis of new and existing geologic and thermochronologic data document late Cretaceous - early Cenozoic regional erosion, Oligocene - Miocene volcanism, and subsequent late Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province in northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. Across an ???220-km-wide region between the Santa Rosa and Warner Ranges, conformable sequences of 35 to 15 Ma volcanic rocks are cut by only a single generation of high-angle normal faults that accommodated ???23 km of total east-west extension (???12%). Fission-track, (U-Th)/He, geologic, and structural data from the Pine Forest Range show that faulting there began at 11 to 12 Ma, progressed at a relatively constant rate until at least 3 Ma, and has continued until near the present time. Extension in the Santa Rosa Range to the east took place during the same interval, although the post-6 Ma part of this history is less well constrained. Less complete constraints from adjacent ranges permit a similar timing for faulting, and we infer that extensional faulting in northwestern Nevada began everywhere at 12 Ma and has continued up to the present. Faulting in the Warner Range in northeastern California can only be constrained to have begun between 14 and 3 Ma, but may represent westward migration of Basin and Range extension during the Pliocene. Compared to the many parts of the Basin and Range in central and southern Nevada, extension in northwestern Nevada began more recently, is of lesser total magnitude, and was accommodated entirely by high-angle normal faults. Fission-track data document Late Cretaceous unroofing of Cretaceous (115 - 100 Ma) granitic basement rocks in northwestern Nevada, followed by a long period of relative tectonic quiescence that persisted through Oligocene and Miocene volcanism until the onset of Basin and Range extension at ???12 Ma. The low magnitude of extension (12%) and early Tertiary stability suggest that the modern ???31 km thick crust in northwestern Nevada was only slightly thicker (???35 km) prior to extension at 12 Ma, and was no thicker than ???38 km in the Late Cretaceous. This stands in contrast to other parts of the Basin and Range, where the crust was thickened to at least 45 to 50 km by Cretaceous thrusting and subsequently thinned to ???30 km by large magnitude (>50%) extension.

Colgan, J. P.; Dumitru, T. A.; Reiners, P. W.; Wooden, J. L.; Miller, E. L.

2006-01-01

307

Heterogeneous Soil Morphology on the Taoyuan Terrace, Northwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study ­soil geomorphology­" is selected to work on the reciprocal relationship between the landscape evolution and soil genesis. Among geological studies on the Taoyuan area, it has remained a concern to apply lateritisation as an index on terrace correlation. To answer this question, the basic knowledge of laterite formation must be clearly understood. On the other hand, pedologists have long been interested in the genesis of laterite, especially those thick ones on the higher terraces. To give insights pedosequences must be built up to distinguish the influence of specific factor. Without assistance of geological data, this goal is hardly achieved. In spite of the obvious demand of interdisciplinary integration, it is short of dialogue between geology and pedology in Taiwan until the last decade when the first soil chronosequence was established in this area. However, the tacit assumption that soils on one geomorphic surface were homogeneous has never been carefully examined. A later study on soil toposequence in the coastal area of Taoyuan terraces soon discovered that soils on one surface were heterogeneous both morphologically and chemically. This finding was explained as the influence of the seasonal undulation of groundwater table. To understand whether the upland soils on geomorphic surfaces are also heterogeneously developed, the soil morphology on the Taoyuan Terrace is selected as target being carefully studied. The relationships among the soil morphology, the undulation of groundwater table (GWT), and the processes of soil formation are established by field investigation and previously reported datasets. Based on recompilation of the published soil maps, the soil series in study area can be divided into eight groups. To compare the soil morphology and assess the reliability of the soil maps, fifteen hand cores are drilled in the field. The datasets of engineering boreholes are also collected to assist the explanation on the spatial variation of soil morphology. We discovered that the soil morphology systematically changes from the terrace edge to the interior, showing a toposequence of red soil, orange soil, yellow soil, mottled soil, and gley soil. Based on the profile reconstructed by the engineering borehole data, the GWT is inconsistent with the subsurface lithology but controlled by the terrace geomorphology. Since soils on the terrace edge are usually developed in well-drained condition for lateritisation, we consequently suggest that they are the best prospective soils for terrace correlation.

Lin, Y.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Hsieh, M.

2003-12-01

308

Miocene tectono-stratigraphic history of La Mision basin, northwestern Baja California: implications for early tectonic development of southern California continental borderland  

SciTech Connect

The middle Miocene La Mision basin in northwestern Baja California, Mexico, provides a rare opportunity to study an onshore portion of the southern California continental borderland. Stratigraphy, geometry of dispersal, and a variety of lithotypes within the volcanic and volcaniclastic sediments of the Rosarito Beach Formation provide clues to the nature of early tectonic evolution of this area during the Miocene. The elongated, trough-shaped La Mision basin formed in response to peninsular basement uplifts and the formation of volcanic highlands west of the present coastline. Lithologies and depositional environments represented within the basin sediments include: subaerial basalt flows and airfall tuffs, submarine muddy- and sandy-matrix mudflow breccias, lapilli tuffs, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones,d diatomites, and conglomerates. The environments of deposition range from fluvatile to intertidal to shallow marine. Early basin infilling is characterized by sediments and basalts, with a western source terrane, that were deposited against the faulted seacliffs. progressive infilling against the seacliff resulted in the formation of an extensive eastward-sloping basaltic platform extending eastward to the foothill coastal belt of the Peninsular Ranges. Marine transgression and subsequent regression are recorded by diverse marine volcaniclastic lithologies. Abundant fossils, K-Ar dates, and paleomagnetic data obtained from the La Mision basin allow precise correlation with other areas in the continental borderland and provide conclusive evidence that this block of the borderland was formed and in its present position by 16-14 Ma.

Ashby, J.R.; Minch, J.

1988-03-01

309

Coalbed methane resource potential of the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As predicted, from an evolving coalbed methane producibility model, prolific coalbed methane production is precluded in the Piceance Basin by the absence of coal bed reservoir continuity and dynamic ground-water flow. The best potential for production may lie at the transition zone from hydropressure to hydrocarbon overpressure and/or in conventional traps basinward of where outcrop and subsurface coals are in good reservoir and hydraulic communication. Geologic and hydrologic synergy among tectonic and structural setting, depositional systems and coal distribution, coal rank, gas content, permeability and hydrodynamics are the controls that determine the coalbed methane resource potential of the Piceance Basin. Within the coal-bearing Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation, the prime coalbed methane target, reservoir heterogeneity and thrust faults cause coal beds along the Grand Hogback and in the subsurface to be in modest to poor reservoir and hydraulic communication, restricting meteoric ground water recharge and basinward flow. Total subsurface coalbed methane resources are still estimated to be approximately 99 Tcf (3.09 Tm{sup 3}), although coalbed methane resource estimates range between 80 (2.49 Tm{sup 3}) and 136 Tcf (4.24 Tm{sup 3}), depending on the calculation method used. To explore for high gas contents or fully gas-saturated coals and consequent high productivity in the Piceance Basin, improved geologic and completion technologies including exploration and development for migrated conventionally and hydrodynamically trapped gases, in-situ generated secondary biogenic gases, and solution gases will be required.

Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

310

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be utilized for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program, in developing management plans for pipeline corridors, and onshore facilities planning. The production of this ecological atlas included four major tasks: the collection and synthesis of the latest available data on biological, socioeconomic, soil, oil and gas, hydrology, and climatological parameters; the assimilation of these data into a format which is compatible with the requirements of 1:100,000 scale mapping; the compilation of 90 ecological atlas maps; and the preparation of an atlas narrative serving to describe more fully the mapped parameters. This ecological atlas will embrace the habitat mapping study, the socioeconomic study, and the environmental synthesis being conducted for the study area.

Palik, T.F.; Kunneke, J.T.

1984-09-01

311

Low flows regionalization in North-Western Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting specific low flows in ungauged catchments provides critical information for adequate water resource management, including environmental flow requirements. Several methods have been proposed in literature in order to extend to ungauged sites the available regional information on low flows. In most of these methods, the study domain is divided into sub-regions in which the low flow behaviour is assumed to be homogeneous. The formation of these regions is performed by grouping the gauged sites according to a classification criterion and checking the performance of prediction of low flows with cross-validation. In our work we analyse the q95 discharge (i.e., the specific discharge that is exceeded on 95% of all days) as a reference of low flow regime. We compare two different grouping methods: the Seasonality Indices method (SI) and the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm. The SI method delineates regions according to differences in the occurrence of low flows while CART divides the domain by maximising the homogeneity function within each group. For each obtained sub-region, a regression model between catchment characteristics and the q95 is fitted to the data. The predictive performance of models is then compared in terms of variance analysis (ANOVA) and, subsequently with error statistics coming from a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Data from 43 catchments in the North-West of Italy are used in the analysis. Results indicate that catchments grouping based on CART performs better than the SI method in this region. The spatial variance explained by CART is 53% against 32% for SI, and the overall predictive performance checked by cross-validation gives a coefficient of determination RCV 2 = 60% for CART and 41% for SI.

Vezza, P.; Rosso, M.; Comoglio, C.

2009-04-01

312

Do Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Orán Group, northwestern Argentina record changing conditions in the Eastern Cordillera?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of foreland basin sediments in northwestern Argentina provides insight into the erosional history of the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, including transient geomorphic responses to tectonics, climate, and drainage integration. The Neogene to Quaternary deposits of the Orán Group are well-exposed along the Río Iruya near the town of Isla de Cañas, where the total section is > 7 km thick. The package of muds, sands, and gravels has been interpreted to have formed in a variety of environments, including both proximal and distal fans, braided streams, and mud flats. Pliocene to Recent sediments exhibit a distinct coarsening upwards sequence. Lower parts of the section are dominated by muds, silts, and sands, typically deposited in tabular and often discontinuous beds interrupted by small sand bars and channels. Upsection, the abundance of silts and sands decrease and are replaced by gravelly beds that dominate the upper part of the section. Clast size data indicate an increase in cobble size in gravel horizons moving upsection, suggesting a transition from a distal to more proximal source. We have analyzed clast compositions from conglomerates within the section to identify potential changes in sedimentary provenance. Bedrock lithology in the adjacent Eastern Cordillera is varied and distinctive, facilitating clast identification. Beds throughout the studied section contain three major components: 1) grey-green shale, greywacke, quartzite, and phyllite of the Precambrian Puncoviscana Formation; 2) generally rose-colored conglomerate, quartz arenite, and mudstone of Cambrian age; and 3) olive-beige sand and mudstone of Ordovician age. Highly weathered sandstone and mudstone of Silurian age are locally abundant, having been eroded from upstream, previously active foreland folds. Although clast composition varies between beds, we find no systematic lithologic changes upsection. This result suggests that the coarsening upward sequence observed in the upper part of the Orán Group stems from tectonic or climatic processes rather than changes in the upstream drainage basin network.

Staffo, K.; Rahl, J. M.; Harbor, D. J.; Galli, C.; Bovay, C.

2010-12-01

313

What induced the exceptional 2005 convection event in the northwestern Mediterranean basin? Answers from a modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open-sea convection occurring in the northwestern Mediterranean basin (NWMED) is at the origin of the formation of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW), one of the main Mediterranean water masses. During winter 2004-2005, a spectacular convection event occurred, observed by several experimental oceanographers. It was associated with an exceptionally large convection area and unusually warm and salty WMDW. Explanations were proposed tentatively, relating the unusual characteristics of this event to the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) or to the atmospheric conditions during winter 2004-2005 in the NWMED. They could, however, not be supported until now. Here we used numerical modeling to understand what drove this convection event. The control simulation performed for the period 1961-2006 reproduces correctly the long-term evolution of the Mediterranean Sea circulation, the EMT, and the NWMED convection event of 2004-2005. Sensitivity simulations are then performed to assess the respective contributions of atmospheric and oceanic conditions to this event. The weakness of the winter buoyancy loss since 1988 in the NWMED prevented strong convection to occur during the 1990s, enabling heat and salt contents to increase in this region. This resulted in the change of WMDW characteristics observed in 2005. The strong buoyancy loss of winter 2004-2005 was responsible for the intensity of the convection observed this winter in terms of depth and volume of newly formed WMDW. The EMT did not fundamentally modify the convection process but potentially doubled this volume by inducing a deepening of the heat and salt maximum that weakened the preconvection stratification.

Herrmann, Marine; Sevault, Florence; Beuvier, Jonathan; Somot, Samuel

2010-12-01

314

Climate change increases deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in north-western Europe.  

PubMed

Climate change will affect the development of cereal crops and the occurrence of mycotoxins in these crops, but so far little research has been done on quantifying the expected effects. The aim of this study was to assess climate change impacts on the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat grown in north-western Europe by 2040, considering the combined effects of shifts in wheat phenology and climate. The study used climate model data for the future period of 2031-2050 relative to the baseline period of 1975-1994. A weather generator was used for generating synthetic series of daily weather data for both the baseline and the future periods. Available models for wheat phenology and prediction of deoxynivalenol concentrations in north-western Europe were used. Both models were run for winter wheat and spring wheat, separately. The results showed that both flowering and full maturation of wheat will be earlier in the season because of climate change effects, about 1 to 2 weeks. Deoxynivalenol contamination was found to increase in most of the study region, with an increase of the original concentrations by up to 3 times. The study results may inform governmental and industrial risk managers to underpin decision-making and planning processes in north-western Europe. On the local level, deoxynivalenol contamination should be closely monitored to pick out wheat batches with excess levels at the right time. Using predictive models on a more local scale could be helpful to assist other monitoring measures to safeguard food safety in the wheat supply chain. PMID:22742589

van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, J E; Madsen, M S; Goedhart, P W

2012-06-29

315

Narcotic-exposed neonates in a First Nations population in northwestern Ontario  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To document the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and the rate of narcotic use during pregnancy in northwestern Ontario, where narcotic abuse is a growing social and medical problem. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting The Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre catchment area in northwestern Ontario. Participants Mothers and neonates for the 482 live births that took place in the 18-month study period (January 2009 to June 2010). Main outcome measures Maternal drug use and neonatal outcomes were documented. Results The incidence of narcotic (oxycodone) abuse during pregnancy increased from a low of 8.4% at the beginning of the study period to a high of 17.2% by mid-2010. Narcotic-using mothers were more likely to also use nicotine and alcohol, to have premature deliveries, and to be episodic users. Narcotic-exposed neonates experienced NAS 29.5% of the time; daily maternal use was associated with a higher rate of NAS (66.0%). While all infants roomed in with their mothers, exposed infants were more likely to require transfer to a tertiary care nursery. Infants with severe NAS were treated with oral morphine and had significantly longer hospital stays compared with the entire cohort (4.5 vs 1.5 days, P = .004). Narcotic abuse during pregnancy in our region is not currently associated with increased rates of HIV or hepatitis C infection, as intravenous route of administration is less common at present than intranasal and oral ingestion. Conclusion Narcotic abuse during pregnancy is a considerable problem in First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. Community-based initiatives need to be developed to address this issue, and medical and nursing staff need to develop surveillance, assessment, and therapeutic responses. Passive neonatal addiction and withdrawal result from maternal narcotic use during pregnancy. Rates of opioid use among pregnant Canadian women are unknown.

Kelly, Len; Dooley, Joe; Cromarty, Helen; Minty, Bryanne; Morgan, Alanna; Madden, Sharen; Hopman, Wilma

2011-01-01

316

Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume I. Text  

SciTech Connect

Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 40 figures, 108 tables.

French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W. (eds.)

1983-08-01

317

Possible solar forcing of 400-year wet–dry climate cycles in northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a multi-proxy paleolimnological record from a closed-basin lake (Ebinur Lake) in northwestern China to investigate\\u000a climate change in this arid region during the last 1,500 years. The 120-cm long sediment core was dated by AMS radiocarbon\\u000a and 210Pb methods. The fine-grained clay sediments contain 3–17% organic matter (OM) and 9–31% carbonate, and are interrupted by\\u000a multiple sand and

Jinglu Wu; Zicheng Yu; Hai’Ao Zeng; Ninglian Wang

2009-01-01

318

Pathological features of Breast Cancer seen in Northwestern Tanzania: a nine years retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Breast cancer is more common in Western Countries compared to African populations. However in African population, it appears\\u000a that the disease tends to be more aggressive and occurring at a relatively young age at the time of presentation. The aim\\u000a of this study was to describe the trend of Breast Cancer in Northwestern Tanzania.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a retrospective study which

Peter F Rambau; Philipo L Chalya; Mange M Manyama; Kahima J Jackson

2011-01-01

319

The primates of the Baly Bay area, north-western Madagascar.  

PubMed

Primate surveys were conducted in isolated primary west Malagasy decidous forest blocks around Baly Bay, north-western Madagascar. Eight species of primate were found, including Microcebus c.f. myoxinus, Hapalemur griseus occidentalis and Phaner furcifer. Two species were found only in Namoroka Strict Nature Reserve, which may mean that other forest blocks in the area have experienced primate extinctions. The record of M. c.f. myoxinus came from mangrove, the first confirmed record of a lemur from this habitat. The pelage of female Eulemur fulvus rufus was atypical. PMID:9885334

Hawkins, A F; Durbin, J C; Reid, D B

1998-01-01

320

An evaluation of the performance of 12 GHz low cost TVRO terminals in northwestern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical performance of low cost terminals over a long period, the ability of users to operate the terminals, and the acceptability of the signals received from Anik B were assessed at 25 of the 43 terminals installed in Northwestern Ontario, to receive programs of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority. The procedures used to make the on-site measurements are described. Results are summarized and analyzed for the following: (1) polarization angle error; (2) antenna pointing errors; (3) noise figures; (4) carrier-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio; (5) baseband distortions; (6) IF bandpass response and AFC operation; and (7) remodulator response.

Huck, R. W.; Perrier, E. L.

1981-08-01

321

A new threatened species of Pandanaceae from northwestern Madagascar, Pandanus sermolliana.  

PubMed

Pandanus sermolliana Callmander & Buerki (Pandanaceae) is described from humid forests in the Galoka mountain chain in northwestern Madagascar. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other members of the genus it most closely resembles, P. insuetus Huynh and P. perrieri Martelli, by several morphological characters including drupes that are incompletely fused, with each of the dome-like carpels separated from the base of the pileus, and stigmas that are sub-vertical or rarely sub-horizontal, slightly spinescent, and raised on an incompletely united base. This distinctive species is rare and is classified as Critically Endangered based on IUCN threat criteria. PMID:21750602

Callmander, Martin W; Buerki, Sven; Wohlhauser, Sebastien

2008-12-16

322

Sociological analysis of migration of agricultural labourers from eastern to north-western region of India.  

PubMed

The authors examine rural-to-rural migration of agricultural workers from eastern to northwestern India. "The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant farm workers; (b) to explicate the causes of migration; (c) to analyse the impact of migration on the pattern of employment, wages, acculturation and interpersonal relations; and (d) to examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration on the migrants' families." Data are from a 1984-1986 survey. PMID:12283667

Gupta, A K; Arora, D R; Aggarwal, B K

1988-04-01

323

Experimental evidence that oral secretions of northwestern ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus occidentalis) are toxic to their prey.  

PubMed

Ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) are suspected of being venomous because their Duvernoy's gland secretions have high levels of phospholipase activity, which is characteristic of many viperid and elapid venoms, and because anecdotal reports of feeding behavior are consistent with the use of a venom. We tested the toxicity of northwestern ring-necked snake oral secretions to a natural prey species, northwestern garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides), by injecting 2-35 microl of oral secretions intraperitoneally. All doses were 100% lethal within 180 min. The dose significantly affected the time to loss of a righting response. Neither injection of saline nor denatured oral secretions resulted in loss of a righting response or any visible detrimental effects. We suggest that northwestern ring-necked snakes may have evolved venom to subdue larger prey items than the snake would otherwise be capable of taking. PMID:17689581

O'Donnell, Ryan P; Staniland, Kevin; Mason, Robert T

2007-07-05

324

Mineralogy and petrology aspects of Mesaverde Formation at Rifle Gap, Colorado, specific to the sedimentology and gas-bearing intervals in the subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifle Gap, situated on the eastern edge of the Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado, has been the focus of sedimentological studies in an effort to understand the tight, gas-bearing intervals of the inner-basin subsurface. These Mesaverde Formation sandstone exposures were sampled and anlayzed for mineral content and grain morphology. Varying detrital mineralogy supports a sedimentological model for the area which

Heinze

1983-01-01

325

Employer Preferences Regarding Resume Content, Appearance, and Format. A Replication in Northwest Missouri of a Study of South Georgia's Hiring Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, Griffin and Anderson examined the preferences of a sample of South Georgia employees regarding resume content, appearance, and format. The Georgia study was replicated with a sample of 60 hiring officials from a variety of companies in northwestern Missouri to determine if geographic location is a factor in hiring officials' preferences…

Williams, Stephanie; And Others

326

Geohydrology of the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin contains about 4,600 square miles of karstic and fluvial plains and nearly 100,000 cubic miles of predominantly karst limestone connected hydraulically to the principal rivers and lakes in the Coastal Plain of southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southwestern Alabama. Sediments of late-middle Eocene to Holocene in hydraulic connection with lakes, streams, and land surface comprise the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower semiconfining unit and contribute to the exchange of ground water and surface water in the stream-lake-aquifer flow system. Karst processes, hydraulic properties, and stratigraphic relations limit ground-water and surface-water interaction to the following hydrologic units of the stream-lake-aquifer flow system: the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Geologic units corresponding to these hydrologic units are, in ascending order: Lisbon Formation; Clinchfield Sand; Ocala, Marianna, Suwannee, and Tampa Limestones; Hawthorn Group; undifferentiated overburden (residuum); and terrace and undifferentiated (surficial) deposits. Similarities in hydraulic properties and direct or indirect interaction with surface water allow grouping sediments within these geologic units into the aforementioned hydrologic units, which transcend time-stratigraphic classifications and define the geohydrologic framework for the lower ACF River Basin. The low water-transmitting properties of the lower confining unit, principally the Lisbon Formation, allow it to act as a nearly impermeable base to the stream-lake-aquifer flow system. Hydraulic connection of the surficial aquifer system with surface water and the Upper Floridan aquifer is direct where sandy deposits overlie the limestone, or indirect where fluvial deposits overlie clayey limestone residuum. The water level in perched zones within the surficial aquifer system fluctuates independently of water-level changes in the underlying aquifer, adjacent streams, or lakes. Where the surficial aquifer system is connected with surface water and the Upper Floridan aquifer, water-table fluctuations parallel those in adjacent streams or the underlying aquifer. More...

Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

2006-01-01

327

Increased prevalence of hereditary metabolic diseases among native Indians in Manitoba and northwestern Ontario.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hereditary metabolic diseases in the native and non-native populations of Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Children's Hospital, Winnipeg. PATIENTS: Patients were selected by three methods: laboratory tests designed to screen patients suspected of having a metabolic disease, laboratory investigation of newborn infants with abnormalities detected through screening, and investigation of near relatives of probands with disease. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients with organic acid, amino acid and carbohydrate disorders were seen from 1960 to 1990. Of these, 49 (36%) were native Indians (Algonkian linguistic group). This was in sharp contrast to the proportion of native Indians in the total study population (5.8%). Congenital lactic acidosis due to pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (13 patients), glutaric aciduria type I (14 patients) and primary hyperoxaluria type II (8 patients) were the most common disorders detected. Other rare disorders included glutaric aciduria type II (one patient), 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (one patient) and sarcosinemia (one patient). Underreporting, especially of glutaric aciduria type I and hyperoxaluria type II, was likely in the native population. CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary metabolic diseases are greatly overrepresented in the native population of Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. We recommend that native children who present with illnesses involving disturbances of acid-base balance or with neurologic, renal or liver disease of unknown cause by investigated for a possible metabolic disorder.

Haworth, J C; Dilling, L A; Seargeant, L E

1991-01-01

328

Mating system of Brassica napus and its relationship with morphological and ecological parameters in northwestern Spain.  

PubMed

Mating systems play a central role in determining population genetic structure and the methods to be used to develop new cultivars and preserve the variability of a crop. A Brassica napus crop called nabicol is grown in northwestern Spain. Knowledge on its mating system is needed in order to manage the germplasm correctly and design breeding strategies. The aims of this work were to study the mating system of nabicol under field conditions and the relationship of different traits with the mating system. We analyzed 2 populations with microsatellites using a multilocus approach, finding that both had a mixed mating system with an outcrossing rate of 30%. This system would allow application of breeding methods for both autogamous and allogamous species in order to improve nabicol populations. Nabicol populations should be multiplied in isolation conditions in the same way as allogamous species in order to avoid contamination and preserve genetic integrity. The relationship of outcrossing rate, phenological, ecological, and morphological traits was studied, but the model explained only a small percentage of the variability. None of the traits studied could be used as indirect selection criteria for a type of mating system under the conditions of northwestern Spain. This is the first work that studies in depth the possible causes of the mixed mating system of B. napus, finding that, surprisingly, it is not related to the most obvious factors. PMID:23530142

Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Vilar, Marta; Cartea, Maria Elena

2013-03-25

329

Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

2012-09-01

330

Cryptic species and historical biogeography of eel gobies (Gobioidei: Odontamblyopus) along the northwestern Pacific coast.  

PubMed

Cryptic species are common in gobioid fishes, as revealed by recent molecular studies. This study collected molecular and morphological data to delimit species boundaries and to reveal the historical biogeography of Odontamblyopus lacepedii sensu lato by sampling 87 specimens from 16 locations in the northwestern Pacific. Phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 sequences identified three major clades. Clear morphological separations among these clades were detected by examining morphological characters used in taxonomic diagnosis. Therefore, these clades were delineated as three separate species: O. lacepedii sensu stricto (in the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bohai, and Ariake Bay); O. sp. (in the southern East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea); and O. rebecca (in the Gulf of Tonkin, northern South China Sea, and southern East China Sea). Estimated divergence times were 0.61 +/- 0.15 Ma between O. lacepedii and O. sp., and 2.31+/-0.36 Ma between O. rebecca and O. lacepedii+O. sp. These findings indicate that isolation of marginal seas and habitat fragmentation during major falls in sea level in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene may have been responsible for genetic breaks among Odontamblyopus species in the northwestern Pacific. PMID:20064002

Tang, Weixing; Lshimatsu, Atsushi; Fu, Cuizhang; Yin, Wei; Li, Guo; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qianhong; Li, Bo

2010-01-01

331

Aerosols properties during dust-storm episodes over Jaipur, Northwestern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous routine aerosol measurements have been carried out at Jaipur (Rajasthan, Northwestern India) since April 2009 with a CIMEL sun photometer integrated in the global Aerosols Robotic Network (AERONET) program. The present study investigates the aerosol properties during dust storm episodes over Jaipur, Northwestern India. A series of high dust storms were identified as indicated by high values of aerosols optical thickness (AOT) with a significant drop in angstrom exponent values (nearly zero and negative). Consequently, a progressive increase in Single Scattering Albedo (SSA440 nm = 0.89, SSA675 nm = 0.95, SSA870 nm = 0.97, SSA1020 nm = 0.976) suggests more scattering nature of regional aerosols associated with abundant dust loading. Trajectories back in time showed that the air collected in Jaipur during dust period originated from desert regions in the western part of India. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the mean AOT derived from satellite data and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis helped to understand the source region of these particles.

Payra, Swagata; Verma, Sunita; Prakash, Divya; Kumar, Pramod; Soni, Manish; Holben, Brent

2013-05-01

332

Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras.

Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernandez, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty

2012-01-01

333

A survey of phytoparasitic nematodes on cultivated and non-cultivated plants in northwestern egypt.  

PubMed

Surveys were conducted in Alexandria, El-Behera, and Matrouh Governorates in northwestern Egypt during the 1994-1998 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host associations, and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with 35 major crops, grasses, and weeds. A total of 220 soil and root samples containing mixed populations of 26 genera and 38 species of phytoparasitic nematodes was analyzed; three known genera and 13 known species are reported for the first time in northwestern Egypt. Root-knot nematodes with 34 occurrences were the most frequently encountered group of nematodes, followed by spiral, stunt, ring, lesion, lance, and dagger nematodes with 19, 18, 15, 9, 8, and 7 occurrences, respectively. New species records are Boleodorus pakistanensis, Criconemella sphaerocephala, Discocriconemella sphaerocephaloides, Hemicriconemoides cocophilus, Hemicycliophora thienmanni, Hoplolaimus clarissimus, Irantylenchus clavidorus, Merlinius nanus, Paratylenchus projectus, Tylenchorhynchus ebriensis, Tylenchus afghanicus, T. exiguus, Xiphinema basilgoodeyi, and X. ensiculiferum. Survey results showed new host plant records for most of the identified nematode species in Egypt. PMID:19270998

Ibrahim, I K; Handoo, Z A; El-Sherbiny, A A

2000-12-01

334

Geologic Map of the Littlefield 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Mojave County, Northwestern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one result of the U.S. Geological Survey's intent to provide geologic map coverage and a better understanding of the transition in regional geology between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateaus in southeastern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and northwestern Arizona. Information gained from this regional study provides a better understanding of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of an area of extreme contrasts in late Mesozoic-early Tertiary compression, Cenozoic magmatism, and Cenozoic extension. This map is a synthesis of 32 new geologic maps encompassing the Littlefield 30' x 60' quadrangle, Arizona. Geologic information presented in this map and report may aid future land management decisions about land use, flood control, and environmental and range management programs for federal, state, and private agencies. The Littlefield 30' x 60' quadrangle encompasses approximately 3,100 km2 (1,937 mi2) of northwestern Arizona. The map area is bordered on the north by the Utah-Arizona state line and is approximately 5 km east of the Nevada- Arizona state line (see map). The quadrangle is bounded by long 113? to 114? and lat 36?30' to 37?. The east three-quarters of the map area is within the southwestern part of the Colorado Plateaus province (herein referred to as the Colorado Plateau), and the west quarter is within the Basin and Range province.

Billingsley, George H.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

2000-01-01

335

Statistical distributions of trace metal concentrations in the northwestern Mediterranean atmospheric aerosol.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 11 crustal and anthropogenic trace metals (Li, Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured from 2006 to 2008 in the atmospheric aerosol at a northwestern Mediterranean coast (station of Cap Ferrat, situated on the southeastern coast of France). Statistical models (lognormal, Weibull, and gamma) that best represented the trace metal distribution for this environment are described. The lognormal model was selected for the distributions of (in decreasing strength of the fit) Al, Co, Li, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, i.e., metals that are introduced into the atmospheric aerosol by pulses inducing temporal variability in their concentrations. The gamma model was associated with Fe, i.e., metals that exhibit less inter-annual variability than the former trace metals. The third mode (Weibull) represented the distribution of the concentrations of V and Ni. The statistical approach presented in this study contributed to better define and constrain the distribution of the 11 trace metals of the atmospheric aerosol from the northwestern Mediterranean coast. In a close future, knowledge of these statistical distributions will allow using convolution models to separate their natural and anthropogenic contributions, therefore increasing our ability to study anthropogenic emissions of trace metals and their impact on the environment. PMID:23685929

Robin, Thomas; Guidi, Lionel; Dufour, Aurélie; Migon, Christophe

2013-05-18

336

Annual and seasonal variations of particle fluxes in the northwestern Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moored time-series sediment trap was deployed at station FM 1 (13o31'N 136 o 03'E) of the northwestern Pacific from October 2007 to May 2011. Total mass fluxes varied from 2.35 to 31.1 mg m-2 day-1, showing a distinct seasonal variation with high fluxes in winter and low in summer. During the El Nino period, however, total mass fluxes were significantly reduced in winter, indicating that particle fluxes in the northwestern Pacific were considerably influenced by the El Nino. Organic carbon fluxes ranged from 0.13 to 4.61 mg m-2 day-1, comprising about 9.7% of total mass fluxes. Organic carbon fluxes showed a large annual variation, with higher fluxes in 2008. CaCO3 fluxes varied from 1.47 to 23.4 mg m-2 day-1, comprising 65.7% of total mass fluxes. CaCO3 fluxes displayed little annual and seasonal variations. Biogenic Si fluxes ranged from 0.04 to 2.07 mg m-2 day-1, comprising about 5.3% of total mass fluxes. Biogenic Si fluxes exhibited a large annual variation, with higher fluxes in 2008. Temporal variations of organic carbon fluxes were rather similar to those of biogenic Si fluxes, implying that the source of organic carbon is siliceous organisms.

Kim, Dongseon; Jeek Kim, Hyung

2013-04-01

337

Bacterivory in the northwestern Indian Ocean during the intermonsoon northeast monsoon period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial grazing loss rates were studied by radioactive labeling of natural bacteria with L-(4,5- 3H) leucine and from the rate of disappearance of bacterial cells in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Bacterivory was measured in a mixed sample that had been combined from various depths across the euphotic zone. Experiments were performed on 26 occasions at 19 stations in the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea during the intermonsoon-northeast monsoon period (November-December 1994). Combined uptake of radiolabeled bacteria (ULB) in 1-8 and 8-100 ?m size fractions was somewhat lower than loss of label (LBL) measured in the bacterial fraction (0.2-1.0 ?m), suggesting loss of radioactivity from the grazers due to metabolism. The less sensitive rate of disappearance of bacterial cells (LBC) was on average 51% higher than LBL estimates. Results from ULB and LBL measurements revealed that bacterivory was higher in the Gulf of Oman (average loss rate 4.1% h -1) than in the Arabian Sea where rates were slightly higher inshore (1.7% h -1) than in the central gyre. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates in the 1-8 ?m size fractions were identified as the primary bacterivores. Microzooplankton (8-100 ?m) accounted for 33% of total bacterivory in the Gulf of Oman but only 16% in the central Arabian Sea. Time-course experiments conducted at two stations indicated that diel changes in bacterivory may be substantial in the northwestern Indian Ocean.

Weisse, Thomas

1999-03-01

338

Soil, environmental, and watershed measurements in support of carbon cycling studies in northwestern Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements including soil respiration, soil moisture, soil temperature, and carbon export in suspended sediments from small watersheds were recorded at several field sites in northwestern Mississippi in support of hillslope process studies associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP). These measurements were made to provide information about carbon cycling in agricultural and forest ecosystems to understand the potential role of erosion and deposition in the sequestration of soil organic carbon in upland soils. The question of whether soil erosion and burial constitutes an important net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one hypothesis that the MBCP is evaluating to better understand carbon cycling and climate change. This report contains discussion of methods used and presents data for the period December 1996 through March 1998. Included in the report are ancillary data provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research on rainfall, runoff, sediment yield, forest biomass and grain yield. Together with the data collected by the USGS these data permit the construction of carbon budgets and the calibration of models of soil organic matter dynamics and sediment transport and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established cooperative agreements with the USDA and USFS to facilitate collaborative research at research sites in northwestern Mississippi.

Huntington, T. G.; Harden, J. W.; Dabney, S. M.; Marion, D. A.; Alonso, C.; Sharpe, J. M.; Fries, T. L.

1998-01-01

339

Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. in Ticks and Rodents from Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

In May 1999, field surveys of Lyme disease spirochetes were conducted around the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern People's Republic of China. Ixodes persulcatus ticks were obtained in a Tianchi Lake valley with primary forest, while the tick fauna was poor in the semidesert or at higher altitudes in this region. Species identities were confirmed by molecular analysis in which an internal transcribed spacer sequence was used. Of 55 adult ticks, 22 (40%) were positive for spirochetes as determined by Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly culture passages. In addition, some rodents, including Apodemus uralensis (5 of 14 animals) and Cricetulus longicaudatus (the only animal examined), and some immature stages of I. persulcatus (4 of 11 ticks) that had fed on A. uralensis were positive for spirochetes. Based on 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, 35 cultures (including double isolation cultures) were identified as Borrelia garinii (20 isolates, including 9 Eurasian pattern B isolates and 11 Asian pattern C isolates), Borrelia afzelii (10 pattern D isolates), and mixed cultures (5 cultures, including isolates that produced B. garinii patterns B and C plus B. afzelii pattern D). These findings revealed that Lyme disease pathogens are distributed in the mountainous areas in northwestern China even though it is an arid region, and they also confirmed the specific relationship between I. persulcatus and genetic patterns of Borrelia spp. on the Asian continent.

Takada, Nobuhiro; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Ishiguro, Fubito; Fujita, Hiromi; Kudeken, Midori; Mitani, Harumi; Fukunaga, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Yano, Yasuhiro; Ma, Xiao-Hang

2001-01-01

340

Atmospheric impact on the northwestern Pacific under a global warming scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven climate models, one high-resolution and ten low-resolution, were analyzed to investigate the response of the northwestern Pacific under a global warming scenario. Application of scenario A1B of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) weakens (intensifies) the southern (northern) part of the interior subtropical gyre both in high-resolution and low-resolution model. Such a dipole type change is mainly due to a basin-scale dynamic atmosphere-to-ocean process. Namely, under global warming the Hadley circulation is weakened and expanded poleward. The Ferrel circulation is also displaced poleward, leading to weakening of ascending (descending) air motion and a high (low) sea level pressure anomaly in the northwestern (southeastern extratropical) North Pacific. Finally, a negative wind stress curl anomaly developed along the zero wind stress curl line of the present-day climate to enhance the northern part of the gyre. The high-resolution model results show greater changes in the structure of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension, with strong intensification of the Kuroshio Extension front and jet, while in the low-resolution models the changes are small. The Kuroshio between Taiwan and the southern coast of Japan is significantly intensified in the high-resolution model results, but is slightly weakened in the ensemble of the low-resolution models.

Cheon, Woo Geun; Park, Young-Gyu; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kim, Baek-Min

2012-08-01

341

Uplift and Subsidence in the Northwestern German North Sea and their Impact on Sedimentation and Erosion of Mesozoic to Cenozoic sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the GPDN project (www.geopotenzial-nordsee.de) a detailed seismic mapping project focuses on the northwestern offshore part of the German North Sea sector, the so called 'Entenschnabel' area, which was not considered in former studies (Baldschuhn et al., 2001) of the German North Sea sector. The Northwestern German North Sea is characterized by a complex rift dominated structural pattern in the Mesozoic, with the Central Graben as the main structure, resulting from a multiphase tectonic evolution. Several phases of uplift and subsidence were driven by extensional and compressional tectonic events, as well as by volcanic activity at the North Sea Dome and by extensive mobilization of Zechstein salt. These different influences on the sedimentary and structural evolution and their changes over time are distinguishable by detailed mapping of several formations. Spatial distribution of these formations and their thickness variations reveal changes of depocenters and changes of internal geometry. In the Entenschnabel area, the Central Graben is the dominating structural element. First extensional pulses took place in the Lower Triassic followed by several phases of rifting from the Middle to Late Triassic. The age of rifting phases can be defined by thickening of syn-tectonic Triassic to Jurassic strata towards the major fault zones. During the Jurassic the main extensional phase took place in combination with extensive diapirism. Analyses of the distribution and the thicknesses of sediments in rim-synclines reveal that most of the salt structures inside the Central Graben had a main phase of growth during the Late Jurassic. The Jurassic to Cenozoic evolution of the Central Graben and surrounding areas is closely related to the evolution of the volcanic activity at the North Sea Rift Dome (Graversen, 2006). In most of the German North Sea a supra-regional uplift driven by this volcanic activity led to a major erosional event, which is defined by a major unconformity at the base of the Lower Cretaceous. In contrast the German part of the Central Graben is characterized by continuous sedimentation during this time. Another difference of the German Central Graben compared to the rest of the German North Sea is a structural inversion of parts of the graben during the Late Cretaceous. Greatest thicknesses of the Upper Cretaceous are reached on the eastern graben shoulder of the Central Graben along the Nordschillgrund High. The reason for subsidence along this long-living Triassic to Jurassic structural high has to be investigated. Baldschuhn, R., et al. (2001). Geotektonischer Atlas von Nordwestdeutschland und dem deutschen Nordsee-Sektor - Strukturen, Strukturentwicklung, Paläogeographie. Geologisches Jahrbuch, A 153: 3-95. Graversen, O. (2006). The Jurassic-Cretaceous North Sea Rift Dome and Associated Basin Evolution. Search and Discovery.

Jaehne, Fabian; Arfai, Jashar; Lutz, Rüdiger

2013-04-01

342

Disturbance and succession in a coniferous forest of northwestern North America: simulations with dryades, a spatial gap model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a model of forest development that has been adapted for use in a coniferous forest of northwestern North America. The simulator, dryades, is a spatial gap model used to examine the effects of disturbances of different types, sizes, and frequencies in mature Douglas fir dominated forests on zonal sites of the Coastal Western Hemlock drier

D. Mailly; J. P. Kimmins; R. T. Busing

2000-01-01

343

Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 in North-Western France: AIRE Gene Mutation Specificities and Severe Forms Needing Immunosuppressive Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) has been poorly evaluated in France. We focused on the north-western part of the country to describe clinical phenotypes, especially severe forms of the disease, and AIRE gene mutations. Methods: Clinical and immunological data were collected, and pathological mutations were identified by DNA sequencing. Results: Nineteen patients were identified with APS1. Clinical manifestations

E. Proust-Lemoine; P. Saugier-Véber; D. Lefranc; S. Dubucquoi; A. Ryndak; D. Buob; J. D. Lalau; R. Desailloud; J. Weill; L. Prin; H. Lefebvre; J. L. Wémeau

2010-01-01

344

Plant frequency, stem and root characteristics, and CO 2 uptake for Opuntia acanthocarpa : elevational correlates in the northwestern Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common cylindropuntia in the northwestern Sonoran Desert, Opuntia acanthocarpa, was investigated for the following hypotheses: its lower elevational limit is set by high temperatures, so its seedlings require nurse plants; its upper elevational limit is set by freezing; spine shading is the least at intermediate elevations; and changes in plant size and frequency with elevation reflect net CO2 uptake

Park S. Nobel; Edward G. Bobich

2002-01-01

345

Nutrient relations in healthy and damaged stands of mature oaks on clayey soils: two case studies in northwestern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

At two sites in northwestern Germany, which represent the centres of the present oak damage, the nutrient relations in mature oak stands were investigated (site Neuenburg, Quercus robur L.; site Lappwald, Q. petraea [Matt.] Liebl.). In one healthy and one adjacent damaged stand at both sites, the following parameters were determined: element concentrations of soil (including soil solutions) and leaves,

Frank M. Thomas; Gerhard Büttner

1998-01-01

346

Managing risk through treatment-seeking in rural north-western Tanzania: Categorising health problems as malaria and nzoka  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how risk is perceived by lay populations in response to two aetiologically connected but conceptually divided diseases – malaria and nzoka. Using case study data from an ethnographic study of risk perceptions in north-western Tanzania, we explore the relevance of risk as a concept within a community exposed to traditional and modern value systems, a pluralistic health

Nicola Desmond; Audrey Prost; Daniel Wight

2012-01-01

347

Egg Parasitoids of Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Northwestern Mexico, with Description of a New Species of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine species of Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae parasitic on eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) were collected in northwestern Mexico in relation to neoclassical biological control efforts against glassy- winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. Gonatocerus chula Triapitsyn and Bernal sp. n., which belongs to the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae), is described. Specimens of G. chula sp.

Serguei V. Triapitsyn; Julio S. Bernal

2009-01-01

348

Integrated Model for Regulation and Utilization of Regional Ground and Surface Water in the Shiyang Basin, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shiyang river is one of the most serious basins confronting the severe water scarcity and eco-environmental issues in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, northwestern China recently, which is of particular importance for regional economic and social development. In this investigation, an integrated model for conjunctive regulation of surface and ground water is hereby developed to solve the problem

Jin Quan; Zeng-chuan Dong; Jian-Liang Ma

2009-01-01

349

Climatic conditions of the north?western part of Oscar II Land (Spitsbergen) in the period between 1975 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes climatic conditions of the north?western part of Oscar II Land (Spitsbergen) based on meteorological data from 1975 to 2000, which were taken from Ny Ålesund and Kaffiöyra?Heggodden stations. The changes in annual courses of main climatic elements are investigated. However, the authors focused mainly on the analy? sis of summer climate, because most of the field work

Rajmund PRZYBYLAK; Uniwersytet Miko?aja Kopernika

350

A comparison of seasonal winds with currents on the continental slope of the Catalan Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waters of the northwestern region of the Mediterranean Sea follow the continental shelf break in a flow that appears to be linked to a permanent shelf\\/slope density front. Several studies are under way to evaluate the role of the possible forces that drive this circulation. The continental margin located off the Ebro River is an area of persistent and

1990-01-01

351

The significance of episodic rains for reproductive phenology and productivity of trees in semiarid regions of northwestern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiarid regions of northwestern Venezuela have extremely low and highly unpredictable precipitation, yet these conditions support species with contrasting phenology and leaf longevity. Episodic rains significantly increased leaf water potential (from -5 to -2.5 MPa) in several species and, in some cases, triggered flowering, leading us to hypothesize that the coexistence of species with contrasting phenology is due to differences

Míriam Díaz; Eréndira Granadillo

2005-01-01

352

FIRST REPORT OF THE NECROTIC STRAIN OF POTATO VIRUS Y (PVYN) POTYVIRUS ON POTATOES IN THE NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 50 isolates of Potato virus Y (PVY) with the characteristics of strains which cause tobacco veinal necrosis (PVYN) were obtained from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in the northwestern U.S. These isolates are being characterized at the biological and molecular levels. Isolate RR1 w...

353

Meteorologically-induced mesoscale variability of the North-western Alboran Sea (southern Spain) and related biological patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic mesoscale structures in the North-western Alboran Sea show a high variability induced by a number of different factors. One of the most important is the differences in atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean basin when compared to the Gulf of Cádiz. This difference modulates the zonal wind field in the Alboran Sea and the intensity of the Atlantic inflow through

D. Macías; M. Bruno; F. Echevarría; A. Vázquez; C. M. García

2008-01-01

354

Empirical ground-motion prediction equations for northwestern Turkey using the aftershocks of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ground motion models for northwestern Turkey using the aftershocks of the Mw 7.4, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. We consider 4047 velocity and acceleration records for each component of motion, from 528 earthquakes recorded by stations belonging to regional networks. The ground motion models obtained provide peak ground velocity, peak ground acceleration, and spectral accelerations for 8 different frequencies between

D. Bindi; S. Parolai; H. Grosser; C. Milkereit; E. Durukal

2007-01-01

355

General patterns of circulation, sediment fluxes and ecology of the Palamós (La Fonera) submarine canyon, northwestern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currents, particle fluxes and ecology were studied in the Palamós submarine canyon (also known as the Fonera canyon), located in the northwestern Mediterranean. Seven mooring arrays equipped with current meters and sediment traps were deployed along the main canyon axis, on the canyon walls and on the adjacent slope. Additionally, local and regional hydrographic cruises were carried out. Current data

Albert Palanques; Emilio García-Ladona; Damià Gomis; Jacobo Martín; Marta Marcos; Ananda Pascual; Pere Puig; Josep-Maria Gili; Mikhail Emelianov; Sebastià Monserrat; Jorge Guillén; Joaquín Tintoré; Mariona Segura; Antoni Jordi; Simón Ruiz; Gotzon Basterretxea; Dolors Blasco; Francesc Pagès

2005-01-01

356

Coral communities of the northwestern Gulf of Aden (Yemen): variation in framework building related to environmental factors and biotic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral communities were investigated in the northwestern Gulf of Aden, Yemen, for their composition, structure, and bioconstruction potential. Although no true reef was encountered, high cover coral carpets were found where hard substrate was available. Seven different types of coral communities were differentiated, and both non-framework and framework coral communities were found. Monotypy or oligotypy seem to be consistent characteristics

F. Benzoni; C. N. Bianchi; C. Morri

2003-01-01

357

Introgressive hybridization and population genetic diversity between rusty-necklaced partridge and chukar partridge in northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introgressive hybridization is a common feature of the contact zone between divergent partridges of the genus Alec- toris . The rusty-necklaced partridge ( Alectoris magna ) is paralleled with the chukar partridge ( A. chukar ) along the Liupan Moun- tain in northwestern China, and hybridization between the two species has been detected in the contact zone within this region.

Zuhao Huang; Zhisong Yang; Jiao Zhang; Naifa Liu

2009-01-01

358

Utilizing wood residue for energy generation in northwestern Montana: a feasibility assessment. Forest Service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood residue in northwestern Montana is a potential source of fuel for power generation. The most promising sources of residue are fine mill residue and bark, with quantities dependent upon lumber production, and top, limb, and cull material available through whole-tree saw-timber harvesting methods. Utilization of residue for energy is constrained primarily by the cost of recovery of residue material

C. E. Keegan; T. P. Jackson; R. P. Withycombe; R. L. Barger; A. L. Chase

1987-01-01

359

The Nature of Organic Matter in the Danube River Particles and North-western Black Sea Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended matter and sediments from the Danube River and the adjacent north-western Black Sea were analysed for organic carbon, nitrogen and biogenic carbonate and silica, as well as for different fractions of organic matter such as amino acids and carbohydrates. In addition, the nitrogen isotopic composition of surficial sediments of the NW Black Sea was examined. Particulate organic carbon (POC)

S. Reschke; V. Ittekkot; N. Panin

2002-01-01

360

Indications of the influence of the force of gravity on tropical cyclones in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peculiarities of the spatial distribution of the begin? nings and the most intense stages of tropical cyclones in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean are dem? onstrated in this paper in comparison with the values of the gravity force anomalies in the cyclone zone. Relations are distinguished in which some group char? acteristics of the tropical cyclones and the

M. I. Yaroshevich

2011-01-01

361

Eucalyptus tereticornis cultivation with soil amendments in a natric ustochrept of a semiarid region of northwestern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted with gypsum, pyrite, and ferric sulfate (industrial iron effluent) amendments at a Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. plantation in a Natric Ustochrept soil of a semiarid region of northwestern India. Amendments were applied in amounts of 9, 18, and 27 kg per pit and were mixed in a 1 m area 30 cm deep. The soil surface

G. S. Hira; G. S. Toor

1994-01-01

362

An exceptionally well-preserved short-snouted bandicoot (Marsupialia; Peramelemorphia) from Riversleigh's Oligo-Miocene deposits, northwestern Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Galadi speciosus, gen. et sp nov., the second peramelemorphian (Yarala burchfieldi being the first) to be described from Oligo-Miocene deposits of Riversleigh World Heritage Property, northwestern Queensland. G. speciosus is represented by relatively complete craniodental material, including an exceptionally well-preserved skull. This taxon exhibits several apomorphies that clearly place it in the order Peramelemorphia, but it appears to

K. J. TRAVOUILLON; Y. GUROVICH; R. M. D. BECK; J. MUIRHEAD

2010-01-01

363

Expansion of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (Common Reed) into Typha spp. (Cattail) Wetlands in Northwestern Indiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed) into stands of Typha spp. (cattail; Typha australis L. and T. x glauca) is common in the wetlands of northwestern Indiana (USA). To understand this phenomenon better, we investigated the production\\u000a of shoot sprouts and proportional allocation of biomass as well as a potential role for the water table in

Young-Moon Chun; Young D. Choi

2009-01-01

364

RELATION OF WATER TABLE DEPTH AND SOIL MORPHOLOGY IN TWO CLAY-RICH SOILS OF NORTHWESTERN OHIO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water table levels within the upper 165 cm of the soil and precipitation were measured over a three—yr period for two forested soils representative of clay-rich soils common throughout much of northwestern Ohio. The soils included very poorly drained Hoytville taxadjunct (fine, illitic, mesic Typic Haplaquept) and moderately well drained Glynwood (fine, illitic, mesic Aquic Hapludalf). A water table was

TED M. ZOBECK; A. RITCHIE

1984-01-01

365

Characteristics of dimethylsulfide, ozone, aerosols, and cloud condensation nuclei in air masses over the northwestern Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term measurements of several trace gases and aerosols were carried out from December 1994 to October 1996 at Ogasawara Hahajima Island over the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The continental impact on the concentrations of sulfur compounds, ozone (O3), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was estimated on the basis of the classification of air mass into seven types by isentropic trajectory analysis.

Ippei Nagao; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Tanaka

1999-01-01

366

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Concentrations in a Cotton Field in Northwestern China: Effects of Plastic Mulching and Drip Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northwestern China, there has been a change from traditional cultivation system (TC) with no mulching and flood irrigation to a more modern cultivation system (MC) using plastic film mulching with drip irrigation. A field study was conducted to compare soil CO2 concentrations and soil surface CO2 fluxes between TC and MC systems during a cotton growing season. CO2 concentrations

Zhi-Guo LI; Run-Hua ZHANG; Xiu-Jun WANG; Jie-Ping WANG; Cui-Ping ZHANG; Chang-Yan TIAN

2011-01-01

367

Analysis of water consumption using a regional input–output model: Model development and application to Zhangye City, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a regional input–output model, we developed a method to identify the relationships between production activities and the related water consumption, as well as the relationships established between different sectors concerning water resources (i.e. indirect consumption). This method is applied to Zhangye City, an arid area of northwestern China that is characterized by water shortages. Our results confirm that

Y. Wang; H. L. Xiao; M. F. Lu

2009-01-01

368

Northwestern University Initiative for Teaching NanoSciences (NUITNS): An Approach for Teaching Computational Chemistry to Engineering Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Northwestern University Initiative for Teaching Nanosciences (NUITNS) at nanohub.org Web site combines several tools for doing electronic structure calculations and analyzing and displaying the results into a coordinated package. In this article, we describe this package and show how it can be used as part of an upper-level quantum chemistry…

Simeon, Tomekia; Aikens, Christine M.; Tejerina, Baudilio; Schatz, George C.

2011-01-01

369

Petrology of Cretaceous coals from northwestern Alaska. Semi-annual progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Coal of the Cretaceous age from northwestern Alaska has been sampled, crushed and pelletized for reflectivity measurement and petrographic examination. Reflectance measurements have been completed on 21 samples. The samples (300) were obtained from seismic shotholes, Auger holes, test wells and by channel sampling. (LTN)

Rao, P.D.

1981-03-01

370

Culture, Climate and the Environment: Local Knowledge and Perception of Climate Change among Apple Growers in Northwestern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human societies in mountainous areas have evolved specific ways of dealing with the constraints imposed by the environment. A number of anthropological studies have documented the existence of practices that can be considered adaptive in the context of mountain environments. In this paper, I present a case study of a society in transition, in the northwestern Himalayas of India, in

Neeraj Vedwan

371

Evolutionary rates of the Triassic marine macrofauna and sea-level changes: Evidences from the Northwestern Caucasus, Northern Neotethys (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse Triassic marine macrofauna from the Northwestern Caucasus sheds new light on the biotic evolution after the end-Permian mass extinction. In the early Mesozoic, the study area was located on the northern margin of the Neotethys Ocean. Data on stratigraphic ranges of 130 genera of brachiopods, bivalves, ammonoids, corals, and sponges have been used to calculate the changes in

Dmitry A. Ruban

2008-01-01

372

Active tectonics and fault interactions in the Ghab Valley pull-apart basin (Dead Sea fault system) in northwestern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the northern Dead Sea fault system (DSFS) in northwestern Syria, the left-lateral transform splays into two distinct faults bounding the 70 km long Ghab Valley. Plate tectonic models predict 4 - 7 mm\\/yr of slip along this part of the transform, although recent GPS results from Syria suggest slower rates of faulting. Historical records document the occurrence of large

F. Gomez; Y. Radwan; A. Darkal

2007-01-01

373

Major changes in ice stream dynamics during deglaciation of the north-western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victoria Island lies at the north-western limit of the former North American (Laurentide) Ice Sheet in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and displays numerous cross-cutting glacial lineations. Previous work suggests that several ice streams operated in this region during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation and played a major role in ice sheet dynamics and the delivery of icebergs into the Arctic Ocean.

Chris R. Stokes; Chris D. Clark; Robert Storrar

2009-01-01

374

Subglacial hydrology in north-western germany during the last glaciation: groundwater flow, tunnel valleys and hydrological cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical modelling of groundwater dynamics in an overpressured system of subglacial aquifers and aquitards under the marginal portion of the Scandinavian ice sheet in northwestern Germany has been coupled with calculations of basal meltwater production rates and with field evidence of meltwater erosional features. Largely fine-grained subglacial sediments with relatively low hydraulic conductivities had a capacity to drain only about

Jan A. Piotrowski

1997-01-01

375

Complex yessotoxins profile in Protoceratium reticulatum from north-western Adriatic sea revealed by LC–MS analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the occurrence of yessotoxin (YTX) has been reported worldwide from Protoceratium reticulatum, the biogenetic origin of some YTX analogues is still unknown, thus raising an issue whether they are metabolites of YTX formed in mussels or true products of different dinoflagellate species. Findings reported herein suggest that P. reticulatum from the north–western Adriatic sea is responsible for production, together

Patrizia Ciminiello; Carmela Dell'Aversano; Ernesto Fattorusso; Martino Forino; Silvana Magno; Franca Guerrini; Rossella Pistocchi; Laurita Boni

2003-01-01

376

Benthos and zooplankton of coal strip mine ponds in the mountains of northwestern Colorado, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton, benthos and associated physico-chemical conditions were sampled in coal strip-mine ponds in northwestern Colorado from June 1977 to May 1978. Two spoils ponds derived all of their drainage from the coal mine, but differed in age; one pond received only partial drainage from mine spoils; a control pond was located in an adjacent drainage basin. Acid mine drainage was

Steven P. Canton; James V. Ward

1981-01-01

377

Soldiers and booze: The rise and decline of a Roman market economy in north-western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the importance of the Roman military for the development of a market economy in north-western Europe. Distributions of low denomination coins show how the Roman arrival kick-started a local market economy. Additionally settlement densities of fluvial catchments are used as a proxy for economic development. Our newly constructed dataset of settlement sizes shows a high correlation with

Eltjo Buringh; Jan Luiten van Zanden; Maarten Bosker

2012-01-01

378

Concept Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

Vaidya, Narendera

379

Morpho-tectonic analysis of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems on the Northwestern Plateau, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the morpho-tectonic evolution of the drainage system in the Northwestern Plateau in Ethiopia dominated by the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile. The Northwestern Plateau is underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks, followed by Mesozoic sedimentary section and topped with Oligocene-Quaternary volcanic rocks. The plateau is bounded in the east and southeast by the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift, respectively. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are analyzed to extract morpho-tectonic parameters including the Normalized Steepness Index (Ksn), the Concavity (?) and the Regression Fit (r2) between the observed and predicted channel profiles from the sub-basins and the tributaries of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile. Analysis of these morpho-tectonic parameters has shown that the evolution of the drainage systems on the Northwestern Plateau was influenced by three tectonic and geological events. The first event resulted in a broad and regional uplift of the plateau, most likely due to the rise of the Afar mantle plume ˜30 Ma. This regional uplift was accompanied by moderate incision rate of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems within the entire Northwestern Plateau. The second event, which was in the form of shield volcanoes build-up, occurred at ˜22 Ma and resulted in localized increase in the incision rate around these volcanoes. The third event is manifested by rift-flank uplift at ˜11 Ma on the western escarpments of the Afar Depression and the northwestern escarpments of the Main Ethiopian Rift. This event resulted in an increase in the incision rate of the Tekeze River and the Blue Nile drainage systems, but this increase seems to diminish towards the west and northwest leaving the drainage systems in the lower reaches of the two rivers relatively tectonically undisturbed, hence allowing for the establishment of a long-lived hydrological stability.

Ismail, Elamin H.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

2012-07-01

380

Advancing Integration Through Evidence Informed Practice: Northwestern Health Sciences University's Integrated Educational Model  

PubMed Central

A consistent theme running through the healthcare debate is the need for new care models that include collaborative, team-based care. There is also growing recognition that interprofessional education is critical to achieving collaborative, patient-centered care. Not unlike conventional, biomedical professions, CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) professions have also educated students in silos with little interaction between various disciplines. Northwestern Health Sciences University, under their NIH NCCAM-funded R-25 grant, is breaking new ground in requiring that their students in chiropractic, massage, and OAM complete a common course in evidence informed practice. A previous Explore column described the core competencies that the students are required to achieve. This column focuses on the practicalities and challenges of offering a course to students enrolled in three different degree programs. Perhaps it will stimulate readers to consider how we might achieve interprofessional education that brings together all health professional students, biomedical and CAM.

Taylor, Barry; Delagran, Louise; Baldwin, Lori; Hanson, Linda; Leininger, Brent; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni; Jo Kreitzer, Mary; Sierpina, Victor

2012-01-01

381

Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China with descriptions of nine new species (Acari, Eriophyoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China were studied herein. Up to now, only six species have been reported from Qinghai Province. In field surveys, 17 eriophyoid mite species were collected, among which nine species were found new to science. The new species and their host plants are listed as follows: Acaphyllisa tuberculumae sp. n. on Populus sp. (Salicaceae); Proiectus xiningensis sp. n. on Pinus sp. (Pinaceae); Phyllocoptes beishaniensis sp. n. on Spiraea mongolica Maxim. (Rosaceae); Tetra pruniana sp. n. on Prunus tomentosa Thunb. (Rosaceae) Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Tetra pyriana sp. n. on Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Rosaceae); Tetra simonia sp. n. on Populus simonii Carr. (Salicaceae); Diptacus berberinus sp. n. on Berberis amurensis Rupr. (Berberidaceae); Diptacus mengdaensis sp. n. on Lonicera elisae Franch. (Caprifoliaceae); Rhyncaphytoptus spinus sp. n. on Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms. (Caprifoliaceae). Aculops ulmi Hong & Xue, 2005 was re-described.

Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

2012-01-01

382

Picocyanobacterial abundances and diversity in surface water of the northwestern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand picocyanobacterial distribution patterns in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, their abundances and genetic diversity were studied using flow cytometry and a barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing approach. At open ocean stations affected by the North Equatorial Current, Prochlorococcus was the predominant picocyanobacteria, and a high-light-adapted ecotype (HLII) made up most of the population. In contrast, at stations in shelf areas of the East China Sea (ECS) and South Sea, Synechococcus was the predominant picocyanobacteria and clade II was dominant. At other ECS stations affected by the Kuroshio Current, both Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus made up similar proportions of the picocyanobacterial community. These results indicate that picocyanobacterial diversity differs among oceanic regions, and that physicochemical properties related to dominant water masses, seem to be important in determining picocyanobacterial diversity.

Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Lee, Charity Mijin

2011-12-01

383

Segmentation and coalescence of Cenozoic carbonate platforms, northwestern Great Bahama Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic profiles over the northwestern Great Bahama Bank reveal that it is formed by the coalescence of three smaller platforms and significant lateral progradation. This conclusion is contrary to previous models which assumed that the bank is the result of continuous accumulation on one huge buildup. In Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time, a north-south-trending depression, the Straits of Andros, separated an eastern platform, Andros bank, from a western platform, Bimini bank. Initially, the Straits of Andros had dimensions similar to the modem Tongue of the Ocean but was progressively filled from east to west In early(?) to middle Tertiary time, a second depression, the Bimini embayment, formed within Bimini bank by folding; it had a maximum depth of about 470 m. This depression was also filled from east to west. In addition, prograding systems built the western margin of Bimini bank more than 25 km westward into the Straits of Florida.

Eberli, Gregor P.; Ginsburg, Robert N.

1987-01-01

384

Ecological niche of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey on cephalopods exclusively or preferentially. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niche using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as close offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their ecological niches.

Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

2007-10-01

385

Ecological niches of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey exclusively or preferentially on cephalopods. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niches using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as the closest offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their habitats.

Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

2008-02-01

386

Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

2012-04-01

387

Improvement of coastal and mesoscale observation from space: Application to the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

present an innovative approach to the generation of remotely sensed high-resolution sea surface topography that improves coastal and mesoscale dynamic characterization. This new method is applied for the period 2002-2010 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, an area marked by a small Rossby radius. The spectral content of the new mapped data is closer to that of the along-track signal and displays higher levels of energy in the mesoscale bandwidth with the probability distribution of the new velocity fields 30% closer to drifter estimations. The fields yield levels of eddy kinetic energy 25% higher than standard altimetry products, especially over regions regularly impacted by mesoscale instabilities. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative comparisons with drifters, glider, and satellite sea surface temperature observations further confirm that the new altimetry product provides, in many cases, a better representation of mesoscale features (more than 25% improvement in correlation with glider data during an experiment).

Escudier, Romain; Bouffard, JéRôMe; Pascual, Ananda; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pujol, Marie-Isabelle

2013-05-01

388

Epidemiology of human brucellosis in a defined area of Northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

Despite a European co-financial programme for control and eradication of brucellosis in Southern Europe, there is evidence that foci of brucellosis still exists in Greece and other Southern European countries. Human brucellosis cases are probably underreported in these countries. A local surveillance system was implemented in a defined region of Northwestern Greece, in order to record and study all human brucellosis cases, using several sources of retrieval. A total of 152 newly diagnosed cases were recorded during a 2-year study period (from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2004). The age- and sex-adjusted mean annual incidence rate for the population of the study area was 17.3 cases/10(5) inhabitants. Incomplete application of the control and eradication programme in livestock, and the possible illegal trafficking of animals and their products across the Greek-Albanian border could be responsible for the persistence of foci of brucellosis in the area. PMID:16181512

Avdikou, I; Maipa, V; Alamanos, Y

2005-10-01

389

Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

1984-07-01

390

Acadian remobilization of a Taconian ophiolite, Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfoundland  

SciTech Connect

The Hare Bay fault is a major subhorizontal detachment at the base of the ophiolitic St. Anthony Complex in the Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfounland. The fault is a postmetamorphic brittle detachment that truncates footwall structures related to both initial Ordovician (Taconian) assembly of the allochthon and subsequent Silurian-Devonian (Acadian) deformation. Although previously mapped as a thrust, the fault has an extensional rather than a contractional geometry; it cuts downsection to the west in the direction of transport, and it juxtaposes a hanging-wall sequence that contains little or no Acadian deformation against a footwall sequence that was pervasively deformed during the Acadian orogeny. The St. Anthony Complex lies on the western margin of the Acadian deformed zone. Its final emplacement, through movement on the Hare Bay fault, probably occurred through extensional faulting during gravitational collapse of the Acadian mountain front.

Cadwood, P.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns's (Canada))

1989-03-01

391

The first radiocarbon data of bone remains of mammoth faunal forms in northwestern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike in the neighboring territories, the distribution and the period of habitation of late Pleistocene mammoth complex animals in the northwestern area of Russia had not been studied until recently. This article fills in this gap using the bone material from the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the collections of one of the authors. The samples of 14 bones and teeth of big mammals uncovered in different places of the region were dated. The data obtained by conventional 14C method and AMS method agree with each other and make it possible to determine two periods of habitation of mammoth complex animals in the region: 39 000-23 000 years ago and 13 000-9800 years ago, which confirms that ice-free landscapes existed here at these time intervals.

Nikonov, A. A.; van der Plicht, J.

2010-05-01

392

Holocene vegetation histories from three sites in the Tundra of Northwestern Quebec, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Two pollen diagrams from lakes north of treeline in northwestern Quebec indicate that Picea never extended north of its present-day limit during the past 6000 yr BP. Alnus crispa was slightly more abundant around 5000 BP, but there are few major changes in the vegetation of the region during the Holocene. A third site in the tundra along Hudson Bay has a slightly longer sequence (7000 yr BP) which indicates more open conditions in the early and recent part of the record. Picea may have been more abundant locally around 3000 BP. Few major changes in these diagrams can be unequivocally attributed to local changes in plant abundance; changes in tree and shrub pollen abundance parallel those seen south of treeline.

Gajewski, K. (Univ. d'Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Garralla, S.

1992-11-01

393

Fertility conditions in Gondar, northwestern Ethiopia: an appraisal of current status.  

PubMed

In order to study current fertility conditions, this study examines the sociocultural, economic, and demographic characteristics of 734 women aged 15-55 in the Gondar administrative region of northwestern Ethiopia. Women over age 45 in the sample were found to have, on average, 7.27 pregnancies, 0.88 abortions, 6.39 children ever-born, 1.51 child deaths, and 4.88 live offspring. The total infertility rate was 8.5 percent, and the subfertility rate was 12.7 percent. Fertility levels in the region were relatively high, compared to other developing countries. Contraceptive use was estimated at 3.6 per 1,000 women (for ages 15-49). The need for more effective family planning services is strongly indicated. The study suggests that, among other goals, policy efforts should focus on the reduction of unintended conception and unwanted fertility. PMID:2353363

Haile, A

394

Plate tearing in the northwestern corner of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) simultaneously subducts northwestward and collides eastward with the Eurasian Plate (EU) in northeast Taiwan. These two tectonic events induce high seismic activity, which makes northeastern Taiwan one of the most seismically active zones in the world. To understand the mechanical processes at work, we used existing geophysical data and the aftershocks recorded following a recent large strike-slip event occurring within the PHS oceanic crust. During this event, a NW–SE trending left-lateral sub-parallel to the PHS/EU convergence vector was active. As a consequence of the collision/subduction plate geometry, we show that the lithosphere of the northwestern corner of the PHS has been torn in a NW–SE orientation. This tectonic feature is associated with an abrupt tectonic stress boundary and could generate large intra-plate earthquakes.

Lin, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Lee, Chao-Shing; Liang, Chin-Wei

2013-07-01

395

Abundance patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles argyritarsis in northwestern Argentina.  

PubMed

Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is an important malaria vector in Argentina but the role of Anopheles argyritarsis in the transmission of the parasite is still unknown. Abundance patterns of both species and their relationship to climatic variables were studied in the subtropical mountainous forest in northwestern Argentina. Adults were collected with CDC light traps from September 2002 to November 2005 in Salta (northern area) and Tucumán (southern area) provinces, from 3 localities in each province. The abundance of both species in localities was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and their changes in abundance in relation to climatic variables were analyzed by Multilevel Poisson Regression. Anopheles argyritarsis was more abundant than A. pseudopunctipennis, and both reached a peak during the spring. There were significant differences in abundance in the northern localities for A. pseudopunctipennis, and between northern and southern localities for A. argyritarsis. Temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were significant predictors of the abundance of these two species. PMID:20398619

Dantur Juri, María Julia; Claps, Guillermo Luis; Santana, Mirta; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

2010-04-14

396

Historical pattern and mass balance of trace metals in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea Shelf.  

PubMed

In view of the recent action in Marine Strategy Framework Directive, reconstructing the history of anthropogenic metal inputs and calculating the budgets for the northwestern part of the Italian Adriatic basin can provide a benchmark for comparison with new evidences and enlighten recent environmental changes. Among the metals, the attention was focused on Pb and Zn, as they provide the most significant anthropogenic signals. In 1988, areal distributions clearly identified the Po, Adige and Brenta rivers as the main sources of contaminants. The study area was divided in three compartments. The area in front of the Po delta represented a sink for metals but the accumulation of Zn and Pb integrated over the entire study area suggests an effective export throughout southern boundary. Most concentration-depth/year profiles in cores showed an upward increase from the Italian Unification (1861), with a still significant anthropogenic supply at the time of sampling. PMID:24119313

Romano, Stefania; Langone, Leonardo; Frignani, Mauro; Albertazzi, Sonia; Focaccia, Paola; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Ravaioli, Mariangela

2013-10-09

397

Difference of mercury bioaccumulation in red mullets from the north-western Mediterranean and Black seas.  

PubMed

The relationships between total mercury (Hg) concentration and stable nitrogen isotope ratio (delta(15)N) were evaluated in Mullus barbatus barbatus and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea and M. barbatus ponticus from the Black Sea. Mercury concentration in fish muscle was six times higher in the two Mediterranean species than in the Black Sea one for similar sized animals. A positive correlation between Hg concentration and delta(15)N occurred in all species. Increase in Hg concentration with delta(15)N was high and similar in the two Mediterranean fishes and much lower in the Black Sea species. Since this was neither related to trophic level difference between species nor to methylmercury (MeHg) concentration differences between the north-western Mediterranean and the Black Sea waters, we suggested that the higher primary production of the Black Sea induced a dilution of MeHg concentration at the base of the food webs. PMID:19201429

Harmelin-Vivien, M; Cossa, D; Crochet, S; B?naru, D; Letourneur, Y; Mellon-Duval, C

2009-02-07

398

On the wet and dry deposition of ionic species in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants, northwestern Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainwater and deposited particle samples were collected for 1 year (October 2000 October 2001), at two sites in the area of “Eordaia Basin”, northwestern Greece, where four lignite-burning power units (total capacity 4000 MW) are operated. The samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. pH and conductivity measurements were conducted only for rain samples. The lowest rain pH values measured at the two sites (S1 and S2) were 4.15 and 5.20 respectively. 40 50% of rain samples at both sites showed pH values in the acidic area (mean values: 5.13 and 5.99 respectively). The quantification of the neutralization effect of the alkaline ions showed the prevalence role of Ca, followed by NH4, Na and Mg. Wet and dry ionic concentrations and deposition fluxes showed considerable variability between the sites with higher values for Ca and SO4 for both sites. This could be partly attributed to the strong influence of the local emissions. Fly ash, produced in huge amounts, is the major source for Ca and SO4 in the area even at the site of Vegoritida (S2), which is a pure remote site located out of the main wind flow of the basin. The relative contribution of wet and dry to the total annual deposition for the site of Petrana (S1) is 45% and 55% respectively for SO4, 41% and 59% for NO3 and 41% and 59% for Ca. Contrary, for Vegoritida site (S2) the wet deposition is the main contributor to the total, by 60 80%, for the majority of the species. The difference between the two site environments could be explained by the different local source effect, which is more obvious to dry deposition of the nearest to power plants site of Petrana. Additionally, the application of principal component analysis confirmed the different formation patterns for rain and dust and considerable difference in source emission impact between the sites.

Tsitouridou, R.; Anatolaki, Ch.

2007-01-01

399

Subsurface new production in the northwestern subtropical North Pacific fueled by nutrients from the Subtropical Mode Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial sustained subsurface new production during summer in the northwestern subtropical North Pacific is demonstrated, with its mechanism being proposed, based on observation by a profiling float and a synoptic survey by a research vessel. The profiling float equipped with a fluorometer, a dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor, and temperature and salinity sensors was deployed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) formation region. It acquired quasi-Lagrangian, 5-day-interval time-series records from March to July 2006. The time-series distribution of chlorophyll showed a sustained and sizable subsurface maximum at 50-100 m, just above the upper boundary of the STMW, throughout early summer (May-July). The DO concentration in the lower euphotic zone (50-100 m) had been supersaturated in the same period but did not show a net increment. On the other hand, the DO concentration at 100-150 m near the upper edge of the STMW, which was below the euphotic zone, decreased very slightly, in spite of expected oxygen consumption by organisms at least as large as that appearing at 150-300 m. These small temporal variations of dissolved oxygen in the lower euphotic zone and near the upper edge of the STMW are explained by downward oxygen transport due to large diffusion near the top of the STMW. The estimated diffusivity based on an assumption of the large downward transport of oxygen is 1.5 × 10-4 m-2 s-1. The upward nitrate transport into the euphotic zone by the same diffusion is estimated to be 0.7 mmol N m-2 d-1 with using vertical profiles of nitrates obtained by ship-board measurements in the vicinity of the float. Assuming all of the transported nitrate be used for photosynthesis by the phytoplankton, the net community production is estimated to be 4.8 mmol C m-2 d-1. The large diffusivity near the top of the STMW is possibly associated with an abrupt decrease in buoyancy frequency there, which may prevents downward transmission of internal waves generated in the surface mixed layer by atmospheric disturbances and may enhance eddy diffusivity. That is, STMW possibly acts as not only a reservoir of nutrients but also a feeding device. Further examination of the existence of the large subsurface new production and its mechanism is under way based on observations by other profiling floats and simulation of wind-induced internal wave energy transfer.

Suga, T.; Sukigara, C.; Saino, T.; Toyama, K.; Yanagimoto, D.; Hanawa, K.; Shikama, N.; Tsubono, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Hosoda, S.; Hibiya, T.; Furuichi, N.

2010-12-01

400

Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi- or B. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak-woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host-targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi.

Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Mun, Jeomhee; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Lane, Robert S.

2008-01-01

401

Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi- or B. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak-woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host-targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi. PMID:20514140

Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Mun, Jeomhee; Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

2009-06-01

402

Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, M. D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Schweig, E. S.; Harmsen, S. C.; Gomberg, J. S.

2004-01-01

403

Birds and their ticks in northwestern California: minimal contribution to Borrelia burgdorferi enzootiology.  

PubMed

Birds and their attendant ticks were surveyed for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California from March to July, 1998 to 1999. In total, 234 birds were captured and recaptured (15%); nearly 2.5 times more birds were captured in chaparral than in woodland-grass. Overall, 34 species representing 15 families were collected during this study; of these, 24 species were caught in chaparral, 19 in woodland-grass, and 9 in both vegetational types. The most frequently captured birds were sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli) in chaparral, and American robins (Turdus migratorius) and oak titmice (Baelophus inornatus) in woodland-grass. Birds hosted 35 Ixodes pacificus (15 larvae, 20 nymphs) and 9 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (3 larvae, 5 nymphs, 1 adult) ticks, of which 32 were removed from chaparral birds and 12 from woodland birds. The prevalence of tick infestation was 13% (21/167) in chaparral and 5% (3/67) in woodland-grass, but the relative and mean tick intensities of 0.19 and 1.5 for chaparral birds, and 0.18 and 4.0 for woodland birds, respectively, did not differ significantly by habitat. Spirochetes were not detected in either bird-blood or tick-tissue samples when tested by culture, immunofluorescence, or Giemsa-staining. In contrast, over 90% (86/94) of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) collected in June or July were infested with an average of 6.9 and 8.9 immature I. pacificus in chaparral and woodland-grass, respectively. We conclude that birds contribute little to the enzootiology of B. burgdorferi in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California because of their limited parasitism by tick vectors and lack of detectable spirochetemias. PMID:11534638

Slowik, T J; Lane, R S

2001-08-01

404

A comparison of hydrocarbon gases from natural sources in the northwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

The northwestern United States hosts a remarkable quantity and variety of thermal springs, seeps, and other natural-gas sources. Although many studies have dealt with the liquids and nonhydrocarbon gases emanating from these sources, few have focused on hydrocarbon gases. Of these gases, methane in particular is now recognized as an important reactive trace gas in the Earth's atmosphere that plays a significant role in global warming because of its greenhouse properties. To understand better the magnitude and occurrence of emissions of hydrocarbons from natural sources to the atmosphere, we have begun a survey of these gases throughout the northwestern United States. This area encompasses a number of different tectonic provinces: The Yellowstone hot spot, the northern Basin and Range Province, the Cascade volcanic arc, and the Cascadia subduction complex. Each province hosts springs and seeps with some unique compositions owing to the geological processes operating there. Methane is present in each area at concentration levels ranging from about 2 parts per million by volume (ppm-v) to 95.6 percent (by volume). Hydrothermal activity in the Yellowstone area produces spring gases containing less than 4 percent methane, with carbon dioxide as the balance gas. The Grand Teton National Park area, immediately to the south, has a wide variety of gas compositions with either methane, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen as the primary gas component. Where methane is abundant, higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases (ethane, ethene, propane, propene, isobutane, and n-butane) are also found in ppm-v concentrations. In the northern Great Basin, thermal springs and seeps typically occur along fault zones at the base of mountain ranges. Methane concentrations range from 0.2 to 47 percent, with higher molecular weight hydrocarbon concentrations from 0 to 3,100 ppm-v. 47 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

405

Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among elder adults and youngsters.

Eyssartier, Cecilia; Ladio, Ana H; Lozada, Mariana

2008-01-01

406

Bacterial Communities from Shoreline Environments (Costa da Morte, Northwestern Spain) Affected by the Prestige Oil Spill? †  

PubMed Central

The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution-affected areas with similar characteristics.

Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaiges, Joan; Jimenez, Nuria; Vinas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M.; Novoa, Beatriz

2009-01-01

407

Silurian K-bentonites in North America and northwestern Europe: A trans-Atlantic comparison  

SciTech Connect

Little published information is available about Silurian K-bentonites in North America, but a few occurrences of such beds are known from the Great lakes region and Nova Scotia. Only a small number of beds are recorded from the former area, but the Nova Scotia occurrences include about 20 beds of Llandoverian age, the most extensive sequence of Silurian K-bentonites known in North America. In contrast, more than 150 K-bentonites occur in the Silurian successions in Baltoscandia and the British Isles. Virtually all beds in North America are of Llandoverian age. There are numerous beds of that age also in Norway, Denmark (Bornholm), the British Isles, and the Swedish mainland but the successions in Estonia, Gotland, and the British Isles also include many K-bentonites of Wenlockian and Ludlovian age. Apparently, no Pridolian beds are known in North America and northwestern Europe. Many graptolite-dated collections from more than 20 sections in Baltoscandia and from many sections in the British Isles suggest that several single beds, or complexes of beds, can be traced regionally and hence have event-stratigraphic potential. The relatively few beds known from North America all occur in biostratigraphic intervals containing K-bentonites in Europe, and it is possible that some of these beds may have a common source. The much larger number of beds in northwestern Europe compared with North America may be taken as an indication that the source area of the European K-bentonites was closer to Baltica than to Laurentia, and probably located somewhere in the northern Iapetus.

Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

408

Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China.  

PubMed

The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. To determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province, north-western China, four ruminant species, one rodent and one tick species were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. DNA from Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected by nested PCR in blood samples from 21/49 sheep (42.9?%), 35/91 goats (38.5?%), 51/158 yaks (32.3?%) and 7/20 cattle-yaks (35.0?%), and in spleen samples from 2/12 rodents (16.7?%). For samples from tick larvae and nymphs, 105 pools were tested; one of 46 larval tick pools was positive and seven of 59 nymphal tick pools were positive. For adult ticks, 40/598 female ticks (6.7?%) and 26/528 male ticks (4.9?%) were positive. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in female ticks was higher than that in males, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strains in the study area were distinct from previously reported Anaplasma phagocytophilum in other continents. These results add new information on the epidemiology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and indicate the tick-animal cycle of anaplasmosis in the area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Gansu Province in north-western China. PMID:23105025

Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Qing; Li, Youquan; Chen, Ze; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

2012-10-25

409

An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

2006-01-01

410

The Cretaceous Petroleum System in the northwest of Argentina  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous Petroleum System is characterized by: Lacustrine - Marine source-rocks (Kerogen type II-III) concentrated in the Upper Cretaceous (Yacoraite Formation, post-rift or sag stage) and distributed in 3 different depocenters. The main fluid found is oil, and not gas because of the low degree of maturity. Short and long migrations could be expected because of the existence of good carrier sandstones. The reservoirs may be sandstones, oolitic limestones and also volcanics. Very good seals can be found in the Yacoraite shales and limestones. The traps can be found in different tectonic environments: inner folded thrust belt, outer folded thrust belt (involving tectonic inversion), and foreland (mainly tensional faulting related with rifting and afterwards inverted movement). All the discovered traps are in anticlines and in many cases have a stratigraphic component. Some traps have been conformed during the Andean Orogeny, and in other cases during the Lower Tertiary.

Mombru, C.; Omil, R.G.; Patricio, M. [S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1996-08-01

411

PREFERENCE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This review concerns political preferences—what they are and where they come from. We begin by documenting the close relationship between processes of preference formation and change. Rather than suddenly appearing, most preferences emerge from interactions between individuals and their environment. This aspect of preference formation poses a concrete challenge: to uncover the mechanics of these interactions in important

James N. Druckman; Arthur Lupia

2000-01-01

412

Formation fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracturing process is described in which a fracture formed in a formation is acid etched near the well and particle propped in the more remote portions of the fracture. A fracture is formed in the formation extending from the well and an acidizing fluid is injected into the fracture, in order to acid etch the walls thereof adjacent to

J. L. Fitch; T. C. Jr. Vogt

1972-01-01

413

Geology and geochemistry of D–O–C isotope systematics of the Qolqoleh gold deposit, Northwestern Iran: Implications for ore genesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qolqoleh gold deposit is located in northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan metamorphic belt, northwestern Iran. Igneous and sedimentary units exposed in the area have undergone greenschist metamorphism. The area was affected by a NE–SW trending shear zone and subsequent deformation. Two different types of mineralization are distinguished in the Qolqoleh gold deposit based on geological–structural conditions indicated by microtextural

Farhang Aliyari; Ebrahim Rastad; Mohammad Mohajjel; Greg B. Arehart

2009-01-01

414

Star Formation During Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young galaxies are clumpy, gas-rich, and highly turbulent. Star formation appears to occur by gravitational instabilities in galactic disks. The high dispersion makes the clumps massive and the disks thick. The star formation rate should be comparable to the gas accretion rate of the whole galaxy, because star formation is usually rapid and the gas would be depleted quickly otherwise. The empirical laws for star formation found locally hold at redshifts around 2, although the molecular gas consumption time appears to be smaller, and mergers appear to form stars with a slightly higher efficiency than the majority of disk galaxies.

Elmegreen, B. G.

2011-11-01

415

A small ichthyosaur from the Clearwater Formation (Alberta, Canada) and a discussion of the taxonomic utility of the pectoral girdle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albian sedimentary successions of northwestern Canada have yielded a diverse assemblage of Mesozoic marine vertebrates, and\\u000a ichthyosaurs form an important component of these faunas. Here, we describe a partial postcranial skeleton of a small (estimated\\u000a at less than 3 m total body length) ichthyosaur from the Wabiskaw Member of the Clearwater Formation (lowermost Albian). The\\u000a semi-articulated specimen includes much of the

Erin E. MaxwellPatrick; Patrick S. Druckenmiller

416

Ambient Seismic Noise Levels of the Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were successfully installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. Both the observatories fill important observational gaps, since no other land site can replace this site. Each observatory has two identical broadband seismometers (Guralp, CMG-1T), which are cemented, near the bottom of the hole. All the necessary power for the WP-1 is supplied from the Lithium Battery System with a capacity of 5.2 kAh. For the WP-2 observatory, the Sea Water Battery (SWB) System mainly supplies the power to the system. Additional lithium batteries were used as a backup system. Both seismometers are operational, but we are operating only one seismometer for both the observatories to reduce the consuming power of the system. The WP-2 observatory was activated in October 2000 using an ROV KAIKO. In August 2001, the KAIKO re-visited the WP-2 site. From the first observation, we obtained about three-months continuous data (Oct. 29th, 2000 - Jan. 27th, 2001). The KAIKO visited the WP-2 site again in June 2002 and approximately eleven-months continuous data (Aug. 3rd, 2001 - Jun. 29th, 2002) were retrieved for second observation period. The KAIKO also recovered the monitoring data for the SWB system. It was confirmed that the SWB system continued working for almost one year. The observation at the WP-1 was started from March 2002. We now have the preliminary data (about 20 minutes long) from during the ROV dive for the activation. A re-visit of the WP-1 site is planned in October 2002. The long-term variations of broadband seismic noise spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz) in the northwestern Pacific Basin were revealed. The noise level above 10 s is stable all the year round. The vertical component of the WP-2 has the noise level about -145 db (re: 1 m**2/s**4/Hz). The noise level of the horizontal component in the WP-2 is lower than that of the vertical component (-160 db above 100 s). Because there is a possibility that this vertical sensor has damage, we activated the alternative seismometer and shut down the sensor that had been used during the previous ROV visit. Due to the low seismic noise environment, many events were recorded in the records. It is found that the noise level of the vertical sensor at the WP-1 reaches -180 db between 10 s and 100 s from the preliminary data.

Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.; Shiobara, H.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Mikada, H.; Fukao, Y.

2002-12-01

417

Geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, northwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper geologic map of the western part of the Cut Bank 1 degrees x 2 degrees quadrangle, northwestern Montana (Harrison and others, 1998) was digitized and initially attributed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) and remitted to the U.S. Geological Survey for further attribution and publication of the geospatial digital files. The resulting digital geologic map GIS can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geological maps.

compiled by Harrison, J. E.; Whipple, J. W.; Lidke, D. J.; digital database by Kayser, Helen Z.; Miller, Robert J.

1998-01-01

418

The nature and location of gassy sediment sections in the continental shelf and slope in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf and upper slope gassy sediments are a pervasive phenomena and an important consideration relative to engineering and acoustic activities on the sea floor. An examination of seismic data from over a thousand M.M.S. geohazard reports and core logs of 1,670 foundation boreholes drilled to an average subbottom depth of 125 m on

William Bryant

2003-01-01

419

Toxicity Assessment of Sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal in Northwestern Indiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal\\u000a located in northwestern Indiana, USA. Toxicity tests used in this assessment included 10-day sediment exposures with the amphipod\\u000a Hyalella azteca, 31-day sediment exposures with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, and the Microtox® Solid-Phase Sediment Toxicity Test. A total of 30

C. G. Ingersoll; D. D. MacDonald; W. G. Brumbaugh; B. T. Johnson; N. E. Kemble; J. L. Kunz; T. W. May; N. Wang; J. R. Smith; D. W. Sparks; D. S. Ireland

2002-01-01

420

Non-marine successions in the northwestern part of Kyongsang Basin (Early Cretaceous): Fluvial styles and stratigraphic architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-marine successions in the northwestern part of Kyongsang Basin (Early Cretaceous) are divided into successive stratigraphic\\u000a units based on facies assemblages and architecture of sandstone bodies. In the present study, two stratigraphic units (Sinpyong-Anpyong\\u000a and Jotap units) are documented in detail in terms of fluvial architecture. The Sinpyong-Anpyong unit is divided into thick\\u000a sandstone, thin sandstone, and mudstone-dominated bodies, representing

Hyung Rae Jo

2003-01-01

421

The late Quaternary sedimentary infill of Lake Annecy (northwestern Alps): an overview from two seismic-reflection surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentary fill of Lake Annecy (northwestern Alps) - related to the last glacial\\/post-glacial episode - was investigated through high resolution (sparker) and very high resolution (2.5 kHz) seismic-reflection surveys. A seismostratigraphic approach led to subdivision of a 150 m-thick pile (maximum thickness in axial part) into five units. Basal units (1 and 2) represent an imbrication of subglacial and

Christian Beck; Pieter Van Rensbergen; Marc De Batist; Fernand Berthier; Serge Lallier; Frédéric Manalt

2001-01-01

422

Factors controlling the evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt, northwestern Gulf of Mexico, determined from numerical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Perdido Fold Belt (PFB) is a prominent salt-cored deep water structure in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. It is characterized by symmetric, kink-banded folds of a ?4.5 km thick prekinematic layer and its vicinity to the extensive Sigsbee Salt Canopy. We use 2-D finite element numerical models to study the evolution of the PFB as a gravity-driven fold belt

Sofie Gradmann; Christopher Beaumont; Markus Albertz

2009-01-01

423

Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never

Scott L. Stephens; Danny L. Fry; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaíno

424

Morphologic expression of Quaternary deformation in the northwestern foothills of the Ysyk-Köl basin, Tien Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tien Shan is one of the most active intracontinental mountain belts exhibiting numerous examples of Quaternary fault-related folding. To provide insight into the deformation of the Quaternary intermontane basins, the territory of the northwestern Ysyk-Köl region, where the growing Ak-Teke Anticline divided the piedmont apron of alluvial fans, is studied. It is shown that the Ak-Teke Hills are a

A. M. Korjenkov; I. E. Povolotskaya; E. Mamyrov

2007-01-01

425

Geochemistry of the 755 Ma Mundine Well dyke swarm, northwestern Australia: Part of a Neoproterozoic mantle superplume beneath Rodinia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for dolerite samples from the Neoproterozoic (755Ma) Mundine Well dyke swarm in northwestern Australia. These dolerites are tholeiitic in composition, crystallised from a common parental magma. Although the dolerite magma underwent varying degrees of crustal contamination during ascent and emplacement, the uncontaminated parental melt possessed geochemical and Nd isotopic characteristics, such as Nb\\/La?1.5,

Xian-Hua Li; Zheng-Xiang Li; Michael T. D. Wingate; Sun-Lin Chung; Ying Liu; Guang-Chun Lin; Wu-Xian Li

2006-01-01

426

Importance of Prairie Wetlands and Avian Prey to Breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Northwestern North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) is documented widely in North America, but not in the vast northern Great Plains. During spring through early summer 1986-1987, I recorded 2,900 prey items at 22 Great Horned Owl nesting areas in the prairie pothole farm- and rangelands of northwestern North Dakota. The owls relied heavily on wetland-dependent prey species (overall,

Robert K. Murphy

427

Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

2011-09-01

428

Circumglobal wave train and the summer monsoon over northwestern India and Pakistan: the explicit role of the surface heat low  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism.

Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

2010-08-01

429

The effects of climatic warming on the properties of boreal lakes and streams at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A period of prolonged warmer, drier-than-normal weather in northwestern Ontario during the 1970s and 1980s resulted in severe forest fires that caused dramatic changes to lake and stream catchments. The changed interactions of weather with catchments and hydrological processes caused unexpected changes in physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes and streams. Permanent first-order streams became ephemeral. Flows at spring

David W. Schindler; Suzanne E. Bayley; Brian R. Parker; Ken G. Beaty; Dana R. Cruikshank; Everett J. Fee; Eva U. Schindler; Michael P. Stainton

430

A stable oxygen, but not carbon, isotope chronology of Callitris columellaris reflects recent climate change in north-western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the dendroclimatic potential of stable carbon (?13C) and oxygen (?18O) abundances in tree rings of Callitris columellaris F. Muell. Tree-ring chronologies were constructed from the central Pilbara, north-western Australia and span 1919–1999. Variation\\u000a in ?18O was more strongly related to climate than ?13C; ecological and physiological factors may have dampened the climate signal in the ?13C chronology. Tree-ring

Louise E. Cullen; Pauline F. Grierson

2007-01-01

431

Analysis of the non-native flora of Ensenada, a fast growing city in northwestern Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanized areas show a high proportion of non-native plants and can work as dispersal points to the surrounding areas. Ensenada\\u000a is a fast growing city located in the northwestern peninsula of Baja California (Mexico). It is the southern extreme of a\\u000a bi-national, coastal urban corridor that extends from Los Angeles, California south to Ensenada. This corridor is part of\\u000a the

Pedro P. Garcillán; Jon P. Rebman; Francisco Casillas

2009-01-01

432

Climatic response of thick leaf spruce ( Picea crassifolia) tree-ring width at different elevations over Qilian Mountains, northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring cores of thick leaf spruce (Picea crassifolia) taken from four sites at different elevations, in the middle of the Qilian Mountains, in the arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, were used to develop four tree-ring width chronologies using standard dendrochronological methods. Results indicate that with increasing altitude the chronologies’ year-to-year variations decreased. Hence, the sensitivity of the tree-ring

X. Gou; F. Chen; M. Yang; J. Li; J. Peng; L. Jin

2005-01-01

433

Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City (United States))

1993-09-01

434

Integrated geophysical evidence for a new style of continent-continent collision beneath the western Kunlun in the northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the western Kunlun-Tarim-Tianshan geoscience transect in the northwestern China, an integrated geophysical investigation\\u000a was carried out. Owing to the abominable natural conditions there, the sounding profile could not cross the whole transect,\\u000a consequentially, a variety of velocity structures in the transverse and vertical orientations beneath the whole transect were\\u000a not obtained, such as the case within the western Kunlun

Rizheng He; Rui Gao; Qiusheng Li; Ye Guan

2009-01-01

435

Diversity dynamics and mass extinctions of the Early–Middle Jurassic foraminifers: A record from the Northwestern Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early–Middle Jurassic foraminiferal assemblages of the Northwestern Caucasus, including a total of 315 species and 68 genera, were analysed to establish the principal diversity patterns at substage level of resolution. An overall conclusion is that the number of species varied significantly in contrast to the number of genera. The most diversified were Late Sinemurian–Pliensbachian, Late Toarcian–Early Aalenian, and Late

Dmitry A. Ruban; Jaros?aw Tyszka

2005-01-01

436

Tropical cyclones as a possible factor affecting seismic activity in the cyclonic zone of the northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible influence of tropical cyclones on seismic activity in the cyclonic zone of the northwestern Pacific is considered.\\u000a There is no direct and sufficiently reliable method for calculating the degree of impact of tropical cyclones on the Earth’s\\u000a crust. Therefore, a sort of inverse problem is solved in the investigation: a possible qualitative influence of tropical cyclones\\u000a on seismic

M. I. Yaroshevich

2011-01-01

437

Spatial relationships among species, above-ground biomass, N, and P in degraded grasslands in Ordos Plateau, northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We chose five communities, representing a mild to severe gradient of grassland desertification in a semi-arid area of Ordos Plateau, northwestern China, to explore the spatial relationships among plant species, above-ground biomass (AGB), and plant nutrients (N and P). Community 1 (C1) was dominated by Stipa bungeana; Community 2 (C2) by a mix of S. bungeana and the shrub Artemisia

X. Chenga; S. An; B. Li; Y. Liua; S. Liud

438

Impact of a spring phytoplankton bloom on the CO 2 system in the mixed layer of the northwestern North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate modulation of the CO2 system in the mixed layer of the northwestern North Pacific by a spring phytoplankton bloom, we conducted extensive oceanographic observations for two periods (May 13–15 and 24–28, 1999) during the MR99-K02 cruise by the R\\/V Mirai. During the first survey period, we found a patch of typical bloom conditions around lat 44.7°N, long 155.8°E

A. Murata; Y. Kumamoto; C. Saito; H. Kawakami; I. Asanuma; M. Kusakabe; H. Y. Inoue

2002-01-01

439

An Ecosystem Model Coupled with Nitrogen-Silicon-Carbon Cycles Applied to Station A7 in the Northwestern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model based on that of Kishi et al. (2001) has been extended to 15 compartments including silicon and carbon cycles. This model was applied to Station A7 off\\u000a Hokkaido, Japan, in the Northwestern Pacific. The model successfully simulated the observations of: 1. a spring bloom of diatoms;\\u000a 2. large seasonal variations of nitrate and silicate concentrations in the surface

Yasuhiro Yamanaka; Naoki Yoshie; Masahiko Fujii; Maki N. Aita; Michio J. Kishi

2004-01-01

440

Late Quaternary development of the north-western Baltic Proper — Results from the clay-varve investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the project “Late Quaternary development of the north-western Baltic Proper” a total of 36 piston core samples have been collected. The results presented in this study are based on analyses of 7 cores with emphasis on the late glacial part of the sequence.The varved glacial clay sequences have been analyzed for calcareous micro-fossils and mineral magnetic properties as well

Thomas Andrén; Gustav Sohlenius

1995-01-01

441

Indigenous parasitoids (Hymenoptera) attacking Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in native and exotic host plants in Northwestern Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected 16 species of wild and cultivated fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host plants over a 5-year period (1991–1995) in the province of Tucumán, Northwestern Argentina, with the aim of determining: (1) relative abundance and variations in native parasitoid abundance over time, (2) parasitoid associations with C. capitata\\/A. fraterculus host plants, and (3) parasitoid guild composition in native and exotic

Sergio M Ovruski; Pablo Schliserman; Mart??n Aluja

2004-01-01

442

Geomorphology of anomalously high glaciated mountains at the northwestern end of Tibet: Muztag Ata and Kongur Shan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muztag Ata and Kongur Shan massifs represent a significant area of anomalously high topography at the northwestern end of the Tibetan Plateau, rising to >7500 m above sea-level (asl) from the plateau that has an average elevation of ~3500 m asl. These massifs provide an excellent opportunity to test geomorphic concepts, such as the glacial buzz-saw model. Using remote sensing, digital elevation

Yeong Bae Seong; Lewis A. Owen; Chaolu Yi; Robert C. Finkel; Lindsay Schoenbohm

2009-01-01

443

Coping with household food insecurity: a longitudinal and seasonal study among the Otammari in North-Western Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal and seasonal study was designed to examine the relationships between, at one hand, coping with food insecurity and socio-economic characteristics at household level and, at the other hand, food consumption, time allocation and nutritional status at individual level in a unimodal climate in north-western Benin.Body weight of men and women was frequently measured during two consecutive years. Body

Liere van M. J

1993-01-01

444

The North-Western Region of the Black Sea during the 6th and Early 7th Century AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early Byzantine authors knew very little about the north-western region of the Black Sea. 6th- to 7th-century archaeological assemblages display a remarkable polarity of distribution. This has often been viewed as an indication of distinct ethnic groups (Slavs in the north and nomads in the south), but a closer examination of the archaeological record suggests a different interpretation. Burial assemblages

Florin CURTA

2008-01-01

445

COMPARISON OF METHODS USED TO ESTIMATE LAKE EVAPORATION FOR A WATER BUDGET OF LAKE SEMINOLE, SOUTHWESTERN GEORGIA AND NORTHWESTERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four empirical methods for calculating evaporation were compared with calculations of evapo- ration using the energy budget for Lake Seminole, south- western Georgia and northwestern Florida, for April 2000-September 2001. Methods compared were the Priestly-Taylor, Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, and Papa- dakis equations. Evaporation calculated using the energy budget and empirical methods then were compared with estimates published daily by the Georgia

Melinda S. Mosner; Brent T. Aulenbach

2003-01-01

446

The Ecology of Testate Amoebae (Protists) in Sphagnum in North-western Poland in Relation to Peatland Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationship between testate amoebae (Protozoa) communities and the depth to the water table (DWT), pH, conductivity, and microhabitat type in Sphagnum dominated peatlands of north-western Poland and built predictive (transfer function) models for inferring DWT and pH based on the testate amoebae community structure. Such models can be used for peatland monitoring and paleoecology. A total of

Mariusz Lamentowicz; Edward A. D. Mitchell

2005-01-01

447

Chemical changes and fluid-rock interaction in faults of crystalline thrust sheets, northwestern Wyoming, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the degree of fluid-rock interaction in two thrust faults which formed at 4–7 km and 10–12 km depth in crystalline thrust sheets in northwestern Wyoming using whole-rock geochemistry. The fault zones consist of undeformed and unaltered protolith which bounds damaged zones with increased fracture, fault and vein density and chemical alteration, and a fault core comprised of zones

James V. Goddard; James P. Evans

1995-01-01

448

The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy, to sulfosalt-enriched VMS occurrences exhibiting characteristics of vein, diagenetic replacement, and exhalative styles of mineralization, and finally to Cu-Zn-(Co-Au) occurrences with larger and more clearly stratiform orebody morphologies. Occurrences in the middle of the belt are transitional in nature between structurally controlled types of mineralization that formed in a shallow-water, near-arc setting, to those having a more stratiform appearance, formed in a deeper water, rift-basin setting. The geologic setting in the south is consistent with shallow subaqueous emplacement on the flanks of the Alexander terrane. Northward, the setting changes to an increasingly deeper back- or intra-arc rift basin. Igneous activity in the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt is characterized by a bimodal suite of volcanic rocks and a previously unrecognized association with mafic-ultramafic hypabyssal intrusions. Immobile trace and rare earth element (BEE) geochemical data indicate that felsic rocks in the southern portion of the belt are typical calc-alkaline rhyolites, which give way in the middle of the belt to peralkaline rhyolites. Rhyolites are largely absent in the northern part of the belt. Throughout the belt, the capping basaltic rocks have transitional geochemical signatures. Radiogenic isotope data for these rocks are also transitional (basalts and gabbros: ??-Nd = 4-9 and 87Sr/86Sr initial at 215 Ma = 0.7037-0.7074). Together these data are interpreted to reflect variable assimilation of mature island-arc crust by more primitive melts having the characteristics of either mid-ocean ridge (MORB) or intraplate (within-plate) basalts (WPB). The ore and host-rock geochemistry and the sulfosalt-rich mineralogy of the deposits are strikingly similar to recent descriptions of active sea-floor hydrothermal (white smoker) systems in back arcs of the southwest Pacific Ocean. These data, in concert with existing faunal ages, record the formation of a belt of VMS deposits

Taylor, C. D.; Premo, W. R.; Meier, A. L.; Taggart, Jr. , J. E.

2008-01-01

449

Age and Correlation of Late Paleoproterozoic Sedimentary Successions in Northwestern Canada and Their Bearing on the Paleogeography of Laurentia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 40 years ago, Fraser et al. (1970) proposed that thick basinal deposits of late Paleoproterozoic age along the western paleo-continental margin of Laurentia might represent the marine, deep-water complement of thinner but broadly correlative terrestrial sandstone deposits preserved today in intracontinental basins of the Canadian shield such as the Hornby Bay, Athabasca and Thelon. These basins exhibit comparable geometry, lithology, stratigraphy and overall paleocurrent patterns, which suggested they were initially co- extensive. Regional paleocurrents derived from crossbedded sandstone units interpreted as braided river deposits are dominantly west-directed in the mid-upper parts of all basins but are variable in the lower parts, supporting distinct initial basins that were later joined by broad fluvial braidplains originating from sources along active orogenic uplands located to the east (e.g. Trans-Hudson orogen). The sediment from these rivers was shunted westward across the craton and ultimately deposited along Laurentia's western margin. Geophysical data suggest that the distal parts of these river systems are preserved in the subsurface of northwestern Canada and are contiguous with fine-grained siliclastic and carbonate rocks of the Wernecke Supergroup and Muskwa Assemblage. One way to test this paleogeographic model is to compare the provenance of different parts of this sedimentary system using detrital zircon geochronology. Previous studies of the Muskwa assemblage (Ross et al. 2001) were compared with data for the Athabasca Group of the Athabasca Basin (Rainbird et al. 2007). A prominent peak of ages between 1.9-1.8 Ga is present in both successions and suggests common provenance from the Trans-Hudson orogen and delivery of detritus to the western margin of Laurentia by a >1000 km long drainage system. Based on correlation of seismic sections, MacLean and Cook (2004) proposed that the Wernecke Supergroup is equivalent to the lower part of the Hornby Bay Group (Sequence A1) in the Hornby Bay Basin. Our recent detrital zircon studies of the Wernecke Supergroup indicate that it correlates with the upper part of the Hornby Bay Group (Sequence A2) based on comparable detrital zircon age profiles, including the presence of a suite of zircons ranging in age from 1660-1620 Ma. Sources for zircons of this age are found in Narakay Volcanic Complex and the East River Formation of Sequence A2. The East River Formation is a carbonate platform succession that thickens and deepens toward the west. Our recent detrital zircon studies permit that it could be a shallow-water correlative of the Gillespie Lake Group (Wernecke Supergroup). Further tests of this correlation will be made by comparing stable isotope stratigraphy of carbonate units and Nd isotopes of mudstone units. A proximal-distal connection between the Hornby Bay-Athabasca-Thelon and the Muskwa-Wernecke would however, require unimpeded delivery of detritus, across several roughly N-S trending orogenic belts, including the ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga Taltson-Thelon orogen, the ca. 1.84 Ga Wopmay orogen and 1.88-1.84 Ga Great Bear and Hottah magmatic zones.

Rainbird, R. H.; Davis, W. J.; Hahn, K.; Furlanetto, F.; Thorkelson, D.

2009-05-01

450

Tissue distribution of selenium and effect of season and age on selenium content in roe deer from northwestern Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare selenium concentrations in different organs of roe deer from northwestern Poland. Samples of liver, kidneys, heart and lungs, collected from 74 roe deer shot during the hunting seasons of 2008-2009 in northwestern Poland, were studied. Selenium concentration in the organs was determined spectrofluorimetrically. Mean selenium concentration was 0.06 µg/g w.w. in the liver, 0.41 µg/g w.w. in the kidneys and 0.05 µg/g w.w. in the heart and lungs. Season had a significant effect on selenium concentration in the liver, kidneys, lungs and heart. In all the organs, the highest selenium concentration was found in spring and the lowest in autumn and winter. All animals studied were deficient in selenium. The low selenium concentration in the liver or heart can disturb their function, and in the future, it may be a factor contributing to the population decline of roe deer in the northwestern part of Poland. PMID:20446055

Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Renata; Hendzel, Diana; B?aszczyk, Barbara; B?kowska, Ma?gorzata

2010-05-06

451

The Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho from COCORP and industry seismic reflection data  

SciTech Connect

COCORP and petroleum industry seismic reflection profiles in northwestern Montana reveal the structure of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt. The Front Ranges consist of thick thrust sheets containing Precambrian Belt Supergroup and Paleozoic miogeoclinal shelf rocks above a thin remnant of Paleozoic rocks and gently westward-dipping North American basement. Interpretation of the seismic data and results from a recent petroleum exploration well suggest that 15-22 km of Precambrian Belt Supergroup sedimentary rocks are present in several thrust plates beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium. Previous hypotheses of a large mass of Paleozoic miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks or slices of crystalline basement located beneath the eastern Purcell anticlinorium do not appear to be supported by the data. The easternmost occurrence of allochthonous basement is interpreted to be in the western part of the anticlinorium near the Montana-Idaho border. Comparison of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in northwestern Montana and southern Canada suggest that a change in the deep structure of the Purcell anticlinorium occurs along strike. The anticlinorium in southern Canada has been interpreted as a hanging-wall anticline that was thrust over the western edge of thick Proterozoic North American basement, whereas in northwestern Montana the anticlinorium appears to consist of a complex series of thrust sheets above highly attenuated North American basement.

Yoos, T.R.; Potter, C.J.; Thigpen, J.L.; Brown, L.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1991-06-01

452

Stable isotopic compositions of carbonates from the Mesoproterozoic Bangemall Group, northwestern Australia.  

PubMed

Marine carbonate rocks from the Mesoproterozoic Bangemall Group of northwestern Australia show little deviation (+/-1.3%) in whole-rock delta 13C(carb)-values about a mean of -0.5%. This narrow range persists despite close sampling (every 10-20 m) through long sections (up to 2500 m) that are geographically widespread (up to 250 km apart), over many depositional environments (supralittoral to outer shelf), sediment sources (stromatolitic bioherms to detrital calcilutites) and rock types (pure limestones to dolomitic shales). The only major excursions from the norm seem related to unusual environmental or post-depositional processes, as they are correlated with large enrichments (to -3%) or depletions (to -16%) in 18O. Relatively heavy delta 13C-values, up to +2.5%, occur in a single bed of brecciated ferruginous dolostone at a single locality; these abnormal values may result from local evaporitic conditions. Limey and shaley nodular dolostones have delta 13C-values as low as -4.3%, probably caused by remineralization of organic matter during late and patchy dolomitization. Most notably, sharp negative excursions in delta 13C, up to -8.4%, occur in bleached kerogen-free rocks with mineral assemblages of dolomite + quartz + calcite +/- tremolite + talc, reflecting isotopic re-equilibration in thick metamorphic aureoles around dolerite intrusions. General environmental variations are minor, with delta 13C-values of peritidal facies tending to be slightly positive whereas those of subtidal facies are slightly negative. There are no strong secular trends, but subtle fluctuations within the range -2 to +l% can be correlated along the northwestern margin of the basin. This resembles the pattern seen in other Mesoproterozoic successions, but is markedly unlike the heavy background (> +5%) and extreme variations (up to l0%) in delta 13C evident in Neoproterozoic successions of similar thickness and environmental setting. Hence, in contrast to the Neoproterozoic, the global rate of organic carbon burial was probably fairly constant during deposition of the Bangemall Group, and perhaps generally during the Mesoproterozoic, as was the redox state of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. PMID:11540130

Buick, R; Des Marais, D J; Knoll, A H

1995-06-20

453

Hydrogeology, model description, and flow analysis of the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer in northwestern Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mississippi River alluvial aquifer underlies a 7,000-square-mile area of the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi, an area locally known as the Delta. The alluvial aquifer is the most heavily pumped aquifer in Mississippi, and wells yielding more than 2,000 gallons per minute are common. About 98 percent of the pumpage from the alluvial aquifer is for agriculture. The sand and gravel that form the alluvial aquifer averages about 110 feet in thickness. The aquifer is confined over most of the Delta, and the upper confining unit averages about 25 feet in thickness. The average depth to water in the alluvial aquifer during fall 1999 was about 25 feet. The alluvial aquifer receives lateral recharge at the western boundary from the Mississippi River and at the eastern boundary from aquifers that directly underlie the Bluff Hills. The alluvial aquifer receives water vertically from precipitation, internal streams and lakes, and locally from the Cockfield and Sparta aquifers where they directly underlie the alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer also discharges water to the underlying aquifers, and during extended periods with no surface runoff, to the Mississippi River and to the internal streams and lakes. The magnitude of recharge from the Mississippi River, precipitation, and internal lakes and streams can vary greatly depending upon hydrologic and climatic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey modular threedimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW, was used to simulate the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer flow system in northwestern Mississippi. The model uses one layer with a rectangular-grid and 1-mile square cells to represent the alluvial aquifer. The model was calibrated and verified by using spring and fall water-level measurements from January 1988 through December 1996. The values of selected model calibration-derived parameters for the alluvial aquifer are hydraulic conductivity, 425 feet per day; specific yield, 0.32; and storage coefficient, 0.016. The model showed that the aquifer lost water from storage at an average rate of 404 cubic feet per second during the 9-year simulation period. During this period, the average pumpage rate was 1,270 million gallons per day (1,980 cubic feet per second). Simulated areal recharge from precipitation averaged 2.6 inches per year (1,360 cubic feet per second). Vertical recharge from the internal streams and lakes and lateral recharge from aquifers underlying the Bluff Hills averaged 113 and 108 cubic feet per second, respectively. Model results indicated that net recharge from the Mississippi River and from aquifers directly underlying the alluvial aquifer was small.

Arthur, J. K.

2001-01-01

454

Secondary salinization and evapotranspiration under mulched drip irrigation condition in Tarim River basin of northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary salinization induced by irrigation has been presented as a crucial threat to agriculture all over the world, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Mulched drip irrigation (MDI), as a new micro-irrigation approach incorporating surface drip irrigation method and film mulching technique, has been widely applied in water scarce regions including Tarim River basin of northwestern China. However, salts are likely to build up in the surface soil due to the deficient leaching water in such an irrigation condition. To explore this new kind of secondary salinization issue, the oasis eco-hydrology experimental research station were established in 2008 in a cotton field of Xinjiang, northwestern China. More than 40,000 soil samples were collected to monitor soil moisture and salinity condition within the 1.5 meter depth. The patterns of soil salinity distribution under MDI along the horizontal direction as well as vertical direction have been explored. The results did show that secondary salinization tends to occur in the experimental field under mulched drip irrigation, and winter flush could leach most soil salt in the root zone into groundwater and keep salt balance to mitigate the soil salinization. Meanwhile, soil salt always migrates with the soil water flux such as irrigation and groundwater recharge. Therefore the understanding of water balance is of great importance for estimating soil salinity accumulation, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is the key process, especially in the semi-arid and arid area. In our study, in order to quantify the relation between salinity balance and water balance, ET were derived from a range of measurement systems including eddy covariance, soil water budget (gravimetric methods, Hydra probe, TDT probe and groundwater table sensor, et al.), sap flow and portable photosynthetic system during cotton growing period. Our study is unique in its focus on ET scale issue ranging from leaf and plant scale to field. The up-scale methods of ET from point measurement to field average status are developed and verified. The characteristics of ET under mulched drip irrigation are analyzed over varied spatial scales.

Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Heping

2013-04-01

455

Airborne thermal data reveal groundwater discharge at the north-western coast of the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vicinity around the Dead Sea heavily relies on groundwater as water resource for the increasing population and agricultural demands. Exact locations and volume of groundwater discharge at the western Dead Sea coast are only partly known and concern terrestrial springs only. Yet, a complete picture of the discharge including increasingly mentioned but unlocalised submarine springs is essential for a sustainable groundwater management of that area. In order to fill this gap we conducted an airborne thermal campaign in 01/2011 over the north-western section of the Dead Sea coast. Based on the thermal contrasts between warmer groundwater and cooler Dead Sea water at that time we identified 72 discharge sites along the north-western coast where thermal data are currently available. We compared these high-resolution thermal data to previously derived thermal satellite-based results and concluded that both show the same discharge characteristics, encompassing two sections in which different spatio-temporal consisting processes occur (1. momentum force of discharging water, 2. local southward directed current or Coriolis force). The high spatial resolution of the airborne thermal data (0.5 m GSD) allowed refining the so far unknown abundance of submarine springs to 6 sites with varying diameters and distances to the coast. More striking were 24 sites, where the thermal data revealed seeping springs. We assumed groundwater discharge from this spring type to be higher than from submarine springs and hence imperative to account for. The main groundwater contribution to the Dead Sea stems from terrestrial springs that we identified at 42 sites. For this main spring type we were able to develop a linear ordinary least square model between in-situ measured spring discharge data and the resulting thermal discharge plume area. This quantitative approach explained 93 % of the observed spring discharge with a coefficient of determination of 0.88 underlining both parameters to have a significant relationship. Based on these results unmonitored discharge sites can now be quantified and can provide a complete quantitative picture of terrestrial groundwater discharge amount from the western coast of the Dead Sea.

Mallast, Ulf; Siebert, Christian; Schwonke, Friedhelm; Gloaguen, Richard; Rödiger, Tino; Geyer, Stefan; Sauter, Martin; Merz, Ralf

2013-04-01

456

Geochemical and geochronological constrains on the Chiang Khong volcanic rocks (northwestern Thailand) and its tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic rocks in northwestern Thailand exposed dominantly in the Chiang Khong area, are commonly considered to be genetically linked to the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The volcanic rocks consist mainly of andesitic to rhyolitic rocks and are traditionally mapped as Permian-Triassic sequences. Our zircon U-Pb geochronological results show that two andesitic samples (TL-1-B and TL-31-B), are representative of the Doi Yao volcanic zone, and give a mean weighted age of 241.2±4.6 Ma and 241.7±2.9 Ma, respectively. The rhyolitic sample (TL-32-B1) from the Doi Khun Ta Khuan volcanic zone erupted at 238.3±3.8 Ma. Such ages indicate that Chiang Khong volcanic rocks erputed during the early Middle Triassic period. Seven samples from the Doi Yao and Doi Khun Ta Khuan zones exhibit an affinity to arc volcanics. Three rhyolitic samples from the Chiang Khong area have a geochemical affinity to both arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks. The Chiang Khong arc volcanic rocks can be geochemically compared with those in the Lampang area in northern Thailand, also consistent with those in Jinghong area of southwestern Yunnan. This indicates that the Chiang Rai arc-volcanic zone might northwardly link to the Lancangjiang volcanic zone in southwestern China.

Qian, Xin; Feng, Qinglai; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Monjai, Denchok

2013-10-01

457

Patients in Northwestern Turkey Prefer Herbs as Complementary Medicine after Breast Cancer Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background A cross-sectional survey was conducted in order to define the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in breast cancer patients in northwestern Turkey. Patients and Methods All patients admitted to the breast center between January 2005 and January 2006 were consecutively included in the study. Demographics and clinical data of study patients were noted. A 15-item questionnaire was used to document the attitude of breast cancer patients towards CAM modalities. Primary outcomes were prevalence, pattern, and predictors of CAM. Secondary outcomes were the reasons for CAM use, the number and type of adverse events related to CAM use, and the satisfaction level of CAM users. Results Nearly one third of breast cancer patients use at least one type of CAM in addition to conventional therapy. Most chose herbal medicines which they think support their general health status. Nettle (Urtica diocia/U. urens) was the most common herbal medicine that patients consume. Previous experience with CAM was the most significant factor for CAM use after breast cancer diagnosis. Being young and married as well as receiving radiotherapy were among other independent factors for using any CAM modality.

Gulluoglu, Bahadir M.; Cingi, Asim; Cakir, Tebessum; Barlas, Afsar

2008-01-01

458

Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic information is not adequate for proper development of the large oil-shale reserves of Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado. Exploratory drilling and aquifer testing are needed to define the hydrologic system, to provide wells for aquifer testing, to design mine-drainage techniques, and to explore for additional water supplies. Sampling networks are needed to supply hydrologic data on the quantity and quality of surface water, ground water, and springs. A detailed sampling network is proposed for the White River basin because of expected impacts related to water supplies and waste disposal. Emissions from oil-shale retorts to the atmosphere need additional study because of possible resulting corrosion problems and the destruction of fisheries. Studies of the leachate materials and the stability of disposed retorted shale piles are needed to insure that these materials will not cause problems. Hazards related to in-situ retorts, and the wastes related to oil-shale development in general also need further investigation. (USGS)

Taylor, O. J.

1982-01-01

459

Synoptic patterns and air mass transport during ozone episodes in northwestern Iberia.  

PubMed

High levels of ozone are frequently measured at the Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) air quality monitoring stations from March to October. However, there have been very few studies on surface ozone in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula, most likely because the climate of this region is not favourable to photochemical ozone generation. The occurrence of these episodes may be related to either local-scale photochemical pollution or regional-scale transport from other polluted regions. In addition, high ozone episodes usually are developed under specific synoptic conditions. The main purposes of this study are to characterise the atmospheric conditions that lead to the ozone episodes in this region and to identify possible advection paths of ozone and precursors. A surface hourly ozone dataset (2002-2007) measured at rural sites in Galicia was analysed to identify high ozone episodes together with their associated synoptic patterns using a subjective classification with 23 different synoptic types. The synoptic weather patterns revealed that most of the episodes occur with high surface pressures centred over the British Isles and/or Central Europe while a high-altitude anticyclonic ridge crosses the Peninsula from North Africa, causing easterly or southeasterly winds. This analysis was completed with 3-day backward air mass trajectories obtained with HYSPLIT to assess the contribution of long-range transport, resulting in the following main routes: Mediterranean-Peninsular, South Atlantic-Portuguese, local and French-Cantabric. PMID:23137974

Saavedra, S; Rodríguez, A; Taboada, J J; Souto, J A; Casares, J J

2012-11-06

460

Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.  

PubMed

During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes. PMID:23636135

Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

2013-01-01

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