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1

Catalytic Mechanism of Yeast Cytosine Deaminase: An ONIOM Computational Study  

E-print Network

the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil (Figure 1). yCD is of great biomedical interest because it also prodrugs for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) for the treatment of cancer.1 The challenge-based GDEPT, the prodrug 5FC is converted to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) by the enzyme. 5FU is an anticancer drug

Sklenak, Stepan

2

Bystander cytotoxicity in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells mediated by fusion yeast cytosine deaminase and 5-fluorocytosine.  

PubMed

In our work, we have evaluated efficiency of gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT) based on combination of fusion yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) and 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) on model human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT. We determined the efficiency of this GDEPT approach in suicide and bystander cytotoxicity induction. We have shown significant bystander effect in vitro and 5FC administration resulted in potent antitumor effect in vivo. Furthermore, we have unraveled high efficiency of cell-mediated GDEPT, when human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were used as delivery vehicles in direct cocultures in vitro. Nevertheless, effector MSC exhibited inhibitory effect on TT cell proliferation and abrogated TT xenotransplant growth in vivo. We suggest that yCD/5FC combination represents another experimental treatment modality to be tested in MTC and our data further support the exploration of MSC antitumor potential for future use in metastatic MTC therapy. PMID:21824724

Kucerova, Lucia; Matuskova, Miroslava; Hlubinova, Kristina; Bohovic, Roman; Feketeova, Lucia; Janega, Pavol; Babal, Pavel; Poturnajova, Martina

2011-12-01

3

Role of Glutamate 64 in the Activation of the Prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine by Yeast Cytosine Deaminase  

E-print Network

CD) catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil as well as the deamination of the prodrug 5. However, binding of 5FPy to the E64A mutant enzyme causes a downfield shift, indicating that the bound 5FPy remains in an unhydrated form in the complex with the mutant enzyme. 1 H and 15 N NMR analysis

Sklenak, Stepan

4

Targeted tumor therapy with a fusion protein of an antiangiogenic human recombinant scFv and yeast cytosine deaminase.  

PubMed

In adults, endothelial cell division occurs only in wound healing, during menstruation, or in diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration or development of benign or malignant tissues. Angiogenesis is one of the major requirements to supply the fast developing tumor tissue with oxygen and nutrients, and enables it to spread into other tissues far from its origin. We selected the extradomain B (ED-B), a splice variant of fibronectin, which is exclusively expressed in ovaries, uterus, during wound healing, and in tumor tissues, as a target for the development of an innovative antiangiogenic, prodrug-based targeted tumor therapy approach. We designed a fusion protein termed L19CDy-His, consisting of the antibody single chain fragment L19 for targeting ED-B and yeast cytosine deaminase for the conversion of 5-fluorocytosine into cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil. We purified high amounts of the fusion protein from Pichia pastoris that is stable, enzymatically active, and retains 75% of its activity after incubation with human plasma for up to 72 hours. The binding of L19CDy-His to ED-B was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy determining a KD value of 81±7 nM. L19CDy-His successfully decreased cell survival of the murine ED-B-expressing teratocarcinoma cell line F9 upon addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine. Our data demonstrate the suitability of targeting ED-B by L19CDy-His for effective prodrug-based tumor therapy. PMID:22892453

Schellmann, Nicole; Panjideh, Hossein; Fasold, Patricia; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Deckert, Peter M; Fuchs, Hendrik

2012-09-01

5

AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase induces genome-wide kataegis  

PubMed Central

Clusters of localized hypermutation in human breast cancer genomes, named “kataegis” (from the Greek for thunderstorm), are hypothesized to result from multiple cytosine deaminations catalyzed by AID/APOBEC proteins. However, a direct link between APOBECs and kataegis is still lacking. We have sequenced the genomes of yeast mutants induced in diploids by expression of the gene for PmCDA1, a hypermutagenic deaminase from sea lamprey. Analysis of the distribution of 5,138 induced mutations revealed localized clusters very similar to those found in tumors. Our data provide evidence that unleashed cytosine deaminase activity is an evolutionary conserved, prominent source of genome-wide kataegis events. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Professor Sandor Pongor, Professor Shamil R. Sunyaev, and Dr Vladimir Kuznetsov. PMID:23249472

2012-01-01

6

Specific targeting of cytosine deaminase to solid tumors by engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of severe hypoxia and necrosis in solid tumors offers the potential to apply an anaerobic bacterial enzyme\\/prodrug approach in cancer treatment. In this context the apathogenic C. acetobutylicum was genetically engineered to express and secrete E. coli cytosine deaminase (CDase). Considerable levels of functional cytosine deaminase were detected in lysates and supernatants of recombinant C acetobutylicum cultures. After

Jan Theys; Willy Landuyt; Sandra Nuyts; Lieve Van Mellaert; Allan van Oosterom; Philippe Lambin; Jozef Anné

2001-01-01

7

Three-Dimensional Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Cytosine Deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a K{sub i} of 52 nM. The zinc- and iron-containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pKa of 6.0, and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pKa of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed.

R Hall; A Fedorov; C Xu; E Fedorov; S Almo; F Raushel

2011-12-31

8

Transduction o f yeast cytosine deam inase m ediated b y HIV1 Tat basic d om ain into tum or cells induces chem osensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme\\/prodrug approach is one of the actively developing areas for cancer therapy. In an effort to develop more effective enzyme\\/prodrug sys- tems, cell-permeable cytosine deaminase was pro- duced by fusing yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) in frame with RKKRRQRRR domain of HIV-1 Tat which is an efficient delivery peptide of the foreign proteins into cells. The purified Tat-yCD fusion protein expressed

Jiyoon R; K y ung-A; K il; Soo Lee; Jae Young Lee

9

Mutation of Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase significantly enhances molecular chemotherapy of human glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined treatment using adenoviral (Ad)-directed enzyme\\/prodrug therapy and radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful method of cancer therapy. We have developed an Ad vector encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene (AdbCD-D314A), which has a higher affinity for cytosine than wild-type bCD (bCDwt). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic

S A Kaliberov; G Y Gillespie; V Krendelchtchikova; D Della Manna; J C Sellers; L N Kaliberova; M E Black; D J Buchsbaum

2007-01-01

10

Direct and Bystander Killing of Sarcomas by Novel Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Gene1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue and bone sarcomas of the extremities can be difficult to eradicate, and standard treatment may require limb amputation. New therapies to decrease tumor size could improve the effectiveness of treat- ment and decrease the frequency of limb amputation. Cytosine deaminase (CD)-based gene therapy has been shown to be effective in decreasing growth of solid tumors when animals with

Margaret Ramnaraine; Weihong Pan; Michael Goblirsch; Christine Lynch; Victor Lewis; Paul Orchard; Patrick Mantyh; Denis R. Clohisy

2003-01-01

11

Cytosine Deaminase/5-Fluorocytosine Exposure Induces Bystander and Radiosensitization Effects in Hypoxic Glioblastoma Cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by therapeutic ratio; therefore, successful therapy must be specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells. Hypoxic cells are ubiquitous in GBM, and resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and, thus, are logical targets for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) enzyme/prodrug treatment induced a bystander effect (BE) and/or radiosensitization in hypoxic GBM cells. Methods and Materials: We stably transfected cells with a gene construct consisting of the SV40 minimal promoter, nine copies of a hypoxia-responsive element, and the yeast CD gene. During hypoxia, a hypoxia-responsive element regulates expression of the CD gene and facilitates the conversion of 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil, a highly toxic antimetabolite. We used colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and immunofluorescence assays to assess for BE in co-cultures of CD-expressing clone cells and parent, pNeo- or green fluorescent protein-stably transfected GBM cells. We also investigated the radiosensitivity of CD clone cells treated with 5-FC under hypoxic conditions, and we used flow cytometry to investigate treatment-induced cell cycle changes. Results: Both a large BE and radiosensitization occurred in GBM cells under hypoxic conditions. The magnitude of the BE depended on the number of transfected cells producing CD, the functionality of the CD, the administered concentration of 5-FC, and the sensitivity of cell type to 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: Hypoxia-inducible CD/5-FC therapy in combination with radiation therapy shows both a pronounced BE and a radiosensitizing effect under hypoxic conditions.

Chen, Jennifer K. [Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hu, Lily J. [Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang Dongfang [Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lamborn, Kathleen R. [Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Deen, Dennis F. [Brain Tumor Research Center of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: dennisdeen@juno.com

2007-04-01

12

Tumors Expressing the Cytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Can Be Eliminated \\/\\/\\/ Vivo with 5-Fluorocytosine and Induce Protective Immunity to Wild Type Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful expression of the cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene in vivo is demonstrated in three weakly immunogenic murine tumor models: the 102 and 205 fibrosarcomas and the 38 adenocarcinoma. Normal mam malian cells do not contain cytosine deaminase, but tumor cells transduced with retroviral vectors containing the CD gene metabolize the relatively nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine to the highly toxic 5-fluorouracil.

Craig A. Mullen; Melissa M. Coale; Robert Lowe; R. Michael Blaese

13

Combination of cytosine deaminase suicide gene expression with DR5 antibody treatment increases cancer cell cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Combined treatment using adenoviral-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and immunotherapy has the potential to become a powerful alternative method of cancer therapy. We have developed adenoviral vectors encoding the cytosine deaminase gene (Ad-CD) and cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion gene (Ad-CD:UPRT). A monoclonal antibody, TRA-8, specifically binds to death receptor 5, one of two death receptors bound by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo of the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT and TRA-8 against human pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines. The present study demonstrates that Ad-CD:UPRT infection resulted in increased 5-FC-mediated cell killing, compared with Ad-CD. Furthermore, a significant increase of cytotoxicity following Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC and TRA-8 treatment of cancer cells in vitro was demonstrated. Animal studies showed significant inhibition of tumor growth of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic and D54MG glioma xenografts by the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC plus TRA-8 as compared with either agent alone or no treatment. The results suggest that the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC with TRA-8 produces an additive cytotoxic effect in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that combined treatment with enzyme/prodrug therapy and TRAIL immunotherapy provides a promising approach for cancer therapy. PMID:16082379

Kaliberov, S A; Chiz, S; Kaliberova, L N; Krendelchtchikova, V; Della Manna, D; Zhou, T; Buchsbaum, D J

2006-02-01

14

Genetic immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by endothelial progenitor cells armed with cytosine deaminase.  

PubMed

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) serve as cellular vehicles for targeting cancer cells and are a powerful tool for delivery of therapeutic genes. Cytosine deaminase (CD), a kind of frequent suicide gene which can kill carcinoma cells by converting a non-poisonous pro-drug 5-flucytosine (5-FC) into a poisonous cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We combined super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles labeled EPCs with CD gene to treat grafted liver carcinomas and tracked them with 7.0 T Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results showed that the therapeutic EPCs loaded with CD plus 5-Fc provided stronger carcinoma growth suppression compared with treatment using CD alone. The CD/5-Fc significantly inhibited the growth of endothelial cells and induced carcinoma cells apoptosis. These results indicate that EPCs transfected with anti-carcinoma genes can be used in carcinoma therapy as a novel therapeutic modality. PMID:24738335

Chen, Rong; Yu, Hui; An, Yan-Li; Yu-Jia, Zhen; Teng, Gao-Jun

2014-02-01

15

Pilot trial of genetically modified, attenuated Salmonella expressing the E. coli cytosine deaminase gene in refractory cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a pilot trial in refractory cancer patients to investigate the feasibility of intratumoral injection of TAPET-CD, an attenuated Salmonella bacterium expressing the E. coli cytosine deaminase gene. A total of three patients received three dose levels of TAPET-CD (3 × 106–3 × 107 CFU\\/m2) via intratumoral injection once every 28 days as long as progression of disease or

John Nemunaitis; Casey Cunningham; Neil Senzer; Joseph Kuhn; Jennifer Cramm; Craig Litz; Robert Cavagnolo; Ann Cahill; Caroline Clairmont; Mario Sznol

2003-01-01

16

947. Gene Directed Enzyme\\/Prodrug Therapy of Human Glioma Xenografts Using Mutant Escherichia coli Cytosine Deaminase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined treatment using suicide gene therapy and radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful new method of cancer therapy. We have developed a non-replicative adenoviral vector encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene harboring substitution of an alanine (A) for the aspartic acid (D) at position 314 in the CD protein (AdCD-D314A) which has a higher affinity

Sergey A. Kaliberov; Valentina Krendelchtchikova; Debbie Della Manna; Jeffrey C. Sellers; Lyudmila N. Kaliberova; Margaret E. Black; Donald J. Buchsbaum

2006-01-01

17

Nitrogen Regulation of the codBA (Cytosine Deaminase) Operon from Escherichia coli by the Nitrogen Assimilation Control Protein, NAC  

PubMed Central

Transcription of the cytosine deaminase (codBA) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by nitrogen, with about three times more codBA expression in cells grown in nitrogen-limiting medium than in nitrogen-excess medium. ?-Galactosidase expression from codBp-lacZ operon fusions showed that the nitrogen assimilation control protein NAC was necessary for this regulation. In vitro transcription from the codBA promoter with purified RNA polymerase was stimulated by the addition of purified NAC, confirming that no other factors are required. Gel mobility shifts and DNase I footprints showed that NAC binds to a site centered at position ?59 relative to the start site of transcription and that mutants that cannot bind NAC there cannot activate transcription. When a longer promoter region (positions ?120 to +67) was used, a double footprint was seen with a second 26-bp footprint separated from the first by a hypersensitive site. When a shorter fragment was used (positions ?83 to +67), only the primary footprint was seen. Nevertheless, both the shorter and longer fragments showed NAC-mediated regulation in vivo. Cytosine deaminase expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae was also regulated by nitrogen in a NAC-dependent manner. K. pneumoniae differs from E. coli in having two cytosine deaminase genes, an intervening open reading frame between the codB and codA orthologs, and a different response to hypoxanthine which increased cod expression in K. pneumoniae but decreased it in E. coli. PMID:12700271

Muse, Wilson B.; Rosario, Christopher J.; Bender, Robert A.

2003-01-01

18

Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay  

PubMed Central

Purpose Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant cancer for which there is no curable treatment and novel therapies are therefore in high demand. In the present study we investigated the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug Experimental design The YCD gene or the YCD-YUPRT gene was placed under regulation of the SCLC-specific promoter Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1). Therapeutic effect was evaluated in vitro in SCLC cell lines and in vivo in SCLC xenografted nude mice using the non-viral nanoparticle, DOTAP:Cholesterol for transgene delivery. Results INSM1-YCD/5-FC and INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced high cytotoxicity in a range of SCLC cell lines. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained from the YCD-YUPRT fusion gene strategy. No cytotoxicity was induced after treatment of cell lines of other origin than SCLC. In addition the INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy was superior to an established suicide gene system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVTK) gene and prodrug Ganciclovir (GCV). The superior effect was in part due to massive bystander cytotoxicity of YCD-YUPRT-produced toxins. Finally, INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced significant tumor growth delay in SCLC xenografts compared to control treated xenografts. Conclusions The current study is the first to test cytosine deaminase-based suicide gene therapy for SCLC and the first to demonstrate an anti-tumor effect from the delivery of suicide gene therapeutics for SCLC in vivo. PMID:20371678

Christensen, Camilla L.; Gjetting, Torben; Poulsen, Thomas T.; Cramer, Frederik; Roth, Jack A.; Poulsen, Hans S.

2012-01-01

19

Transduction of cytosine deaminase gene makes rat glioma cells highly sensitive to 5-fluorocytosine.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential use of E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene instead of the commonly used HSV-TK gene in the gene therapy of brain tumors, we constructed a retrovirus vector carrying the CD gene. We then transduced a rat glioma cell line C6 with CD gene by the retrovirus vector. Transduction of the CD gene made C6 cells become highly sensitive to the anti-fungi drug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC). IC50 for 5FC was 6,000 microM in CD-negative cells, while it was 3 microM in CD-positive cells. Mixed cellular assay showed that CD-positive cells had a strong "bystander effect" on CD-negative cells when exposed to 5FC. Significant anti-tumor effects were observed in nude mice bearing s.c. tumors derived from CD-positive cells when these animals were given 250 mg/kg 5FC twice a day for 20 consecutive days. A marked decrease in tumor weight occurred when a mixture containing 50% CD-positive and 50% CD-negative C6 cells was injected s.c., followed by 5FC treatment, suggesting the bystander effect in vivo. Concerning the pharmacokinetics of 5FC, especially its high oral bio-availability and good penetration into cerebrospinal fluid, we suppose that the combination of CD-gene transfer and 5FC oral administration may have potential use in the gene therapy of brain tumors. PMID:9178825

Ge, K; Xu, L; Zheng, Z; Xu, D; Sun, L; Liu, X

1997-05-16

20

Retrovirus-mediated transduction of a cytosine deaminase gene preserves the stemness of mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as attractive cellular vehicles to deliver therapeutic genes for ex-vivo therapy of diverse diseases; this is, in part, because they have the capability to migrate into tumor or lesion sites. Previously, we showed that MSCs could be utilized to deliver a bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene to brain tumors. Here we assessed whether transduction with a retroviral vector encoding CD gene altered the stem cell property of MSCs. MSCs were transduced at passage 1 and cultivated up to passage 11. We found that proliferation and differentiation potentials, chromosomal stability and surface antigenicity of MSCs were not altered by retroviral transduction. The results indicate that retroviral vectors can be safely utilized for delivery of suicide genes to MSCs for ex-vivo therapy. We also found that a single retroviral transduction was sufficient for sustainable expression up to passage 10. The persistent expression of the transduced gene indicates that transduced MSCs provide a tractable and manageable approach for potential use in allogeneic transplantation. PMID:23429359

Sung Park, Jin; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoi; Hwa Jung, Jin; Park, JoonSeong; Kim, Se-Hyuk; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung

2013-01-01

21

Pyrimidine, purine and nitrogen control of cytosine deaminase synthesis in Escherichia coli K12. Involvement of the glnLG and purR genes in the regulation of codA expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine deaminase, encoded by the codA gene in Escherichia coli catalyzes the deamination of cytosine to uracil and ammonia. Regulation of codA expression was studied by determining the level of cytosine deaminase in E. coli K12 grown in various defined media. Addition of either pyrimidine or purine nucleobases to the growth medium caused repressed enzyme levels, whereas growth on a

Lennart Andersen; Mogens Kilstrup; Jan Neuhard

1989-01-01

22

First-In-Class Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Single-Strand DNA Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3G  

SciTech Connect

APOBEC3G is a single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase that comprises part of the innate immune response to viruses and transposons. Although APOBEC3G is the prototype for understanding the larger mammalian polynucleotide deaminase family, no specific chemical inhibitors exist to modulate its activity. High-throughput screening identified 34 compounds that inhibit APOBEC3G catalytic activity. Twenty of 34 small molecules contained catechol moieties, which are known to be sulfhydryl reactive following oxidation to the orthoquinone. Located proximal to the active site, C321 was identified as the binding site for the inhibitors by a combination of mutational screening, structural analysis, and mass spectrometry. Bulkier substitutions C321-to-L, F, Y, or W mimicked chemical inhibition. A strong specificity for APOBEC3G was evident, as most compounds failed to inhibit the related APOBEC3A enzyme or the unrelated enzymes E. coli uracil DNA glycosylase, HIV-1 RNase H, or HIV-1 integrase. Partial, but not complete, sensitivity could be conferred to APOBEC3A by introducing the entire C321 loop from APOBEC3G. Thus, a structural model is presented in which the mechanism of inhibition is both specific and competitive, by binding a pocket adjacent to the APOBEC3G active site, reacting with C321, and blocking access to substrate DNA cytosines.

Li, Ming; Shandilya, Shivender M.D.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Rathore, Anurag; Brown, William L.; Perkins, Angela L.; Harki, Daniel A.; Solberg, Jonathan; Hook, Derek J.; Pandey, Krishan K.; Parniak, Michael A.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Ali, Akbar; Schiffer, Celia A.; Harris, Reuben S. (Pitt); (UMASS, MED); (SLUHSC); (UCSF); (UMM)

2012-04-04

23

Computational modeling and functional analysis of Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase fusion protein  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1TK) and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) fusion protein was designed using InsightII software. The structural rationality of the fusion proteins incorporating a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed, and a suitable linker peptide was chosen for further investigated. The recombinant plasmid containing the coding regions of HSV-1TK and CD cDNA connected by this linker peptide coding sequence was generated and subsequently transfected into the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293). The Western blotting indicated that the recombinant fusion protein existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa. The toxicity of the prodrug on the recombinant plasmid-transfected human lung cancer cell line NCIH460 was evaluated, which showed that TKglyCD-expressing cells conferred upon cells prodrug sensitivities equivalent to that observed for each enzyme independently. Most noteworthy, cytotoxicity could be enhanced by concurrently treating TKglyCD-expressing cells with prodrugs GCV and 5-FC. The results indicate that we have successfully constructed a HSV-1TKglyCD fusion gene which might have a potential application for cancer gene therapy.

Zhang, Jufeng [Central Experimental Laboratory, the First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Zhanli [Technology Center, NeoTrident Technology Ltd., Beijing 100080 (China); Wei, Fang [Central Experimental Laboratory, the First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Qiu, Wei [Central Experimental Laboratory, the First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zhang, Liangren [School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Qian [Central Experimental Laboratory, the First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)]. E-mail: qhuang@sjtu.edu.cn

2007-08-17

24

Genome-Wide Mutation Avalanches Induced in Diploid Yeast Cells by a Base Analog or an APOBEC Deaminase  

PubMed Central

Genetic information should be accurately transmitted from cell to cell; conversely, the adaptation in evolution and disease is fueled by mutations. In the case of cancer development, multiple genetic changes happen in somatic diploid cells. Most classic studies of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis have been performed in haploids. We demonstrate that the parameters of the mutation process are different in diploid cell populations. The genomes of drug-resistant mutants induced in yeast diploids by base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase PmCDA1 from lamprey carried a stunning load of thousands of unselected mutations. Haploid mutants contained almost an order of magnitude fewer mutations. To explain this, we propose that the distribution of induced mutation rates in the cell population is uneven. The mutants in diploids with coincidental mutations in the two copies of the reporter gene arise from a fraction of cells that are transiently hypersensitive to the mutagenic action of a given mutagen. The progeny of such cells were never recovered in haploids due to the lethality caused by the inactivation of single-copy essential genes in cells with too many induced mutations. In diploid cells, the progeny of hypersensitive cells survived, but their genomes were saturated by heterozygous mutations. The reason for the hypermutability of cells could be transient faults of the mutation prevention pathways, like sanitization of nucleotide pools for HAP or an elevated expression of the PmCDA1 gene or the temporary inability of the destruction of the deaminase. The hypothesis on spikes of mutability may explain the sudden acquisition of multiple mutational changes during evolution and carcinogenesis. PMID:24039593

Lada, Artem G.; Stepchenkova, Elena I.; Waisertreiger, Irina S. R.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Dhar, Alok; Eudy, James D.; Boissy, Robert J.; Hirano, Masayuki; Rogozin, Igor B.; Pavlov, Youri I.

2013-01-01

25

Genome-wide mutation avalanches induced in diploid yeast cells by a base analog or an APOBEC deaminase.  

PubMed

Genetic information should be accurately transmitted from cell to cell; conversely, the adaptation in evolution and disease is fueled by mutations. In the case of cancer development, multiple genetic changes happen in somatic diploid cells. Most classic studies of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis have been performed in haploids. We demonstrate that the parameters of the mutation process are different in diploid cell populations. The genomes of drug-resistant mutants induced in yeast diploids by base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase PmCDA1 from lamprey carried a stunning load of thousands of unselected mutations. Haploid mutants contained almost an order of magnitude fewer mutations. To explain this, we propose that the distribution of induced mutation rates in the cell population is uneven. The mutants in diploids with coincidental mutations in the two copies of the reporter gene arise from a fraction of cells that are transiently hypersensitive to the mutagenic action of a given mutagen. The progeny of such cells were never recovered in haploids due to the lethality caused by the inactivation of single-copy essential genes in cells with too many induced mutations. In diploid cells, the progeny of hypersensitive cells survived, but their genomes were saturated by heterozygous mutations. The reason for the hypermutability of cells could be transient faults of the mutation prevention pathways, like sanitization of nucleotide pools for HAP or an elevated expression of the PmCDA1 gene or the temporary inability of the destruction of the deaminase. The hypothesis on spikes of mutability may explain the sudden acquisition of multiple mutational changes during evolution and carcinogenesis. PMID:24039593

Lada, Artem G; Stepchenkova, Elena I; Waisertreiger, Irina S R; Noskov, Vladimir N; Dhar, Alok; Eudy, James D; Boissy, Robert J; Hirano, Masayuki; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I

2013-01-01

26

Bacterial cytosine deaminase mutants created by molecular engineering show improved 5-fluorocytosine-mediated cell killing in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Cytosine deaminase is used in combination with 5-fluorocytosine as an enzyme-prodrug combination for targeted genetic cancer treatment. This approach is limited by inefficient gene delivery and poor prodrug conversion activities. Previously, we reported individual point mutations within the substrate binding pocket of bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) that result in marginal improvements in the ability to sensitize cells to 5-fluorocytosine (5FC). Here, we describe an expanded random mutagenesis and selection experiment that yielded enzyme variants, which provide significant improvement in prodrug sensitization. Three of these mutants were evaluated using enzyme kinetic analyses and then assayed in three cancer cell lines for 5FC sensitization, bystander effects, and formation of 5-fluorouracil metabolites. All variants displayed 18- to 19-fold shifts in substrate preference toward 5FC, a significant reduction in IC(50) values and improved bystander effect compared with wild-type bCD. In a xenograft tumor model, the best enzyme mutant was shown to prevent tumor growth at much lower doses of 5FC than is observed when tumor cells express wild-type bCD. Crystallographic analyses of this construct show the basis for improved activity toward 5FC, and also how two different mutagenesis strategies yield closely related but mutually exclusive mutations that each result in a significant alteration of enzyme specificity. PMID:19487291

Fuchita, Michi; Ardiani, Andressa; Zhao, Lei; Serve, Kinta; Stoddard, Barry L; Black, Margaret E

2009-06-01

27

Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prodrug activating transcription unit gene therapy is one of several promising approaches to cancer gene therapy. Combining that approach with conditionally replication-competent viral vectors that are truly tumor specific has been an important objective of recent work. In this study, we report the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and

Hakan Akbulut; Lixin Zhang; Yucheng Tang; Albert Deisseroth

2003-01-01

28

Small molecule APOBEC3G DNA cytosine deaminase inhibitors based on a 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold  

PubMed Central

APOBEC3G (A3G) is a single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase that functions in innate immunity against retroviruses and retrotransposons. Although A3G can potently restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 replication by catalyzing excessive levels of G-to-A hypermutation, sublethal levels of A3G-catalyzed mutation may contribute to the high level of HIV-1 fitness and its incurable prognosis. To chemically modulate A3G catalytic activity with the goal of reducing the HIV-1 genomic mutation rate, we synthesized and biochemically evaluated a class of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol small molecule inhibitors that were identified by high-throughput screening. This class of compounds exhibits low micromolar (3.9 – 8.2 µm) inhibitory potency and remarkable specificity for A3G versus related deaminase APOBEC3A. Chemical modifications to inhibitors, A3G mutational screening, and thiol reactivity studies implicate C321, a residue proximal to the active site, as the critical A3G target for this class of molecules. PMID:23180603

Olson, Margaret E.; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S.; Harki, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

29

Combined suicide gene therapy for human colon cancer cells using adenovirus-mediated transfer of Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene and Escherichia coli uracil phosphoribosyltransferase gene with 5-fluorocytosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virus-directed enzyme\\/prodrug system using the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) suffers from a sensitivity limitation in many tumor cells. The E. coli uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), which is a pyrimidine salvage enzyme, directly converts 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to 5-fluorouridine monophosphate at the first step of its activating pathway. To improve the antitumoral effect of the CD\\/5-FC system,

Fumikazu Koyama; Hidetomo Sawada; Tomoko Hirao; Hisao Fujii; Hirofumi Hamada; Hiroshige Nakano

2000-01-01

30

A mutated cytosine deaminase gene, codA (D314A), as an efficient negative selection marker for gene targeting in rice.  

PubMed

Gene targeting (GT) is a powerful tool manipulating a gene of interest in a given genome specifically and precisely. To achieve efficient GT in higher plants, both positive and negative selection markers are required. In particular, a strong negative selection system is needed for enrichment of cells to eliminate those cells in which random integration of the introduced DNA has occurred in GT experiments. Currently, non-conditional negative selection marker genes are used for GT experiments in rice plants, and no conditional negative selection system is available. In this study, we describe the development of an efficient conditional negative selection system in rice plants using Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (codA). We found that a mutant codA gene, codA(D314A), acts more efficiently than the wild-type codA for negative selection in rice plants. The codA(D314A) marker was further used as a negative selection marker for GT experiments in rice. Our conditional negative selection system effectively eliminated the cells in which random integration event(s) occurred; the enrichment factor was approximately 100-fold. This enrichment factor was similar to that found when Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin fragment A was used. Our results suggest the codA(D314A) marker gene as a promising negative selection marker for GT of rice. PMID:24371307

Osakabe, Keishi; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Ohtsuki, Namie; Osakabe, Yuriko; Toki, Seiichi

2014-03-01

31

Cytosine deaminase as a negative selectable marker for the microalgal chloroplast: a strategy for the isolation of nuclear mutations that affect chloroplast gene expression  

PubMed Central

Negative selectable markers are useful tools for forward-genetic screens aimed at identifying trans-acting factors that are required for expression of specific genes. Transgenic lines harbouring the marker fused to a gene element, such as a promoter, may be mutagenized to isolate loss-of-function mutants able to survive under selection. Such a strategy allows the molecular dissection of factors that are essential for expression of the gene. Expression of individual chloroplast genes in plants and algae typically requires one or more nuclear-encoded factors that act at the post-transcriptional level, often through interaction with the 5? UTR of the mRNA. To study such nuclear control further, we have developed the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene codA as a conditional negative selectable marker for use in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that a codon-optimized variant of codA with three amino acid substitutions confers sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) when expressed in the chloroplast under the control of endogenous promoter/5? UTR elements from the photosynthetic genes psaA or petA. UV mutagenesis of the psaA transgenic line allowed recovery of 5-FC-resistant, photosynthetically deficient lines harbouring mutations in the nuclear gene for the factor TAA1 that is required for psaA translation. Similarly, the petA line was used to isolate mutants of the petA mRNA stability factor MCA1 and the translation factor TCA1. The codA marker may be used to identify critical residues in known nuclear factors and to aid the discovery of additional factors required for expression of chloroplast genes. PMID:25234691

Young, Rosanna E B; Purton, Saul

2014-01-01

32

Studies on the kinetic and chemical mechanism of yeast AMP deaminase  

SciTech Connect

AMP deaminase catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of AMP to IMP and NH3. ATP activates the reaction (K/sub ACT/ approx. 2 M) by decreasing the K/sub m/ without affecting the V/sub max/. Binding studies show that each subunit binds 1.2 moles of ATP with a K/sub d/ of 3.7 M. In the presence of 10 mM IMP, each subunit still binds 1.2 moles of ATP, but the K/sub d/ increased to 9.2 M. Both IMP (K/sub I/ approx. 4.7 mM) and NH4Cl (K/sub I > 0.2 M) are competitive inhibitors indicating that product release is random and that the commitment to catalysis is low. A low commitment to catalysis is consistent with the expression of VN primary isotope effects both in the presence and absence of ATP. The rate equation for a mechanism in which the first AMP binds to a noncatalytic site followed by binding to 2 or more cooperative, catalytic sites provides the best fit to the initial velocity data in the absence of ATP. By atomic absorption spectroscopy, each subunit was found to contain 1.0 ZnS . The ZnS -free enzyme was prepared by dialysis vs. 1,10-phenanthroline and was inactive. When 5 mM MnCl2 was added, 4% of the activity was recovered.

Merkler, D.J.; Schramm, V.L.

1987-05-01

33

Cytosine accumulation as a measure of the proton electrochemical gradient acting on the overexpressed cytosine permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the proton gradient (delta mu H+) driving solute accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been in doubt, principally because of the lack of an agreed method for assaying its electrical component, the membrane potential (delta psi). In the present work, the size of the cytosine gradient (delta mu cyt) that the yeast generated was used as a measure of the driving gradient (delta mu H+). The selected yeast lacked cytosine deaminase and overexpressed cytosine permease, a 1 H+/cytosine system. delta mu cyt, assayed in washed cell suspensions fermenting glucose and containing 0.5 or 50 mM KCl, was about 260 mV at pH 4 or 5, falling to about 194 mV at pH 7. As a first estimate, -delta mu H+ was thus at least as large at the respective pH value. A 20 mM solution of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium lowered delta mu cyt to a value roughly equal to the magnitude of the pH gradient (delta pH). A mathematical model was used to correct the first estimates of delta mu H+ for the effect of cytosine leakage outside the symport. In such a system, delta mu cyt cannot exceed the equivalent ratio Vmax/KmL, where Vmax and Km are kinetic parameters of the symport and L is the rate coefficient for leakage. The feasibility of assaying delta mu H+ depends on it not being much larger than that ratio. The model was tested successfully against observations made with yeast preparations depleted of ATP. After correction, -delta mu H+ during fermentation was estimated to be up to 25 mV larger than delta mu cyt and at least 70 mV larger than previous estimates in the literature involving lipophilic cations. From a knowledge of delta pH, delta psi was in turn deduced and compared with the maximum methylamine gradient (delta mu M) the yeast formed. The results supported the claim in the literature that, at acid pH, delta mu M is a measure of delta psi. PMID:8868419

Eddy, A A; Hopkins, P

1996-03-01

34

Rescue of the Orphan Enzyme Isoguanine Deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from Escherichia coli was shown to catalyze the deamination of isoguanine (2-oxoadenine) to xanthine. Isoguanine is an oxidation product of adenine in DNA that is mutagenic to the cell. The isoguanine deaminase activity in E. coli was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and anion exchange chromatography. The active protein was identified by peptide mass fingerprint analysis as cytosine deaminase. The kinetic constants for the deamination of isoguanine at pH 7.7 are as follows: k{sub cat} = 49 s{sup -1}, K{sub m} = 72 {micro}M, and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 6.7 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The kinetic constants for the deamination of cytosine are as follows: k{sub cat} = 45 s{sup -1}, K{sub m} = 302 {micro}M, and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 1.5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Under these reaction conditions, isoguanine is the better substrate for cytosine deaminase. The three-dimensional structure of CDA was determined with isoguanine in the active site.

D Hitchcock; A Fedorov; E Fedorov; L Dangott; S Almo; F Raushel

2011-12-31

35

A novel fusion suicide gene yeast CDglyTK plays a role in radio-gene therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a novel suicide gene for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) therapy, the yCDglyTK gene was constructed by fusing yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) and herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase. The expression of the yCDglyTK gene was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and its bioactivity was demonstrated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. An animal study was carried out

Kun Xia; Desheng Liang; Aifa Tang; Yong Feng; Junyi Zhang; Qian Pan; Zhigao Long; Heping Dai; Fang Cai; Lingqian Wu; Suping Zhao; Zhuchu Chen; Jiahui Xia

2004-01-01

36

In Vivo Cancer Gene Therapy by Adenovirus-mediated Transfer of a Bifunctional Yeast Cytosine Deaminase\\/Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Fusion Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct transfer of prodrug activation systems into tumors was demon- strated to be an attractive method for the selective in vivo elimination of tumor cells. However, most current suicide gene therapy strategies are still handicapped by a poor efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and a limited bystander cell killing effect. In this study, we describe a novel and highly

Philippe Erbs; Etienne Regulier; Jacqueline Kintz; Pierre Leroy; Yves Poitevin; Francoise Exinger; Richard Jund; Majid Mehtali

2000-01-01

37

Molecular Structure of Cytosine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytosine is one of the five main nitrogenous bases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell. Cytosine is a pyrimidine base that is found in both DNA and RNA and pairs with guanine. It was isolated from the nucleic acid of calf thymus tissue in 1894. A suggested structure for cytosine, published in 1903, was confirmed in the same year when that base was synthesized in the laboratory.

2004-10-12

38

DNA deaminases: AIDing hormones in immunity and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that hormones can cause cancer, much less known is how they induce this change in our somatic cells.\\u000a This review highlights the recent finding that estrogen can exert its DNA-damaging potential by directly activating DNA deaminases.\\u000a This recently discovered class of proteins deaminate cytosine to uracil in DNA, and are essential enzymes in the immune system.

Svend K. Petersen-Mahrt; Heather A. Coker; Siim Pauklin

2009-01-01

39

Cytosine-to-Uracil Deamination by SssI DNA Methyltransferase  

PubMed Central

The prokaryotic DNA(cytosine-5)methyltransferase M.SssI shares the specificity of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases (CG) and is an important model and experimental tool in the study of eukaryotic DNA methylation. Previously, M.SssI was shown to be able to catalyze deamination of the target cytosine to uracil if the methyl donor S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) was missing from the reaction. To test whether this side-activity of the enzyme can be used to distinguish between unmethylated and C5-methylated cytosines in CG dinucleotides, we re-investigated, using a sensitive genetic reversion assay, the cytosine deaminase activity of M.SssI. Confirming previous results we showed that M.SssI can deaminate cytosine to uracil in a slow reaction in the absence of SAM and that the rate of this reaction can be increased by the SAM analogue 5’-amino-5’-deoxyadenosine. We could not detect M.SssI-catalyzed deamination of C5-methylcytosine (m5C). We found conditions where the rate of M.SssI mediated C-to-U deamination was at least 100-fold higher than the rate of m5C-to-T conversion. Although this difference in reactivities suggests that the enzyme could be used to identify C5-methylated cytosines in the epigenetically important CG dinucleotides, the rate of M.SssI mediated cytosine deamination is too low to become an enzymatic alternative to the bisulfite reaction. Amino acid replacements in the presumed SAM binding pocket of M.SssI (F17S and G19D) resulted in greatly reduced methyltransferase activity. The G19D variant showed cytosine deaminase activity in E. coli, at physiological SAM concentrations. Interestingly, the C-to-U deaminase activity was also detectable in an E. coli ung+ host proficient in uracil excision repair. PMID:24205358

Stier, Ildikó; Kiss, Antal

2013-01-01

40

Clustered Mutations in Yeast and in Human Cancers Can Arise from Damaged Long Single-Strand DNA Regions  

PubMed Central

Summary Mutations are typically perceived as random, independent events. We describe here non-random clustered mutations in yeast and in human cancers. Genome sequencing of yeast grown under chronic alkylation damage identified mutation clusters that extend up to 200 kb. A predominance of “strand-coordinated” changes of either cytosines or guanines in the same strand, mutation patterns and genetic controls indicated that simultaneous mutations were generated by base alkylation in abnormally long single-strand (ss)DNA formed at double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication forks. Significantly, we found mutation clusters with analogous features in sequenced human cancers. Strand-coordinated clusters of mutated cytosines or guanines often resided near chromosome rearrangement breakpoints and were highly enriched with a motif targeted by APOBEC family cytosine-deaminases, which strongly prefer ssDNA. These data indicate that hyper-mutation via multiple simultaneous changes in randomly formed ssDNA is a general phenomenon that may be an important mechanism producing rapid genetic variation. PMID:22607975

Roberts, Steven A.; Sterling, Joan; Thompson, Cole; Harris, Shawn; Mav, Deepak; Shah, Ruchir; Klimczak, Leszek J.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Malc, Ewa; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Resnick, Michael A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.

2012-01-01

41

AID enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the size of cytosine C5 orbital cloud.  

PubMed

Activation induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil, which is required for a functional humoral immune system. Previous work demonstrated, that AID also deaminates 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). Recently, a novel vertebrate modification (5-hydroxymethylcytosine - 5 hmC) has been implicated in functioning in epigenetic reprogramming, yet no molecular pathway explaining the removal of 5 hmC has been identified. AID has been suggested to deaminate 5 hmC, with the 5 hmU product being repaired by base excision repair pathways back to cytosine. Here we demonstrate that AID's enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the electron cloud size of C5-cytosine - H > F > methyl > hydroxymethyl. This makes AID an unlikely candidate to be part of 5 hmC removal. PMID:22916236

Rangam, Gopinath; Schmitz, Kerstin-Maike; Cobb, Alexander J A; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K

2012-01-01

42

AID Enzymatic Activity Is Inversely Proportional to the Size of Cytosine C5 Orbital Cloud  

PubMed Central

Activation induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil, which is required for a functional humoral immune system. Previous work demonstrated, that AID also deaminates 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). Recently, a novel vertebrate modification (5-hydroxymethylcytosine - 5 hmC) has been implicated in functioning in epigenetic reprogramming, yet no molecular pathway explaining the removal of 5 hmC has been identified. AID has been suggested to deaminate 5 hmC, with the 5 hmU product being repaired by base excision repair pathways back to cytosine. Here we demonstrate that AID’s enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the electron cloud size of C5-cytosine - H > F > methyl >> hydroxymethyl. This makes AID an unlikely candidate to be part of 5 hmC removal. PMID:22916236

Rangam, Gopinath; Schmitz, Kerstin-Maike; Cobb, Alexander J. A.; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K.

2012-01-01

43

Assignment of the human cytidine deaminase (CDA) gene to chromosome 1 band p35-p36.2  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme cytidine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.12; CDA) catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine or deoxycytidine to uridine or deoxyuridine, respectively. It can also catalyze the deamination of cytosine nucleoside analogues such as cytosine arabinoside and 5-azacytidine, which results in a loss of their cytotoxic and antitumor activity. Cytosine arabinoside is used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, and the antileukemic activity of the drug is dependent on phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase. The occurrence of clinical cytosine arabinoside resistance is one of the main problems in the successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Resistance to the drug has been ascribed to functional deoxycytidine kinase deficiency and to increased expression of the CDA gene. In this study, we report on the isolation of a CDA genomic fragment and its use as a probe for the chromosomal localization of the human CDA gene by in situ hybridization. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Saccone, S.; Andreozzi, L.; Della Valle, G. [Universita di Pavia (Italy)] [and others] [Universita di Pavia (Italy); and others

1994-08-01

44

Uracil residues dependent on the deaminase AID in immunoglobulin gene variable and switch regions  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates diversity of immunoglobulin genes through deamination of cytosine to uracil. Two opposing models have been proposed for the deamination of DNA or RNA by AID. Although most data support DNA deamination, there is no physical evidence of uracil residues in immunoglobulin genes. Here we demonstrate their presence by determining the sensitivity of DNA to digestion with uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) and abasic endonuclease. Using several methods of detection, we identified uracil residues in the variable and switch regions. Uracil residues were generated within 24 h of B cell stimulation, were present on both DNA strands and were found to replace mainly cytosine bases. Our data provide direct evidence for the model that AID functions by deaminating cytosine residues in DNA. PMID:21151102

Maul, Robert W; Saribasak, Huseyin; Martomo, Stella A; McClure, Rhonda L; Yang, William; Vaisman, Alexandra; Gramlich, Hillary S; Schatz, David G; Woodgate, Roger; Wilson, David M; Gearhart, Patricia J

2013-01-01

45

High-throughput mutagenesis reveals functional determinants for DNA targeting by activation-induced deaminase.  

PubMed

Antibody maturation is a critical immune process governed by the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the AID/APOBEC DNA deaminase family. AID/APOBEC deaminases preferentially target cytosine within distinct preferred sequence motifs in DNA, with specificity largely conferred by a small 9-11 residue protein loop that differs among family members. Here, we aimed to determine the key functional characteristics of this protein loop in AID and to thereby inform our understanding of the mode of DNA engagement. To this end, we developed a methodology (Sat-Sel-Seq) that couples saturation mutagenesis at each position across the targeting loop, with iterative functional selection and next-generation sequencing. This high-throughput mutational analysis revealed dominant characteristics for residues within the loop and additionally yielded enzymatic variants that enhance deaminase activity. To rationalize these functional requirements, we performed molecular dynamics simulations that suggest that AID and its hyperactive variants can engage DNA in multiple specific modes. These findings align with AID's competing requirements for specificity and flexibility to efficiently drive antibody maturation. Beyond insights into the AID-DNA interface, our Sat-Sel-Seq approach also serves to further expand the repertoire of techniques for deep positional scanning and may find general utility for high-throughput analysis of protein function. PMID:25064858

Gajula, Kiran S; Huwe, Peter J; Mo, Charlie Y; Crawford, Daniel J; Stivers, James T; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Kohli, Rahul M

2014-09-01

46

Cytidine deaminases: AIDing DNA demethylation?  

PubMed Central

The presence of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) in DNA is a vital epigenetic mark in vertebrates. While the enzymes responsible for methylating DNA in vertebrates have been identified, the means by which this mark can be removed are still unclear. Recently, it has been shown that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) contributes to the demethylation of DNA in certain systems. This enzyme has been intensely studied in its role as a key driver of antibody diversification in B cells, but recent observations from early development in zebrafish and mice as well as heterokaryons point to a role beyond immunology. This review takes stock of the reports linking AID and related deaminases to DNA demethylation, and describes the many important questions left to be answered in this field. PMID:20889711

Fritz, Eric L.; Papavasiliou, F. Nina

2010-01-01

47

Nucleic acid determinants for selective deamination of DNA over RNA by activation-induced deaminase.  

PubMed

Activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the larger AID/APOBEC family, is the key catalyst in initiating antibody somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. The DNA deamination model accounting for AID's functional role posits that AID deaminates genomic deoxycytosine bases within the immunoglobulin locus, activating downstream repair pathways that result in antibody maturation. Although this model is well supported, the molecular basis for AID's selectivity for DNA over RNA remains an open and pressing question, reflecting a broader need to elucidate how AID/APOBEC enzymes engage their substrates. To address these questions, we have synthesized a series of chimeric nucleic acid substrates and characterized their reactivity with AID. These chimeric substrates feature targeted variations at the 2'-position of nucleotide sugars, allowing us to interrogate the steric and conformational basis for nucleic acid selectivity. We demonstrate that modifications to the target nucleotide can significantly alter AID's reactivity. Strikingly, within a substrate that is otherwise DNA, a single RNA-like 2'-hydroxyl substitution at the target cytosine is sufficient to compromise deamination. Alternatively, modifications that favor a DNA-like conformation (or sugar pucker) are compatible with deamination. AID's closely related homolog APOBEC1 is similarly sensitive to RNA-like substitutions at the target cytosine. Inversely, with unreactive 2'-fluoro-RNA substrates, AID's deaminase activity was rescued by introducing a trinucleotide DNA patch spanning the target cytosine and two nucleotides upstream. These data suggest a role for nucleotide sugar pucker in explaining the molecular basis for AID's DNA selectivity and, more generally, suggest how other nucleic acid-modifying enzymes may distinguish DNA from RNA. PMID:23942124

Nabel, Christopher S; Lee, Jae W; Wang, Laura C; Kohli, Rahul M

2013-08-27

48

Nucleic acid determinants for selective deamination of DNA over RNA by activation-induced deaminase  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the larger AID/APOBEC family, is the key catalyst in initiating antibody somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. The DNA deamination model accounting for AID’s functional role posits that AID deaminates genomic deoxycytosine bases within the immunoglobulin locus, activating downstream repair pathways that result in antibody maturation. Although this model is well supported, the molecular basis for AID’s selectivity for DNA over RNA remains an open and pressing question, reflecting a broader need to elucidate how AID/APOBEC enzymes engage their substrates. To address these questions, we have synthesized a series of chimeric nucleic acid substrates and characterized their reactivity with AID. These chimeric substrates feature targeted variations at the 2?-position of nucleotide sugars, allowing us to interrogate the steric and conformational basis for nucleic acid selectivity. We demonstrate that modifications to the target nucleotide can significantly alter AID’s reactivity. Strikingly, within a substrate that is otherwise DNA, a single RNA-like 2?-hydroxyl substitution at the target cytosine is sufficient to compromise deamination. Alternatively, modifications that favor a DNA-like conformation (or sugar pucker) are compatible with deamination. AID’s closely related homolog APOBEC1 is similarly sensitive to RNA-like substitutions at the target cytosine. Inversely, with unreactive 2?-fluoro-RNA substrates, AID’s deaminase activity was rescued by introducing a trinucleotide DNA patch spanning the target cytosine and two nucleotides upstream. These data suggest a role for nucleotide sugar pucker in explaining the molecular basis for AID’s DNA selectivity and, more generally, suggest how other nucleic acid-modifying enzymes may distinguish DNA from RNA. PMID:23942124

Nabel, Christopher S.; Lee, Jae W.; Wang, Laura C.; Kohli, Rahul M.

2013-01-01

49

SNPs in APOBEC3 cytosine deaminases and their association with Visna/Maedi disease progression.  

PubMed

The Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) genes are able to inhibit the replication of a wide range of exogenous retroviruses, as well as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Three APOBEC3 genes, named APOBEC3Z1, APOBEC3Z2 and APOBEC3Z3, have been described in sheep. In this work the three genes have been screened in order to identify polymorphisms. No polymorphism was detected for the A3Z2 and A3Z3 genes but 16 SNPs and a 3-bp deletion were found in the A3Z1 gene. A thermoestability prediction analysis was applied to the detected amino acidic SNPs by three different programs. This analysis revealed a number of polymorphisms that could affect the protein stability. The SNPs of the 3'UTR were tested to detect alterations on the predicted microRNA target sites. Two new microRNA target sites were discovered for one of the alleles. Two SNPs were selected for association studies in relation with the retroviral disease Visna/Maedi in Latxa and Assaf sheep breeds. Although association analyses resulted unconclusive, probably due to the unsuitability of the SNP allele frequency distribution of the selected polymorphisms in the analyzed breeds, these genes remain good candidates for association studies. PMID:25532445

Esparza-Baquer, A; Larruskain, A; Mateo-Abad, M; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Benavides, J; Pérez, V; Jugo, B M

2015-02-15

50

Dehydration of cytosine monohydrate at physiological temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction, thermogravimetric, and mass spectrographic measurements have been used to show that cytosine monohydrate loses its water of hydration at physiological temperatures (approx. = 37/sup 0/C) and converts to cytosine. The ''activation energy'' for the dehydration process has been determined from isothermal weight curves and is 27.1 +/- 0.6 kcal . mol/sup -1/. It is suggested that pyrimidine dehydration may be involved in structural changes in DNA.

Martel, P.; Powell, B.M.

1983-01-01

51

Discovery of Deaminase Activities in COG1816  

E-print Network

model of the active site of Patl2390 with N-6-benzyladenine ......... 76 viii 3.2 Multiple-sequence alignment of an adenine deaminase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO (Pa0148) and five cytokinin deaminases: Patl2390, Leum0809, Lsa...0086, Cja0578, and MADE1015570 .......................... 83 3.3 The structural model of the active site of Patl2390 with N-6-benzyladenine ......... 85 4.1 Menaquinone biosynthesis including the men gene pathway and the futalosine...

Goble, Alissa M

2013-04-24

52

Sequence and expression of the dCMP deaminase gene (DCD1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The dCMP deaminase gene (DCD1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated by screening a Sau3A clone bank for complementation of the dUMP auxotrophy exhibited by dcd1 dmp1 haploids. Plasmid pDC3, containing a 7-kilobase (kb) Sau3A insert, restores dCMP deaminase activity to dcd1 mutants and leads to an average 17.5-fold overproduction of the enzyme in wild-type cells. The complementing activity of the plasmid was localized to a 4.2-kb PvuII restriction fragment within the Sau3A insert. Subcloning experiments demonstrated that a single HindIII restriction site within this fragment lies within the DCD1 gene. Subsequent DNA sequence analysis revealed a 936-nucleotide open reading frame encompassing this HindIII site. Disruption of the open reading frame by integrative transformation led to a loss of enzyme activity and confirmed that this region constitutes the dCMP deaminase gene. Northern analysis indicated that the DCD1 mRNA is a 1.15-kb poly(A)+ transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was mapped by primer extension and appears to exhibit heterogeneous termini. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the T2 bacteriophage dCMP deaminase with that deduced for the yeast enzyme revealed a limited degree of homology which extends over the entire length of the phage polypeptide (188 amino acids) but is confined to the carboxy-terminal half of the yeast protein (312 amino acids). A potential dTTP-binding site in the yeast and phage enzymes was identified by comparison of homologous regions with the amino acid sequences of a variety of other dTTP-binding enzymes. Despite the role of dCMP deaminase in dTTP biosynthesis, Northern analysis revealed that the DCD1 gene is not subject to the same cell cycle-dependent pattern of transcription recently found for the yeast thymidylate synthetase gene (TMP1). Images PMID:3023902

McIntosh, E M; Haynes, R H

1986-01-01

53

Active demethylation in mouse zygotes involves cytosine deamination and base excision repair  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation in mammals is an epigenetic mark necessary for normal embryogenesis. During development active loss of methylation occurs in the male pronucleus during the first cell cycle after fertilisation. This is accompanied by major chromatin remodelling and generates a marked asymmetry between the paternal and maternal genomes. The mechanism(s) by which this is achieved implicate, among others, base excision repair (BER) components and more recently a major role for TET3 hydroxylase. To investigate these methylation dynamics further we have analysed DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in fertilised mouse oocytes by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and evaluated the relative contribution of different candidate factors for active demethylation in knock-out zygotes by three-dimensional imaging and IF semi-quantification. Results We find two distinct phases of loss of paternal methylation in the zygote, one prior to and another coincident with, but not dependent on, DNA replication. TET3-mediated hydroxymethylation is limited to the replication associated second phase of demethylation. Analysis of cytosine deaminase (AID) null fertilised oocytes revealed a role for this enzyme in the second phase of loss of paternal methylation, which is independent from hydroxymethylation. Investigation into the possible repair pathways involved supports a role for AID-mediated cytosine deamination with subsequent U-G mismatch long-patch BER by UNG2 while no evidence could be found for an involvement of TDG. Conclusions There are two observable phases of DNA demethylation in the mouse zygote, before and coincident with DNA replication. TET3 is only involved in the second phase of loss of methylation. Cytosine deamination and long-patch BER mediated by UNG2 appear to independently contribute to this second phase of active demethylation. Further work will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in the first phase of active demethylation that will potentially involve activities required for early sperm chromatin remodelling. PMID:24279473

2013-01-01

54

Characterization of a novel resistance-related deoxycytidine deaminase from Brassica oleracea var. capitata.  

PubMed

Brassica oleracea deoxycytidine deaminase (BoDCD), a deoxycytidine deaminase (DCD, EC 3.5.4.14) enzyme, is known to play an important role in the Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 mediated resistance mechanism in young leaves of B. oleracea var. capitata during Rhizoctonia solani infection. BoDCD potentially neutralizes cytotoxic products of host lipoxygenase activity, and thereby BoDCD restricts the hypersensitivity-related programmed cell death induced in plants during the initial stages of infection. To determine the biochemical characteristics and to partially elucidate the designated functional properties of BoDCD, the enzyme was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system, and its potential to neutralize the toxic analogues of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) was examined. BoDCD transformants of E. coli cells were found to be resistant to 2'-deoxycytidine analogues at all of the concentrations tested. The BoDCD enzyme was also overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein and purified using nickel chelating affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of BoDCD was determined to be 20.8 kDa as visualized by SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity and other kinetic properties show that BoDCD is more active in neutralizing cytotoxic cytosine ?-d-arabinofuranoside than in deaminating 2'-deoxycytinde to 2'-deoxyuridine in nucleic acids or in metabolizing cytidine to uridine. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 27 °C and 7.5. The Km and Vmax values of BoDCD were, respectively, 91.3 ?M and 1.475 mM for its natural substrate 2'-deoxycytidine and 63 ?M and 2.072 mM for cytosine ?-d-arabinofuranoside. The phenomenon of neutralization of cytotoxic dC analogues by BoDCD is discussed in detail on the basis of enzyme biochemical properties. PMID:24475736

Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Lin, Hong-Shin; Liu, Shu-Ying; Peng, Kou-Cheng

2014-02-26

55

Discovery and Structure Determination of the Orphan Enzyme Isoxanthopterin Deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Two previously uncharacterized proteins have been identified that efficiently catalyze the deamination of isoxanthopterin and pterin 6-carboxylate. The genes encoding these two enzymes, NYSGXRC-9339a (gi|44585104) and NYSGXRC-9236b (gi|44611670), were first identified from DNA isolated from the Sargasso Sea as part of the Global Ocean Sampling Project. The genes were synthesized, and the proteins were subsequently expressed and purified. The X-ray structure of Sgx9339a was determined at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution (Protein Data Bank entry 2PAJ). This protein folds as a distorted ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} barrel and contains a single zinc ion in the active site. These enzymes are members of the amidohydrolase superfamily and belong to cog0402 within the clusters of orthologous groups (COG). Enzymes in cog0402 have previously been shown to catalyze the deamination of guanine, cytosine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and 8-oxoguanine. A small compound library of pteridines, purines, and pyrimidines was used to probe catalytic activity. The only substrates identified in this search were isoxanthopterin and pterin 6-carboxylate. The kinetic constants for the deamination of isoxanthopterin with Sgx9339a were determined to be 1.0 s{sup -1}, 8.0 {micro}M, and 1.3 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} (k{sub cat}, K{sub m}, and k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, respectively). The active site of Sgx9339a most closely resembles the active site for 8-oxoguanine deaminase (Protein Data Bank entry 2UZ9). A model for substrate recognition of isoxanthopterin by Sgx9339a was proposed on the basis of the binding of guanine and xanthine in the active site of guanine deaminase. Residues critical for substrate binding appear to be conserved glutamine and tyrosine residues that form hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl oxygen at C4, a conserved threonine residue that forms hydrogen bonds with N5, and another conserved threonine residue that forms hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl group at C7. These conserved active site residues were used to identify 24 other genes which are predicted to deaminate isoxanthopterin.

Hall, R.S.; Swaminathan, S.; Agarwal, R.; Hitchcock, D.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Raushel, F. M.

2010-05-25

56

RNA cytosine methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing  

PubMed Central

Covalent modifications of nucleic acids play an important role in regulating their functions. Among these modifications, (cytosine-5) DNA methylation is best known for its role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Post-transcriptional RNA modification is a characteristic feature of noncoding RNAs, and has been described for rRNAs, tRNAs and miRNAs. (Cytosine-5) RNA methylation has been detected in stable and long-lived RNA molecules, but its function is still unclear, mainly due to technical limitations. In order to facilitate the analysis of RNA methylation patterns we have established a protocol for the chemical deamination of cytosines in RNA, followed by PCR-based amplification of cDNA and DNA sequencing. Using tRNAs and rRNAs as examples we show that cytosine methylation can be reproducibly and quantitatively detected by bisulfite sequencing. The combination of this method with deep sequencing allowed the analysis of a large number of RNA molecules. These results establish a versatile method for the identification and characterization of RNA methylation patterns, which will be useful for defining the biological function of RNA methylation. PMID:19059995

Schaefer, Matthias; Pollex, Tim; Hanna, Katharina; Lyko, Frank

2009-01-01

57

The nuclear DNA deaminase AID functions distributively whereas cytoplasmic APOBEC3G has a processive mode of action.  

PubMed

AID deaminates cytosine in the context of single stranded DNA to generate uracil, essential for effective class-switch recombination, somatic hypermutation and gene conversion at the B cell immunoglobulin locus. As a nuclear DNA mutator, AID activity must be tightly controlled and regulated, but the genetic analysis of AID and other DNA deaminases has left unstudied a number of important biochemical details. We have asked fundamental questions regarding AID's substrate recognition and processing, i.e. whether AID acts distributively or processively. We demonstrate that in vitro, human AID exhibits turnover, a prerequisite for our analysis, and show that it exhibits a distributive mode of action. Using a variety of different assays, we established that human AID is alone unable to act processively on any of a number of DNA substrates, i.e. one AID molecule is unable to carry out multiple, sequential deamination events on the same substrate. This is in contrast to the cytoplasmically expressed anti-viral DNA deaminase APOBEC3G, which acts in a processive manner, possibly suggesting that evolutionary pressure has altered the ability of DNA deaminases to act in a processive or distributive manner, depending on the physiological need. PMID:17161027

Coker, Heather A; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K

2007-02-01

58

Simultaneous In Vitro Characterisation of DNA Deaminase Function and Associated DNA Repair Pathways  

PubMed Central

During immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification, activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination by catalysing the conversion of cytosine to uracil. The synergy between AID and DNA repair pathways is fundamental for the introduction of mutations, however the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying this process are not fully elucidated. We describe a novel method to efficiently decipher the composition and activity of DNA repair pathways that are activated by AID-induced lesions. The in vitro resolution (IVR) assay combines AID based deamination and DNA repair activities from a cellular milieu in a single assay, thus avoiding synthetically created DNA-lesions or genetic-based readouts. Recombinant GAL4-AID fusion protein is targeted to a plasmid containing GAL4 binding sites, allowing for controlled cytosine deamination within a substrate plasmid. Subsequently, the Xenopus laevis egg extract provides a source of DNA repair proteins and functional repair pathways. Our results demonstrated that DNA repair pathways which are in vitro activated by AID-induced lesions are reminiscent of those found during AID-induced in vivo Ig diversification. The comparative ease of manipulation of this in vitro systems provides a new approach to dissect the complex DNA repair pathways acting on defined physiologically lesions, can be adapted to use with other DNA damaging proteins (e.g. APOBECs), and provide a means to develop and characterise pharmacological agents to inhibit these potentially oncogenic processes. PMID:24349193

Franchini, Don-Marc; Incorvaia, Elisabetta; Rangam, Gopinath; Coker, Heather A.; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K.

2013-01-01

59

Single Molecule Investigation of Ag+ Interactions with Single Cytosine-, Methylcytosine- and Hydroxymethylcytosine-Cytosine Mismatches in a Nanopore  

PubMed Central

Both cytosine-Ag-cytosine interactions and cytosine modifications in a DNA duplex have attracted great interest for research. Cytosine (C) modifications such as methylcytosine (mC) and hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) are associated with tumorigenesis. However, a method for directly discriminating C, mC and hmC bases without labeling, modification and amplification is still missing. Additionally, the nature of coordination of Ag+ with cytosine-cytosine (C-C) mismatches is not clearly understood. Utilizing the alpha-hemolysin nanopore, we show that in the presence of Ag+, duplex stability is most increased for the cytosine-cytosine (C-C) pair, followed by the cytosine-methylcytosine (C-mC) pair, and the cytosine-hydroxymethylcytosine (C-hmC) pair, which has no observable Ag+ induced stabilization. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the hydrogen-bond-mediated paring of a C-C mismatch results in a binding site for Ag+. Cytosine modifications (such as mC and hmC) disrupted the hydrogen bond, resulting in disruption of the Ag+ binding site. Our experimental method provides a novel platform to study the metal ion-DNA interactions and could also serve as a direct detection method for nucleobase modifications. PMID:25103463

Wang, Yong; Luan, Bin-Quan; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Xinyue; Ritzo, Brandon; Gates, Kent; Gu, Li-Qun

2014-01-01

60

Tautomerism of cytosine probed by gas phase IR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tautomerism of the gaseous protonated cytosine is studied using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of singly hydrated complexes of protonated cytosine in the 2700-3750 cm-1 wavenumber range. The hydrated complexes are formed through argon-mediated collisions between bare electrosprayed cytosine and low-pressure water vapor. In the spectra, where X-H (XC, O, and N) stretching vibrations are probed, evidence is found for the coexistence in the gas phase of hydrated complexes of two different cytosine tautomers. As the addition of a water molecule to either tautomer of protonated cytosine is energetically highly unlikely to induce interconversion, it is deduced that both C(2)O and N(3) protonated tautomers of cytosine are formed under electrospray conditions.

Bakker, Joost M.; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Maître, Philippe

2009-06-01

61

Verwertung von Cytosin und Uracil durch Hydrogenomonas facilis und Hydrogenomonas H 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenomonas facilis utilizes thymine, cytosine, and uracil as nitrogen sources; Hydrogenomonas H 16, however, only cytosine. Cytosine is completely metabolised by Hydrogenomonas facilis, but is only deaminated by Hydrogenomonas H 16 and the resulting uracil accumulates in the culture medium.

H. Kaltwasser; J. Krämer

1968-01-01

62

Zinc-binding domain-dependent, deaminase-independent actions of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 2 (Apobec2), mediate its effect on zebrafish retina regeneration.  

PubMed

The Apobec/AID family of cytosine deaminases can deaminate cytosine and thereby contribute to adaptive and innate immunity, DNA demethylation, and the modification of cellular mRNAs. Unique among this family is Apobec2, whose enzymatic activity has been questioned and whose function remains poorly explored. We recently reported that zebrafish Apobec2a and Apobec2b (Apobec2a,2b) regulate retina regeneration; however, their mechanism of action remained unknown. Here we show that although Apobec2a,2b lack cytosine deaminase activity, they require a conserved zinc-binding domain to stimulate retina regeneration. Interestingly, we found that human APOBEC2 is able to functionally substitute for Apobec2a,2b during retina regeneration. By identifying Apobec2-interacting proteins, including ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9); topoisomerase I-binding, arginine/serine-rich, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (Toporsa); and POU class 6 homeobox 2 (Pou6f2), we uncovered that sumoylation regulates Apobec2 subcellular localization and that nuclear Apobec2 controls Pou6f2 binding to DNA. Importantly, mutations in the zinc-binding domain of Apobec2 diminished its ability to stimulate Pou6f2 binding to DNA, and knockdown of Ubc9 or Pou6f2 suppressed retina regeneration. PMID:25190811

Powell, Curtis; Cornblath, Eli; Goldman, Daniel

2014-10-17

63

Intraspecies diversity of the industrial yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus based on analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA.  

PubMed

We divided industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae into three groups based on the sequences of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. One group contained sake yeasts, shochu yeasts, and one bakery yeast, another group contained wine yeasts, and the third group contained beer and whisky yeasts, including seven bakery yeasts. The three groups were distinguished by polymorphisms at two positions, designated positions B and C, corresponding to nucleotide numbers 279 and 301 respectively in the S288C strain. The yeasts in the Japanese group had one thymine at position B and one thymine at position C. The wine yeasts had one thymine at position B and one cytosine at position C. And the beer and whisky yeasts had two thymines at position B and one cytosine at position C. Strains of S. pastorianus were divided into three groups based on the sequences of their 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS regions. PMID:17617725

Kawahata, Miho; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2007-07-01

64

Cytosine methylation levels in the genome of Stellaria longipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment-induced alteration of DNA methylation levels was investigated inStellaria longipes (Caryophyllaceae). Total cytosine methylation levels were measured using HPLC in 6 genets representing two ecotypes (alpine\\u000a and prairie) grown in short day photoperiod and cold temperature (SDC) and long day photoperiod and warm temperature (LDW)\\u000a conditions. The levels of methylated cytosine were 16.54-22.20% among the three genets from the alpine

Q. Cai; C. C. Chinnappa

1999-01-01

65

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is localized to subnuclear domains enriched in splicing factors.  

PubMed

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme in adaptive immunity. AID initiates the antibody diversification processes in activated B cells by deaminating cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. To some extent other genes are also targeted, which may lead to genome instability and B cell malignancy. Thus, it is crucial to understand its targeting and regulation mechanisms. AID is regulated at several levels including subcellular compartmentalization. However, the complex nuclear distribution and trafficking of AID has not been studied in detail previously. In this work, we examined the subnuclear localization of AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 and found that they associate with spliceosome-associated structures including Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. Moreover, protein kinase A (PKA), which activates AID by phosphorylation at Ser38, is present together with AID in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we demonstrate that AID physically associates with the major spliceosome subunits (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, snRNPs), as well as other essential splicing components, in addition to the transcription machinery. Based on our findings and the literature, we suggest a transcription-coupled splicing-associated model for AID targeting and activation. PMID:24434356

Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Doseth, Berit; Liabakk, Nina B; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil

2014-03-10

66

Nanopores discriminate among five C5-cytosine variants in DNA.  

PubMed

Individual DNA molecules can be read at single nucleotide precision using nanopores coupled to processive enzymes. Discrimination among the four canonical bases has been achieved, as has discrimination among cytosine, 5-methylcytosine (mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC). Two additional modified cytosine bases, 5-carboxylcytosine (caC) and 5-formylcytosine (fC), are produced during enzymatic conversion of hmC to cytosine in mammalian cells. Thus, an accurate picture of the cytosine epigenetic status in target cells should also include these C5-cytosine variants. In the present study, we used a patch clamp amplifier to acquire ionic current traces caused by phi29 DNA polymerase-controlled translocation of DNA templates through the M2MspA pore. Decision boundaries based on three consecutive ionic current states were implemented to call mC, hmC, caC, fC, or cytosine at CG dinucleotides in ?4400 individual DNA molecules. We found that the percentage of correct base calls for single pass reads ranged from 91.6% to 98.3%. This accuracy depended upon the identity of nearest neighbor bases surrounding the CG dinucleotide. PMID:25347819

Wescoe, Zachary L; Schreiber, Jacob; Akeson, Mark

2014-11-26

67

Evolution of the deaminase fold and multiple origins of eukaryotic editing and mutagenic nucleic acid deaminases from bacterial toxin systems  

PubMed Central

The deaminase-like fold includes, in addition to nucleic acid/nucleotide deaminases, several catalytic domains such as the JAB domain, and others involved in nucleotide and ADP-ribose metabolism. Using sensitive sequence and structural comparison methods, we develop a comprehensive natural classification of the deaminase-like fold and show that its ancestral version was likely to operate on nucleotides or nucleic acids. Consequently, we present evidence that a specific group of JAB domains are likely to possess a DNA repair function, distinct from the previously known deubiquitinating peptidase activity. We also identified numerous previously unknown clades of nucleic acid deaminases. Using inference based on contextual information, we suggest that most of these clades are toxin domains of two distinct classes of bacterial toxin systems, namely polymorphic toxins implicated in bacterial interstrain competition and those that target distantly related cells. Genome context information suggests that these toxins might be delivered via diverse secretory systems, such as Type V, Type VI, PVC and a novel PrsW-like intramembrane peptidase-dependent mechanism. We propose that certain deaminase toxins might be deployed by diverse extracellular and intracellular pathogens as also endosymbionts as effectors targeting nucleic acids of host cells. Our analysis suggests that these toxin deaminases have been acquired by eukaryotes on several independent occasions and recruited as organellar or nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA modifiers, operating on tRNAs, mRNAs and short non-coding RNAs, and also as mutators of hyper-variable genes, viruses and selfish elements. This scenario potentially explains the origin of mutagenic AID/APOBEC-like deaminases, including novel versions from Caenorhabditis, Nematostella and diverse algae and a large class of fast-evolving fungal deaminases. These observations greatly expand the distribution of possible unidentified mutagenic processes catalyzed by nucleic acid deaminases. PMID:21890906

Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Zhang, Dapeng; Rogozin, Igor B.; Aravind, L.

2011-01-01

68

ACC Deaminase Containing PGPR for Potential Exploitation in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The beneficial free-living bacteria present in the plant rhizosphere are usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria\\u000a (PGPR). Among the various mechanisms of plant growth promotion, certain PGPR possess the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic\\u000a acid (ACC) deaminase that cleaves plant-produced ACC, the immediate precursor of the stress hormone ethylene. ACC deaminase\\u000a containing PGPR act as a sink for ACC and protects

Venkadasamy Govindasamy; Murugesan Senthilkumar; Pranita Bose; Lakkineni Vithal Kumar; D. Ramadoss; Kannepalli Annapurna

69

Ionization-induced tautomerization in cytosine and effect of solvation.  

PubMed

The recent observation of excitation-induced tautomerization in gas-phase cytosine motivated us to investigate the possibility of facile tautomerization in ionized cytosine and the effect of solvation on the tautomerization barriers. The tautomerization mechanisms were characterized at the density functional theory (DFT)/?B97X-D and coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) levels of theory. Vertical and adiabatic ionization energies (VIEs and AIEs, respectively) of the tautomers of cytosine and the microsolvated species were calculated with the equation-of-motion ionization-potential coupled-cluster (EOM-IP-CCSD) method. We observed that, in microsolvated cytosine, the solvatochromic shifts of the VIEs can be both blue- and red-shifted depending on the tautomers. This is explained by the analysis of the charge-dipole interactions between the cytosine and water molecules. We noticed that, upon ionization, gas-phase tautomerization barriers are reduced by 0-4 kcal/mol, whereas microsolvated (with one water) tautomerization barriers are reduced by 4-5 kcal/mol. We also investigated the tautomerization process in solvation using a continuum model with one active water molecule in the quantum mechanical region. We noticed that, even though bulk solvation has a significant effect on ionization energies, its effect on the ionization-induced tautomerization barrier is minimal. PMID:24955479

Das, Tamal; Ghosh, Debashree

2014-07-17

70

Fenpropimorph affects uptake of uracil and cytosine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Fenpropimorph was shown to inhibit the accumulation of the pyrimidine bases uracil and cytosine from the growth media in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uracil prototrophs of S. cerevisiae were more resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of fenpropimorph than were uracil auxotrophs. High concentrations of uracil rescued fenpropimorph-treated uracil auxotrophs, and cytosine, which is accumulated by a separate mechanism, could also support growth of treated uracil auxotrophs. Fenpropimorph caused a significant decrease in the uptake of radiolabeled uracil, which was not due to accumulation of ergosta-8,14-dienol (ignosterol) in the treated cultures. Radiolabeled cytosine uptake was unaffected by drug treatment in a wild-type strain but was inhibited in a sterol mutant, in which ergosterol was absent from the cell. The role of fenpropimorph in causing membrane dysfunction through a mechanism other than altered sterol metabolism is discussed. PMID:8067730

Crowley, J H; Lorenz, R T; Parks, L W

1994-01-01

71

Nitrosative Cytosine Deamination. An Exploration of the Chemistry Emanating from Deamination with  

E-print Network

channels available to 6 include hydrolytic deglycation to 3-isocyanatoacrylonitrile 7, water addition). Indeed, cytosine deamination to uracil may occur without or with enzyme catalysis (Figure 1). DNA cy hydrolytic deamination, protonated cytosine is thought to undergo direct nucleophilic ipso

Glaser, Rainer

72

The catalase activity of diiron adenine deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Adenine deaminase (ADE) from the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS) of enzymes catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. Enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli was largely inactive toward the deamination of adenine. Molecular weight determinations by mass spectrometry provided evidence that multiple histidine and methionine residues were oxygenated. When iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} before induction, the post-translational modifications disappeared. Enzyme expressed and purified under these conditions was substantially more active for adenine deamination. Apo-enzyme was prepared and reconstituted with two equivalents of FeSO{sub 4}. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy demonstrated that this protein contained two high-spin ferrous ions per monomer of ADE. In addition to the adenine deaminase activity, [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE catalyzed the conversion of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The values of k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for the catalase activity are 200 s{sup -1} and 2.4 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE underwent more than 100 turnovers with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} before the enzyme was inactivated due to oxygenation of histidine residues critical for metal binding. The iron in the inactive enzyme was high-spin ferric with g{sub ave} = 4.3 EPR signal and no evidence of anti-ferromagnetic spin-coupling. A model is proposed for the disproportionation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE that involves the cycling of the binuclear metal center between the di-ferric and di-ferrous oxidation states. Oxygenation of active site residues occurs via release of hydroxyl radicals. These findings represent the first report of redox reaction catalysis by any member of the AHS.

Kamat S. S.; Swaminathan S.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Tichy, S. E.; Gheyi, T.; Zheng, X.; Bain, K.; Groshong, C.; Emtage, S.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

2011-12-01

73

Altered AMP deaminase activity may extend postmortem glycolysis.  

PubMed

Postmortem energy metabolism drives hydrogen accumulation in muscle and results in a fairly constant ultimate pH. Extended glycolysis results in adverse pork quality and may be possible with greater adenonucleotide availability postmortem. We hypothesized that slowing adenonucleotide removal by reducing AMP deaminase activity would extend glycolysis and lower the ultimate pH of muscle. Longissimus muscle samples were incorporated into an in vitro system that mimics postmortem glycolysis with or without pentostatin, an AMP deaminase inhibitor. Pentostatin lowered ultimate pH and increased lactate and glucose 6-phosphate with time. Based on these results and that AMPK ?3(R200Q) mutated pigs (RN(-)) produce low ultimate pH pork, we hypothesized AMP deaminase abundance and activity would be lower in RN(-) muscle than wild-type. RN(-) muscle contained lower AMP deaminase abundance and activity. These data show that altering adenonucleotide availability postmortem can extend postmortem pH decline and suggest that AMP deaminase activity may, in part, contribute to the low ultimate pH observed in RN(-) pork. PMID:25498483

England, E M; Matarneh, S K; Scheffler, T L; Wachet, C; Gerrard, D E

2015-04-01

74

Assemblies of cytosine within H-bonded network of adipic acid and citric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adipic acid binds to cytosine to form H-bonded discrete cytosine-cytosinium assemblies embedded in 1D infinite chain of adipic acid, whereas citric acid stabilizes trimeric cytosine-cytosinium assemblies having length of 19.44 Å stabilized between layered structures of citric acid molecules.

Das, Babulal; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

2011-08-01

75

Streptomyces lividans Blasticidin S Deaminase and Its Application in Engineering a Blasticidin S-Producing Strain for Ease of Genetic Manipulation  

PubMed Central

Blasticidin S is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseochromogenes that exhibits strong fungicidal activity. To circumvent an effective DNA uptake barrier system in the native producer and investigate its biosynthesis in vivo, the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster (bls) was engrafted to the chromosome of Streptomyces lividans. However, the resulting mutant, LL2, produced the inactive deaminohydroxyblasticidin S instead of blasticidin S. Subsequently, a blasticidin S deaminase (SLBSD, for S. lividans blasticidin S deaminase) was identified in S. lividans and shown to govern this in vivo conversion. Purified SLBSD was found to be capable of transforming blasticidin S to deaminohydroxyblasticidin S in vitro. It also catalyzed deamination of the cytosine moiety of cytosylglucuronic acid, an intermediate in blasticidin S biosynthesis. Disruption of the SLBSD gene in S. lividans LL2 led to successful production of active blasticidin S in the resultant mutant, S. lividans WJ2. To demonstrate the easy manipulation of the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster, blsE, blsF, and blsL, encoding a predicted radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) protein, an unknown protein, and a guanidino methyltransferase, were individually inactivated to access their role in blasticidin S biosynthesis. PMID:23377931

Li, Li; Wu, Jun; Deng, Zixin; Zabriskie, T. Mark

2013-01-01

76

Concentration by Evaporation and the Prebiotic Synthesis of Cytosine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine from urea and cyanoacetaldehyde (CA) has recently been claimed to be invalid on the basis of possible side reactions of the starting materials and the inapplicability of prebiotic syntheses using drying beach conditions. We therefore have investigated the synthesis of cytosine and uracil from urea and cyanoacetaldehyde at 100 C under dry-down conditions, and in solution at 4 C and -20 C. We find that cytosine is produced from the low temperature experiments more efficiently than calculated from the Arrhenius extrapolation from higher temperatures, i.e., 60-120 C. In addition, we find that CA dimer is as efficient as the monomer in cytosine synthesis. We also studied whether evaporating very dilute solutions of nonvolatile organic compounds will concentrate according to theory. Solutions as dilute as 10(exp -4) M concentrate from pure water approximately according to theory. Similar solutions in 0.5 M NaCl have less than theoretical concentrations due to absorption, but concentrations near dryness were very high.

Nelson, Kevin E.; Robertson, Michael P.; Levy, Matthew; Miller, Stanley L.

2001-01-01

77

Human Papillomavirus E6 Triggers Upregulation of the Antiviral and Cancer Genomic DNA Deaminase APOBEC3B  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Several recent studies have converged upon the innate immune DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) as a significant source of genomic uracil lesions and mutagenesis in multiple human cancers, including those of the breast, head/neck, cervix, bladder, lung, ovary, and other tissues. A3B is upregulated in these tumor types relative to normal tissues, but the mechanism is unclear. Because A3B also has antiviral activity in multiple systems and is a member of the broader innate immune response, we tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes A3B upregulation. We found that A3B mRNA expression and enzymatic activity were upregulated following transfection of a high-risk HPV genome and that this effect was abrogated by inactivation of E6. Transduction experiments showed that the E6 oncoprotein alone was sufficient to cause A3B upregulation, and a panel of high-risk E6 proteins triggered higher A3B levels than did a panel of low-risk or noncancer E6 proteins. Knockdown experiments in HPV-positive cell lines showed that endogenous E6 is required for A3B upregulation. Analyses of publicly available head/neck cancer data further support this relationship, as A3B levels are higher in HPV-positive cancers than in HPV-negative cancers. Taken together with the established role for high-risk E6 in functional inactivation of TP53 and published positive correlations in breast cancer between A3B upregulation and genetic inactivation of TP53, our studies suggest a model in which high-risk HPV E6, possibly through functional inactivation of TP53, causes derepression of A3B gene transcription. This would lead to a mutator phenotype that explains the observed cytosine mutation biases in HPV-positive head/neck and cervical cancers. PMID:25538195

Vieira, Valdimara C.; Leonard, Brandon; White, Elizabeth A.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Lorenz, Laurel D.; Lee, Denis; Soares, Marcelo A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Howley, Peter M.

2014-01-01

78

ELISA for measuring porphobilinogen deaminase in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

An ELISA method has been developed to quantitate human porphobilinogen deaminase in erythrocyte lysate. The antiserum used in the assay was raised against the erythropoietic form of human porphobilinogen deaminase. The IgG fraction was characterized by use of immunoblotting technique, rocket immunoelectrophoresis and immunotitration and shown to be monospecific. The measuring range of the method was from 4 ng to 50 pg. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 6% and 7%, respectively. Erythrocyte lysates from 97 apparently healthy individuals were assayed giving a mean erythrocyte porphobilinogen deaminase protein concentration of 150 +/- 28 SD (micrograms/g Hb) and a specific enzyme activity of 750 +/- 140 SD (nkat/g). Eight patients with acute intermittent porphyria were also investigated. A decreased concentration of enzyme protein, i.e. 84 +/- 13 SD (micrograms/g Hb) with a normal specific activity, was found. PMID:2791307

Lannfelt, L; Wetterberg, L; Lilius, L; Thunell, S; Gellerfors, P

1989-08-15

79

Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.  

PubMed

The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s?¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ?10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-?-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common ?/? barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

2011-08-01

80

Guanine deaminase functions as dihydropterin deaminase in the biosynthesis of aurodrosopterin, a minor red eye pigment of Drosophila.  

PubMed

Dihydropterin deaminase, which catalyzes the conversion of 7,8-dihydropterin to 7,8-dihydrolumazine, was purified 5850-fold to apparent homogeneity from Drosophila melanogaster. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 48 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, indicating that it is a monomer under native conditions. The pI value, temperature, and optimal pH of the enzyme were 5.5, 40 degrees C, and 7.5, respectively. Interestingly the enzyme had much higher activity for guanine than for 7,8-dihydropterin. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for guanine (8.6 x 10(6) m(-1).s(-1)) was 860-fold higher than that for 7,8-dihydropterin (1.0 x 10(4) m(-1).s(-1)). The structural gene of the enzyme was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis as CG18143, located at region 82A1 on chromosome 3R. The cloned and expressed CG18143 exhibited both 7,8-dihydropterin and guanine deaminase activities. Flies with mutations in CG18143, SUPor-P/Df(3R)A321R1 transheterozygotes, had severely decreased activities in both deaminases compared with the wild type. Among several red eye pigments, the level of aurodrosopterin was specifically decreased in the mutant, and the amount of xanthine and uric acid also decreased considerably to 76 and 59% of the amounts in the wild type, respectively. In conclusion, dihydropterin deaminase encoded by CG18143 plays a role in the biosynthesis of aurodrosopterin by providing one of its precursors, 7,8-dihydrolumazine, from 7,8-dihydropterin. Dihydropterin deaminase also functions as guanine deaminase, an important enzyme for purine metabolism. PMID:19567870

Kim, Jaekwang; Park, Sang Ick; Ahn, Chiyoung; Kim, Heuijong; Yim, Jeongbin

2009-08-28

81

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is necessary for the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which functions in antibody diversification, is also expressed in a variety of germ and somatic cells. Evidence that AID promotes DNA demethylation in epigenetic reprogramming phenomena, and that it is induced by inflammatory signals, led us to investigate its role in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process in normal morphogenesis and tumor metastasis. We find that expression of AID is induced by inflammatory signals that induce the EMT in nontransformed mammary epithelial cells and in ZR75.1 breast cancer cells. shRNA–mediated knockdown of AID blocks induction of the EMT and prevents cells from acquiring invasive properties. Knockdown of AID suppresses expression of several key EMT transcriptional regulators and is associated with increased methylation of CpG islands proximal to the promoters of these genes; furthermore, the DNA demethylating agent 5 aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) antagonizes the effects of AID knockdown on the expression of EMT factors. We conclude that AID is necessary for the EMT in this breast cancer cell model and in nontransformed mammary epithelial cells. Our results suggest that AID may act near the apex of a hierarchy of regulatory steps that drive the EMT, and are consistent with this effect being mediated by cytosine demethylation. This evidence links our findings to other reports of a role for AID in epigenetic reprogramming and control of gene expression. PMID:23882083

Muñoz, Denise P.; Lee, Elbert L.; Takayama, Sachiko; Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Heo, Seok-Jin; Boffelli, Dario; Di Noia, Javier M.; Martin, David I. K.

2013-01-01

82

An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the purines, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyanoacetylene and cyanate; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture and is an abundant interstellar molecule. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (> 0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution--such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth--cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world.

Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L.

1995-01-01

83

Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker genome  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provide a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens) and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, include cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the “social repertoire” of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

Rasmussen, Erik M. K.; Amdam, Gro V.

2015-01-01

84

Cytosine photoproduct-DNA glycosylase in Escherichia coli and cultured human cells  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA produces a variety of pyrimidine base damages. The activities of Escherichia coli endonuclease III and a human lymphoblast endonuclease that incises ultraviolet-irradiated DNA at modified cytosine moieties were compared. Both the bacterial and human enzymes release this cytosine photoproduct as a free base. These glycosylase activities are linear with times of reaction, quantities of enzyme, and irradiation dosages of the substrates. Both enzyme activities are similarly inhibited by the addition of monovalent and divalent cations. Analysis by DNA sequencing identified loci of endonucleolytic incision as cytosines. These are neither cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, 6-(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-pyrimidinyl)-5-methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinediones, nor apyrimidinic sites. This cytosine photoproduct is separable from unmodified cytosine by high-performance liquid chromatography. This separation should facilitate identification of this modified cytosine and elucidation of its biological significance.

Weiss, R.B.; Gallagher, P.E.; Brent, T.P.; Duker, N.J. (Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-21

85

Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with kcat and kcat/Km values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction mechanism and the identity of the rate-limiting steps.

Kamat, S.S.; Swaminathan, S.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Fan, H.; Sali, A.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

2011-03-22

86

Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase  

SciTech Connect

Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction mechanism and the identity of the rate-limiting steps.

S Kamat; A Bagaria; D Kumaran; G Holmes-Hampton; H Fan; A Sali; J Sauder; S Burley; P Lindahl; et. al.

2011-12-31

87

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

88

DNA deaminases induce break-associated mutation showers with implication of APOBEC3B and 3A in breast cancer kataegis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer genomes have revealed a novel form of mutation showers (kataegis) in which multiple same-strand substitutions at C:G pairs spaced one to several hundred nucleotides apart are clustered over kilobase-sized regions, often associated with sites of DNA rearrangement. We show kataegis can result from AID/APOBEC-catalysed cytidine deamination in the vicinity of DNA breaks, likely through action on single-stranded DNA exposed during resection. Cancer-like kataegis can be recapitulated by expression of AID/APOBEC family deaminases in yeast where it largely depends on uracil excision, which generates an abasic site for strand breakage. Localized kataegis can also be nucleated by an I-SceI-induced break. Genome-wide patterns of APOBEC3-catalyzed deamination in yeast reveal APOBEC3B and 3A as the deaminases whose mutational signatures are most similar to those of breast cancer kataegic mutations. Together with expression and functional assays, the results implicate APOBEC3B/A in breast cancer hypermutation and give insight into the mechanism of kataegis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00534.001 PMID:23599896

Taylor, Benjamin JM; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wu, Yee Ling; Stebbings, Lucy A; Raine, Keiran; Campbell, Peter J; Rada, Cristina; Stratton, Michael R; Neuberger, Michael S

2013-01-01

89

Adenosine deaminase activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis.  

PubMed Central

We studied the activity of adenosine deaminase in the peritoneal fluid of 66 patients who were divided into five groups according to causes of ascites as follows: tuberculous peritonitis (group I), septic peritonitis (group II), secondary to malignant tumours (group III), miscellaneous conditions (group IV), and control subjects of transudates (group V). In patients with tuberculous peritonitis the enzyme activity was significantly higher than for the rest of the groups (p less than 0.001), and enzyme concentrations in all patients were well above the upper non-tuberculous value. Adenosine deaminase activity in the peritoneal fluid has proved to be a simple and reliable method for early diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. PMID:3758818

Martinez-Vazquez, J M; Ocaña, I; Ribera, E; Segura, R M; Pascual, C

1986-01-01

90

Purification of an adenosine deaminase complexing protein from human plasma.  

PubMed

A protein which specifically complexes with adenosine deaminase (complexing protein) has been purified to homogeneity from human plasma. This protein was compared with complexing protein isolated from human kidney. The two proteins produce electrophoretically different forms of high molecular weight adenosine deaminase when combined with the Mr = 36,000 enzyme monomer from erythrocytes. This difference may, at least in part, be due to the greater sialic acid content of complexing protein from plasma. By other criteria, including amino acid composition, total carbohydrate content, and subunit structure, the two proteins are quite similar. In addition, plasma complexing protein shows complete cross-reactivity with anti-kidney complexing protein serum. These results suggest that plasma and kidney complexing proteins are products of the same gene. PMID:115875

Schrader, W P; Woodward, F J; Pollara, B

1979-12-10

91

Polymorphous crystallization and diffraction of threonine deaminase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic threonine deaminase from Escherichia coli, an allosteric tetramer with key regulatory functions, has been crystallized in several crystal forms. Two distinct forms, both belonging to either space group P3121 or P3221, with different sized asymmetric units that both contain a tetramer, grow under identical conditions. Diffraction data sets to 2.8 A resolution (native) and 2. 9 A resolution (isomorphous uranyl derivative) have been collected from a third crystal form in space group I222. PMID:9761930

Gallagher, D T; Eisenstein, E; Fisher, K E; Zondlo, J; Chinchilla, D; Yu, H D; Dill, J; Winborne, E; Ducote, K; Xiao, G; Gilliland, G L

1998-05-01

92

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA editing, and interferon action.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing of RNA that possesses double-stranded (ds) structure. A-to-I RNA editing results in nucleotide substitution, because I is recognized as G instead of A both by ribosomes and by RNA polymerases. A-to-I substitution can also cause dsRNA destabilization, as I:U mismatch base pairs are less stable than A:U base pairs. Three mammalian ADAR genes are known, of which two encode active deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). Alternative promoters together with alternative splicing give rise to two protein size forms of ADAR1: an interferon-inducible ADAR1-p150 deaminase that binds dsRNA and Z-DNA, and a constitutively expressed ADAR1-p110 deaminase. ADAR2, like ADAR1-p110, is constitutively expressed and binds dsRNA. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs, and affects a broad range of biological processes. These include virus growth and persistence, apoptosis and embryogenesis, neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel function, pancreatic cell function, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs. Biochemical processes that provide a framework for understanding the physiologic changes following ADAR-catalyzed A-to-I (?=?G) editing events include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA-structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. PMID:21182352

George, Cyril X; Gan, Zhenji; Liu, Yong; Samuel, Charles E

2011-01-01

93

Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA, RNA Editing, and Interferon Action  

PubMed Central

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing of RNA that possesses double-stranded (ds) structure. A-to-I RNA editing results in nucleotide substitution, because I is recognized as G instead of A both by ribosomes and by RNA polymerases. A-to-I substitution can also cause dsRNA destabilization, as I:U mismatch base pairs are less stable than A:U base pairs. Three mammalian ADAR genes are known, of which two encode active deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). Alternative promoters together with alternative splicing give rise to two protein size forms of ADAR1: an interferon-inducible ADAR1-p150 deaminase that binds dsRNA and Z-DNA, and a constitutively expressed ADAR1-p110 deaminase. ADAR2, like ADAR1-p110, is constitutively expressed and binds dsRNA. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs, and affects a broad range of biological processes. These include virus growth and persistence, apoptosis and embryogenesis, neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel function, pancreatic cell function, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs. Biochemical processes that provide a framework for understanding the physiologic changes following ADAR-catalyzed A-to-I (?=?G) editing events include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA-structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein–RNA interactions. PMID:21182352

George, Cyril X.; Gan, Zhenji; Liu, Yong

2011-01-01

94

Molecular Basis of AMP Deaminase Deficiency in Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMP deaminase (AMPD; EC 3.5.4.6) is encoded by a multigene family in mammals. The AMPD1 gene is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, where this enzyme is thought to play an important role in energy metabolism. Deficiency of AMPD activity in skeletal muscle is associated with symptoms of a metabolic myopathy. Eleven unrelated individuals with AMPD deficiency were studied,

Takayuki Morisaki; Manfred Gross; Hiroko Morisaki; Dieter Pongratz; Nepomuk Zollner; Edward W. Holmes

1992-01-01

95

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 15 species of yeasts was determined to obtain further clues to or supporting evidence for their taxonomic position. Species examined belonged to the genera Saccharomyces, Debaryomyces, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, and Candida. The range of moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC content) for all yeasts examined extended from 34.9 to 48.3%. The sporogenous species and the asporogenous yeasts spanned the range with 36.6 to 48.3% GC and 34.9 to 48% GC, respectively. Three Saccharomyces species (S. rosei and related species) exhibited significantly higher GC contents than S. cerevisiae, whereas the fermentative species D. globosus revealed a%GC more aligned to the S. rosei group than to the nonfermentative D. hansenii. Similar GC contents were demonstrated by L. elongasporus and its proposed imperfect form C. parapsilosis. The range of GC contents of various strains of three Metschnikowia species studied was 6.1%, with the type strain of M. pulcherrima having the highest GC content (48.3%) of all of the yeasts examined. PMID:5764346

Meyer, Sally A.; Phaff, H. J.

1969-01-01

96

ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616  

EPA Science Inventory

D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

97

Demethylation of 6-O-Methylinosine by an RNA-Editing Adenosine Deaminase  

E-print Network

-modifying enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA).5-8 These experiments illustrate significant mechanistic similarities R/G site).9 Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a nucleoside-modifying enzyme that has been extensively hydrolytic deamination of its nucleoside substrate. The oxygen in the product of the ADAR reaction has also

Beal, Peter A.

98

Serum adenosine deaminase, catalase and carbonic anhydrase activities in patients with bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between adenosine deaminase and various cancers has been investigated in several studies. However, serum adenosine deaminase activity and carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities in patients with bladder cancer have not previously been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities in patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with bladder cancer and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer than controls (all significant, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These markers might be a potentially important finding as an additional diagnostic biochemical tool for bladder cancer. PMID:23295599

Pirinççi, Necip; Geçit, ?lhan; Güne?, Mustafa; Bilgehan Y?ksel, Mehmet; Kaba, Mehmet; Tan?k, Serhat; Demir, Halit; Aslan, Mehmet

2012-01-01

99

New Insights into 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Phylogeny, Evolution and Ecological Significance  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this work is the study of the phylogeny, evolution and ecological importance of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, the activity of which represents one of the most important and studied mechanisms used by plant growth–promoting microorganisms. The ACC deaminase gene and its regulatory elements presence in completely sequenced organisms was verified by multiple searches in diverse databases, and based on the data obtained a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Strain habitat, origin and ACC deaminase activity were taken into account when analyzing the results. In order to unveil ACC deaminase origin, evolution and relationships with other closely related pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes a phylogenetic analysis was also performed. The data obtained show that ACC deaminase is mostly prevalent in some Bacteria, Fungi and members of Stramenopiles. Contrary to previous reports, we show that ACC deaminase genes are predominantly vertically inherited in various bacterial and fungal classes. Still, results suggest a considerable degree of horizontal gene transfer events, including interkingdom transfer events. A model for ACC deaminase origin and evolution is also proposed. This study also confirms the previous reports suggesting that the Lrp-like regulatory protein AcdR is a common mechanism regulating ACC deaminase expression in Proteobacteria, however, we also show that other regulatory mechanisms may be present in some Proteobacteria and other bacterial phyla. In this study we provide a more complete view of the role for ACC deaminase than was previously available. The results show that ACC deaminase may not only be related to plant growth promotion abilities, but may also play multiple roles in microorganism's developmental processes. Hence, exploring the origin and functioning of this enzyme may be the key in a variety of important agricultural and biotechnological applications. PMID:24905353

Nascimento, Francisco X.; Rossi, Márcio J.; Soares, Cláudio R. F. S.; McConkey, Brendan J.; Glick, Bernard R.

2014-01-01

100

The Role of ACC Deaminase Producing PGPR in Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The plant rhizosphere is a multidimensional and dynamic ecological environment of complicated microbe–plant interactions for\\u000a harnessing essential macro and micronutrients from a limited nutrient pool. Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)\\u000a contain a vital enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase (EC 4.1.99.4), which regulates ethylene production\\u000a by metabolizing ACC (an intermediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ?-ketobutyrate and

Meenu Saraf; Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Dhara Patel

101

Ag Nanocluster Formation Using a Cytosine Oligonucleotide Template  

PubMed Central

The reduction of silver cations bound to the oligonucleotide dC12 was used to form silver nanoclusters. Mass spectra show that the oligonucleotides have 2–7 silver atoms that form multiple species, as evident from the number of transitions in the fluorescence and absorption spectra. The variations in the concentrations of the nanoclusters with time are attributed to the changing reducing capacity of the solution, and the formation of oxidized nanoclusters is proposed. Via mass spectrometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy, double-stranded structures with Ag+-mediated interactions between the bases are observed, but these structures are not maintained with the reduced nanoclusters. Through variations in the pH, the nanoclusters are shown to bind with the N3 of cytosine. PMID:19079559

Ritchie, Caroline M.; Johnsen, Kenneth R.; Kiser, John R.; Antoku, Yasuko; Dickson, Robert M.; Petty, Jeffrey T.

2008-01-01

102

Prebiotic cytosine synthesis: A critical analysis and implications for the origin of life  

PubMed Central

A number of theories propose that RNA, or an RNA-like substance, played a role in the origin of life. Usually, such hypotheses presume that the Watson–Crick bases were readily available on prebiotic Earth, for spontaneous incorporation into a replicator. Cytosine, however, has not been reported in analyses of meteorites nor is it among the products of electric spark discharge experiments. The reported prebiotic syntheses of cytosine involve the reaction of cyanoacetylene (or its hydrolysis product, cyanoacetaldehyde), with cyanate, cyanogen, or urea. These substances undergo side reactions with common nucleophiles that appear to proceed more rapidly than cytosine formation. To favor cytosine formation, reactant concentrations are required that are implausible in a natural setting. Furthermore, cytosine is consumed by deamination (the half-life for deamination at 25°C is ?340 yr) and other reactions. No reactions have been described thus far that would produce cytosine, even in a specialized local setting, at a rate sufficient to compensate for its decomposition. On the basis of this evidence, it appears quite unlikely that cytosine played a role in the origin of life. Theories that involve replicators that function without the Watson–Crick pairs, or no replicator at all, remain as viable alternatives. PMID:10200273

Shapiro, Robert

1999-01-01

103

Melamine Deaminase and Atrazine Chlorohydrolase: 98 Percent Identical but Functionally Different  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding melamine deaminase (TriA) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NRRL B-12227 was identified, cloned into Escherichia coli, sequenced, and expressed for in vitro study of enzyme activity. Melamine deaminase displaced two of the three amino groups from melamine, producing ammeline and ammelide as sequential products. The first deamination reaction occurred more than 10 times faster than the second. Ammelide did not inhibit the first or second deamination reaction, suggesting that the lower rate of ammeline hydrolysis was due to differential substrate turnover rather than product inhibition. Remarkably, melamine deaminase is 98% identical to the enzyme atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA) from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Each enzyme consists of 475 amino acids and differs by only 9 amino acids. AtzA was shown to exclusively catalyze dehalogenation of halo-substituted triazine ring compounds and had no activity with melamine and ammeline. Similarly, melamine deaminase had no detectable activity with the halo-triazine substrates. Melamine deaminase was active in deamination of a substrate that was structurally identical to atrazine, except for the substitution of an amino group for the chlorine atom. Moreover, melamine deaminase and AtzA are found in bacteria that grow on melamine and atrazine compounds, respectively. These data strongly suggest that the 9 amino acid differences between melamine deaminase and AtzA represent a short evolutionary pathway connecting enzymes catalyzing physiologically relevant deamination and dehalogenation reactions, respectively. PMID:11274097

Seffernick, Jennifer L.; de Souza, Mervyn L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

2001-01-01

104

Safety and efficacy of suicide gene therapy with adenosine deaminase 5-fluorocytosine silmutaneously in in vitro cultures of melanoma and retinal cell lines.  

PubMed

Local treatment as a treatment modality is gaining increased general acceptance over time. Novel drugs and methodologies of local administration are being investigated in an effort to achieve disease local control. Suicide gene therapy is a method that has been investigated as a local treatment with simultaneously distant disease control. In our current experiment we purchased HTB-70 (melanoma cell line, derived from metastatic axillary node) and CRL-2302 (human retinal epithelium) were from ATCC LGC Standards and Ancotil(®), 2.5 g/250 ml (1 g/00ml) (5-Flucytosine) MEDA; Pharmaceuticals Ltd. UK. Adenosine Cytosine Deaminase (Ad.CD) was also used in order to convert the pro-drug 5-Flucytosine to the active 5-Fluoracil. Three different concentrations of 5-Flucytosine (5-FC) were administered (0.2ml, 0.8ml and 1.2ml). At indicated time-points (4h, 8h and 24h) cell viability and apoptosis were measured. Our concept was to investigate whether suicide gene therapy with Ad. CD-5-FC could be used with safety and efficiency as a future local treatment for melanoma located in the eye cavity. Indeed, our results indicated that in every 5-FC administration had mild cytotoxicity for the retinal cells, while increased apoptosis was observed for the melanoma cell line. PMID:24799955

Sakkas, Antonios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bougiouklis, Dimitris; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Zarampoukas, Thomas; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Meditskou, Soultana; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

105

A Mutant of Uracil DNA Glycosylase That Distinguishes between Cytosine and 5-Methylcytosine  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that a mutant of uracil DNA glycosylase (N123D:L191A) distinguishes between cytosine and methylcytosine. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) efficiently removes uracil from DNA in a reaction in which the base is flipped into the enzyme’s active site. Uracil is selected over cytosine by a pattern of specific hydrogen bonds, and thymine is excluded by steric clash of its 5-methyl group with Y66. The N123D mutation generates an enzyme that excises cytosine. This N123D:L191A mutant excises C when it is mispaired with A or opposite an abasic site, but not when it is paired with G. In contrast no cleavage is observed with any substrates that contain 5-methylcytosine. This enzyme may offer a new approach for discriminating between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. PMID:24740413

Kimber, Scott T.; Brown, Tom; Fox, Keith R.

2014-01-01

106

Safety of intrathecal administration of cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the short-term safety of intrathecal administration of cytosine arabinoside alone or in combination with methotrexate in dogs and cats. One hundred and twelve dogs and eight cats admitted between September 2008 and December 2013, diagnosed with suspected inflammatory (meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown aetiology) or neoplastic disease affecting brain or spinal cord and treated with an intrathecal administration of cytosine arabinoside alone or in combination with methotrexate were included in the study. Recorded information regarding possible adverse events during administration while recovering from anaesthesia and during hospitalization period were evaluated. The results showed that one patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity after administration of cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate during recovery from anaesthesia, however responded to intravenous administration of diazepam. On the base of our results we can conclude that intrathecal administration of cytosine arabinoside alone or in combination with methotrexate is a safe procedure in dogs and cats. PMID:25041580

Genoni, S; Palus, V; Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B

2014-07-15

107

Cytosine methylation regulates oviposition in the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Similar to other metazoan pathogens, Schistosoma mansoni undergoes transcriptional and developmental regulation during its complex lifecycle and host interactions. DNA methylation as a mechanism to control these processes has, to date, been discounted in this parasite. Here we show the first evidence for cytosine methylation in the S. mansoni genome. Transcriptional coregulation of novel DNA methyltransferase (SmDnmt2) and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins mirrors the detection of cytosine methylation abundance and implicates the presence of a functional DNA methylation machinery. Genome losses in cytosine methylation upon SmDnmt2 silencing and the identification of a hypermethylated, repetitive intron within a predicted forkhead gene confirm this assertion. Importantly, disruption of egg production and egg maturation by 5-azacytidine establishes an essential role for 5-methylcytosine in this parasite. These findings provide the first functional confirmation for this epigenetic modification in any worm species and link the cytosine methylation machinery to platyhelminth oviposition processes. PMID:21829186

Geyer, Kathrin K; Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Chalmers, Iain W; Munshi, Sabrina E; Truscott, Martha; Heald, James; Wilkinson, Mike J; Hoffmann, Karl F

2011-01-01

108

Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase deficiency on testicular germ  

E-print Network

Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase deficiency on testicular heritable epigenetic changes that affect phenotypic variation and disease risk in many species cell tumors (TGCTs) in mice, in part by interacting epigenetically with other TGCT modifier genes

109

TET proteins: on the frenetic hunt for new cytosine modifications  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic genome marking and chromatin regulation are central to establishing tissue-specific gene expression programs, and hence to several biological processes. Until recently, the only known epigenetic mark on DNA in mammals was 5-methylcytosine, established and propagated by DNA methyltransferases and generally associated with gene repression. All of a sudden, a host of new actors—novel cytosine modifications and the ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes—has appeared on the scene, sparking great interest. The challenge is now to uncover the roles they play and how they relate to DNA demethylation. Knowledge is accumulating at a frantic pace, linking these new players to essential biological processes (e.g. cell pluripotency and development) and also to cancerogenesis. Here, we review the recent progress in this exciting field, highlighting the TET enzymes as epigenetic DNA modifiers, their physiological roles, and their functions in health and disease. We also discuss the need to find relevant TET interactants and the newly discovered TET–O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) pathway. PMID:23625996

Delatte, Benjamin

2013-01-01

110

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

111

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

The Exploratorium

2012-03-10

112

Expression of an Exogenous 1-Aminocyclopropane-1Carboxylate Deaminase Gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti Increases Its Ability To Nodulate Alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase has been found in various plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including rhizobia. This enzyme degrades ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene, and thus decreases the biosynthesis of ethylene in higher plants. The ACC deaminase of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was previously reported to be able to enhance nodulation of peas. The ACC deaminase structural gene (acdS) and its

Wenbo Ma; Trevor C. Charles; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

113

Transcriptome-wide target profiling of RNA cytosine methyltransferases using the mechanism-based enrichment procedure Aza-IP.  

PubMed

Cytosine methylation within RNA is common, but its full scope and functions are poorly understood, as the RNA targets of most mammalian cytosine RNA methyltransferases (m(5)C-RMTs) remain uncharacterized. To enable their characterization, we developed a mechanism-based method for transcriptome-wide m(5)C-RMT target profiling. All characterized mammalian m(5)C-RMTs form a reversible covalent intermediate with their cytosine substrate-a covalent linkage that is trapped when conducted on the cytosine analog 5-azacytidine (5-aza-C). We used this property to develop Aza-immunoprecipitation (Aza-IP), a methodology to form stable m(5)C-RMT-RNA linkages in cell culture, followed by IP and high-throughput sequencing, to identify direct RNA substrates of m(5)C-RMTs. Remarkably, a cytosine-to-guanine (C?G) transversion occurs specifically at target cytosines, allowing the simultaneous identification of the precise target cytosine within each RNA. Thus, Aza-IP reports only direct RNA substrates and the C?G transversion provides an important criterion for target cytosine identification, which is not available in alternative approaches. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for Aza-IP and downstream analysis, designed to reveal identification of substrate RNAs and precise cytosine targets of m(5)C-RMTs. The entire protocol takes 40-50 d to complete. PMID:24434802

Khoddami, Vahid; Cairns, Bradley R

2014-02-01

114

Pichia antillensis, a New Species of Yeast Associated with Necrotic Stems of Cactus in the Lesser Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Pichia antillensis, a new species of yeast which is closely related to Pichia opuntiae. Pichia antillensis, 20 strains of which were isolated, is heterothallic and occurs in nature in both the haploid state and the diploid state. It produces asci with four hat-shaped spores, which are rapidly released upon maturity. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of its nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid

WILLIAM T. STARMER; HERMAN J. PHAFF; JOANNE TREDICK; MARY MIRANDA

1984-01-01

115

Decrease in topoisomerase I is responsible for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation  

PubMed Central

Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of the Ig gene require both the transcription of the locus and the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). During CSR, AID decreases the amount of topoisomerase I (Top1); this decrease alters the DNA structure and induces cleavage in the S region. Similarly, Top1 is involved in transcription-associated mutation at dinucleotide repeats in yeast and in triplet-repeat contraction in mammals. Here, we report that the AID-induced decrease in Top1 is critical for SHM. Top1 knockdown or haploinsufficiency enhanced SHM, whereas Top1 overexpression down-regulated it. A specific Top1 inhibitor, camptothecin, suppressed SHM, indicating that Top1's activity is required for DNA cleavage. Nonetheless, suppression of transcription abolished SHM, even in cells with Top1 knockdown, suggesting that transcription is critical. These results are consistent with a model proposed for CSR and triplet instability, in which transcription-induced non-B structure formation is enhanced by Top1 reduction and provides the target for irreversible cleavage by Top1. We speculate that the mechanism for transcription-coupled genome instability was adopted to generate immune diversity when AID evolved. PMID:22080610

Kobayashi, Maki; Sabouri, Zahra; Sabouri, Somayeh; Kitawaki, Yoko; Pommier, Yves; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Honjo, Tasuku

2011-01-01

116

Hydroxymethylated Cytosines Are Associated with Elevated C to G Transversion Rates  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that methylated cytosines deaminate at higher rates than unmodified cytosines and constitute mutational hotspots in mammalian genomes. The repertoire of naturally occurring cytosine modifications, however, extends beyond 5-methylcytosine to include its oxidation derivatives, notably 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. The effects of these modifications on sequence evolution are unknown. Here, we combine base-resolution maps of methyl- and hydroxymethylcytosine in human and mouse with population genomic, divergence and somatic mutation data to show that hydroxymethylated and methylated cytosines show distinct patterns of variation and evolution. Surprisingly, hydroxymethylated sites are consistently associated with elevated C to G transversion rates at the level of segregating polymorphisms, fixed substitutions, and somatic mutations in tumors. Controlling for multiple potential confounders, we find derived C to G SNPs to be 1.43-fold (1.22-fold) more common at hydroxymethylated sites compared to methylated sites in human (mouse). Increased C to G rates are evident across diverse functional and sequence contexts and, in cancer genomes, correlate with the expression of Tet enzymes and specific components of the mismatch repair pathway (MSH2, MSH6, and MBD4). Based on these and other observations we suggest that hydroxymethylation is associated with a distinct mutational burden and that the mismatch repair pathway is implicated in causing elevated transversion rates at hydroxymethylated cytosines. PMID:25211471

Warnecke, Tobias

2014-01-01

117

Identification of direct targets and modified bases of RNA cytosine methyltransferases.  

PubMed

The extent and biological impact of RNA cytosine methylation are poorly understood, in part owing to limitations of current techniques for determining the targets of RNA methyltransferases. Here we describe 5-azacytidine-mediated RNA immunoprecipitation (Aza-IP), a technique that exploits the covalent bond formed between an RNA methyltransferase and the cytidine analog 5-azacytidine to recover RNA targets by immunoprecipitation. Targets are subsequently identified by high-throughput sequencing. When applied in a human cell line to the RNA methyltransferases DNMT2 and NSUN2, Aza-IP enabled >200-fold enrichment of tRNAs that are known targets of the enzymes. In addition, it revealed many tRNA and noncoding RNA targets not previously associated with NSUN2. Notably, we observed a high frequency of C?G transversions at the cytosine residues targeted by both enzymes, allowing identification of the specific methylated cytosine(s) in target RNAs. Given the mechanistic similarity of RNA cytosine methyltransferases, Aza-IP may be generally applicable for target identification. PMID:23604283

Khoddami, Vahid; Cairns, Bradley R

2013-05-01

118

Identification of direct targets and modified bases of RNA cytosine methyltransferases  

PubMed Central

The extent and biological impact of RNA cytosine methylation are poorly understood, in part owing to limitations of current techniques for determining the targets of RNA methyltransferases. Here we describe 5-azacytidine-mediated RNA immunoprecipitation (Aza-IP), a mechanism-based technique that exploits the covalent bond formed between an RNA methyltransferase and the cytidine analog 5-azacytidine to recover RNA targets by immunoprecipitation. Targets are subsequently identified by high-throughput sequencing. When applied in a human cell line to the RNA methyltransferases DNMT2 and NSUN2, Aza-IP enabled >200-fold enrichment of tRNAs that are known targets of the enzymes. In addition, it revealed many tRNA and non-coding RNA targets not previously associated with NSUN2. Notably, we observed a high frequency of C>G transversions at the cytosine residues targeted by both enzymes, allowing identification of the specific methylated cytosine(s) in target RNAs. Given the mechanistic similarity of cytosine RNA methyltransferases, Aza-IP may be generally applicable for target identification. PMID:23604283

Khoddami, Vahid; Cairns, Bradley R.

2013-01-01

119

Late-replicating heterochromatin is characterized by decreased cytosine methylation in the human genome  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin is believed to be associated with increased levels of cytosine methylation. With the recent availability of genome-wide, high-resolution molecular data reflecting chromatin organization and methylation, such relationships can be explored systematically. As well-defined surrogates for heterochromatin, we tested the relationship between DNA replication timing and DNase hypersensitivity with cytosine methylation in two human cell types, unexpectedly finding the later-replicating, more heterochromatic regions to be less methylated than early replicating regions. When we integrated gene-expression data into the study, we found that regions of increased gene expression were earlier replicating, as previously identified, and that transcription-targeted cytosine methylation in gene bodies contributes to the positive correlation with early replication. A self-organizing map (SOM) approach was able to identify genomic regions with early replication and increased methylation, but lacking annotated transcripts, loci missed in simple two variable analyses, possibly encoding unrecognized intergenic transcripts. We conclude that the relationship of cytosine methylation with heterochromatin is not simple and depends on whether the genomic context is tandemly repetitive sequences often found near centromeres, which are known to be heterochromatic and methylated, or the remaining majority of the genome, where cytosine methylation is targeted preferentially to the transcriptionally active, euchromatic compartment of the genome. PMID:21957152

Suzuki, Masako; Oda, Mayumi; Ramos, María-Paz; Pascual, Marién; Lau, Kevin; Stasiek, Edyta; Agyiri, Frederick; Thompson, Reid F.; Glass, Jacob L.; Jing, Qiang; Sandstrom, Richard; Fazzari, Melissa J.; Hansen, R. Scott; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; McLellan, Andrew S.; Greally, John M.

2011-01-01

120

The first polymorph in the family of nucleobases: a second form of cytosine.  

PubMed

A new polymorph of cytosine, C4H5N3O, is reported half a century after the report of its first known crystal structure [Barker & Marsh (1964). Acta Cryst. 17, 1581-1587]. Cytosine thus provides the first polymorphic example in the category of parent nucleobases. The new form, denoted (Ib), was observed unexpectedly during an attempt to cocrystallize cytosine with catechol. Form (Ib) crystallizes in the orthorhombic centrosymmetric space group Pccn with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The previously known form, denoted (Ia), crystallizes in the orthorhombic noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. The cytosine molecule is planar in both forms. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are also similar for both forms. Infinite one-dimensional ribbons composed of cytosine base-pair dimers in R2(2)(8) arrangements are observed in both (Ia) and (Ib). However, the way that the ribbons are packed differs in (Ia) and (Ib). This appears to guide the centrosymmetric versus noncentrosymmetric space-group selection through the formation of an inversion-related motif in polymorph (Ib) and a helical propagation in polymorph (Ia). A few selected polymorphic systems have been gathered from the Cambridge Structural Database to understand possible structural features responsible for achiral molecules adopting centro- and noncentrosymmetric space groups. PMID:25652280

Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Ravikumar, Krishnan

2015-02-01

121

Cytosine Arabinoside Influx and Nucleoside Transport Sites in Acute Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells, since mean influxes for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 6- and 2.3-fold greater than polymorphs and lymphocytes, respectively. Also, the mean influx for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than the mean for lymphoblasts. The number of nucleoside transport sites was estimated for each cell type by measuring the equilibrium binding of [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), which inhibits nucleoside fluxes by binding with high affinity to specific sites on the transport mechanism. The mean binding site numbers for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 5- and 2.8-fold greater, respectively, than for the mature cells of the same maturation series. The mean number of NBMPR binding sites for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than for lymphoblasts. Patients with AUL were heterogeneous since blasts from some gave values within the myeloblastic range and others within the lymphoblastic range. The araC influx correlated closely with the number of NBMPR binding sites measured in the same cells on the same day. Transport parameters were measured on blasts from 15 patients with AML or AUL who were then treated with standard induction therapy containing araC. Eight patients entered complete remission, while seven failed therapy, among whom were the three patients with the lowest araC influx (<0.4 pmol/107 cells per min) and NBMPR binding (<3,000 sites/cell) for the treated group. In summary, myeloblasts have both higher araC transport rates and more nucleoside transport sites than lymphoblasts and this factor may contribute to the greater sensitivity of AML to this drug. AraC transport varied >10-fold between leukemic blasts and normal leukocytes, but transport capacity related directly to the number of nucleoside transport sites on the cell. Finally, low araC transport rates or few NBMPR binding sites on blasts were observed in a subset of patients with acute leukemia who failed to achieve remission with drug combinations containing araC. PMID:6948829

Wiley, J. S.; Jones, S. P.; Sawyer, W. H.; Paterson, A. R. P.

1982-01-01

122

Comparative enzymology of AMP deaminase, adenylate kinase, and creatine kinase in vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle: the characteristic AMP deaminase levels of skeletal versus cardiac muscle are reversed in the North American toad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific activity of three characteristic enzymes, adenylate deaminase, adenylate kinase, and creatine kinase, in the skeletal muscles and heart of a variety of vertebrate land animals, including the human, are surveyed. Data from this study and available studies in the literature suggest that adenosine monophosphate deaminase in land vertebrates is quite high in white skeletal muscle, usually somewhat lower

W. N. Fishbein; J. I. Davis; J. W. Foellmer

1993-01-01

123

Ionization of cytosine monomer and dimer studied by VUV photoionization and electronic structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of ionization of cytosine monomers and dimers. Gas-phase molecules are generated by thermal vaporization of cytosine followed by expansion of the vapor in a continuous supersonic jet seeded in Ar. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Energy onsets for the measured photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra are 8.60+-0.05 eV and 7.6+-0.1 eV for the monomer and the dimer, respectively, and provide an estimate for the adiabatic ionization energies (AIE). The first AIE and the ten lowest vertical ionization energies (VIEs) for selected isomers of cytosine dimer computed using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-IP-CCSD) method are reported. The comparison of the computed VIEs with the derivative of the PIE spectra, suggests that multiple isomers of the cytosine dimer are present in the molecular beam. The calculations reveal that the large red shift (0.7 eV) of the first IE of the lowest-energy cytosine dimer is due to strong inter-fragment electrostatic interactions, i.e., the hole localized on one of the fragments is stabilized by the dipole moment of the other. A sharp rise in the CH+ signal at 9.20+-0.05 eV is ascribed to the formation of protonated cytosine by dissociation of the ionized dimers. The dominant role of this channel is supported by the computed energy thresholds for the CH+ appearance and the barrierless or nearly barrierless ionization-induced proton transfer observed for five isomers of the dimer.

Kostko, Oleg; Bravaya, Ksenia; Krylov, Anna; Ahmed, Musahid

2009-12-14

124

Cytosine attack by free radicals arising from bromotrichloromethane in the presence of benzoyl peroxide catalyst: a mass spectrometric study.  

PubMed

We and others previously reported that CCl4 reactive metabolites are able to covalently bind to liver DNA either in vivo or in vitro. However, no demonstration of the structure of resulting adducts is available in literature. That information would be of relevance, for CCl4 exhibits null or contradictory mutagenic properties and is currently considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In the present study we report the nature of the reaction products formed when the putative CCl4 metabolites, .CCl3 and CCl3O2. attack cytosine in a purely chemical system where they were generated from CCl3Br in a benzoyl peroxide catalyzed reaction. Reaction products formed and identified were a) under nitrogen (.CCl3 present)--5-bromo cytosine and cytosine-5-carboxylic acid; b) under air (CCl3O2. present)--5-bromo cytosine, 5-chloro cytosine, 5-hydroxy cytosine, 6-hydroxy cytosine (tentative), chloro hydroxy uracil, 5,6-dihydroxy uracil, and chloro trichloromethyl cytosine. Results from present experiments suggest that if these reaction products were also produced in vivo during either CCl4 or CCl3Br poisoning and they were not repaired in due time prior to replication, they would lead to mutagenic events. Studies directed to obtain evidence for their in vivo formation are in course in our laboratory. PMID:7905677

Castro, G D; Castro, J A

1993-01-01

125

Global DNA cytosine methylation as an evolving trait: phylogenetic signal and correlated evolution with genome size in angiosperms  

PubMed Central

DNA cytosine methylation is a widespread epigenetic mechanism in eukaryotes, and plant genomes commonly are densely methylated. Genomic methylation can be associated with functional consequences such as mutational events, genomic instability or altered gene expression, but little is known on interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation in plants. In this paper, we compare global cytosine methylation estimates obtained by HPLC and use a phylogenetically-informed analytical approach to test for significance of evolutionary signatures of this trait across 54 angiosperm species in 25 families. We evaluate whether interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation is statistically related to phylogenetic distance and also whether it is evolutionarily correlated with genome size (C-value). Global cytosine methylation varied widely between species, ranging between 5.3% (Arabidopsis) and 39.2% (Narcissus). Differences between species were related to their evolutionary trajectories, as denoted by the strong phylogenetic signal underlying interspecific variation. Global cytosine methylation and genome size were evolutionarily correlated, as revealed by the significant relationship between the corresponding phylogenetically independent contrasts. On average, a ten-fold increase in genome size entailed an increase of about 10% in global cytosine methylation. Results show that global cytosine methylation is an evolving trait in angiosperms whose evolutionary trajectory is significantly linked to changes in genome size, and suggest that the evolutionary implications of epigenetic mechanisms are likely to vary between plant lineages. PMID:25688257

Alonso, Conchita; Pérez, Ricardo; Bazaga, Pilar; Herrera, Carlos M.

2015-01-01

126

Moonlighting adenosine deaminase: a target protein for drug development.  

PubMed

Interest in adenosine deaminase (ADA) in the context of medicine has mainly focused on its enzymatic activity. This is justified by the importance of the reaction catalyzed by ADA not only for the intracellular purine metabolism, but also for the extracellular purine metabolism as well, because of its capacity as a regulator of the concentration of extracellular adenosine that is able to activate adenosine receptors (ARs). In recent years, other important roles have been described for ADA. One of these, with special relevance in immunology, is the capacity of ADA to act as a costimulator, promoting T-cell proliferation and differentiation mainly by interacting with the differentiation cluster CD26. Another role is the ability of ADA to act as an allosteric modulator of ARs. These receptors have very general physiological implications, particularly in the neurological system where they play an important role. Thus, ADA, being a single chain protein, performs more than one function, consistent with the definition of a moonlighting protein. Although ADA has never been associated with moonlighting proteins, here we consider ADA as an example of this family of multifunctional proteins. In this review, we discuss the different roles of ADA and their pathological implications. We propose a mechanism by which some of their moonlighting functions can be coordinated. We also suggest that drugs modulating ADA properties may act as modulators of the moonlighting functions of ADA, giving them additional potential medical interest. PMID:24933472

Cortés, Antoni; Gracia, Eduard; Moreno, Estefania; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent

2015-01-01

127

AMP Deaminase 3 Deficiency Enhanced 5?-AMP Induction of Hypometabolism  

PubMed Central

A hypometabolic state can be induced in mice by 5?-AMP administration. Previously we proposed that an underlying mechanism for this hypometabolism is linked to reduced erythrocyte oxygen transport function due to 5?-AMP uptake altering the cellular adenylate equilibrium. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice deficient in adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 (AMPD3), the key catabolic enzyme for 5?-AMP in erythrocytes. Mice deficient in AMPD3 maintained AMPD activities in all tissues except erythrocytes. Developmentally and morphologically, the Ampd3?/? mice were indistinguishable from their wild type siblings. The levels of ATP, ADP but not 5?-AMP in erythrocytes of Ampd3?/? mice were significantly elevated. Fasting blood glucose levels of the Ampd3?/? mice were comparable to wild type siblings. In comparison to wild type mice, the Ampd3?/? mice displayed a deeper hypometabolism with a significantly delayed average arousal time in response to 5?-AMP administration. Together, these findings demonstrate a central role of AMPD3 in the regulation of 5?-AMP mediated hypometabolism and further implicate erythrocytes in this behavioral response. PMID:24066180

Daniels, Isadora Susan; O?Brien, William G.; Nath, Vinay; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

2013-01-01

128

Infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy of proton-bound dimers of cytosine and modified cytosines: effects of modifications on gas-phase conformations.  

PubMed

The gas-phase structures of proton-bound dimers of cytosine and modified cytosines and their d6-analogues generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical electronic structure calculations. The modified cytosines examined include the 5-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, and 5-bromo-substituted species. IRMPD action spectra of seven proton-bound dimers exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ?2600-3700 cm(-1). The IRMPD spectra of all of these proton-bound dimers are relatively simple, but exhibit obvious shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the properties of the substituent. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra calculated for the stable low-energy tautomeric conformations, determined at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory, to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. Comparison of the measured IRMPD and calculated IR spectra indicates that only a single conformation, the ground-state structure, is accessed for all proton-bound homodimers, whereas the ground-state and a small population of the first-excited tautomeric conformations are accessed for all proton-bound heterodimers. In all cases, three hydrogen-bonding interactions in which the nucleobases are aligned in an antiparallel fashion analogous to that of the DNA i-motif are responsible for stabilizing the base pairing. Thus, base modifications such as 5-methyl- and 5-halo-substitution of cytosine should not alter the structure of the DNA i-motif. PMID:24151932

Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T

2013-11-21

129

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

130

Gas Phase Structure of Metal Mediated (Cytosine)2Ag(+) Mimics the Hemiprotonated (Cytosine)2H(+) Dimer in i-Motif Folding.  

PubMed

The study of metal ion-DNA interaction aiming to understand the stabilization of artificial base pairing and a number of noncanonical motifs is of current interest, due to their potential exploitation in developing new technological devices and expanding the genetic code. A successful strategy has been the synthesis of metal-mediated base pairs, in which a coordinative bond to a central metal cation replaces a H-bond in a natural pair. In this work, we characterized, for the first time, the gas phase structure of the cytosine···Ag(+)···cytosine (C-Ag(+)-C) complex by means of InfraRed-MultiPhoton-Dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The IR-spectrum was confidently assigned to one structure with the Ag(+) acting as a bridge between the heteronitrogen atoms in each cytosine (both in the keto-amino form). This structure is biologically relevant since it mimics the structure of the hemiprotonated C-H(+)-C dimer responsible for the stabilization of the i-motif structure in DNA, with the replacement of the NH···N bond by a stronger N···Ag(+)···N bond. Moreover, since the structure of the C-Ag(+)-C complex is planar, it allows an optimum intercalation between pairs of the two antiparallel strand duplex in the DNA i-motif structure. PMID:24807048

Berdakin, Matias; Steinmetz, Vincent; Maitre, Philippe; Pino, Gustavo A

2014-05-16

131

IRMPD action spectroscopy of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on gas phase conformation.  

PubMed

The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ~1000-1900 cm(-1). The IRMPD spectra of the Li(+)(cytosine), Na(+)(cytosine), and K(+)(cytosine) complexes are relatively simple but exhibit changes in the shape and shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the size of the alkali metal cation. The IRMPD spectra of the Rb(+)(cytosine) and Cs(+)(cytosine) complexes are much richer as distinctive new IR bands are observed, and the positions of several bands continue to shift in relation to the size of the metal cation. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra of stable low-energy tautomeric conformations calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. These comparisons suggest that the evolution in the features in the IRMPD action spectra with the size of the metal cation, and the appearance of new bands for the larger metal cations, are the result of the variations in the intensities at which these complexes can be generated and the strength of the alkali metal cation-cytosine binding interaction, not the presence of multiple tautomeric conformations. Only a single tautomeric conformation is accessed for all five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes, where the alkali metal cation binds to the O2 and N3 atoms of the canonical amino-oxo tautomer of cytosine, M(+)(C1). PMID:23893433

Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Polfer, N C; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T

2013-10-01

132

IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ~1000-1900 cm-1. The IRMPD spectra of the Li+(cytosine), Na+(cytosine), and K+(cytosine) complexes are relatively simple but exhibit changes in the shape and shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the size of the alkali metal cation. The IRMPD spectra of the Rb+(cytosine) and Cs+(cytosine) complexes are much richer as distinctive new IR bands are observed, and the positions of several bands continue to shift in relation to the size of the metal cation. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra of stable low-energy tautomeric conformations calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. These comparisons suggest that the evolution in the features in the IRMPD action spectra with the size of the metal cation, and the appearance of new bands for the larger metal cations, are the result of the variations in the intensities at which these complexes can be generated and the strength of the alkali metal cation-cytosine binding interaction, not the presence of multiple tautomeric conformations. Only a single tautomeric conformation is accessed for all five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes, where the alkali metal cation binds to the O2 and N3 atoms of the canonical amino-oxo tautomer of cytosine, M+(C1).

Yang, Bo; Wu, R. R.; Polfer, N. C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

2013-10-01

133

Ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases in normal and AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

In skeletal muscle, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is mainly deaminated by AMP deaminase. However, the C34T mutation in the AMPD1 gene severely reduces AMP deaminase activity. Alternatively, intracellular AMP is dephosphorylated to adenosine via cytosolic AMP 5'-nucleotidase (cN-I). In individuals with a homozygous C34T mutation, cN-I might be a more important pathway for AMP removal. We determined activities of AMP deaminase, cN-I, total cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (total cN), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ectoN) and whole homogenate 5'-nucleotidase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with different AMPD1 genotypes [homozygotes for C34T mutation (TT); heterozygotes for C34T mutation (CT); and homozygotes for wild type (CC): diseased controls CC; and normal controls CC]. AMP deaminase activity showed genotype-dependent differences. Total cN activity in normal controls accounted for 57+/-22% of whole homogenate 5'-nucleotidase activity and was not significantly different from the other groups. A weak inverse correlation was found between AMP deaminase and cN-I activities (r2=0.18, p<0.01). There were no significant differences between different groups in the activities of cN-I, whole homogenate 5'-nucleotidase and ectoN, or in cN-I expression on Western blots. No correlation for age, fibre type distribution and AMPD1 genotype was found for whole homogenate nucleotidase, total cN and cN-I using multiple linear regression analysis. There was no gender-specific difference in the activities of whole homogenate nucleotidase, total cN and cN-I. The results indicate no changes in the relative expression or catalytic behaviour of cN-I in AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle, but suggest that increased turnover of AMP by cN-I in working skeletal muscle is due to higher substrate availability of AMP. PMID:16497164

Hanisch, Frank; Hellsten, Ylva; Zierz, Stephan

2006-01-01

134

Role of adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene polymorphism in patients with congestive heart failure (influence on tumor necrosis factor-alpha level and outcome).  

PubMed

The Cytosin-->thymidin transition at codon 12 of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 (AMPD1) gene results in a complete loss of its catalytic activity. The increased conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine, which in turn attenuates the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, has been suggested as a putative mechanism for prolonged survival in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) carrying the mutant AMPD1 allele. Therefore, the impact of this polymorphism on circulatory TNF-alpha concentrations and outcome in patients with CHF should be studied. The AMPD1 genotype of each patient with CHF (n = 90; idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy n = 53; coronary artery disease n = 20; other n = 17) was determined by direct sequencing. Serum TNF-alpha concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found 66 patients (75.6%) to be homozygous for the wild-type allele (AMPD1 +/+), and 20 patients (22.2%) were heterozygous and 2 were homozygous (2.2%) for the mutant AMPD1 allele (AMPD1 +/- or -/-). TNF-alpha serum concentrations were 4.2 +/- 2.0 pg/ml for the AMPD1 +/+ genotype and 5.3 +/- 2.9 pg/ml for the AMPD1 +/- and -/- genotypes (p = 0.045). A downregulation of TNF-alpha in patients carrying the mutant allele could therefore be not detected. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival without heart transplantation or revival from sudden death in the AMPD1 +/- & -/- group (p = 0.020). Multivariate analysis identified the AMPD1 wild-type genotype as an independent risk factor (odds ratio 9.34, 95% confidence interval 1.78 to 48.96). The mutant AMPD1 allele, in the context of CHF, is associated with a prognostic benefit. The underlying mechanism of TNF-alpha is unrelated. PMID:15135700

Gastmann, Anja; Sigusch, Holger H; Henke, Andreas; Reinhardt, Dirk; Surber, Ralf; Gastmann, Oliver; Figulla, Hans R

2004-05-15

135

AMPD1 C34T mutation selectively affects AMP-deaminase activity in the human heart.  

PubMed

Possession of the nonsense mutation in AMPD 1 C34T gene has been linked to improved survival in patients with heart failure, possibly by promoting the formation of adenosine. This mutation is known to decrease the activity of AMP-deaminase in skeletal muscle. We have found that the AMPD1 mutation decreases the activity of AMP-deaminase in the heart without changing the activity of any other enzymes of adenine nucleotide metabolism. Protective mechanism of this mutation may be thus induced by local cardiac metabolic changes. PMID:16021918

Kalsi, K K; Yuen, A H Y; Johnson, P H; Birks, E J; Yacoub, M H; Smolenski, R T

2005-01-01

136

A 5 cytosine binding pocket in Puf3p specifies regulation of mitochondrial mRNAs  

E-print Network

metallochaperone involved in the biogenesis of the mitochondrial respiratory complex (7, 11, 12). ThusA 5 cytosine binding pocket in Puf3p specifies regulation of mitochondrial mRNAs Deyu Zhua,1RNAs that encode proteins with mitochondrial function. Here we eluci- date the structural basis of that specificity

Wickens, Marv

137

Cytosine Usage Modulates the Correlation between CDS Length and CG Content in Prokaryotic Genomes  

E-print Network

Cytosine Usage Modulates the Correlation between CDS Length and CG Content in Prokaryotic Genomes empirically by prokaryotic genomes. How- ever, the correlation is weak for a number of species, with 4 species in long CDSs. Empirical data from prokaryotic genomes lend strong support for this new hypothesis

Xia, Xuhua

138

Androgen Receptor Cytosine, Adenine, Guanine Repeats, and Haplotypes in Relation to Ovarian Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and epidemiologic evidence suggest that androgen or its receptor may play a role in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. The most notable genetic factor influencing androgen receptor (AR) activity is the functional cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG) repeat in which length is inversely propor- tional to its transactivational activity. Additional genetic variation due to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the AR gene may

Kathryn L. Terry; Linda Titus-Ernstoff; Daniel W. Cramer

139

Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

Shi, Jinming

140

Structural and metabolic specificity of methylthiocoformycin for malarial adenosine deaminases  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine as a key metabolic precursor. Erythrocyte adenine nucleotides are the source of the purine precursors, making adenosine deaminase (ADA) a key enzyme in the pathway of hypoxanthine formation. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a substrate for most malarial ADAs, but not for human ADA. The catalytic site specificity of malarial ADAs permits methylthiocoformycin (MT-coformycin) to act as a Plasmodium-specific transition state analogue with low affinity for human ADA (Tyler, P. C., Taylor, E. A., Fröhlich, R. G. G. and Schramm, V. L. (2007) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6872–6879). The structural basis for MTA and MT-coformycin specificity in malarial ADAs is the subject of speculation (Larson, E. T. et al. (2008) J. Mol. Biol. 381, 975–988). Here, the crystal structure of ADA from Plasmodium vivax in complex with MT-coformycin reveals an unprecedented binding geometry for 5’-methylthioribosyl groups in the malarial ADAs. Compared to malarial ADA complexes with adenosine or deoxycoformycin, 5’-methylthioribosyl groups are rotated 130°. A hydrogen bonding network between Asp172 and the 3'-hydroxyl of MT-coformycin is essential for recognition of the 5’-methylthioribosyl group. Water occupies the 5'-hydroxyl binding site when MT-coformycin is bound. Mutagenesis of Asp172 destroys the substrate specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Kinetic, mutagenic and structural analyses of PvADA and kinetic analysis of five other plasmodial ADAs establishes the unique structural basis for its specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Plasmodium gallinaceum ADA does not use MTA as a substrate, is not inhibited by MT-coformycin and is missing Asp172. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with coformycin or MT-coformycin in the presence of MTA is effective in inhibiting parasite growth. PMID:19728741

Ho, Meng-Chiao; Cassera, María B.; Madrid, Dennis C.; Ting, Li-Min; Tyler, Peter C.; Kim, Kami; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

2009-01-01

141

Autoimmune Dysregulation and Purine Metabolism in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:22969765

Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro

2012-01-01

142

Structural and Metabolic Specificity of Methylthiocoformycin for Malarial Adenosine Deaminases  

SciTech Connect

Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine as a key metabolic precursor. Erythrocyte adenine nucleotides are the source of the purine precursors, making adenosine deaminase (ADA) a key enzyme in the pathway of hypoxanthine formation. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a substrate for most malarial ADAs, but not for human ADA. The catalytic site specificity of malarial ADAs permits methylthiocoformycin (MT-coformycin) to act as a Plasmodium-specific transition state analogue with low affinity for human ADA. The structural basis for MTA and MT-coformycin specificity in malarial ADAs is the subject of speculation. Here, the crystal structure of ADA from Plasmodium vivax (PvADA) in a complex with MT-coformycin reveals an unprecedented binding geometry for 5?-methylthioribosyl groups in the malarial ADAs. Compared to malarial ADA complexes with adenosine or deoxycoformycin, 5?-methylthioribosyl groups are rotated 130 degrees. A hydrogen bonding network between Asp172 and the 3?-hydroxyl of MT-coformycin is essential for recognition of the 5?-methylthioribosyl group. Water occupies the 5?-hydroxyl binding site when MT-coformycin is bound. Mutagenesis of Asp172 destroys the substrate specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural analyses of PvADA and kinetic analysis of five other Plasmodium ADAs establish the unique structural basis for its specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Plasmodium gallinaceum ADA does not use MTA as a substrate, is not inhibited by MT-coformycin, and is missing Asp172. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with coformycin or MT-coformycin in the presence of MTA is effective in inhibiting parasite growth.

Ho, M.; Cassera, M; Madrid, D; Ting, L; Tyler, P; Kim, K; Almo, S; Schramm, V

2009-01-01

143

Cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation mark DNA for elimination in Oxytricha trifallax  

PubMed Central

Background Cytosine methylation of DNA is conserved across eukaryotes and plays important functional roles regulating gene expression during differentiation and development in animals, plants and fungi. Hydroxymethylation was recently identified as another epigenetic modification marking genes important for pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Results Here we describe de novo cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. These DNA modifications occur only during nuclear development and programmed genome rearrangement. We detect methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine directly by high-resolution nano-flow UPLC mass spectrometry, and indirectly by immunofluorescence, methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation and bisulfite sequencing. We describe these modifications in three classes of eliminated DNA: germline-limited transposons and satellite repeats, aberrant DNA rearrangements, and DNA from the parental genome undergoing degradation. Methylation and hydroxymethylation generally occur on the same sequence elements, modifying cytosines in all sequence contexts. We show that the DNA methyltransferase-inhibiting drugs azacitidine and decitabine induce demethylation of both somatic and germline sequence elements during genome rearrangements, with consequent elevated levels of germline-limited repetitive elements in exconjugant cells. Conclusions These data strongly support a functional link between cytosine DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation and DNA elimination. We identify a motif strongly enriched in methylated/hydroxymethylated regions, and we propose that this motif recruits DNA modification machinery to specific chromosomes in the parental macronucleus. No recognizable methyltransferase enzyme has yet been described in O. trifallax, raising the possibility that it might employ a novel cytosine methylation machinery to mark DNA sequences for elimination during genome rearrangements. PMID:23075511

2012-01-01

144

Specific Expression of Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), a Novel Member of the RNA-editing Deaminase Family in Germinal Center B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel gene referred to as activa- tion-induced deaminase (AID) by subtraction of cDNAs derived from switch-induced and uninduced murine B lymphoma CH12F3-2 cells, more than 80% of which switch exclusively to IgA upon stimulation. The amino acid sequence encoded by AID cDNA is homologous to that of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC-1),

Masamichi Muramatsu; V. S. Sankaranand; Shrikant Anant; Manabu Sugai; Kazuo Kinoshita; Nicholas O. Davidson; Tasuku Honjo

1999-01-01

145

Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Trigger Restriction of Hepatitis B Virus Infection via a Cytidine Deaminase Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID)*  

PubMed Central

Virus infection is restricted by intracellular immune responses in host cells, and this is typically modulated by stimulation of cytokines. The cytokines and host factors that determine the host cell restriction against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well understood. We screened 36 cytokines and chemokines to determine which were able to reduce the susceptibility of HepaRG cells to HBV infection. Here, we found that pretreatment with IL-1? and TNF? remarkably reduced the host cell susceptibility to HBV infection. This effect was mediated by activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. A cytidine deaminase, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), was up-regulated by both IL-1? and TNF? in a variety of hepatocyte cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Another deaminase APOBEC3G was not induced by these proinflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of AID expression impaired the anti-HBV effect of IL-1?, and overexpression of AID antagonized HBV infection, suggesting that AID was one of the responsible factors for the anti-HBV activity of IL-1/TNF?. Although AID induced hypermutation of HBV DNA, this activity was dispensable for the anti-HBV activity. The antiviral effect of IL-1/TNF? was also observed on different HBV genotypes but not on hepatitis C virus. These results demonstrate that proinflammatory cytokines IL-1/TNF? trigger a novel antiviral mechanism involving AID to regulate host cell permissiveness to HBV infection. PMID:24025329

Watashi, Koichi; Liang, Guoxin; Iwamoto, Masashi; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Nanako; Daito, Takuji; Kitamura, Kouichi; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kiyohara, Tomoko; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Murata, Kazumoto; Aizaki, Hideki; Wakita, Takaji

2013-01-01

146

Chloroviruses Encode a Bifunctional dCMP-dCTP Deaminase That Produces Two Key Intermediates in dTTP Formation?  

PubMed Central

The chlorovirus PBCV-1, like many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses, contains several genes that encode putative proteins involved in nucleotide biosynthesis. This report describes the characterization of the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase, which produces dUMP, a key intermediate in the synthesis of dTTP. As predicted, the recombinant protein has dCMP deaminase activity that is activated by dCTP and inhibited by dTTP. Unexpectedly, however, the viral enzyme also has dCTP deaminase activity, producing dUTP. Typically, these two reactions are catalyzed by proteins in separate enzyme classes; to our knowledge, this is the first example of a protein having both deaminase activities. Kinetic experiments established that (i) the PBCV-1 enzyme has a higher affinity for dCTP than for dCMP, (ii) dCTP serves as a positive heterotropic effector for the dCMP deaminase activity and a positive homotropic effector for the dCTP deaminase activity, and (iii) the enzymatic efficiency of the dCMP deaminase activity is about four times higher than that of the dCTP deaminase activity. Inhibitor studies suggest that the same active site is involved in both dCMP and dCTP deaminations. The discovery that the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase has two activities, together with a previous report that the virus also encodes a functional dUTP triphosphatase (Y. Zhang, H. Moriyama, K. Homma, and J. L. Van Etten, J. Virol. 79:9945-9953, 2005), means that PBCV-1 is the first virus to encode enzymes involved in all three known pathways to form dUMP. PMID:17475641

Zhang, Yuanzheng; Maley, Frank; Maley, Gladys F.; Duncan, Garry; Dunigan, David D.; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

147

Chloroviruses encode a bifunctional dCMP-dCTP deaminase that produces two key intermediates in dTTP formation.  

PubMed

The chlorovirus PBCV-1, like many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses, contains several genes that encode putative proteins involved in nucleotide biosynthesis. This report describes the characterization of the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase, which produces dUMP, a key intermediate in the synthesis of dTTP. As predicted, the recombinant protein has dCMP deaminase activity that is activated by dCTP and inhibited by dTTP. Unexpectedly, however, the viral enzyme also has dCTP deaminase activity, producing dUTP. Typically, these two reactions are catalyzed by proteins in separate enzyme classes; to our knowledge, this is the first example of a protein having both deaminase activities. Kinetic experiments established that (i) the PBCV-1 enzyme has a higher affinity for dCTP than for dCMP, (ii) dCTP serves as a positive heterotropic effector for the dCMP deaminase activity and a positive homotropic effector for the dCTP deaminase activity, and (iii) the enzymatic efficiency of the dCMP deaminase activity is about four times higher than that of the dCTP deaminase activity. Inhibitor studies suggest that the same active site is involved in both dCMP and dCTP deaminations. The discovery that the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase has two activities, together with a previous report that the virus also encodes a functional dUTP triphosphatase (Y. Zhang, H. Moriyama, K. Homma, and J. L. Van Etten, J. Virol. 79:9945-9953, 2005), means that PBCV-1 is the first virus to encode enzymes involved in all three known pathways to form dUMP. PMID:17475641

Zhang, Yuanzheng; Maley, Frank; Maley, Gladys F; Duncan, Garry; Dunigan, David D; Van Etten, James L

2007-07-01

148

Oxanosine Is a Substrate of Adenosine Deaminase. Implications for the Quest for a Toxicological Marker for  

E-print Network

Oxanosine Is a Substrate of Adenosine Deaminase. Implications for the Quest for a Toxicological relevant in toxicology in 1996 with the discovery that it is formed in nitrosative guanosine deamination toxicology. Hence, a more detailed and quan- titative understanding is required of nitrosation in biological

Glaser, Rainer

149

The Effect of Acute Exercise upon Adenosin Deaminase Oxidant and Antioxidant Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of MDA, glutation (GSH), Adenozine deaminase (ADA) and superoxidase dismutaze (SOD) levels with exercise training in obese middle-aged women (body mass index, MMI [greater than or equal to] 30.0). Twelve obese middle-aged women participated in this study. The descriptive statistics of some of…

Kafkas, M. Emin; Karabulut, Aysun Bay; Sahin, Armagan; Otlu, Onder; Savas, Seyfi; Aytac, Aylin

2012-01-01

150

Chromosome 20: gene for adenosine deaminase, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Location: chromosome 20 and X gene name: ADA (adenosine deaminase) Mutations in the sequence of the ADA gene (and another gene on the X chromosome called IL2RG) can cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID are prone to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.

2008-10-06

151

SELECTIVE IMMUNOTOXIC EFFECTS IN MICE TREATED WITH THE ADENOSINE DEAMINASE INHIBITOR 2-DEOXYCOFORMYCIN (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice given the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2-deoxycoformycin, for five days were evaluated 24 h, 72 h and 6 days after the final dose. Spleen weight was decreased for up to 6 days after treatment. The number and relative percentage of circulating lymphocytes were decreased 24 a...

152

Expression patterns of AMP-deaminase and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase genes in human term placenta.  

PubMed

Background AMP-deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) and 5'-nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) are enzymes responsible for the maintenance of cellular adenine nucleotides pool. Both exist in several isoforms that differ in kinetic properties and tissue distribution. Profile of isoforms of these enzymes in human placenta has not been analyzed so far while this could be important for understanding of pathology of placental ischemia such as in preeclampsia. Our aim was therefore to analyze expression of AMPD and CN-I genes in human term placenta. Methods RT-PCR analysis was used for determine expression of AMPD1, AMPD2, AMPD3 and CN-I. Results and conclusion The experimental results presented here indicate that genes coding "AMP-preferring", cytosolic isozyme of 5'-nucleotidase (cN-I) as well as "muscle-type" isozyme of AMP-deaminase (AMPD1) are not expressed in human term placenta. Among other AMPD family genes, only these coding "liver-type" isozyme (AMPD2) and, in lesser degree, "erythrocyte-type" isozyme (AMPD3) of AMP-deaminase are expressed in this organ. The expression level of AMPD3 was a half of that presented by AMPD2. We conclude that high abundance of AMP-deaminase 2 transcript suggest that this particular isoform is a predominant pathway of adenine nucleotides degradation in human term placenta that follows liver-type regulation of this process. PMID:18165923

Roszkowska, Anna; Klimek, Jerzy; Kaletha, Krystian

2008-04-01

153

IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MICE EXPOSED TO THE ADENOSINE DEAMINASE INHIBITOR 2'-DEOXYCOFORMYCIN DURING IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Pregnant mice were administered 2'-deoxycoformycin (2dCF), a potent inhibitor of adensoine deaminase activity, by intraperitoneal injection on day 7 or 15 of gestation or from day 8-12 or 14-18 of gestation. A total dose of 0, 0.5 or 2.0 micrograms 2dCF/g of maternal body weight ...

154

Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid abnormalities and hypertension) in South Eastern Nigeria was studied. Body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycated haemoglobin (GHbA1c), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (usually impaired in metabolic syndrome) and total serum ADA activity were measured in different groups of patients with metabolic syndrome (test subjects) and apparently healthy subjects (controls). The test subjects comprised six subgroups made up of the following; obese diabetic (N=25), obese non-diabetic (N=25), Non-obese diabetic (N=25), patients with hypercholesterolaemia (N=25), LDL-cholesterolaemia (N=25) and HDL-cholesterolaemia (N=25). The results showed that the mean values of all the parameters studied (BMI, FBG, GHbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) were higher in the test subjects than their controls. BMI did not correlate significantly with FBG, GHbA1c, and ADA in the test and control subjects respectively. The mean serum ADA activity in the test subjects of obese diabetic, obese non-diabetic and non-obese diabetic subjects was higher than in controls (p< 0.001). ADA activity was also higher in the test subjects of hypercholesterolaemia, HDL-cholesterolaemia and LDL-cholesterolaemia than in control (p< 0.001). ADA activity also correlated positively with hypercholesterolemia (r = 0.640; p<0.001), HDL-cholesterolaemia (r = 0.646; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterolaemia (r = 0.932; p<0.001), with the highest correlation in the LDL-cholesterolaemia. In conclusion, ADA activity is increased significantly in all parameters of metabolic syndrome studied and showed a significant correlation with all the three groups of dyslipidaemic subjects studied. ADA could therefore be used in daily routine laboratory assessment of most metabolic diseases especially in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:23955411

Nwankwo, A A; Osim, E E; Bisong, S A

2013-01-01

155

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Phd Program

156

Stable loop in the crystal structure of the intercalated four-stranded cytosine-rich metazoan telomere  

SciTech Connect

In most metazoans, the telomeric cytosine-rich strand repeating sequence is d(TAACCC). The crystal structure of this sequence was solved to 1.9-{angstrom} resolution. Four strands associate via the cytosine-containing parts to form a four-stranded intercalated structure held together by C-C{sup +} hydrogen bonds. The base-paired strands are parallel to each other, and the two duplexes are intercalated into each other in opposite orientations. One TAA end forms a highly stabilized loop with the 5{prime} thymine Hoogsteen-base-paired to the third adenine. The 5{prime} end of this loop is in close proximity to the 3{prime} end of one of the other intercalated cytosine strands. Instead of being entirely in a DNA duplex, this structure suggests the possibility of an alternative conformation for the cytosine-rich telomere strands. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Kang, C.H.; Lockshin, C.; Rich, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

1995-04-25

157

Stable loop in the crystal structure of the intercalated four-stranded cytosine-rich metazoan telomere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In most metazoans, the telomeric cytosine-rich strand repeating sequence is d(TAACCC). The crystal structure of this sequence was solved to 1.9-A resolution. Four strands associate via the cytosine-containing parts to form a four-stranded intercalated structure held together by C.C+ hydrogen bonds. The base-paired strands are parallel to each other, and the two duplexes are intercalated into each other in opposite orientations. One TAA end forms a highly stabilized loop with the 5' thymine Hoogsteen-base-paired to the third adenine. The 5' end of this loop is in close proximity to the 3' end of one of the other intercalated cytosine strands. Instead of being entirely in a DNA duplex, this structure suggests the possibility of an alternative conformation for the cytosine-rich telomere strands.

Kang, C.; Berger, I.; Lockshin, C.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

1995-01-01

158

Tautomerism in cytosine and uracil: an experimental and theoretical core level spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

The O, N, and C 1s core level photoemission spectra of the nucleobases cytosine and uracil have been measured in the vapor phase, and the results have been interpreted via theoretical calculations. Our calculations accurately predict the relative binding energies of the core level features observed in the experimental photoemission results and provide a full assignment. In agreement with previous work, a single tautomer of uracil is populated at 405 K, giving rise to relatively simple spectra. At 450 K, three tautomers of cytosine, one of which may consist of two rotamers, are identified, and their populations are determined. This resolves inconsistencies between recent laser studies of this molecule in which the rare imino-oxo tautomer was not observed and older microwave spectra in which it was reported. PMID:19382793

Feyer, Vitaliy; Plekan, Oksana; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Vall-llosera, Gemma; Prince, Kevin C; Trofimov, Alexander B; Zaytseva, Irina L; Moskovskaya, Tatyana E; Gromov, Evgeniy V; Schirmer, Jochen

2009-05-14

159

Cytosine-specific chemical probing of DNA using bromide and monoperoxysulfate.  

PubMed

Bromination of cytosine and formation of a piperidine-labile site are observed when two simple salts, KBr and KHSO5, are allowed to react with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Selectivity for C compared with T, G or A is typically a factor of 4 or more; selectivity for Cs in a single-stranded region such as a C-bulge is nearly a factor of 10 compared with duplex Cs. Low reactivity and little base selectivity are observed using duplex DNA, although increased concentrations of reagents lead to complete degradation of the DNA. The results suggest that these conditions for in situ generation of Br2 constitute a useful tool for examination of the exposure of a non-duplex cytosine base in folded DNA structures. PMID:9016685

Ross, S A; Burrows, C J

1996-12-15

160

Cyclopentenyl cytosine and neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cell line cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) on human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cell line cells. CPEC had an ic50 value of 100 nM for non-synchronised SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. These cells were arrested in g0G1-phase or early S-phase of the cell cycle upon treatment with CPEC. After treatment of synchronised S-phase cells with 1 ?M CPEC, the number of cells present after

R. J. Slingerland; A. H. Van Gennip; J. M. Bodlaender; P. A. Vo?te; A. B. P. Van Kuilenburg

1995-01-01

161

Molecular energetics of cytosine revisited: a joint computational and experimental study.  

PubMed

A static bomb calorimeter has been used to measure the standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, of a commercial sample of cytosine. From this energy, the standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in the crystalline state was derived as -(221.9 +/- 1.7) kJ.mol(-1). This value confirms one experimental value already published in the literature but differs from another literature value by 13.5 kJ.mol(-1). Using the present standard molar enthalpy of formation in the condensed phase and the enthalpy of sublimation due to Burkinshaw and Mortimer [J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1984, 75], (155.0 +/- 3.0) kJ.mol(-1), results in a value for the gas-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation for cytosine of -66.9 kJ.mol(-1). A similar value, -65.1 kJ.mol(-1), has been estimated after G3MP2B3 calculations combined with the reaction of atomization on three different tautomers of cytosine. In agreement with experimental evidence, the hydroxy-amino tautomer is the most stable form of cytosine in the gas phase. The enthalpies of formation of the other two tautomers were also estimated as -60.7 kJ.mol(-1) and -57.2 kJ.mol(-1) for the oxo-amino and oxo-imino tautomers, respectively. The same composite approach was also used to compute other thermochemical data, which is difficult to be measured experimentally, such as C-H, N-H, and O-H bond dissociation enthalpies, gas-phase acidities, and ionization enthalpies. PMID:17616179

Gomes, José R B; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C; Freitas, Vera L S; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A V

2007-08-01

162

Curing of an R Factor from Escherichia coli by Hydroxyurea and Cytosine Arabinoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyurea (HU) and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) eliminate R factor R46 from Escherichia coli strain J5-3. The highest frequency of elimination for both drugs occurred at concentrations and times that produced the lowest survivor levels, 5% of cells were antibiotic-sensitive after 5 h incubation in 5 mg\\/ml Ara-C, whilst 6 and 7% of the survivors had lost the R factor after

R. J. Pinney; F. Hernadi; J. T. Smith

1978-01-01

163

Solution structures of oligonucleotides containing either a guanine or a cytosine in front of a gap of one nucleotide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NMR and molecular modelling studies on two DNA duplexes containing a gap of one nucleotides. The difference between the two oligonucleotides lies in the central base face to the gap, a guanine or a cytosine. For the gapG, we observed in solution a B-form conformation where the guanine stacks in the helix. For the gapC, we reveal the existence of two species, one majority where the cytosine is inside the helix and a second for which the cytosine is extrahelical. Nous présentons une étude par RMN et modélisation moléculaire sur deux duplexes d'ADN contenant une lacune de un nucléotide. La différence entre les deux oligonucléotides réside dans la base centrale en face de la lacune, une guanine ou une cytosine. Pour le duplex appelé gapG, nous observons en solution une hélice de type B dans laquelle la guanine est empilée à l'intérieur de l'hélice. Dans le cas du duplex gapC, nous montrons l'existence de deux formes, l'une où la cytosine est à l'intérieur de l'hélice; la seconde où la cytosine est extra hélicale.

Boulard, Y.; Faibis, V.; Fazakerley, G. V.

1999-10-01

164

VUV photoionization of gas phase adenine and cytosine: A comparison between oven and aerosol vaporization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the single photon ionization of gas phase adenine and cytosine by means of vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation coupled to a velocity map imaging electron/ion coincidence spectrometer. Both in-vacuum temperature-controlled oven and aerosol thermodesorption were successfully applied to promote the intact neutral biological species into the gas phase. The photoion yields are consistent with previous measurements. In addition, we deduced the threshold photoelectron spectra and the slow photoelectron spectra for both species, where the close to zero kinetic energy photoelectrons and the corresponding photoions are measured in coincidence. The photoionization close and above the ionization energies are found to occur mainly via direct processes. Both vaporization techniques lead to similar electronic spectra for the two molecules, which consist of broadbands due to the complex electronic structure of the cationic species and to the possible contribution of several neutral tautomers for cytosine prior to ionization. Accurate ionization energies are measured for adenine and cytosine at, respectively, 8.267 ± 0.005 eV and 8.66 ± 0.01 eV, and we deduce precise thermochemical data for the adenine radical cation. Finally, we performed an evaluation and a comparison of the two vaporization techniques addressing the following criteria: measurement precision, thermal fragmentation, sensitivity, and sample consumption. The aerosol thermodesorption technique appears as a promising alternative to vaporize large thermolabile biological compounds, where extended thermal decomposition or low sensitivity could be encountered when using a simple oven vaporization technique.

Touboul, D.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Garcia, G. A.; Nahon, L.; Poisson, L.; Schwell, M.; Hochlaf, M.

2013-03-01

165

Error rates for nanopore discrimination among cytosine, methylcytosine, and hydroxymethylcytosine along individual DNA strands  

PubMed Central

Cytosine, 5-methylcytosine, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine were identified during translocation of single DNA template strands through a modified Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (M2MspA) nanopore under control of phi29 DNA polymerase. This identification was based on three consecutive ionic current states that correspond to passage of modified or unmodified CG dinucleotides and their immediate neighbors through the nanopore limiting aperture. To establish quality scores for these calls, we examined ?3,300 translocation events for 48 distinct DNA constructs. Each experiment analyzed a mixture of cytosine-, 5-methylcytosine–, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine–bearing DNA strands that contained a marker that independently established the correct cytosine methylation status at the target CG of each molecule tested. To calculate error rates for these calls, we established decision boundaries using a variety of machine-learning methods. These error rates depended upon the identity of the bases immediately 5? and 3? of the targeted CG dinucleotide, and ranged from 1.7% to 12.2% for a single-pass read. We estimate that Q40 values (0.01% error rates) for methylation status calls could be achieved by reading single molecules 5–19 times depending upon sequence context. PMID:24167260

Schreiber, Jacob; Wescoe, Zachary L.; Abu-Shumays, Robin; Vivian, John T.; Baatar, Baldandorj; Karplus, Kevin; Akeson, Mark

2013-01-01

166

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

167

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism. PMID:18322039

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

168

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

169

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

170

Yeast Alive! Watch Yeast Live and Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson for Grades 6-8 explores the chemical reaction that happens when yeast makes bread rise. The process, called fermentation, occurs when tiny living organisms (yeast) feed on the sugars in flour dough, expelling carbon dioxide as they go. It promotes understanding of how enzymes can cause chemical reactions. This resource combines a 4-minute video of the process plus a hands-on lab that allows students to see the effects of fermentation within a typical 40-45 minute middle school class period.

2011-08-19

171

Oxidation reactions of cytosine DNA components by hydroxyl radical and one-electron oxidants in aerated aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Indirect evidence strongly suggests that oxidation reactions of cytosine and its minor derivative 5-methylcytosine play a major role in mutagenesis and cancer. Therefore, there is an emerging necessity to identify the final oxidation products of these reactions, to search for their formation in cellular DNA, and to assess their mutagenic features. In this Account, we report and discuss the main *OH and one-electron-mediated oxidation reactions, two of the most potent sources of DNA damage, of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine nucleosides that have been recently characterized. The addition of *OH to the 5,6-unsaturated double bond of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine generates final degradation products that resemble those observed for uracil and thymine. The main product from the oxidation of cytosine, cytosine glycol, has been shown to undergo dehydration at a much faster rate as a free nucleoside than when inserted into double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the predominant *OH addition at C5 of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine leads to the formation of 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro radicals that give rise to novel products with an imidazolidine structure. The mechanism of the formation of imidazolidine products is accounted for by rearrangement reactions that in the presence of molecular oxygen likely involve an intermediate pyrimidine endoperoxide. The reactions of the radical cations of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine are governed by competitive hydration, mainly at C6 of the pyrimidine ring, and deprotonation from the exocyclic amino and methyl group, leading in most cases to products similar to those generated by *OH. 5-Hydroxypyrimidines, the dehydration products of cytosine and uracil glycols, have a low oxidation potential, and their one-electron oxidation results in a cascade of decomposition reactions involving the formation of isodialuric acid, dialuric acid, 5-hydroxyhydantoin, and its hydroxyketone isomer. In biology, GC --> AT transitions are the most common mutations in the genome of aerobic organisms, including the lacI gene in bacteria, lacI transgenes in rodents, and the HPRT gene in rodents and humans, so a more complete understanding of cytosine oxidation is an essential research goal. The data and insights presented here shed new light on oxidation reactions of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine and should facilitate their validation in cellular DNA. PMID:20078112

Wagner, J Richard; Cadet, Jean

2010-04-20

172

Expression and regulation by interferon of a double-stranded-RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells: evidence for two forms of the deaminase.  

PubMed Central

A 6,474-nucleotide human cDNA clone designated K88, which encodes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific adenosine deaminase, was isolated in a screen for interferon (IFN)-regulated cDNAs. Northern (RNA) blot analysis revealed that the K88 cDNA hybridized to a single major transcript of approximately 6.7 kb in human cells which was increased about fivefold by IFN treatment. Polyclonal antisera prepared against K88 cDNA products expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins recognized two proteins by Western (immunoblot) analysis. An IFN-induced 150-kDa protein and a constitutively expressed 110-kDa protein whose level was not altered by IFN treatment were detected in human amnion U and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. Only the 150-kDa protein was detected in mouse fibroblasts with antiserum raised against the recombinant human protein; the mouse 150-kDa protein was IFN inducible. Immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionation analyses showed that the 110-kDa protein was exclusively nuclear, whereas the 150-kDa protein was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of human cells. The amino acid sequence deduced from the K88 cDNA includes three copies of the highly conserved R motif commonly found in dsRNA-binding proteins. Both the 150-kDa and the 110-kDa proteins prepared from human nuclear extracts bound to double-stranded but not to single-stranded RNA affinity columns. Furthermore, E. coli-expressed GST-K88 fusion proteins that included the R motif possessed dsRNA-binding activity. Extracts prepared either from K88 cDNA-transfected cells or from IFN-treated cells contained increased dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. These results establish that K88 encodes an IFN-inducible dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase and suggest that at least two forms of dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase occur in human cells. PMID:7565688

Patterson, J B; Samuel, C E

1995-01-01

173

APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion.  

PubMed

High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions was identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs, and clustered mutations. Cancer Res; 73(12); 3494-8. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23598277

Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

2013-06-15

174

The biochemistry of activation-induced deaminase and its physiological functions.  

PubMed

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) by inducing mutations and double-strand breaks at the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus in B cells. AID converts deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuridine (dU) in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This deamination reaction is enzymatically straightforward, but ultimately results in diverse biological consequences. Here, we review the enzymatic features of AID, such as the parameters that govern substrate binding and catalysis. We discuss how these properties of AID relate to secondary antibody diversification processes and the manners in which they may regulate the targeting of AID to various loci. Based on the current data on AID and other related deaminases, we propose a 3-dimensional structure for AID and how this model provides clues into AID's catalytic mechanism. PMID:22695318

Larijani, Mani; Martin, Alberto

2012-08-01

175

APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases in Double-Strand DNA Break Repair and Cancer Promotion  

PubMed Central

High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions were identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with ssDNA, double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs and clustered mutations. PMID:23598277

Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

2013-01-01

176

[Molecular evolution of physiologically functioning anti-retroviral APOBEC3 deaminases].  

PubMed

Recent in vivo findings clearly indicate that mammalian cytidine deaminase APOBEC3 can function as a physiological restriction factor to retrotransposons and infectious retroviruses. However, some retroviruses, including primate lentiviruses, have evolved to counter their natural host's APOBEC3. To survive this arms race, primates seem to have acquired multiple copies of APOBEC3 genes. Surprisingly, however, during the process of the diversification of rodent species, as well as the human race, some ancestral individuals acquired genetic variants that reduced the protein levels of APOBEC3 expression, and these variants currently show unexpectedly wide geographic distributions. These data suggest that in the absence of a heavy burden of infectious retroviruses, high-level expression of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase might be costly to the integrity of the host genome. PMID:23189822

Miyazawa, Masaaki

2012-06-01

177

Partial characterization of the gene encoding myoadenylate deaminase from the teleost fish Platichthys flesus.  

PubMed

AMP-deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6), which catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of AMP to IMP and ammonia, is an important energy-related enzyme. The partial genomic sequence of the gene encoding myoadenylate deaminase (AMPD1) from the teleost fish Platichthys flesus was determined. The amino acid sequence of P. flesus AMPD1 shows 82% homology with that of the teleost fish Danio rerio. Comparison of genomic sequences of P. flesus and Rattus norvegicus reveals a high degree of conservation of both sequence and structural organization. A phylogenetic analysis of AMPD sequences shows that bony fish and mammalian AMPD1s arise by duplication of a common primordial gene. PMID:19821138

Thébault, M T; Tanguy, A; Meistertzheim, A L; Raffin, J P

2010-12-01

178

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

2007-01-01

179

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

180

Methylthioadenosine deaminase in an alternative quorum sensing pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an unusual pathway for 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) metabolism involving deamination to 5'-methylthioinosine (MTI) followed by N-ribosyl phosphorolysis to hypoxanthine and 5-methylthio-?-d-ribose 1-phosphate. The specific MTI phosphorylase of P. aeruginosa has been reported [Guan, R., Ho, M. C., Almo, S. C., and Schramm, V. L. (2011) Biochemistry 50, 1247-1254], and here we characterize MTA deaminase from P. aeruginosa (PaMTADA). Genomic analysis indicated the PA3170 locus to be a candidate for MTA deaminase (MTADA). Protein encoded by PA3170 was expressed and shown to deaminate MTA with 40-fold greater catalytic efficiency for MTA than for adenosine. The k(cat)/K(m) value of 1.6 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for MTA is the highest catalytic efficiency known for an MTA deaminase. 5'-Methylthiocoformycin (MTCF) is a 4.8 pM transition state analogue for PaMTADA but causes no significant inhibition of human adenosine deaminase or MTA phosphorylase. MTCF is permeable to P. aeruginosa and exhibits an IC(50) of 3 nM on cellular PaMTADA activity. PaMTADA is the only activity in P. aeruginosa extracts to act on MTA. MTA and 5-methylthio-?-d-ribose are involved in quorum sensing pathways; thus, PaMTADA is a potential target for quorum sensing. The crystal structure of PaMTADA in complex with MTCF shows the transition state mimic 8(R)-hydroxyl group in contact with a catalytic site Zn(2+), the 5'-methylthio group in a hydrophobic pocket, and the transition state mimic of the diazepine ring in contact with a catalytic site Glu. PMID:23050701

Guan, Rong; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Fröhlich, Richard F G; Tyler, Peter C; Almo, Steven C; Schramm, Vern L

2012-11-13

181

Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) are both Antiviral and Proviral Dependent upon the Virus  

PubMed Central

A-to-I RNA editing, the deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) that occurs in regions of RNA with double-stranded character, is catalyzed by a family of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs). In mammals there are three ADAR genes. Two encode proteins that possess demonstrated deaminase activity: ADAR1, which is interferon-inducible, and ADAR2 which is constitutively expressed. ADAR3, by contrast, has not yet been shown to bean active enzyme. The specificity of the ADAR1 and ADAR2 deaminases ranges from highly site-selective to non-selective, dependent on the duplex structure of the substrate RNA. A-to-I editing is a form of nucleotide substitution editing, because I is decoded as guanosine (G) instead of A by ribosomes during translation and by polymerases during RNA-dependent RNA replication. Additionally, A-to-I editing can alter RNA structure stability as I:U mismatches are less stable than A:U base pairs. Both viral and cellular RNAs are edited by ADARs. A-to-I editing is of broad physiologic significance. Among the outcomes of A-to-I editing are biochemical changes that affect how viruses interact with their hosts, changes that can lead to either enhanced or reduced virus growth and persistence dependent upon the specific virus. PMID:21211811

Samuel, Charles E.

2010-01-01

182

Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world.  

PubMed

To feed all of the world's people, it is necessary to sustainably increase agricultural productivity. One way to do this is through the increased use of plant growth-promoting bacteria; recently, scientists have developed a more profound understanding of the mechanisms employed by these bacteria to facilitate plant growth. Here, it is argued that the ability of plant growth-promoting bacteria that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels, often a result of various stresses, is a key component in the efficacious functioning of these bacteria. The optimal functioning of these bacteria includes the synergistic interaction between ACC deaminase and both plant and bacterial auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). These bacteria not only directly promote plant growth, they also protect plants against flooding, drought, salt, flower wilting, metals, organic contaminants, and both bacterial and fungal pathogens. While a considerable amount of both basic and applied work remains to be done before ACC deaminase-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria become a mainstay of plant agriculture, the evidence indicates that with the expected shift from chemicals to soil bacteria, the world is on the verge of a major paradigm shift in plant agriculture. PMID:24095256

Glick, Bernard R

2014-01-20

183

RNAi in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

Drinnenberg, Ines A.

184

Vaginal Yeast Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans in the vagina. Candida is yeast, which is a type of fungus. ... small numbers, and symptoms only appear with overgrowth. Candida can multiply when an imbalance occurs, such as ...

185

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

186

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

187

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

188

Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes  

PubMed Central

Background The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives. Results Firstly, using both S. mansoni DNA methyltransferase 2 (SmDNMT2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (SmMBD) as query sequences, we illustrate that essential DNA methylation machinery components are well conserved throughout the phylum. Secondly, using both molecular (methylation specific amplification polymorphism, MSAP) and immunological (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, ELISA) methodologies, we demonstrate that representative species (Echinococcus multilocularis, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Polycelis nigra) within all four platyhelminth classes (Cestoda, Monogenea, Trematoda and ‘Turbellaria’) contain methylated cytosines within their genome compartments. Conclusions Collectively, these findings provide the first direct evidence for a functionally conserved and enzymatically active DNA methylation system throughout the Platyhelminthes. Defining how this epigenetic feature shapes phenotypic diversity and development within the phylum represents an exciting new area of metazoan biology. PMID:23837670

2013-01-01

189

Forces in yeast flocculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

190

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

PubMed

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-01-22

191

Deuterium and nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of cytosine-amino acid complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14N and 2H nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of cytosine complexes of the acids N-formylglycine, N-benzoylglycine and N-phthaloylglutamic, and of the cytidine complex of salicylic acid have been obtained at 77 K on powdered samples, using the double resonance level crossing technique, DRLC. Both normal abundance and deuterium-enriched forms of the compounds were studied. Use of various assignment aids, discussed at length, make it possible to completely assign the electric field gradient parameters to all 14N and 2H sites in the compounds.

Keiter, Ellen A.; Hiyama, Yukio; Brown, Theodore L.

1983-12-01

192

Removal of deaminated cytosines and detection of in vivo methylation in ancient DNA.  

PubMed

DNA sequences determined from ancient organisms have high error rates, primarily due to uracil bases created by cytosine deamination. We use synthetic oligonucleotides, as well as DNA extracted from mammoth and Neandertal remains, to show that treatment with uracil-DNA-glycosylase and endonuclease VIII removes uracil residues from ancient DNA and repairs most of the resulting abasic sites, leaving undamaged parts of the DNA fragments intact. Neandertal DNA sequences determined with this protocol have greatly increased accuracy. In addition, our results demonstrate that Neandertal DNA retains in vivo patterns of CpG methylation, potentially allowing future studies of gene inactivation and imprinting in ancient organisms. PMID:20028723

Briggs, Adrian W; Stenzel, Udo; Meyer, Matthias; Krause, Johannes; Kircher, Martin; Pääbo, Svante

2010-04-01

193

Base Flip in DNA Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Differently-Oxidized Forms of Methyl-Cytosine  

PubMed Central

Distortions in the DNA sequence, such as damage or mispairs, are specifically recognized and processed by DNA repair enzymes. Many repair proteins and, in particular, glycosylases flip the target base out of the DNA helix into the enzyme’s active site. Our molecular dynamics simulations of DNA with intact and damaged (oxidized) methyl-cytosine show that the probability of being flipped is similar for damaged and intact methyl-cytosine. However, the accessibility of the different 5-methyl groups allows direct discrimination of the oxidized forms. Hydrogen-bonded patterns that vary between methyl-cytosine forms carrying a carbonyl oxygen atom are likely to be detected by the repair enzymes and may thus help target site recognition. PMID:24995694

Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Kanaan, Natalia; Imhof, Petra

2014-01-01

194

Identification of Two Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes Required for RNA Editing and Zinc Binding by C-terminal Cytidine Deaminase-like Domains*  

PubMed Central

Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome. PMID:24194514

Hayes, Michael L.; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R. Michael

2013-01-01

195

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

196

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2010-04-01

197

Polymorphism for mutation of cytosine to thymine at location 677 in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is associated with recurrent early fetal loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether a cytosine to thymine mutation at nucleotide 677 in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is associated with particular subtypes of recurrent unexplained spontaneous abortion. Study Design: The prevalences of cytosine to thymine mutation at nucleotide 677 in the gene encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase among 41 patients with recurrent unexplained spontaneous abortions

Arie Lissak; Avi Sharon; Oren Fruchter; Aliza Kassel; Judith Sanderovitz; Haim Abramovici

1999-01-01

198

Approximate solution of the mode-mode coupling integral: Application to cytosine and its deuterated derivative.  

PubMed

Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods were used to perform harmonic and anharmonic calculations for the biomolecule cytosine and its deuterated derivative. The anharmonic vibrational spectra were computed using the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and correlation-corrected vibrational self-consistent field (CC-VSCF) methods. Calculated anharmonic frequencies have been compared with the argon matrix spectra reported in literature. The results were analyzed with focus on the properties of anharmonic couplings between pair of modes. A simple and easy to use formula for calculation of mode-mode coupling magnitudes has been derived. The key element in present approach is the approximation that only interactions between pairs of normal modes have been taken into account, while interactions of triples or more are neglected. FTIR and Raman spectra of solid state cytosine have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 cm(-1) and 60-4000 cm(-1), respectively. Vibrational analysis and assignments are based on calculated potential energy distribution (PED) values. PMID:20638327

Rasheed, Tabish; Ahmad, Shabbir

2010-10-01

199

Cytosines, but Not Purines, Determine Recombination Activating Gene (RAG)-induced Breaks on Heteroduplex DNA Structures  

PubMed Central

The sequence specificity of the recombination activating gene (RAG) complex during V(D)J recombination has been well studied. RAGs can also act as structure-specific nuclease; however, little is known about the mechanism of its action. Here, we show that in addition to DNA structure, sequence dictates the pattern and efficiency of RAG cleavage on altered DNA structures. Cytosine nucleotides are preferentially nicked by RAGs when present at single-stranded regions of heteroduplex DNA. Although unpaired thymine nucleotides are also nicked, the efficiency is many fold weaker. Induction of single- or double-strand breaks by RAGs depends on the position of cytosines and whether it is present on one or both of the strands. Interestingly, RAGs are unable to induce breaks when adenine or guanine nucleotides are present at single-strand regions. The nucleotide present immediately next to the bubble sequence could also affect RAG cleavage. Hence, we propose “C(d)C(S)C(S)” (d, double-stranded; s, single-stranded) as a consensus sequence for RAG-induced breaks at single-/double-strand DNA transitions. Such a consensus sequence motif is useful for explaining RAG cleavage on other types of DNA structures described in the literature. Therefore, the mechanism of RAG cleavage described here could explain facets of chromosomal rearrangements specific to lymphoid tissues leading to genomic instability. PMID:20051517

Naik, Abani Kanta; Lieber, Michael R.; Raghavan, Sathees C.

2010-01-01

200

Cytosine DNA methylation influences drug resistance in Escherichia coli through increased sugE expression.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli K-12 strains contain the orphan cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase enzyme Dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase). Two recent reports indicate that Dcm has an influence on stationary phase gene expression in E. coli. Herein, we demonstrate that dcm knockout cells overexpress the drug resistance transporter SugE, which has been linked to ethidium bromide (ETBR) resistance. SugE expression also increased in the presence of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, suggesting that Dcm-mediated DNA methylation normally represses sugE expression. The effect of Dcm on sugE expression is primarily restricted to early stationary phase, and RpoS is required for robust sugE expression. Dcm knockout cells are more resistant to ETBR than wild-type cells, and complementation with a plasmid-borne dcm gene restores ETBR sensitivity. SugE knockout cells are more sensitive to ETBR than wild-type cells. These data indicate that Dcm influences the sensitivity to an antimicrobial compound through changes in gene expression. PMID:24164619

Militello, Kevin T; Mandarano, Alexandra H; Varechtchouk, Olga; Simon, Robert D

2014-01-01

201

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

202

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

203

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

204

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

205

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

206

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

207

Long-term expression of human adenosine deaminase in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats: A model for gene therapy  

SciTech Connect

Gene transfer into vascular smooth muscle cells in animals was examined by using recombinant retroviral vectors containing an Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase gene or a human adenosine deaminase gene. Direct gene transfer by infusion of virus into rat carotid arteries was not observed. However, gene transfer by infection of smooth muscle cells in culture and seeding of the transduced cells onto arteries that had been denuded of endothelial cells was successful. Potentially therapeutic levels of human adenosine deaminase activity were detected over 6 months of observation, indicating the utility of vascular smooth muscle cells for gene therapy in humans.

Lynch, C.M.; Miller, A.D. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Clowes, M.M.; Osborne, W.R.A.; Clowes, A.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1992-02-01

208

Solid-phase molecular recognition of cytosine based on proton-transfer reaction. Part II. supramolecular architecture in the cocrystals of cytosine and its 5-Fluoroderivative with 5-Nitrouracil  

PubMed Central

Background Cytosine is a biologically important compound owing to its natural occurrence as a component of nucleic acids. Cytosine plays a crucial role in DNA/RNA base pairing, through several hydrogen-bonding patterns, and controls the essential features of life as it is involved in genetic codon of 17 amino acids. The molecular recognition among cytosines, and the molecular heterosynthons of molecular salts fabricated through proton-transfer reactions, might be used to investigate the theoretical sites of cytosine-specific DNA-binding proteins and the design for molecular imprint. Results Reaction of cytosine (Cyt) and 5-fluorocytosine (5Fcyt) with 5-nitrouracil (Nit) in aqueous solution yielded two new products, which have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The products include a dihydrated molecular salt (CytNit) having both ionic and neutral hydrogen-bonded species, and a dihydrated cocrystal of neutral species (5FcytNit). In CytNit a protonated and an unprotonated cytosine form a triply hydrogen-bonded aggregate in a self-recognition ion-pair complex, and this dimer is then hydrogen bonded to one neutral and one anionic 5-nitrouracil molecule. In 5FcytNit the two neutral nucleobase derivatives are hydrogen bonded in pairs. In both structures conventional N-H...O, O-H...O, N-H+...N and N-H...N- intermolecular interactions are most significant in the structural assembly. Conclusion The supramolecular structure of the molecular adducts formed by cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine with 5-nitrouracil, CytNit and 5FcytNit, respectively, have been investigated in detail. CytNit and 5FcytNit exhibit widely differing hydrogen-bonding patterns, though both possess layered structures. The crystal structures of CytNit (Dpka = -0.7, molecular salt) and 5FcytNit (Dpka = -2.0, cocrystal) confirm that, at the present level of knowledge about the nature of proton-transfer process, there is not a strict correlation between the Dpka values and the proton transfer, in that the acid/base pka strength is not a definite guide to predict the location of H atoms in the solid state. Eventually, the absence in 5FcytNit of hydrogen bonds involving fluorine is in agreement with findings that covalently bound fluorine hardly ever acts as acceptor for available Brønsted acidic sites in the presence of competing heteroatom acceptors. PMID:21888640

2011-01-01

209

Genetics of Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

210

Major oxidative products of cytosine are substrates for the nucleotide incision repair pathway.  

PubMed

Most common point mutations occurring spontaneously or induced by ionizing radiation are C-->T transitions implicating cytosine as the target. Oxidative cytosine derivatives are the most abundant and mutagenic DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. Base excision repair (BER) pathway initiated by DNA glycosylases is thought to be the major pathway for the removal of these lesions. However, in alternative nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathway the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases incise DNA duplex 5' to an oxidatively damaged base in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner. Here, we characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease, Ape1, towards 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5ohC) and alpha-anomeric 2'-deoxycytidine (alphadC) residues. The apparent kinetic parameters of the reactions suggest that Ape1 and the DNA glycosylases/AP lyases, hNth1 and hNeil1 repair 5ohC with a low efficiency. Nevertheless, due to the extremely high cellular concentration of Ape1, NIR was the major activity towards 5ohC in cell-free extracts. To address the physiological role of NIR function, we have characterized naturally occurring Ape1 variants including amino acids substitutions (E126A, E126D and D148E) and N-terminal truncated forms (NDelta31, NDelta35 and NDelta61). As expected, all Ape1 mutants had proficient AP endonuclease activity, however, truncated forms showed reduced NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities indicating that these two functions are genetically linked and governed by the same amino acid residues. Furthermore, both Ape1-catalyzed NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities generate a single-strand gap at the 5' side of a damaged base but not at an AP site in duplex DNA. We hypothesized that biochemical coupling of the nucleotide incision and exonuclease degradation may serve to remove clustered DNA damage. Our data suggest that NIR is a backup system for the BER pathway to remove oxidative damage to cytosines in vivo. PMID:16978929

Daviet, Stéphane; Couvé-Privat, Sophie; Gros, Laurent; Shinozuka, Kazuo; Ide, Hiroshi; Saparbaev, Murat; Ishchenko, Alexander A

2007-01-01

211

Energetics of the lattice: packing elements in crystals of four-stranded intercalated cytosine-rich DNA molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Condensation of single molecules from solution into crystals represents a transition between distinct energetic states. In solution, the atomic interactions within the molecule dominate. In the crystalline state, however, a set of additional interactions are formed between molecules in close contact in the lattice--these are the packing interactions. The crystal structures of d(CCCT), d(TAACCC), d(CCCAAT), and d(AACCCC) have in common a four-stranded intercalated cytosine segment, built by stacked layers of cytosine.cytosine+ (C.C+) base pairs coming from two parallel duplexes that intercalate into each other with opposite polarity. The intercalated cytosine segments in these structures are similar in their geometry, even though the sequences crystallized in different space groups. In the crystals, adenine and thymine residues of the sequences are used to build the three-dimensional crystal lattice by elaborately interacting with symmetry-related molecules. The packing elements observed provide novel insight about the copious ways in which nucleic acid molecules can interact with each other--for example, when folded in more complicated higher order structures, such as mRNA and chromatin.

Berger, I.; Cai, L.; Chen, L.; Rich, A.

1997-01-01

212

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

213

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2014-09-23

214

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... rash on the penis if they have unprotected sex with an infected woman. If this happens to your partner, he should see a doctor. Men who haven’t been circumcised are at higher risk. Lesbians may be at risk for spreading yeast infections ...

215

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

216

Microencapsulation in yeast cells.  

PubMed

A method for encapsulating high concentrations of essential oils into bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is described. The process involves mixing an aqueous suspension of yeast and an essential oil, which allows the oil to pass freely through the cell wall and membrane and remain passively within the cell. Oil droplets sequestered within the cell were clearly visible using confocal microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell wall and membrane remain intact during the process. Cells quickly lost viability during the process and it appeared unnecessary for the cells to be viable for the process to occur. Encapsulated oil was recovered from the cells using a water/ethanol extraction procedure and analysed by gas chromatography. No significant differences were noted between encapsulated and unencapsulated oil profiles. The rate of permeation of oil into the yeast cells was found to increase significantly at higher temperatures due to the phase transition of the lipid membrane. The rates at which different essential oils permeated the cell varied considerably due to variations in terpene chemistry. The encapsulation of straight chain hydrocarbons highlighted the effects of molecular size, shape and the presence of hydroxl groups on the process. The process occurs by passive diffusion as a result of hydrophobic flavour components partitioning into the cell membrane and intracellular lipid. This paper briefly reviews the patented literature and reports some of the initial observations of the transport mechanisms involved during the accumulation of essential oils by yeast cells. PMID:9818954

Bishop, J R; Nelson, G; Lamb, J

1998-01-01

217

Tissue-Specific Differences in Cytosine Methylation and Their Association with Differential Gene Expression in Sorghum1[W  

PubMed Central

It has been well established that DNA cytosine methylation plays essential regulatory roles in imprinting gene expression in endosperm, and hence normal embryonic development, in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Nonetheless, the developmental role of this epigenetic marker in cereal crops remains largely unexplored. Here, we report for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) differences in relative cytosine methylation levels and patterns at 5?-CCGG sites in seven tissues (endosperm, embryo, leaf, root, young inflorescence, anther, and ovary), and characterize a set of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (TDMRs). We found that the most enriched TDMRs in sorghum are specific for the endosperm and are generated concomitantly but imbalanced by decrease versus increase in cytosine methylation at multiple 5?-CCGG sites across the genome. This leads to more extensive demethylation in the endosperm than in other tissues, where TDMRs are mainly tissue nonspecific rather than specific to a particular tissue. Accordingly, relative to endosperm, the other six tissues showed grossly similar levels though distinct patterns of cytosine methylation, presumably as a result of a similar extent of concomitant decrease versus increase in cytosine methylation that occurred at variable genomic loci. All four tested TDMRs were validated by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Diverse sequences were found to underlie the TDMRs, including those encoding various known-function or predicted proteins, transposable elements, and those bearing homology to putative imprinted genes in maize (Zea mays). We further found that the expression pattern of at least some genic TDMRs was correlated with its tissue-specific methylation state, implicating a developmental role of DNA methylation in regulating tissue-specific or -preferential gene expression in sorghum. PMID:21632971

Zhang, Meishan; Xu, Chunming; von Wettstein, Diter; Liu, Bao

2011-01-01

218

Absolute cross sections for vibrational excitations of cytosine by low energy electron impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitations of cytosine by electron impact between 0.5 and 18 eV were measured by electron-energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy of the molecule deposited at monolayer coverage on an inert Ar substrate. The vibrational energies compare to those that have been reported from IR spectroscopy of cytosine isolated in Ar matrix, IR and Raman spectra of polycrystalline cytosine, and ab initio calculation. The CSs for the various H bending modes at 142 and 160 meV are both rising from their energy threshold up to 1.7 and 2.1 × 10-17 cm2 at about 4 eV, respectively, and then decrease moderately while maintaining some intensity at 18 eV. The latter trend is displayed as well for the CS assigned to the NH2 scissor along with bending of all H at 179 meV. This overall behavior in electron-molecule collision is attributed to direct processes such as the dipole, quadrupole, and polarization contributions, etc. of the interaction of the incident electron with a molecule. The CSs for the ring deformation at 61 meV, the ring deformation with N-H symmetric wag at 77 meV, and the ring deformations with symmetric bending of all H at 119 meV exhibit common enhancement maxima at 1.5, 3.5, and 5.5 eV followed by a broad hump at about 12 eV, which are superimposed on the contribution due to the direct processes. At 3.5 eV, the CS values for the 61-, 77-, and 119-meV modes reach 4.0, 3.0, and 4.5 × 10-17 cm2, respectively. The CS for the C-C and C-O stretches at 202 meV, which dominates in the intermediate EEL region, rises sharply until 1.5 eV, reaches its maximum of 5.7 × 10-17 cm2 at 3.5 eV and then decreases toward 18 eV. The present vibrational enhancements, correspond to the features found around 1.5 and 4.5 eV in electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) and those lying within 1.5-2.1 eV, 5.2-6.8 eV, and 9.5-10.9 eV range in dissociative electron attachment (DEA) experiments with cytosine in gas phase. While the ETS features are ascribed to shape resonances associated with the electron occupation of the second and third antibonding ?-orbitals of the molecule in its ground state, the correspondence with DEA features suggests the existence of common precursor anion states decaying with certain probabilities into the vibrationally excited ground state.

Michaud, M.; Bazin, M.; Sanche, L.

2012-09-01

219

Ultrafast repair of irradiated DNA: Nonadiabatic ab initio simulations of the guanine-cytosine photocycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonadiabatic first-principles molecular dynamics simulations have been performed of the photoexcited Watson-Crick guanine-cytosine (GC) DNA base pair in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. An excited state coupled proton-electron transfer (CPET) from G to C along the central hydrogen bond is observed upon excitation of the ??* state initially localized on G. In the resulting charge transfer state a conical intersection between the excited state and the ground state is easily accessible. Therefore radiationless decay is fast, of the order of 100fs, followed by a rapid CPET back reaction retrieving the initial Watson-Crick structure. A detailed analysis of the mechanism of nonradiative decay suggests a biexponential behavior in which out-of-plane motion plays a special role for the longer decay component.

Markwick, Phineus R. L.; Doltsinis, Nikos L.

2007-05-01

220

Nitrosative Cytosine Deamination. An Exploration of the Chemistry Emanating from Deamination with Pyrimidine Ring-Opening  

PubMed Central

A discussion of nitrosative deamination of cytosine 1 is presented that argues for the formation of 6 by diazotization of 1 to cytosinediazonium ion 2 and its electrostatic complex 3, dediazoniation to 4 ? 5, and amide-bond cleavage to 6. The reaction channels available to 6 include hydrolytic deglycation to 3-isocyanatoacrylonitrile 7, water addition to carbamic acid 9 with the possibility for re-closure to uracil 13, and water addition to carbamic acid 9 and decarboxylation to 3-aminoacrylonitrile 10. With a view to the instability of the carbamic acid 9, the carbamate models ethyl (Z)-2-cyanovinyl-carbamate 14 and (Z)-2-cyano-1-t-butylvinylcarbamate 20 were studied. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 14 leads to 2-amino-carbonylphenylcarbamate 15 and its cyclization yields the benzo-fused uracil quinazoline-2,4-dione 16. In contrast to the aromatic system 14, acid-catalyzed cyclization cannot compete with oligomerization in the case of 20 and 5-tert-butyluracil 22 is accessible only with base-catalysis. It is shown that 23, the parent of 10, also easily polymerizes. The experimental results provide a rational as to why 9, 10 and 12 would have escaped detection in in vitro studies: they would have oligomerized. In contrast to the in vitro experiments, the oligomerizations of 9, 10 or 12 clearly are not relevant in vivo because of low monomer concentrations. With the exclusion of recyclization and of oligomerization in vivo, attention thus needs to focus on (Z)-3-aminoacrylonitrile 10 as the most likely deamination product of cytosine aside from uracil. PMID:16097794

Rayat, Sundeep; Qian, Ming; Glaser, Rainer

2008-01-01

221

Proton-coupled hole transfer in X-irradiated doped crystalline cytosine.H2O.  

PubMed

Following exposure to X-irradiation at low temperatures, the main reactions taking place in single crystals of cytosine monohydrate doped with minute amounts of 2-thiocytosine are hole transfer (HT) from the electron-loss centers to the dopant and recombination of oxidation and reduction products, assumedly by electron transfer. A huge deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE; >102-103) at 100 K, together with the kinetic curves obtained and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of equilibrium energy changes, indicates that these reactions proceed through a concerted proton-coupled electron/hole transfer where the proton transfer occurs between hydrogen-bonded cytosine molecules. The temperature dependence of these reaction rates between 10 and 150 K in normal and partially deuterated samples was investigated by monitoring the growth and decay of the various radical species over time using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. By assuming a random distribution of the hole donors and acceptors in the crystals, the data are consistent with an exponential distance-dependent rate, giving a distance decay constant (beta) around 1 A-1 for the HT, which indicates that a long-range single-step superexchange mechanism mediates the charge transfer. The reactions undergo a transition from a slow, weakly temperature-dependent rate to an Arrhenius-type rate at 40-50 K, presumably being activated by excitation of low-frequency intermolecular vibrations that couple to the process. Below this transition temperature, the transfer probability might be dominated by temperature-independent nuclear tunneling. A similar beta value in both temperature regions suggests that hopping is not activated. PMID:18341308

Krivokapi?, André; Herak, Janko N; Sagstuen, Einar

2008-04-24

222

Heterogeneity of quaternary structure of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia.  

PubMed

The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of the quaternary structure and in solution exists in three interconvertible forms, namely, monomeric, homodimeric, and homotetrameric. Although the monomeric form is prevalent, the monomer/dimer/tetramer ratios depended on protein concentration and fell within the range from 72:27:1 to 39:23:38. The enzyme is fully active in each of the oligomeric structures, efficiently catalyzes synthesis of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonia, and its activity is not modified by GlcNAc6P, UDP-GlcNAc, or UDP-GalNAc. GlcN6P deaminase of G. lamblia represents a novel structural and functional type of enzyme of the NagB subfamily. PMID:25326378

Kwiatkowska-Semrau, Karolina; Czarnecka, Justyna; Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

2015-01-01

223

Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase confer salt tolerance in maize grown on salt-affected fields.  

PubMed

Salt stress is one of the major constraints hampering agricultural production owing to its impact on ethylene production and nutritional imbalance. A check on the accelerated ethylene production in plants could be helpful in minimizing the negative effect of salt stress on plant growth and development. Four Pseudomonas, 1 Flavobacterium, and 1 Enterobacter strain of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase were selected and their effects on growth and yield of maize were investigated to improve the salt tolerance of maize grown on salt-affected fields. The selected rhizobacterial isolates reduced or eliminated the classical "triple" response, indicating their ability to reduce stress-induced ethylene levels. Results showed that rhizobacterial strains, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacter spp., significantly promoted the growth and yield of maize compared with the non-inoculated control. Pseudomonas fluorescens increased plant height, biomass, cob yield, grain yield, 1000 grain mass, and straw yield of maize up to 29%, 127%, 67%, 60%, 17%, and 166%, respectively, over the control. Under stress conditions, more N, P, and K uptake and high K+-Na+ ratios were recorded in inoculated plants compared with the control. The results imply that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase could be a useful approach for improving growth and yield of maize under salt-stressed conditions. PMID:19940939

Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

2009-11-01

224

Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) hydrolytically deaminate adenosines (A) in a wide variety of duplex RNAs and misregulation of editing is correlated with human disease. However, our understanding of reaction selectivity is limited. ADARs are modular enzymes with multiple double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a catalytic domain. While dsRBD binding is understood, little is known about ADAR catalytic domain/RNA interactions. Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions. We introduced the nucleoside analog 8-azanebularine (8-azaN) into this RNA (and derived constructs) to mechanistically trap the protein-RNA complex without catalytic turnover for EMSA and ribonuclease footprinting analyses. EMSA showed that hADAR2-D requires duplex RNA and is sensitive to 2'-deoxy substitution at nucleotides opposite the editing site, the local sequence and 8-azaN nucleotide positioning on the duplex. Ribonuclease V1 footprinting shows that hADAR2-D protects ?23 nt on the edited strand around the editing site in an asymmetric fashion (?18 nt on the 5' side and ?5 nt on the 3' side). These studies provide a deeper understanding of the ADAR catalytic domain-RNA interaction and new tools for biophysical analysis of ADAR-RNA complexes. PMID:25564529

Phelps, Kelly J; Tran, Kiet; Eifler, Tristan; Erickson, Anna I; Fisher, Andrew J; Beal, Peter A

2015-01-30

225

Rapid degradation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase proteins expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase is commonly produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and has been suggested to facilitate the growth and stress tolerance of hosts via a reduction in levels of ethylene. However, the regulatory mechanism of ACC deaminase (AcdS) protein within host plant cells is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated beneficial effects and post-translational modification of PGPR-originated AcdS proteins in plants. Compared with the wild-type, transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens acdS (PfacdS) gene displayed increased root elongation and reduced sensitivity to 10 ?M exogenous ACC, an ethylene precursor. Arabidopsis expressing PfacdS also showed increased tolerance to high salinity (150 mM NaCl). PfAcdS proteins accumulated in transgenic Arabidopsis were rapidly degraded, which was potentially mediated by the 26S proteasome pathway. The degradation of PfAcdS was alleviated in the presence of exogenous ACC. In conclusion, our data suggest that the plant growth-promoting effects of bacterial AcdS proteins are potentially modulated via protein turnover inside the host plant cells. Such post-translational modification plays a physiological role in the mutualistic interactions between microorganisms and plants in the rhizospheric and/or endospheric niche. PMID:24801274

Kim, Kangmin; Park, Sung-Hee; Chae, Jong-Chan; Soh, Byoung Yul; Lee, Kui-Jae

2014-06-01

226

AMP deaminase 1 gene polymorphism and heart disease-a genetic association that highlights new treatment.  

PubMed

Nucleotide metabolism and signalling is directly linked to myocardial function. Therefore analysis how diversity of genes coding nucleotide metabolism related proteins affects clinical progress of heart disease could provide valuable information for development of new treatments. Several studies identified that polymorphism of AMP deaminase 1 gene (AMPD1), in particular the common C34T variant of this gene was found to benefit patients with heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, these findings were inconsistent in subsequent studies. This prompted our detailed analysis of heart transplant recipients that revealed diverse effect: improved early postoperative cardiac function associated with C34T mutation in donors, but worse 1-year survival. Our other studies on the metabolic impact of AMPD1 C34T mutation revealed decrease in AMPD activity, increased production of adenosine and de-inhibition of AMP regulated protein kinase. Thus, genetic, clinical and biochemical studies revealed that while long term attenuation of AMPD activity could be deleterious, transient inhibition of AMPD activity before acute cardiac injury is protective. We suggest therefore that pharmacological inhibition of AMP deaminase before transient ischemic event such as during ischemic heart disease or cardiac surgery could provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:24431031

Smolenski, Ryszard T; Rybakowska, Iwona; Turyn, Jacek; Romaszko, Pawe?; Zabielska, Magdalena; Taegtmeyer, Anne; S?omi?ska, Ewa M; Kaletha, Krystian K; Barton, Paul J R

2014-04-01

227

Adenovirus VAI RNA antagonizes the RNA-editing activity of the ADAR adenosine deaminase.  

PubMed

The virus-associated VAI RNA of adenovirus is a small highly structured RNA that is required for the efficient translation of cellular and viral mRNAs at late times after infection. VAI RNA antagonizes the activation of the interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, an important regulator of translation. The RNA-specific adenosine deaminase, ADAR, is an interferon-inducible RNA-editing enzyme that catalyzes the site-selective C-6 deamination of adenosine to inosine. ADAR possesses three copies of the highly conserved RNA-binding motif (dsRBM) that are similar to the two copies found in PKR, the enzyme in which the prototype dsRBM motif was discovered. We have examined the effect of VAI RNA on ADAR function. VAI RNA impairs the activity of ADAR deaminase. This inhibition can be observed in extracts prepared from interferon-treated human cells and from monkey COS cells in which wild-type recombinant ADAR was expressed. Analysis of wild-type and mutant forms of VA RNA suggests that the central domain is important in the antagonism of ADAR activity. These results suggest that VAI RNA may modulate viral and cellular gene expression by modulating RNA editing as well as mRNA translation. PMID:9636358

Lei, M; Liu, Y; Samuel, C E

1998-06-01

228

Discovery of a cAMP Deaminase That Quenches Cyclic AMP-Dependent Regulation  

PubMed Central

An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3’, 5’-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 105 M?1 s?1 and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5’-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes. PMID:24074367

Goble, Alissa M.; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M.; Cronan, John E.

2013-01-01

229

Site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of the active site of porphobilinogen deaminase  

SciTech Connect

The active site of porphobilinogen (PBG){sup 1} deaminase from Escherichia coli has been found to contain an unusual dipyrromethane derived from four molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) covalently linked to Cys-242, one of the two cysteine residues conserved in E. coli and human deaminase. By use of a hemA{sup {minus}} strain of E. coli the enzyme was enriched from (5-{sup 13}C)ALA and examined by {sup 1}H-detected multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy, which revealed all of the salient features of a dipyrromethane composed of two PBG units linked heat to tail and terminating in a CH{sub 2}-S bond to a cysteine residue. Site-specific mutagenesis of Cys-99 and Cys-242, respectively, has shown that substitution of Ser for Cys-99 does not affect the enzymatic activity, whereas substitution of Ser for Cys-242 removes essentially all of the catalytic activity as measured by the conversion of the substrate PBG to uro'gen I. The NMR spectrum of the covalent complex of deaminase with the suicide inhibitor 2-bromo-(2,11-{sup 13}C{sub 2})PBG reveals that the aminomethyl terminus of the inhibitor reacts with the enzyme's cofactor at the {alpha}-free pyrrole. NMR spectroscopy of the ES{sub 2} complex confirmed a PBG-derived head-to-tail dipyrromethane attached to the {alpha}-free pyrrole position of the enzyme. A mechanistic rationale for deaminase is presented.

Scott, A.I.; Roessner, C.A.; Stolowich, N.J.; Karuso, P.; Williams, H.J.; Grant, S.K.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Hoshino, T. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1988-10-18

230

Increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity enhances Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene delivery into plant cells  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a useful tool for the genetic modification in plants, although its efficiency is low for several plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has three major steps in laboratory-controlled experiments: the delivery of T-DNA into plant cells, the selection of transformed plant cells, and the regeneration of whole plants from the selected cells. Each of these steps must be optimized to improve the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. It has been reported that increasing the number of cells transformed by T-DNA delivery can improve the frequency of stable transformation. Previously, we demonstrated that a reduction in ethylene production by plant cells during cocultivation with A. tumefaciens-expressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase resulted in increased T-DNA delivery into the plant cells. In this study, to further improve T-DNA delivery by A. tumefaciens, we modified the expression cassette of the ACC deaminase gene using vir gene promoter sequences. The ACC deaminase gene driven by the virD1 promoter was expressed at a higher level, resulting in a higher ACC deaminase activity in this A. tumefaciens strain than in the strain with the lac promoter used in a previous study. The newly developed A. tumefaciens strain improves the delivery of T-DNA into Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Erianthus ravennae plants and thus may be a powerful tool for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering of plants. PMID:24000136

Someya, Tatsuhiko; Nonaka, Satoko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

231

Expression of the blasticidin S deaminase gene ( bsr ) in tobacco: Fungicide tolerance and a new selective marker for transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blasticidin S (BS), a fungicide of microbial origin, is used for the practical control of rice blast disease. It has broad antimicrobial activity but occasionally exhibits adverse phytotoxic effects on some dicot plants. An inactivating enzyme, BS deaminase, was discovered in the BS resistant strain, Bacillus cereus K55-S1, and the structural gene, bsr, for the enzyme has been cloned. We

Takashi Kamakura; Katuyoshi Yoneyama; Isamu Yamaguchi

1990-01-01

232

Adenosine deaminase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients: limited value for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) determination in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considered a specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. In order to study the variability of this marker in patients with different neurological disorders associated with HIV infection, and its utility for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in these patients, the ADA levels in 417 CSF samples from HIV-infected

I. Corral; C. Quereda; E. Navas; P. Martín-Dávila; M.-J. Pérez-Elías; J.-L. Casado; V. Pintado; J. Cobo; E. Pallarés; J. Rubí; S. Moreno

2004-01-01

233

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

234

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

235

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

236

Genome evolution in yeasts.  

PubMed

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity to explore such mechanisms. We present here the complete, assembled genome sequences of four yeast species, selected to represent a broad evolutionary range within a single eukaryotic phylum, that after analysis proved to be molecularly as diverse as the entire phylum of chordates. A total of approximately 24,200 novel genes were identified, the translation products of which were classified together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins into about 4,700 families, forming the basis for interspecific comparisons. Analysis of chromosome maps and genome redundancies reveal that the different yeast lineages have evolved through a marked interplay between several distinct molecular mechanisms, including tandem gene repeat formation, segmental duplication, a massive genome duplication and extensive gene loss. PMID:15229592

Dujon, Bernard; Sherman, David; Fischer, Gilles; Durrens, Pascal; Casaregola, Serge; Lafontaine, Ingrid; De Montigny, Jacky; Marck, Christian; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Talla, Emmanuel; Goffard, Nicolas; Frangeul, Lionel; Aigle, Michel; Anthouard, Véronique; Babour, Anna; Barbe, Valérie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Blanchin, Sylvie; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Bleykasten, Claudine; Boisramé, Anita; Boyer, Jeanne; Cattolico, Laurence; Confanioleri, Fabrice; De Daruvar, Antoine; Despons, Laurence; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Fairhead, Cécile; Ferry-Dumazet, Hélène; Groppi, Alexis; Hantraye, Florence; Hennequin, Christophe; Jauniaux, Nicolas; Joyet, Philippe; Kachouri, Rym; Kerrest, Alix; Koszul, Romain; Lemaire, Marc; Lesur, Isabelle; Ma, Laurence; Muller, Héloïse; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Nikolski, Macha; Oztas, Sophie; Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, Odile; Pellenz, Stefan; Potier, Serge; Richard, Guy-Franck; Straub, Marie-Laure; Suleau, Audrey; Swennen, Dominique; Tekaia, Fredj; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Westhof, Eric; Wirth, Bénédicte; Zeniou-Meyer, Maria; Zivanovic, Ivan; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Thierry, Agnès; Bouchier, Christiane; Caudron, Bernard; Scarpelli, Claude; Gaillardin, Claude; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc

2004-07-01

237

Tapping into yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

Fay, Justin C

2012-11-01

238

5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine in the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Biomphalaria glabrata is the mollusc intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenean flatworm parasite that causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. An estimated 200 million people in 74 countries suffer from schistosomiasis, in terms of morbidity this is the most severe tropical disease after malaria. Epigenetic information informs on the status of gene activity that is heritable, for which changes are reversible and that is not based on the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms generate variability that provides a source for potentially heritable phenotypic variation and therefore could be involved in the adaptation to environmental constraint. Phenotypic variations are particularly important in host-parasite interactions in which both selective pressure and rate of evolution are high. In this context, epigenetic changes are expected to be major drivers of phenotypic plasticity and co-adaptation between host and parasite. Consequently, with characterization of the genomes of invertebrates that are parasite vectors or intermediate hosts, it is also essential to understand how the epigenetic machinery functions to better decipher the interplay between host and parasite. Methods The CpGo/e ratios were used as a proxy to investigate the occurrence of CpG methylation in B. glabrata coding regions. The presence of DNA methylation in B. glabrata was also confirmed by several experimental approaches: restriction enzymatic digestion with isoschizomers, bisulfite conversion based techniques and LC-MS/MS analysis. Results In this work, we report that DNA methylation, which is one of the carriers of epigenetic information, occurs in B. glabrata; approximately 2% of cytosine nucleotides are methylated. We describe the methylation machinery of B. glabrata. Methylation occurs predominantly at CpG sites, present at high ratios in coding regions of genes associated with housekeeping functions. We also demonstrate by bisulfite treatment that methylation occurs in multiple copies of Nimbus, a transposable element. Conclusions This study details DNA methylation for the first time, one of the carriers of epigenetic information in B. glabrata. The general characteristics of DNA methylation that we observed in the B. glabrata genome conform to what epigenetic studies have reported from other invertebrate species. PMID:23742053

2013-01-01

239

Mechanism of SOS mutagenesis of UV-irradiated DNA: mostly error-free processing of deaminated cytosine.  

PubMed Central

We measured the kinetics of growth and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated DNA of phages S13 and lambda that were undergoing SOS repair; the kinetics strongly suggest that most of SOS mutagenesis arises from the deamination of cytosine in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, producing C----T transitions. This occurs because the SOS mechanism bypasses T--T dimers promptly, while bypass of cytosine-containing dimers is delayed long enough for deamination to occur. The mutations are thus primarily the product of a faithful mechanism of lesion bypass by a DNA polymerase and are not, as had been generally thought, the product of an error-prone mechanism. All of these observations are explained by the A-rule, which is that adenine nucleotides are inserted noninstructionally opposite DNA lesions. PMID:1741372

Tessman, I; Liu, S K; Kennedy, M A

1992-01-01

240

Mechanism of SOS mutagenesis of UV-irradiated DNA: mostly error-free processing of deaminated cytosine.  

PubMed

We measured the kinetics of growth and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated DNA of phages S13 and lambda that were undergoing SOS repair; the kinetics strongly suggest that most of SOS mutagenesis arises from the deamination of cytosine in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, producing C----T transitions. This occurs because the SOS mechanism bypasses T--T dimers promptly, while bypass of cytosine-containing dimers is delayed long enough for deamination to occur. The mutations are thus primarily the product of a faithful mechanism of lesion bypass by a DNA polymerase and are not, as had been generally thought, the product of an error-prone mechanism. All of these observations are explained by the A-rule, which is that adenine nucleotides are inserted noninstructionally opposite DNA lesions. PMID:1741372

Tessman, I; Liu, S K; Kennedy, M A

1992-02-15

241

PERFORMANCE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE ACTIVITY FOR IMPROVING GROWTH OF MAIZE UNDER SALT-STRESSED CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria carrying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity lower stress induced ethylene levels and may be effective to improve plant growth under salt stress conditions. Twenty strains of rhizobacteria isolated from soil samples taken from different salt affected aras were screened for plant growth promotion and ACC- deaminase enzyme activity under axenic conditions at 6 dS rn'. Three strains (S5, S15

S. M. Nadeem; I. Hussain; M. Naveed; H. N. Asghar; Z. A. Zahir; M. Arshad

2006-01-01

242

Editing of Glutamate Receptor B Subunit Ion Channel RNAs by Four Alternatively Spliced DRADA2 Double-Stranded RNA Adenosine Deaminases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific adenosine deaminase converts adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and edits transcripts of certain cellular and viral genes such as glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and hepatitis delta antigen. The first member of this type of deaminase, DRADA1, has been recently cloned based on the amino acid sequence information derived from biochemically purified proteins. Our search for DRADA1-like

FANG LAI; CHUN-XIA CHEN; KENNETH C. CARTER; ANDKAZUKO NISHIKURA

1997-01-01

243

Promotion of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plant growth by rhizosphere competent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase-producing streptomycete actinomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of streptomycete actinomycetes to promote growth of tomato through the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic\\u000a acid (ACC) deaminase was evaluated under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. To achieve this, 64 isolates of Streptomyces spp. obtained from a tomato rhizosphere in the United Arab Emirates were initially selected for their ability to produce\\u000a ACC deaminase as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and

Khaled A. El-Tarabily

2008-01-01

244

Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) Deficiency Causes the Autosomal Recessive Form of the Hyper-IgM Syndrome (HIGM2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, specifically expressed in germinal center B cells in mice, is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. We herein report mutations in the human counterpart of AID in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Three major abnormalities characterize AID deficiency: (1) the absence of immunoglobulin class switch recombination, (2) the

Patrick Revy; Taro Muto; Yves Levy; Frédéric Geissmann; Alessandro Plebani; Ozden Sanal; Nadia Catalan; Monique Forveille; Rémi Dufourcq-Lagelouse; Andrew Gennery; Ilhan Tezcan; Fugen Ersoy; Hulya Kayserili; Alberto G Ugazio; Nicole Brousse; Masamichi Muramatsu; Luigi D Notarangelo; Kazuo Kinoshita; Tasuku Honjo; Alain Fischer; Anne Durandy

2000-01-01

245

The ADA*2 allele of the adenosine deaminase gene (20q13.11) and recurrent spontaneous abortions: an age-dependent association  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Adenosine deaminase acts on adenosine and deoxyadenosine metabolism and modulates the immune response. The adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism (20q.11.33) influences the level of adenosine deaminase enzyme expression, which seems to play a key role in maintaining pregnancy. The adenosine deaminase 2 phenotype has been associated with a protective effect against recurrent spontaneous abortions in European Caucasian women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the G22A polymorphism of the adenosine deaminase gene is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortions in Brazilian women. METHODS: A total of 311 women were recruited to form two groups: G1, with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (N?=?129), and G2, without a history of abortions (N?=?182). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood with a commercial kit and PCR-RFLP analysis was used to identify the G22A genetic polymorphism. Fisher's exact test and odds ratio values were used to compare the proportions of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between women with and without a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (p<0.05). The differences between mean values for categorical data were calculated using unpaired t tests. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was assessed with a chi-square test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were identified for the frequencies of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between the G1 and G2 groups when adjusted for maternal age. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the adenosine deaminase *2 allele is associated with a low risk for recurrent spontaneous abortions, but this association is dependent on older age. PMID:22086524

Nunes, Daniela Prudente Teixeira; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão; Oliani, Antonio Helio; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

2011-01-01

246

REG-? associates with and modulates the abundance of nuclear activation-induced deaminase  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) acts on the immunoglobulin loci in activated B lymphocytes to initiate antibody gene diversification. The abundance of AID in the nucleus appears tightly regulated, with most nuclear AID being either degraded or exported back to the cytoplasm. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating nuclear AID, we screened for proteins interacting specifically with it. We found that REG-?, a protein implicated in ubiquitin- and ATP-independent protein degradation, interacts in high stoichiometry with overexpressed nuclear AID as well as with endogenous AID in B cells. REG-? deficiency results in increased AID accumulation and increased immunoglobulin class switching. A stable stoichiometric AID–REG-? complex can be recapitulated in co-transformed bacteria, and REG-? accelerates proteasomal degradation of AID in in vitro assays. Thus, REG-? interacts, likely directly, with nuclear AID and modulates the abundance of this antibody-diversifying but potentially oncogenic enzyme. PMID:22042974

Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Barton, Lance F.; Rada, Cristina

2011-01-01

247

Potential roles of Activation-Induced cytidine Deaminase in promotion or prevention of autoimmunity in humans  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune manifestations are paradoxical and frequent complications of primary immunodeficiencies, including T and/or B cell defects. Among pure B cell defects, the Activation-induced cytidine Deaminase (AID)-deficiency, characterized by a complete lack of immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, is especially complicated by autoimmune disorders. We summarized in this review the different autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations present in twelve patients out of a cohort of 45 patients. Moreover, we also review the impact of AID mutations on B-cell tolerance and discuss hypotheses that may explain why central and peripheral B-cell tolerance was abnormal in the absence of functional AID. Hence, AID plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cells in humans and prevents the development of autoimmune syndromes. PMID:23215867

Durandy, Anne; Cantaert, Tineke; Kracker, Sven; Meffre, Eric

2014-01-01

248

Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase: nucleic acid binding properties.  

PubMed

The RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1, herein referred to as ADAR) is an interferon-inducible RNA-editing enzyme. ADAR catalyzes the C-6 deamination of adenosine in double-stranded (ds) structures present in viral RNAs and cellular pre-mRNAs as well as synthetic dsRNA substrates. ADAR possesses three functionally distinct copies of the highly conserved double-stranded RNA binding R motif (RI, RII, RIII) implicated in the recognition of dsRNA structures within the substrate RNAs. ADAR is also a Z-DNA-binding protein. Two Z-DNA binding motifs (Zalpha and Zbeta) present in ADAR correspond to repeated regions homologous to the N-terminal region of the vaccinia virus E3L protein. Here we describe assay methods for measurement of ADAR enzymatic activity, dsRNA binding activity, and Z-DNA binding activity. PMID:9735305

Liu, Y; Herbert, A; Rich, A; Samuel, C E

1998-07-01

249

Epigenetic Function of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase and Its Link to Lymphomagenesis  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes during B cell maturation and immune response. Expression of AID is tightly regulated due to its mutagenic and recombinogenic potential, which is known to target not only Ig genes, but also non-Ig genes, contributing to lymphomagenesis. In recent years, a new epigenetic function of AID and its link to DNA demethylation came to light in several developmental systems. In this review, we summarize existing evidence linking deamination of unmodified and modified cytidine by AID to base-excision repair and mismatch repair machinery resulting in passive or active removal of DNA methylation mark, with the focus on B cell biology. We also discuss potential contribution of AID-dependent DNA hypomethylation to lymphomagenesis. PMID:25566255

Dominguez, Pilar M.; Shaknovich, Rita

2014-01-01

250

Consolidation therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: clinical and cellular pharmacology of cytosine arabinoside, epipodophyllotoxins and cyclophosphamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensification of post-remission induction therapy has been shown to improve the relapse-free survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and is now a standard component of the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. For cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), methotrexate, vincristine and corticosteroids, in-vitro studies indicate that the extracellular drug concentration and exposure time are important determinants of cytotoxicity for human

E. J. Estlin; S. M. Yule; S. P. Lowis

2001-01-01

251

Cytosine arabinoside rapidly activates Bax-dependent apoptosis and a delayed Bax-independent death pathway in sympathetic neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) is a nucleoside analog used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. One of the major side effects of ara-C chemotherapy is neurotoxicity. In this study, we have further characterized the cell death induced by ara-C in sympathetic neurons. Similar to neurons undergoing trophic factor deprivation-induced apoptosis, ara-C-exposed neurons became hypometabolic before death and upregulated c-myb, c-fos, and

C G Besirli; T L Deckwerth; R J Crowder; R S Freeman; E M Johnson; EM Johnson Jr.

2003-01-01

252

Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF.

Barton, R.W.

1985-10-15

253

High cytidine deaminase expression in the liver provides sanctuary for cancer cells from decitabine treatment effects.  

PubMed

We document for the first time that sanctuary in an organ which expresses high levels of the enzyme cytidine deaminase (CDA) is a mechanism of cancer cell resistance to cytidine analogues. This mechanism could explain why historically, cytidine analogues have not been successful chemotherapeutics against hepatotropic cancers, despite efficacy in vitro. Importantly, this mechanism of resistance can be readily reversed, without increasing toxicity to sensitive organs, by combining a cytidine analogue with an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase (tetrahydrouridine). Specifically, CDA rapidly metabolizes cytidine analogues into inactive uridine counterparts. Hence, to determine if sheltering/protection of cancer cells in organs which express high levels of CDA (e.g., liver) is a mechanism of resistance, we utilized a murine xenotransplant model of myeloid cancer that is sensitive to epigenetic therapeutic effects of the cytidine analogue decitabine in vitro and hepato-tropic in vivo. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with decitabine (subcutaneous 0.2mg/kg 2X/week) doubled median survival and significantly decreased extra-hepatic tumor burden, but hepatic tumor burden remained substantial, to which the animals eventually succumbed. Combining a clinically-relevant inhibitor of CDA (tetrahydrouridine) with a lower dose of decitabine (subcutaneous 0.1mg/kg 2X/week) markedly decreased liver tumor burden without blood count or bone marrow evidence of myelotoxicity, and with further improvement in survival. In conclusion, sanctuary in a CDA-rich organ is a mechanism by which otherwise susceptible cancer cells can resist the effects of decitabine epigenetic therapy. This protection can be reversed without increasing myelotoxicity by combining tetrahydrouridine with a lower dose of decitabine. PMID:23087155

Ebrahem, Quteba; Mahfouz, Reda Z; Ng, Kwok Peng; Saunthararajah, Yogen

2012-10-01

254

In vivo cleavage of cytosine-containing bacteriophage T4 DNA to genetically distinct, discretely sized fragments  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of bacteriophage T4D that are defective in genes 42 (dCMP hydroxymethylase), 46 (DNA exonuclease), and 56 (dCTPase) produce limited amounts of phage DNA in Escherichia coli B. In this DNA, glucosylated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is completely replaced by cytosine. It is found that this DNA rapidly becomes fragmented in vivo to at least 16 discrete bands as visualized on agarose gels subjected to electrophoresis. The sizes of the fragments ranged from more than 20 to less than 2 kilobase pairs. When DNAs from two of these bands were radioactively labeled in vitro by nick translation and hybridized to XbaI restiction fragments of cytosine-containing T4 DNA, evidence was obtained that the two bands are genetically distinct, i.e., they contain DNA from different parts of the T4 genome. Mutational inactivation of T4 endonuclease II (gene denA) prevented the fragmentation. Three different mutations in T4 endonuclease IV (gene denB) caused the same minor changes in the pattern of fragments. It is concluded that T4 endonuclease II is required, and endonuclease IV is involved to a minor extent, in the in vivo production of these cytosine-containing T4 DNA fragments. These DNA fragments are viewed as ''restriction fragments'' since they represent degradation products of DNA ''foreign'' to T4, they are of discrete size, and they are genetically distinct.

Carlson, K.; Wiberg, J.S.

1983-10-01

255

Novel photodynamic effect of a psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide for the discrimination of the methylation of cytosine in DNA.  

PubMed

DNA methylation and demethylation significantly affect the deactivation and activation processes of gene expression significantly. In particular, C-5-methylation of cytosine in the CpG islands is important for the epigenetic modification in genes, which plays a key role in regulating gene expression. The determination of the location and frequency of DNA methylation is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. Here we designed a psoralen-conjugated oligonucleotide (PS-oligo) for the discrimination of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) in DNA. The cross-linking behavior of psoralen derivatives with pyrimidine bases, such as thymine, uracil and cytosine has been well discussed, but there are no reports which have examined whether cross-linking efficiency of psoralen with cytosine would be changed with or without C-5 methylation. We found that the cross-linking efficiency of PS-oligo with target-DNA containing 5-mC was greatly increased compared to the case of target-DNA without 5-mC, approximately seven-fold higher. Here we report a new aspect of the photocross-linking behavior of psoralen with 5-mC that is applicable to a simple, sequence-specific and quantitative analysis for the discrimination of 5-mC in DNA, which can be applicable to study the epigenetic behavior of gene expressions. PMID:24372306

Yamayoshi, Asako; Matsuyama, Yohei; Kushida, Mikihiko; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira

2014-01-01

256

Evolutionary Breakpoints in the Gibbon Suggest Association between Cytosine Methylation and Karyotype Evolution  

PubMed Central

Gibbon species have accumulated an unusually high number of chromosomal changes since diverging from the common hominoid ancestor 15–18 million years ago. The cause of this increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements is not known, nor is it known if genome architecture has a role. To address this question, we analyzed sequences spanning 57 breaks of synteny between northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus l. leucogenys) and humans. We find that the breakpoint regions are enriched in segmental duplications and repeats, with Alu elements being the most abundant. Alus located near the gibbon breakpoints (<150 bp) have a higher CpG content than other Alus. Bisulphite allelic sequencing reveals that these gibbon Alus have a lower average density of methylated cytosine that their human orthologues. The finding of higher CpG content and lower average CpG methylation suggests that the gibbon Alu elements are epigenetically distinct from their human orthologues. The association between undermethylation and chromosomal rearrangement in gibbons suggests a correlation between epigenetic state and structural genome variation in evolution. PMID:19557196

Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R. Alan; Vessere, Gery M.; Mootnick, Alan R.; Humphray, Sean; Rogers, Jane; Kim, Sung K.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Martin, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; de Jong, Pieter J.

2009-01-01

257

Genome-wide nucleosome map and cytosine methylation levels of an ancient human genome  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic information is available from contemporary organisms, but is difficult to track back in evolutionary time. Here, we show that genome-wide epigenetic information can be gathered directly from next-generation sequence reads of DNA isolated from ancient remains. Using the genome sequence data generated from hair shafts of a 4000-yr-old Paleo-Eskimo belonging to the Saqqaq culture, we generate the first ancient nucleosome map coupled with a genome-wide survey of cytosine methylation levels. The validity of both nucleosome map and methylation levels were confirmed by the recovery of the expected signals at promoter regions, exon/intron boundaries, and CTCF sites. The top-scoring nucleosome calls revealed distinct DNA positioning biases, attesting to nucleotide-level accuracy. The ancient methylation levels exhibited high conservation over time, clustering closely with modern hair tissues. Using ancient methylation information, we estimated the age at death of the Saqqaq individual and illustrate how epigenetic information can be used to infer ancient gene expression. Similar epigenetic signatures were found in other fossil material, such as 110,000- to 130,000-yr-old bones, supporting the contention that ancient epigenomic information can be reconstructed from a deep past. Our findings lay the foundation for extracting epigenomic information from ancient samples, allowing shifts in epialleles to be tracked through evolutionary time, as well as providing an original window into modern epigenomics. PMID:24299735

Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Valen, Eivind; Velazquez, Amhed M. Vargas; Parker, Brian J.; Rasmussen, Morten; Lindgreen, Stinus; Lilje, Berit; Tobin, Desmond J.; Kelly, Theresa K.; Vang, Søren; Andersson, Robin; Jones, Peter A.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Tikhonov, Alexei; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Rubin, Edward M.; Sandelin, Albin; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Krogh, Anders; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2014-01-01

258

High Guanine and Cytosine Content Increases mRNA Levels in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Mammalian genes are highly heterogeneous with respect to their nucleotide composition, but the functional consequences of this heterogeneity are not clear. In the previous studies, weak positive or negative correlations have been found between the silent-site guanine and cytosine (GC) content and expression of mammalian genes. However, previous studies disregarded differences in the genomic context of genes, which could potentially obscure any correlation between GC content and expression. In the present work, we directly compared the expression of GC-rich and GC-poor genes placed in the context of identical promoters and UTR sequences. We performed transient and stable transfections of mammalian cells with GC-rich and GC-poor versions of Hsp70, green fluorescent protein, and IL2 genes. The GC-rich genes were expressed several-fold to over a 100-fold more efficiently than their GC-poor counterparts. This effect was not due to different translation rates of GC-rich and GC-poor mRNA. On the contrary, the efficient expression of GC-rich genes resulted from their increased steady-state mRNA levels. mRNA degradation rates were not correlated with GC content, suggesting that efficient transcription or mRNA processing is responsible for the high expression of GC-rich genes. We conclude that silent-site GC content correlates with gene expression efficiency in mammalian cells. PMID:16700628

Caffin, Fanny; Helwak, Aleksandra; Zylicz, Maciej

2006-01-01

259

Epigenetic memory of DNAi associated with cytosine methylation and histone modification in fern  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing technology, such as RNA interference (RNAi), is commonly used to reduce gene expression in plant cells, and exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can induce gene silencing in higher plants. Previously, we showed that the delivery of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments, such as PCR products of an endogenous gene sequence, into fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) gametophytic cells induces a sequence-specific gene silencing that we termed DNAi. In this study, we used a neochrome 1 gene (NEO1) that mediates both red light-induced chloroplast movement and phototropism as a model of DNAi and confirmed that the NEO1 function was suppressed by the repression of the NEO1 gene. Interestingly, the gene silencing effect by DNAi was found in the progeny. Cytosine methylation was detected in the NEO1-silenced lines. The DNA modifications was present in the transcriptional region of NEO1, but no differences between wild type and the silenced lines were found in the downstream region of NEO1. Our data suggest that the DNAi gene silencing effect that was inherited throughout the next generation is regulated by epigenetic modification. Furthermore, the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), recovered the expression and function of NEO1 in the silenced lines, suggesting that histone deacetylation is essential for the direct suppression of target genes by DNAi. PMID:22990449

Tsuboi, Hidenori; Sutoh, Keita; Wada, Masamitsu

2012-01-01

260

Epigenetic memory of DNAi associated with cytosine methylation and histone modification in fern.  

PubMed

Gene silencing technology, such as RNA interference (RNAi), is commonly used to reduce gene expression in plant cells, and exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can induce gene silencing in higher plants. Previously, we showed that the delivery of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments, such as PCR products of an endogenous gene sequence, into fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) gametophytic cells induces a sequence-specific gene silencing that we termed DNAi. In this study, we used a neochrome 1 gene (NEO1) that mediates both red light-induced chloroplast movement and phototropism as a model of DNAi and confirmed that the NEO1 function was suppressed by the repression of the NEO1 gene. Interestingly, the gene silencing effect by DNAi was found in the progeny. Cytosine methylation was detected in the NEO1-silenced lines. The DNA modifications was present in the transcriptional region of NEO1, but no differences between wild type and the silenced lines were found in the downstream region of NEO1. Our data suggest that the DNAi gene silencing effect that was inherited throughout the next generation is regulated by epigenetic modification. Furthermore, the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), recovered the expression and function of NEO1 in the silenced lines, suggesting that histone deacetylation is essential for the direct suppression of target genes by DNAi. PMID:22990449

Tsuboi, Hidenori; Sutoh, Keita; Wada, Masamitsu

2012-11-01

261

RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity requires the cytosine methyltransferase Dnmt2.  

PubMed

RNA-mediated transmission of phenotypes is an important way to explain non-Mendelian heredity. We have previously shown that small non-coding RNAs can induce hereditary epigenetic variations in mice and act as the transgenerational signalling molecules. Two prominent examples for these paramutations include the epigenetic modulation of the Kit gene, resulting in altered fur coloration, and the modulation of the Sox9 gene, resulting in an overgrowth phenotype. We now report that expression of the Dnmt2 RNA methyltransferase is required for the establishment and hereditary maintenance of both paramutations. Our data show that the Kit paramutant phenotype was not transmitted to the progeny of Dnmt2(-/-) mice and that the Sox9 paramutation was also not established in Dnmt2(-/-) embryos. Similarly, RNA from Dnmt2-negative Kit heterozygotes did not induce the paramutant phenotype when microinjected into Dnmt2-deficient fertilized eggs and microinjection of the miR-124 microRNA failed to induce the characteristic giant phenotype. In agreement with an RNA-mediated mechanism of inheritance, no change was observed in the DNA methylation profiles of the Kit locus between the wild-type and paramutant mice. RNA bisulfite sequencing confirmed Dnmt2-dependent tRNA methylation in mouse sperm and also indicated Dnmt2-dependent cytosine methylation in Kit RNA in paramutant embryos. Together, these findings uncover a novel function of Dnmt2 in RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity. PMID:23717211

Kiani, Jafar; Grandjean, Valérie; Liebers, Reinhard; Tuorto, Francesca; Ghanbarian, Hossein; Lyko, Frank; Cuzin, François; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

2013-05-01

262

5'-Cytosine-phosphoguanine (CpG) methylation impacts the activity of natural and engineered meganucleases.  

PubMed

In this study, we asked whether CpG methylation could influence the DNA binding affinity and activity of meganucleases used for genome engineering applications. A combination of biochemical and structural approaches enabled us to demonstrate that CpG methylation decreases I-CreI DNA binding affinity and inhibits its endonuclease activity in vitro. This inhibition depends on the position of the methylated cytosine within the DNA target and was almost total when it is located inside the central tetrabase. Crystal structures of I-CreI bound to methylated cognate target DNA suggested a molecular basis for such inhibition, although the precise mechanism still has to be specified. Finally, we demonstrated that the efficacy of engineered meganucleases can be diminished by CpG methylation of the targeted endogenous site, and we proposed a rational design of the meganuclease DNA binding domain to alleviate such an effect. We conclude that although activity and sequence specificity of engineered meganucleases are crucial parameters, target DNA epigenetic modifications need to be considered for successful gene editions. PMID:22740697

Valton, Julien; Daboussi, Fayza; Leduc, Sophie; Molina, Rafael; Redondo, Pilar; Macmaster, Rachel; Montoya, Guillermo; Duchateau, Philippe

2012-08-31

263

Production of Food Grade Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2006-01-01

264

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

265

Characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase producing methylobacteria from phyllosphere of rice and their role in ethylene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity among the phyllosphere methylobacteria of rice\\u000a was detected and its role in regulating plant ethylene level was assessed. Eighteen methylobacterial isolates from four different\\u000a cultivars of rice were isolated and screened for ACCD. The 16S rRNA homology of ACCD positive methylobacterial isolate closely\\u000a related to the species Methylobacterium radiotolerans. The accD gene sequence

C. Chinnadurai; D. Balachandar; S. P. Sundaram

2009-01-01

266

Growth promotion of Vigna mungo (L.) by Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of rhizobacteria are very important plant growth promoting\\u000a attributes. In the present study, Pseudomonas strains exhibiting these traits were evaluated for their growth promoting effects on Vigna mungo (L.). Colorimetric analysis revealed that Pseudomonas alcaliphila AvR-2, Pseudomonas sp. AvH-4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa As-17, respectively, produced 40.30, 32.90 and 36.50 ?g auxin ml?1 in the presence

Shahzadi Noreen; Basharat Ali; Shahida Hasnain

267

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

268

Cell surface antigens of human melanocytes and melanoma. Expression of adenosine deaminase binding protein is extinguished with melanocyte transformation  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the pathogenesis of melanoma proceeds through multiple stages, ranging from benign proliferation of melanocytic cells to acquisition of the capacity to invade tissues and metastasize. During investigations of cell surface antigens expressed by melanocytes and melanoma, we identified an antigen system that was expressed by cultured normal melanocytes but not by melanoma cell lines. mAbs against this antigen detected a 120-kD cell surface glycoprotein on melanocytes. This molecule had been identified previously as the binding protein for adenosine deaminase (ADAbp). ADAbp was expressed by 51 melanocyte cell lines derived from normal fetal, newborn, and adult skin and adult choroid, but not by 102 melanoma cell lines derived from primary and metastatic lesions. Studies with radiolabeled bovine adenosine deaminase, confirmed that melanocytes expressed binding sites for adenosine deaminase, but no binding sites were detected on cultured melanoma cells. Further studies showed that ADAbp+ melanocytes became ADAbp- upon malignant transformation in vitro. Immunohistochemical studies on a panel of frozen tissues demonstrated reactivity of anti- ADAbp mAbs with epidermal melanocytes and benign junctional nevi, but not with potentially premalignant dysplastic nevi or primary/metastatic melanoma lesions. These studies demonstrate that ADAbp expression is lost with malignant transformation of melanocytes, presumably at an early stage in the transformation process. PMID:2891780

1988-01-01

269

NTP pattern of avian embryonic red cells: role of RNA degradation and AMP deaminase/5'-nucleotidase activity.  

PubMed

During terminal erythroid differentiation, degradation of RNA is a potential source for nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) that act as allosteric effectors of hemoglobin. In this investigation, we assessed the developmental profile of RNA and purine/pyrimidine trinucleotides in circulating embryonic chick red blood cells (RBC). Extensive changes of the NTP pattern are observed which differ significantly from what is observed for adult RBC. The biochemical mechanisms have not been identified yet. Therefore, we studied the role of AMP deaminase and IMP/GMP 5'-nucleotidase, which are key enzymes for the regulation of the purine nucleotide pool. Finally, we tested the effect of major NTPs on the oxygen affinity of embryonic/adult hemoglobin. The results are as follows. 1) Together with ATP, UTP and CTP serve as allosteric effectors of hemoglobin. 2) Degradation of erythroid RNA is apparently a major source for NTPs. 3) Developmental changes of nucleotide content depend on the activities of key enzymes (AMP deaminase, IMP/GMP 5'-nucleotidase, and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase). 4) Oxygen-dependent hormonal regulation of AMP deaminase adjusts the red cell ATP concentration and therefore the hemoglobin oxygen affinity. PMID:12446277

Baumann, Rosemarie; Gotz, Robert; Dragon, Stefanie

2003-03-01

270

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

271

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

272

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

273

Lager yeast comes of age.  

PubMed

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

Wendland, Jürgen

2014-10-01

274

Neurodegenerative Central Nervous System Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Coincident Hydrocephalus: Treated with Vincristine/Cytosine Arabinoside  

PubMed Central

Background Central nervous system (CNS) complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) include mass lesions and a neurodegenerative (ND) syndrome with ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, learning and behavior difficulties and/or characteristic changes on brain MRIs. Hydrocephalus has rarely been reported in LCH. LCH lesions of the orbit, mastoid and temporal bones (“CNS-Risk” lesions) and diabetes insipidus predispose patients to ND-CNS-LCH. Treatment options have been limited and only a case series using trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have been published. Methods We have used cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) with or without vincristine to treat 8 patients with ND-CNS LCH. Patients:7 male children and one young adult male with clinical and radiologic ND- CNS-LCH were treated with a regimen of vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 on day 1 and ARA-C 100 mg/m2 daily for 5 days or ARA-C alone monthly for 4–19 months. Seven patients were evaluated with an ataxia rating scale (ARS) and all with serial MRIs of the brain. Results Five of 7 patients had decreases in their ARS scores and/or decreased T2 hyperintense lesions on MRI images. Grade 2 neutropenia was the most frequent adverse event. Vincristine-associated neuropathy occurred in two patients. Hydrocephalus caused symptoms and signs that confounded the diagnosis and management of ND-CNS-LCH in all 4 patients affected with both. Conclusions Subtle changes in neurologic function may be complicated by hydrocephalus. Vcr/ARA-C or ARA-C were an effective therapies for some ND-CNS LCH patients. A clinical trial using this and possibly other modalities such as IVIG or ATRA should be done. PMID:19908293

Allen, Carl E.; Flores, Ricardo; Rauch, Ronald; Dauser, Robert; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Puccetti, Diane; Hsu, David A.; Sondel, Paul; Hetherington, Maxine; Goldman, Stan; McClain, Kenneth L.

2012-01-01

275

High-dose cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone: a highly effective regimen in refractory acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

In a clinical phase I/II study, high-dose cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone (HAM) were given in combination to 40 patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia. All patients had received a 9-day combination of thioguanine, Ara-C, and daunorubicin (TAD-9) as standardized first-line treatment. Refractoriness was defined as (a) nonresponse against two TAD-9 induction cycles, (b) early relapse within the first 6 months on monthly maintenance or after TAD-9 consolidation, (c) relapse after 6 months with nonresponse against one additional TAD-9 cycle, and (d) second and subsequent relapses after successful TAD-9 therapy at the preceding relapse. Therapy consisted of HD-Ara-C 3 g/m2 every 12 hours on days 1 through 4; mitoxantrone was started at 12 mg/m2/day on days 3, 4, and 5 and was escalated to 4 and 5 doses of 10 mg/m2/day on days 2 through 5 and 2 through 6. Of the 40 patients, 21 achieved a complete remission (53%), 1 patient had a partial remission, and 5 patients were nonresponders. Thirteen patients died in aplasia due to infections (n = 11), pericardiac effusion, or acute cardiomyopathy. Nonhematologic side effects consisted predominantly of nausea and vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea. Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were observed during six treatment courses. Recovery of blood counts occurred at a median of 27 days from the onset of treatment; the median time to complete remission was 36 days. Two of the 21 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantations. The median remission duration for the remaining 19 patients is 4.5 months, and the median survival time is 9 months. These data emphasize that HAM has high antileukemic activity in refractory AML and strongly suggest starting the combination at earlier stages in AML therapy. PMID:3469002

Hiddemann, W; Kreutzmann, H; Straif, K; Ludwig, W D; Mertelsmann, R; Donhuijsen-Ant, R; Lengfelder, E; Arlin, Z; Büchner, T

1987-03-01

276

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.  

PubMed

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-09-01

277

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

278

Medicinal yeast extracts.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. PMID:10547066

Schlemm, D J; Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Stanley, A E; Keller, S J

1999-09-01

279

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

of ' oven to give crustiness. Makes 2 dozen large rolls. 1 Crusty water rolls. TOMATO CHEESE ROLLS 314 cup lukewarm tomato juice 1 package yeast or 1 .yeast cake 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons .melted butter or margarine 2114 CUPS... flour Add yeast and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and Irt $tdnd until dissolved. Add salt and fat. Add half the fln~lr and beat until smooth. Add remaining flour Place in greased bowl and brush with melted fat. Cover 2nd let rise until doubled...

Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

1957-01-01

280

The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

2014-01-01

281

N-Sulfomethylation of guanine, adenine and cytosine with formaldehyde-bisulfite. A selective modification of guanine in DNA.  

PubMed

When guanine-, adenine- and cytosine-nucleosides and nucleotides were treated with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite, stable N-sulfomethyl compounds were formed. N2-Sulfomethylguanine, N6-sulfomethyladenine, N4-sulfomthylcytosine and N6-sulfomethyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine were isolated as crystals and characterized. A guanine-specific sulfomethylation was brought about by treatment and denatured single-stranded DNA with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite at pH 7 and 4 degrees C. Since native double-stranded DNA was not modified by this treatment, this new method of modification is expected to be useful as a conformational probe for polynucleotides. PMID:7177848

Hayatsu, H; Yamashita, Y; Yui, S; Yamagata, Y; Tomita, K; Negishi, K

1982-10-25

282

N-Sulfomethylation of guanine, adenine and cytosine with formaldehyde-bisulfite. A selective modification of guanine in DNA.  

PubMed Central

When guanine-, adenine- and cytosine-nucleosides and nucleotides were treated with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite, stable N-sulfomethyl compounds were formed. N2-Sulfomethylguanine, N6-sulfomethyladenine, N4-sulfomthylcytosine and N6-sulfomethyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine were isolated as crystals and characterized. A guanine-specific sulfomethylation was brought about by treatment and denatured single-stranded DNA with formaldehyde and then with bisulfite at pH 7 and 4 degrees C. Since native double-stranded DNA was not modified by this treatment, this new method of modification is expected to be useful as a conformational probe for polynucleotides. PMID:7177848

Hayatsu, H; Yamashita, Y; Yui, S; Yamagata, Y; Tomita, K; Negishi, K

1982-01-01

283

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

/4 cup lukewarm tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and

Reasonover, Frances

1971-01-01

284

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

1989-06-06

285

Adaptive evolution of threonine deaminase in plant defense against insect herbivores  

SciTech Connect

Gene duplication is a major source of plant chemical diversity that mediates plant-herbivore interactions. There is little direct evidence, however, that novel chemical traits arising from gene duplication reduce herbivory. Higher plants use threonine deaminase (TD) to catalyze the dehydration of threonine (Thr) to {alpha}-ketobutyrate and ammonia as the committed step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine (Ile). Cultivated tomato and related Solanum species contain a duplicated TD paralog (TD2) that is coexpressed with a suite of genes involved in herbivore resistance. Analysis of TD2-deficient tomato lines showed that TD2 has a defensive function related to Thr catabolism in the gut of lepidopteran herbivores. During herbivory, the regulatory domain of TD2 is removed by proteolysis to generate a truncated protein (pTD2) that efficiently degrades Thr without being inhibited by Ile. We show that this proteolytic activation step occurs in the gut of lepidopteran but not coleopteran herbivores, and is catalyzed by a chymotrypsin-like protease of insect origin. Analysis of purified recombinant enzymes showed that TD2 is remarkably more resistant to proteolysis and high temperature than the ancestral TD1 isoform. The crystal structure of pTD2 provided evidence that electrostatic interactions constitute a stabilizing feature associated with adaptation of TD2 to the extreme environment of the lepidopteran gut. These findings demonstrate a role for gene duplication in the evolution of a plant defense that targets and co-opts herbivore digestive physiology.

Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Howe, Gregg A. (MSU); (UW)

2011-11-07

286

Label-free aptasensor for adenosine deaminase sensing based on fluorescence turn-on.  

PubMed

A label-free and fluorescence turn-on aptamer biosensor has been developed for the detection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity with simplicity and selectivity. Adenosine aptamer will form a tight stem-loop structure upon binding with adenosine. In the absence of ADA, only a small quantity of picagreen intercalates into the stem section of aptamer, resulting in a low fluorescence of picagreen when excited at 490 nm. Interestingly, after the addition of ADA, adenosine is hydrolyzed to inosine, and the released aptamer forms double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with its complementary single-stranded DNAc, followed by the intercalation of picagreen to dsDNA. When the solution is excited, picagreen emits strong green fluorescence. The increased fluorescence intensity of picagreen is dependent on the concentration of ADA. The detection limit of the ADA is determined to be 2 U L(-1), which is lower than ADA cutoff value (4 U L(-1)) in the clinical requirement and more sensitive than most of the reported methods. Compared to other previous ADA sensors, the assay is not only label-free but also a turn-on signal, and possesses properties of lower cost and simpler detection system. Furthermore, this label-free strategy is also applicable to the assay of other enzymes and screening of corresponding inhibitors. PMID:25521724

Zeng, X; Wang, C; Li, Y X; Li, X X; Su, Y Y; An, J; Tang, Y L

2015-02-01

287

The Role of Histidine-Proline-Rich Glycoprotein as Zinc Chaperone for Skeletal Muscle AMP Deaminase  

PubMed Central

Metallochaperones function as intracellular shuttles for metal ions. At present, no evidence for the existence of any eukaryotic zinc-chaperone has been provided although metallochaperones could be critical for the physiological functions of Zn2+ metalloenzymes. We propose that the complex formed in skeletal muscle by the Zn2+ metalloenzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) and the metal binding protein histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) acts in this manner. HPRG is a major plasma protein. Recent investigations have reported that skeletal muscle cells do not synthesize HPRG but instead actively internalize plasma HPRG. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) performed on fresh preparations of rabbit skeletal muscle AMPD provided evidence for a dinuclear zinc site in the enzyme compatible with a (?-aqua)(?-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with two histidine residues at each metal site. XAS on HPRG isolated from the AMPD complex showed that zinc is bound to the protein in a dinuclear cluster where each Zn2+ ion is coordinated by three histidine and one heavier ligand, likely sulfur from cysteine. We describe the existence in mammalian HPRG of a specific zinc binding site distinct from the His-Pro-rich region. The participation of HPRG in the assembly and maintenance of skeletal muscle AMPD by acting as a zinc chaperone is also demonstrated. PMID:24970226

Ranieri-Raggi, Maria; Moir, Arthur J. G.; Raggi, Antonio

2014-01-01

288

Divergence of AMP Deaminase in the Ice Worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae)  

PubMed Central

Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the largest glacially obligate metazoans. As one component of cold temperature adaptation, ice worms maintain atypically high energy levels in an apparent mechanism to offset cold temperature-induced lethargy and death. To explore this observation at a mechanistic level, we considered the putative contribution of 5? adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD), a key regulator of energy metabolism in eukaryotes. We cloned cDNAs encoding ice worm AMPD, generating a fragment encoding 543 amino acids that included a short N-terminal region and complete C-terminal catalytic domain. The predicted ice worm AMPD amino acid sequence displayed conservation with homologues from other mesophilic eukaryotes with notable exceptions. In particular, an ice worm-specific K188E substitution proximal to the AMP binding site likely alters the architecture of the active site and negatively affects the enzyme's activity. Paradoxically, this would contribute to elevated intracellular ATP levels, which appears to be a signature of cold adapted taxa. PMID:21350654

Marotta, Roberto; Parry, Bradley R.; Shain, Daniel H.

2009-01-01

289

AMP deaminase histochemical activity and immunofluorescent isozyme localization in rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cellular distribution of AMP deaminase (AMPda) isozymes was documented for rat soleus and plantaris muscles, utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation methods. AMPda is a ubiquitous enzyme existing as three distinct isozymes, A, B and C, which were initially purified from skeletal muscle, liver (and kidney), and heart, respectively. AMPda-A is primarily concentrated subsarcolemmally and intermyofibrillarly within muscle cells, while isozymes B and C are concentrated within non-myofiber elements of muscle tissue. AMPda-B is principally associated with connective tissues surrounding neural elements and the muscle spindle capsule, and AMPda-C is predominantly associated with circulatory elements, such as arterial and venous walls, capillary endothelium, and red blood cells. These specific localizations, combined with documented differences in kinetic properties, suggest multiple functional roles for the AMPda isozymes or temporal segregation of similar AMPda functions. Linkage of the AMPda substrate with adenosine production pathways at the AMP level and the localization of isozyme-C in vascular tissue suggest a regulatory role in the microcirculation.

Thompson, J. L.; Sabina, R. L.; Ogasawara, N.; Riley, D. A.

1992-01-01

290

A gold nanoparticle-based label free colorimetric aptasensor for adenosine deaminase detection and inhibition assay.  

PubMed

A novel strategy for the fabrication of a colorimetric aptasensor using label free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is proposed in this work, and the strategy has been employed for the assay of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The aptasensor consists of adenosine (AD) aptamer, AD and AuNPs. The design of the biosensor takes advantage of the special optical properties of AuNPs and the interaction between AuNPs and single-strand DNA. In the absence of ADA, the AuNPs are aggregated and are blue in color under appropriate salt concentration because of the grid structure of an AD aptamer when binding to AD, while in the presence of the analyte, AuNPs remain dispersed with red color under the same concentration of salt owing to ADA converting AD into inosine which has no affinity with the AD aptamer, thus allowing quantitative investigation of ADA activity. The present strategy is simple, cost-effective, selective and sensitive for ADA with a detection limit of 1.526 U L(-1), which is about one order of magnitude lower than that previously reported. In addition, a very low concentration of the inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA) could generate a distinguishable response. Therefore, the AuNP-based colorimetric biosensor has great potential in the diagnosis of ADA-relevant diseases and drug screening. PMID:25597304

Cheng, Fen; He, Yue; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Tan, Dai-Di; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

2015-03-01

291

A Role for Host Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Innate Immune Defense against KSHV  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically induced in germinal center B cells to carry out somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination, two processes responsible for antibody diversification. Because of its mutagenic potential, AID expression and activity are tightly regulated to minimize unwanted DNA damage. Surprisingly, AID expression has been observed ectopically during pathogenic infections. However, the function of AID outside of the germinal centers remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we demonstrate that infection of human primary naïve B cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) rapidly induces AID expression in a cell intrinsic manner. We find that infected cells are marked for elimination by Natural Killer cells through upregulation of NKG2D ligands via the DNA damage pathway, a pathway triggered by AID. Moreover, without having a measurable effect on KSHV latency, AID impinges directly on the viral fitness by inhibiting lytic reactivation and reducing infectivity of KSHV virions. Importantly, we uncover two KSHV-encoded microRNAs that directly regulate AID abundance, further reinforcing the role for AID in the antiviral response. Together our findings reveal additional functions for AID in innate immune defense against KSHV with implications for a broader involvement in innate immunity to other pathogens. PMID:24244169

Bekerman, Elena; Jeon, Diana; Ardolino, Michele; Coscoy, Laurent

2013-01-01

292

LINE-1 Retroelements Complexed and Inhibited by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase  

PubMed Central

LINE-1 (abbreviated L1) is a major class of retroelements in humans and mice. If unrestricted, retroelements accumulate in the cytoplasm and insert their DNA into the host genome, with the potential to cause autoimmune disease and cancer. Retroviruses and other retroelements are inhibited by proteins of the APOBEC family, of which activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a member. Although AID is mainly known for being a DNA mutator shaping the antibody repertoire in B lymphocytes, we found that AID also restricts de novo L1 integrations in B- and non-B-cell lines. It does so by decreasing the protein level of open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of both exogenous and endogenous L1. In activated B lymphocytes, AID deficiency increased L1 mRNA 1.6-fold and murine leukemia virus (MLV) mRNA 2.7-fold. In cell lines and activated B lymphocytes, AID forms cytoplasmic high-molecular-mass complexes with L1 mRNA, which may contribute to L1 restriction. Because AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes do not express ORF1 protein, we suggest that ORF1 protein expression is inhibited by additional restriction factors in these cells. The greater increase in MLV compared to L1 mRNA in AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes may indicate less strict surveillance of retrovirus. PMID:23133680

Metzner, Mirjam; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

2012-01-01

293

Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase in B Cell Immunity and Cancers  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme that is predominantly expressed in germinal center B cells and plays a pivotal role in immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation for antibody (Ab) maturation. These two genetic processes endow Abs with protective functions against a multitude of antigens (pathogens) during humoral immune responses. In B cells, AID expression is regulated at the level of either transcriptional activation on AID gene loci or post-transcriptional suppression of AID mRNA. Furthermore, AID stabilization and targeting are determined by post-translational modifications and interactions with other cellular/nuclear factors. On the other hand, aberrant expression of AID causes B cell leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt's lymphoma caused by c-myc/IgH translocation. AID is also ectopically expressed in T cells and non-immune cells, and triggers point mutations in relevant DNA loci, resulting in tumorigenesis. Here, I review the recent literatures on the function of AID, regulation of AID expression, stability and targeting in B cells, and AID-related tumor formation. PMID:23396757

2012-01-01

294

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase in antibody diversification and chromosome translocation.  

PubMed

DNA damage, rearrangement, and mutation of the human genome are the basis of carcinogenesis and thought to be avoided at all costs. An exception is the adaptive immune system where lymphocytes utilize programmed DNA damage to effect antigen receptor diversification. Both B and T lymphocytes diversify their antigen receptors through RAG1/2 mediated recombination, but B cells undergo two additional processes--somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR), both initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidines in DNA resulting in U:G mismatches that are processed into point mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks in CSR. Although AID activity is focused at Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene loci, it also targets a wide array of non-Ig genes including oncogenes associated with lymphomas. Here, we review the molecular basis of AID regulation, targeting, and initiation of CSR and SHM, as well as AID's role in generating chromosome translocations that contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:22429855

Gazumyan, Anna; Bothmer, Anne; Klein, Isaac A; Nussenzweig, Michel C; McBride, Kevin M

2012-01-01

295

A role for host activation-induced cytidine deaminase in innate immune defense against KSHV.  

PubMed

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically induced in germinal center B cells to carry out somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination, two processes responsible for antibody diversification. Because of its mutagenic potential, AID expression and activity are tightly regulated to minimize unwanted DNA damage. Surprisingly, AID expression has been observed ectopically during pathogenic infections. However, the function of AID outside of the germinal centers remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we demonstrate that infection of human primary naïve B cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) rapidly induces AID expression in a cell intrinsic manner. We find that infected cells are marked for elimination by Natural Killer cells through upregulation of NKG2D ligands via the DNA damage pathway, a pathway triggered by AID. Moreover, without having a measurable effect on KSHV latency, AID impinges directly on the viral fitness by inhibiting lytic reactivation and reducing infectivity of KSHV virions. Importantly, we uncover two KSHV-encoded microRNAs that directly regulate AID abundance, further reinforcing the role for AID in the antiviral response. Together our findings reveal additional functions for AID in innate immune defense against KSHV with implications for a broader involvement in innate immunity to other pathogens. PMID:24244169

Bekerman, Elena; Jeon, Diana; Ardolino, Michele; Coscoy, Laurent

2013-01-01

296

The adenosine deaminase gene polymorphism is associated with chronic heart failure risk in Chinese.  

PubMed

Adenosine (Ado) is an important cardioprotective agent. Since endogenous Ado levels are affected by the enzyme Ado deaminase (ADA), polymorphisms within the ADA gene may exert some effect on chronic heart failure (CHF). This study applied a case-control investigation to 300 northern Chinese Han CHF patients and 400 ethnicity-matched healthy controls in which nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADA were genotyped and association analyses were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association. Overall, rs452159 polymorphism in ADA gene was significantly associated with susceptibility to CHF under the dominant model (p = 0.013, OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.10-2.16), after adjustment for age, sex, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. No difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency for the rs452159 according to the functional New York Heart Association class was found. Furthermore, the values of left ventricular ejection fraction, left-ventricle end-diastolic diameter or left-ventricle end-systolic diameter did not differ significantly among the different rs452159 genotype CHF patients. Although further studies with larger cohorts and other ethnicities are required to validate the conclusions, the findings of this study potentially provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of CHF. PMID:25170811

He, Hai-Rong; Li, Yuan-Jie; He, Gong-Hao; Wang, Ya-Jun; Zhai, Ya-Jing; Xie, Jiao; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Dong, Ya-Lin; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

297

Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.  

PubMed

To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.001), the antioxidant enzymes CA and CAT values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, while CA, CAT and NO enzyme levels were found to be significantly higher in the tonsil tissue of the patient group when compared to serum levels (p < 0.05), there was no difference between tissue and serum MDA and ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation. PMID:24305782

Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Naz?m; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, ?eyda Bayel; Arslan, Ay?e; Cankaya, Hakan

2014-06-01

298

The Binding Site of Human Adenosine Deaminase for Cd26/Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV  

PubMed Central

Human, but not murine, adenosine deaminase (ADA) forms a complex with the cell membrane protein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV. CD26-bound ADA has been postulated to regulate extracellular adenosine levels and to modulate the costimulatory function of CD26 on T lymphocytes. Absence of ADA–CD26 binding has been implicated in causing severe combined immunodeficiency due to ADA deficiency. Using human–mouse ADA hybrids and ADA point mutants, we have localized the amino acids critical for CD26 binding to the helical segment 126–143. Arg142 in human ADA and Gln142 in mouse ADA largely determine the capacity to bind CD26. Recombinant human ADA bearing the R142Q mutation had normal catalytic activity per molecule, but markedly impaired binding to a CD26+ ADA-deficient human T cell line. Reduced CD26 binding was also found with ADA from red cells and T cells of a healthy individual whose only expressed ADA has the R142Q mutation. Conversely, ADA with the E217K active site mutation, the only ADA expressed by a severely immunodeficient patient, showed normal CD26 binding. These findings argue that ADA binding to CD26 is not essential for immune function in humans. PMID:11067872

Richard, Eva; Arredondo-Vega, Francisco X.; Santisteban, Ines; Kelly, Susan J.; Patel, Dhavalkumar D.; Hershfield, Michael S.

2000-01-01

299

Localization of N-terminal sequences in human AMP deaminase isoforms that influence contractile protein binding.  

PubMed

The reversible association of AMP deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) with elements of the contractile apparatus is an identified mechanism of enzyme regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle. All three members of the human AMPD multigene family contain coding information for polypeptides with divergent N-terminal and conserved C-terminal domains. In this study, serial N-terminal deletion mutants of up to 111 (AMPD1), 214 (AMPD2), and 126 (AMPD3) residues have been constructed without significant alteration of catalytic function or protein solubility. The entire sets of active enzymes are used to extend our understanding of the contractile protein binding of AMPD. Analysis of the most truncated active enzymes demonstrates that all three isoforms can associate with skeletal muscle actomyosin and suggests that a primary binding domain is located within the C-terminal 635-640 residues of each polypeptide. However, discrete stretches of N-terminal sequence alter this behavior. Residues 54-83 in the AMPD1 polypeptide contribute to a high actomyosin binding capacity of both isoform M spliceoforms, although the exon 2- enzyme exhibits significantly greater association compared to its exon 2+ counterpart. Conversely, residues 129-183 in the AMPD2 polypeptide reduce actomyosin binding of isoform L. In addition, residues 1-48 in the AMPD3 polypeptide dramatically suppress contractile protein binding of isoform E, thus allowing this enzyme to participate in other intracellular interactions. PMID:11444869

Mahnke-Zizelman, D K; Sabina, R L

2001-07-13

300

Molecular characterization and expression patterns of AMP deaminase1 (AMPD1) in porcine skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

AMPD1 is the muscle-specific form of the AMPD multigene families in mammals and plays an important role in the purine nucleotide cycle and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. In this study, we cloned and characterized AMPD1 from Sus scrofa muscle. The promoter of porcine AMPD1 contained several putative muscle-specific transcription factor binding sites (E box, myogenin, MEF2, Spl-CTF/NF-l), one RORalpha2 binding motif and NF-kappaB site. The deduced amino acid sequence of porcine AMPD1 contains an AMP deaminase signature sequence (SLSTDDP). RT-PCR analyses showed that AMPD1 was expressed specifically in skeletal muscle. Expression of AMPD1 was up-regulated during the muscle development and was higher in Yorkshire than in Meishan pigs. AMPD1 gene was expressed at higher levels in longissimus dorsi and bicepsfemoris muscles compared with soleus and masseter muscles in both Yorkshire and Meishan pigs. Moreover, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, T/C(426)) in exon12 of the AMPD1 gene was significantly associated with loin muscle area trait (p<0.01), loin muscle height (p<0.01) and average backfat thickness (p<0.05). This result suggests that the AMPD1 gene might be a candidate gene of meat production trait and provides useful information for further studies on its roles in porcine skeletal muscle. PMID:18638563

Wang, Linjie; Mo, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yongjie; Zuo, Bo; Lei, Minggang; Li, Fenge; Jiang, Siwen; Deng, Changyan; Xiong, Yuanzhu

2008-10-01

301

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency does not affect muscle anaplerosis during exhaustive exercise in humans.  

PubMed

1. Myoadenylate deaminase (AMPD) deficiency is present in 1--2 % of the population. In theory, this deficiency may alter exercise energy metabolism by impairing the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) and reducing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. The role of the PNC in TCA cycle anaplerosis is still a debated issue in physiology. Using patients with the AMPD1 mutation will allow a human 'knockout' approach to answering this question. 2. Muscle AMPD activity and genotype (whole blood AMPD1 analysis) was used to classify participants into three groups: n = 3 with absence of AMPD activity and -/- AMPD1 genotype (homozygous); n = 4 with less than 50 % normal AMPD activity and +/- genotype (heterozygous) and n = 12 with normal AMPD activity and +/+ genotype (control). Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after incremental cycle ergometry exercise to exhaustion. The muscle biopsies were analysed for AMPD activity, purine nucleotides/nucleosides and bases, creatine, phosphocreatine, amino acids, and the TCA cycle intermediates malate, citrate and fumarate. 3. Time to exhaustion on the cycle ergometer was not different between groups. Muscle adenosine monophosphate increased significantly with exercise for homozygous subjects as compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Inosine monophosphate increased significantly after exercise for control (P < 0.05) but not for the homozygous subjects. There were no other between-group differences for any other measured variables. 4. In summary, complete and partial muscle AMPD deficiency did not affect TCA cycle anaplerosis, phosphocreatine hydrolysis, energy charge or exercise performance. PMID:11410643

Tarnopolsky, M A; Parise, G; Gibala, M J; Graham, T E; Rush, J W

2001-06-15

302

Sensitivity and specificity of adenosine deaminase in diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic diseases inchildren with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It also has no diagnostic test and its clinical diagnosis ismade through ruling out other types of arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of ADA (AdenosineDeaminase) in the serum of JIA patients and to compare it with that of patients with Reactive Arthritis(RA). Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of serum ADA level in JIA was another objective. Methods: The study included 120 children with JIA (mean age= 7.6 ± 4.3 years) and 40 children with RA(mean age= 5.5 ± 3.1 years). The ADA was measured in the active phase of both diseases. Results: The mean ADA serum level was obtained as 15.8 ± 11.8 U/l in JIA patients and 14.3 ± 7.5 U/l in RApatients. The difference was statistically insignificant (p= 0.4). Another finding of this study was the significantspecificity (77.5%) of this laboratory parameter for JIA in comparison with its low sensitivity (36.7%). Positivepredictive value was 83% and negative predictive value 29%. Conclusion: Determination of ADA serum levels is a noninvasive reliable and easy biomarker for diagnosis ofJIA and it can be used as alternative parameters representing disease activity.

Doudkani-Fard, Mina; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Haghi-Ashtiani, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadinejad, Zahra

2014-01-01

303

Integrase-defective Lentiviral Vectors as a Delivery Platform for Targeted Modification of Adenosine Deaminase Locus  

PubMed Central

We investigated the use of integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) for transient delivery of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and donor templates for site-specific modification of the human adenosine deaminase (hADA) gene. Initially, we constructed IDLVs carrying ZFN monomers (Single-IDLVs) and found them to be able to deliver their gene-editing payload to K562 cells successfully upon cotransduction, with minimal cytotoxicity. To simplify delivery, we designed an IDLV construct to deliver both ZFN monomers from the same vector (Double-IDLV). However, this construct in its original state was prone to rearrangements of the vector genome, resulting in greatly reduced functionality; this was due to recombination between highly similar ZFN monomers arranged in tandem. We modified the Double-IDLV constructs to reduce recombination and restored simultaneous delivery of both ZFNs. We also tested an IDLV construct for delivery of donor templates and demonstrated its efficacy for gene modification. In summary, we highlighted the importance of modifying vector design for co-delivery of highly similar sequences inherent to genome-editing nucleases, and demonstrated significant improvement in the use of IDLVs for delivery of ZFNs and donor templates for genome modification. PMID:23857176

Joglekar, Alok V; Hollis, Roger P; Kuftinec, Gabriela; Senadheera, Shantha; Chan, Rebecca; Kohn, Donald B

2013-01-01

304

Fluorescence sensing of adenosine deaminase based on adenosine induced self-assembly of aptamer structures.  

PubMed

A new approach is proposed for simple detection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) based on adenosine induced self-assembly of two pieces of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). These ssDNA are two fragments of the aptamer that has a strong affinity for adenosine and are labeled with carboxyfluorescein and black hole quencher-1, respectively. The complementarities of the bases in the two pieces of ssDNA are insufficient to form a stable structure. In the presence of adenosine, however, the ssDNA can be assembled into the intact aptamer tertiary structure, which results in fluorescence quenching of the carboxyfluorescein-labeled aptamer fragment. As a result, the adenosine-ssDNA complex shows a low background signal, which is rather desired for achieving sensitive detection. Reaction of the complex with ADA causes a great fluorescence enhancement by converting adenosine into inosine that has no affinity for the aptamer. This behaviour leads to the development of a simple and sensitive fluorescent method for assaying ADA activity, with a detection limit of 0.05 U mL(-1), which is more sensitive than most of the existing approaches. Furthermore, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by detecting ADA in mouse serum samples. PMID:23462984

Feng, Tingting; Ma, Huimin

2013-04-21

305

Tipping the Balance: Antagonism of PKR Kinase and ADAR1 Deaminase Functions by Virus Gene Products  

PubMed Central

The protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) and the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) are interferon-inducible enzymes that play important roles in biologic processes including the antiviral actions of interferons, signal transduction, and apoptosis. PKR catalyzes the RNA-dependent phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2?, thereby leading to altered translational patterns in interferon-treated and virus-infected cells. PKR also modulates signal transduction responses, including the induction of interferon. ADAR1 catalyzes the deamination of adenosine (A) to generate inosine (I) in RNAs with double-stranded character. Because I is recognized as G instead of A, A-to-I editing by ADAR1 can lead to genetic recoding and altered RNA structures. The importance of PKR and ADAR1 in innate antiviral immunity is illustrated by a number of viruses that encode either RNA or protein viral gene products that antagonize PKR and ADAR1 enzymatic activity, localization, or stability. PMID:19715457

George, Cyril X.; Li, Zhiqun; Okonski, Kristina M.; Toth, Ann M.; Wang, Ying

2009-01-01

306

Sequence requirements for transcriptional arrest in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase gene  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously demonstrated that a transcriptional arrest site exists in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene and that this site may play a role in ADA gene expression. Sequences involved in this process are not known precisely. To further define the template requirements for transcriptional arrest within exon 1 of the human ADA gene, various ADA templates were constructed and their abilities to confer transcriptional arrest were determined following injection into Xenopus oocytes. The exon 1 transcriptional arrest signal functioned downstream of several RNA polymerase II promoters and an RNA polymerase II promoter, implying that the transcriptional arrest site in exon 1 of the ADA gene is promoter independent. They identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal. Additional studies showed that the transcriptional arrest site functioned only in the naturally occurring orientation. Therefore, they have identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal in an orientation-dependent and promoter-independent manner. On the basis of the authors findings, they hypothesize that tissue-specific expression of the ADA gene is governed by factors that function as antiterminators to promote transcriptional readthrough of the exon 1 transcriptional arrest site.

Zhi Chen; Kellems, R.E.; Innis, J.W. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Sun, Minghua; Wright, D.A. (Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States))

1991-12-01

307

Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase binds Z-DNA in vitro.  

PubMed

A Z-DNA binding protein of 140,000 M(r) has been purified from chicken lungs by sedimentation through 40%(w/w) sucrose and Z-DNA affinity chromatography. Specificity of the protein for Z-DNA was confirmed by competition with polyd(CG) that had been stabilized in the Z-DNA conformer by chemical bromination and also with a supercoiled plasmid that contains a Z-DNA-forming insert. In addition to a Z-DNA binding site, the protein also has a separate binding site for double-stranded RNA. Peptide sequence of the protein shows that it has high similarity to the RNA editing enzyme double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (dsRAD), which deaminates adenosine in dsRNA to form inosine. The Z-DNA binding protein has this enzymatic activity, confirming its identity to dsRAD. Recombinant human dsRAD also binds to Z-DNA. Z-DNA is stabilized in a sequence-dependent manner by negative supercoiling, which occurs in actively transcribed genes upstream to RNA polymerase. It is proposed that Z-DNA links editing to transcription by localizing dsRAD to a particular region of a gene and thus determines the efficiency with which an RNA is edited. The presence of Z-DNA forming elements in many genes raises the possibility that RNA editing by dsRAD is far more prevalent than is currently thought. PMID:8643357

Herbert, A; Lowenhaupt, K; Spitzner, J; Rich, A

1995-01-01

308

Early severe toxicities after capecitabine intake: possible implication of a cytidine deaminase extensive metabolizer profile.  

PubMed

We report here the case of a 19-year-old female patient who suffered from extremely severe toxicities (G4 mucitis, fever, diarrhea, alteration of general state) while undergoing low-dose capecitabine treatment for her metastatic corticosurrenaloma. The severe toxicities stopped as soon as treatment was suspended. Interestingly, this patient was not deficient in DPD, a pharmacogenetic syndrome usually associated with increased risk of developing severe/lethal toxicities in patients undergoing fluoropyrimidine therapy, and she had been treated previously with 5-FU with a good tolerance. We then hypothesized that cytidine deaminase (CDA) extensive phenotype could be responsible for the severe toxicities observed with capecitabine. CDA is affected by genetic polymorphism, with subsequent acquisition of either deficient or extensive metabolizer profile. Phenotypic investigations confirmed that CDA activity in this patient was +180% higher than the ones usually recorded in the general population. This strongly suggests that the extensive activation of triple-prodrug capecitabine could have occurred in this patient, resulting in overexposure to 5-FU and its cytotoxic metabolites eventually. This case report suggest for the first time that severe toxicities with a capecitabine-containing protocol could be, at least in part, linked with an extensive-CDA syndrome. The case reported here suggests therefore that besides DPD, screening for CDA activity could be of interest to ensure a better safety in the handling of oral capecitabine at the bedside. PMID:19107485

Mercier, Cedric; Dupuis, Charlotte; Blesius, Aurore; Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Yang, Chen Guang; Padovani, Laetitia; Giacometti, Sarah; Frances, Nicolas; Iliadis, Athanassios; Duffaud, Florence; Ciccolini, Joseph

2009-05-01

309

Complete sequence and structure of the gene for human adenosine deaminase.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the human adenosine deaminase gene was determined. The gene was isolated in a series of overlapping lambda phage clones containing human germ line DNA. A total of 36,741 base pairs were sequenced, including 32,040 base pairs from the transcription initiation site to the polyadenylation site, 3935 base pairs of 5'-flanking DNA, and 766 base pairs of 3'-flanking DNA. The gene contains 12 exons separated by 11 introns. The exons range in size from 62 to 325 base pairs while the introns are 76-15 166 base pairs in size. The area sequenced contains 23 copies of Alu repetitive DNA and a single copy of an "O" family repeat. All but one of these repeat sequences are located in the first three introns or the 5'-flanking region. The apparent promoter region of the gene lacks the "TATA" and "CAAT" sequences often found in eucaryotic promoters and is extremely G/C rich. Contained within this region are areas homologous to other G/C-rich promoters, including six decanucleotide sequences that are highly homologous to sequences identified as functional binding sites for transcription factor Sp1. PMID:3028473

Wiginton, D A; Kaplan, D J; States, J C; Akeson, A L; Perme, C M; Bilyk, I J; Vaughn, A J; Lattier, D L; Hutton, J J

1986-12-16

310

Motor neuropathy in porphobilinogen deaminase–deficient mice imitates the peripheral neuropathy of human acute porphyria  

PubMed Central

Acute porphyrias are inherited disorders caused by partial deficiency of specific heme biosynthesis enzymes. Clinically, porphyrias are manifested by a neuropsychiatric syndrome that includes peripheral neuropathy. Although much is known about the porphyrias’ enzyme defects and their biochemical consequences, the cause of the neurological manifestations remains unresolved. We have studied porphyric neuropathy in mice with a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). PBGD-deficient mice (PBGD–/–) imitate acute porphyria through massive induction of hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid synthase by drugs such as phenobarbital. Here we show that PBGD–/– mice develop impairment of motor coordination and muscle weakness. Histologically femoral nerves of PBGD–/– mice exhibit a marked decrease in large-caliber (>8 ?m) axons and ultrastructural changes consistent with primary motor axon degeneration, secondary Schwann cell reactions, and axonal regeneration. These findings resemble those found in studies of affected nerves of patients with acute porphyria and thus provide strong evidence that PBGD deficiency causes degeneration of motor axons without signs of primary demyelination, thereby resolving a long-standing controversy. Interestingly, the neuropathy in PBGD–/– mice developed chronically and progressively and in the presence of normal or only slightly (twofold) increased plasma and urinary levels of the putative neurotoxic heme precursor ?-aminolevulinic acid. These data suggest that heme deficiency and consequent dysfunction of hemeproteins can cause porphyric neuropathy. PMID:10207164

Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Martini, Rudolf; Baumgartner, Matthias; Erne, Beat; Borg, Jacques; Zielasek, Jürgen; Ricker, Kenneth; Steck, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V.; Meyer, Urs A.

1999-01-01

311

The Adenosine Deaminase Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Chronic Heart Failure Risk in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Adenosine (Ado) is an important cardioprotective agent. Since endogenous Ado levels are affected by the enzyme Ado deaminase (ADA), polymorphisms within the ADA gene may exert some effect on chronic heart failure (CHF). This study applied a case-control investigation to 300 northern Chinese Han CHF patients and 400 ethnicity-matched healthy controls in which nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADA were genotyped and association analyses were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association. Overall, rs452159 polymorphism in ADA gene was significantly associated with susceptibility to CHF under the dominant model (p = 0.013, OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.10–2.16), after adjustment for age, sex, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. No difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency for the rs452159 according to the functional New York Heart Association class was found. Furthermore, the values of left ventricular ejection fraction, left-ventricle end-diastolic diameter or left-ventricle end-systolic diameter did not differ significantly among the different rs452159 genotype CHF patients. Although further studies with larger cohorts and other ethnicities are required to validate the conclusions, the findings of this study potentially provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of CHF. PMID:25170811

He, Hai-Rong; Li, Yuan-Jie; He, Gong-Hao; Wang, Ya-Jun; Zhai, Ya-Jing; Xie, Jiao; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Dong, Ya-Lin; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

312

PMMA/polysaccharides nanofilm loaded with adenosine deaminase inhibitor for targeted anti-inflammatory drug delivery.  

PubMed

A novel drug delivery vector, a free-standing polymeric ultrathin film (nanofilm) composed of PMMA and a polysaccharides multilayer, is presented. Chitosan and sodium alginate are alternatively deposited by spin-assisted LbL assembly onto a plasma-treated PMMA thin film. Hydrophobic anti-inflammatory drugs, an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (APP) and its fluorescent dansyl derivate (APP-Dns), are encapsulated inside the LbL multilayer using a simple casting deposition procedure. The resulting drug loaded nanofilm can be suspended in water upon dissolution of a PVA sacrificial layer. Morphological characterization of the nanofilm shows that PMMA/LbL nanofilms possess nanometric thickness (<200 nm) and very low surface roughness (1-2 nm for drug loaded nanofilms and <1 nm for blank nanofilm). Drug loaded films exhibit a diffusion controlled release mechanism following the Korsmayer-Peppas release model, confirmed by the fit of release data with a characteristic power law. Drug release is impaired through the PMMA layer, which acts effectively as a barrier for drug transport. This ultrathin polymer film can find application as a nanopatch for targeted inflammatory drug delivery to treat localized pathologies as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24073802

Redolfi Riva, Eugenio; Desii, Andrea; Sartini, Stefania; La Motta, Concettina; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

2013-10-29

313

Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages  

PubMed Central

While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-? treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of aerosol IFN-?-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) in the BAL cells. IFN-? induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-? suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages. PMID:25272020

Levy, David N.; Li, Yonghua; Kumar, Rajnish; Burke, Sean A.; Dawson, Rodney; Hioe, Catarina E.; Borkowsky, William; Rom, William N.; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

314

Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice  

SciTech Connect

Eighty-nine Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) group, a cytosine arabinoside (ara-C, a teratogen) group, and a combined PMF + ara-C group. Mice in the PMF and PMF + ara-C groups were irradiated with a PMF (a sawtooth waveform with 52 {mu}s rise time, 12{mu}s decay time, and 15.6 kHz frequency) at a peak magnetic flux density of 40 {mu}T for 4 hours daily on days 6-17 of gestation. The mice in the ara-C and the PMF + ara-C groups were injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of ara-C. The incidence of resorption and dead fetuses was not affected by PMF but was increased by ara-C injection. The malformation incidence of cleft palate (CP) and/or cleft lip (CL) was significantly higher in all three of the treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). If, however, statistical analyses had been done on litters rather than on individual fetuses, they would show that the incidence of CP and/or CL in the PMF group is not significantly greater than that in the control group. A significantly higher incidence of CP and/or CL was found in the PMF + ara-C group (49%) than the ara-C alone group (26.1%). These data suggest that PMF might enhance the development of ara-C-induced CP and/or CL. The incidence of minor variations in skeletal development, including reduction of skeletal calcification and loss of skeleton, was not statistically significant in the PMF group. However, it was higher in the two ara-C-treated groups, and there was no significant difference between the ara-C alone group and the ara-C + PMF group. From these results it is concluded that the very weak embryotoxic effects of PMF exposure may be revealed and enhanced in combination with a teratogenic agent.

Chiang, H.; Wu, R.Y.; Shao, B.J.; Fu, Y.D.; Yao, G.D.; Lu, D.J. [Zhejiang Medical Univ. (China)

1995-05-01

315

Proton transfer in guanine-cytosine radical anion embedded in B-form DNA.  

PubMed

The electron-attachment-induced proton transfer in the guanine-cytosine (G:C) base pair is thought to be relevant to the issues of charge transport and radiation damage in DNA. However, our understanding on the reaction mainly comes from the data of isolated bases and base pairs, and the behavior of the reaction in the DNA duplex is not clear. In the present study, the proton-transfer reaction in reduced G:C stacks is investigated by quantum mechanical calculations with the aim to clarify how each environmental factor affects the proton transfer in G:C(*-). The calculations show that while the proton transfer in isolated G:C(*-) is exothermic with a small energetic barrier, it becomes endothermic with a considerably enhanced energetic barrier in G:C stacks. The substantial effect of G:C stacking is proved to originate from the electrostatic interactions between the dipole moments of outer G:C base pairs and the middle G:C(*-) base-pair radical anion; the extent of charge delocalization is very small and plays little role in affecting the proton transfer in G:C(*-). On the basis of the electrostatic model, the sequence dependence of the proton transfer in the ionized G:C base pair is predicted. In addition, the water molecules in the first hydration shell around G:C(*-) display a pronounced effect that facilitates the proton-transfer reaction; further consideration of bulk hydration only slightly lowers the energetic barrier and reaction energy. We also notice that the water arrangement around an embedded G:C(*-) is different from that around an isolated G:C(*-), which could result in a very different solvent effect on the energetics of the proton transfer. In contrast to the important influences of base stacking and hydration, the effects of sugar-phosphate backbone and counterions are found to be minor. Our calculations also reveal that a G:C base pair embedded in DNA is capable of accommodating two excess electrons only in bulk hydration; the resultant G(N1-H)(-):C(N3+H)(-) dianion is stable and exists long enough to lead to DNA damage. The combination of the present results with the previous findings in literature suggests that the behaviors of charge transport and low-energy electron-induced damage in DNA are highly susceptible to the hydration level. PMID:19860482

Chen, Hsing-Yin; Kao, Chai-Lin; Hsu, Sodio C N

2009-11-01

316

Molecular recognition of cytosine- and guanine-functionalized nucleolipids in the mixed monolayers at the air-water interface and Langmuir-Blodgett films.  

PubMed

Molecular recognition of mixed nucleolipids of 1-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)cytosine and 7-(2-octadecyloxycarbonylethyl)guanine in the monolayers at the air-water interface and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films has been investigated in detail using surface pressure/potential-area isotherms, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy, respectively. Prior to molecular recognition, the cytosine moieties in the monolayer were hydrogen bonded with an almost flat-on orientation, the alkyl chains were uniaxially oriented with respect to the film normal, the guanine moieties in the monolayer were stacked probably through pi-pi interaction with an end-on orientation, and the C-C-C planes of the alkyl chains were preferentially oriented parallel to the water surface. In the monolayer of equimolar mixture, molecular recognition between the cytosine and guanine moieties occurred together with the ring planes of base pairing and the C-C-C planes of the alkyl chains favorably oriented parallel to the water surface. The guanine moieties underwent an orientation change from an end-on mode before molecular recognition to a flat-on one after molecular recognition. The base pairing between the cytosine and guanine moieties in the monolayers was achieved since the N7-substituted guanine derivatives suppressed the formation of guanine tetramers. Both the IRRAS spectra of the monolayers and the FTIR spectra of the LB films presented the exact sites in the cytosine and guanine moieties for the formation of triple hydrogen bonds. The base pairing resulted in a change in molecular orientation and interaction, and the corresponding LB film exhibited a different phase transition behavior from a typical crystal transition for the cytosine-functionalized nucleolipids and an analogous glass transition for the guanine-functionalized nucleolipids. The thermal stability of the mixed LB film was improved in comparison to the LB films of pure components. PMID:16526731

Wang, Yuchun; Du, Xuezhong; Miao, Wangen; Liang, Yingqiu

2006-03-16

317

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

Fiechter, A.

1982-12-01

318

Synthetic Yeast Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

2010-03-01

319

Cytosines, but not purines, determine recombination activating gene (RAG)-induced breaks on heteroduplex DNA structures: implications for genomic instability.  

PubMed

The sequence specificity of the recombination activating gene (RAG) complex during V(D)J recombination has been well studied. RAGs can also act as structure-specific nuclease; however, little is known about the mechanism of its action. Here, we show that in addition to DNA structure, sequence dictates the pattern and efficiency of RAG cleavage on altered DNA structures. Cytosine nucleotides are preferentially nicked by RAGs when present at single-stranded regions of heteroduplex DNA. Although unpaired thymine nucleotides are also nicked, the efficiency is many fold weaker. Induction of single- or double-strand breaks by RAGs depends on the position of cytosines and whether it is present on one or both of the strands. Interestingly, RAGs are unable to induce breaks when adenine or guanine nucleotides are present at single-strand regions. The nucleotide present immediately next to the bubble sequence could also affect RAG cleavage. Hence, we propose "C((d))C((S))C((S))" (d, double-stranded; s, single-stranded) as a consensus sequence for RAG-induced breaks at single-/double-strand DNA transitions. Such a consensus sequence motif is useful for explaining RAG cleavage on other types of DNA structures described in the literature. Therefore, the mechanism of RAG cleavage described here could explain facets of chromosomal rearrangements specific to lymphoid tissues leading to genomic instability. PMID:20051517

Naik, Abani Kanta; Lieber, Michael R; Raghavan, Sathees C

2010-03-01

320

N4-Methylation of Cytosine Drastically Favors the Formation of (6-4) Photoproducts in a TCG Context.  

PubMed

Methylation of cytosine is a common biological process both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In addition to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), some bacterial species contain in their genome N(4) -methylcytosine (N4mC). Methylation at C5 has been shown to enhance the formation of pyrimidine dimeric photoproducts but nothing is known of the effect of N4 methylation on UV-induced DNA damage. In the present work, we compared the yield and the nature of bipyrimidine photoproducts induced in a series of trinucleotides exhibiting a TXG sequence where X is either T, C, 5mC or N4mC. HPLC associated to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), (6-4) photoproducts (64PP) and their Dewar valence isomer. Methylation at position N4 was found to drastically increase the reactivity of C upon exposure to both UVC and UVB and to favor the formation of 64PP. In contrast methylation at C5 increased the yield of CPD at the expense of 64PP. In addition, enhancement of photoreactivity by C5 methylation was much higher in the UVB than in the UVC range. These results show the drastic effect of the methylation site on the photochemistry of cytosine. PMID:25319211

Douki, Thierry; Meador, Jarah A; Bérard, Izabel; Wack, Aude

2015-01-01

321

Sequence elimination and cytosine methylation are rapid and reproducible responses of the genome to wide hybridization and allopolyploidy in wheat.  

PubMed

Interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, followed by chromosome doubling, can lead to the formation of new allopolyploid species. Recent studies indicate that allopolyploid formation is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes, although little is known about the type of changes that occur, how rapidly they occur, and the type of sequences involved. To address these matters, we have surveyed F1 hybrids between diploid species from the wheat (Aegilops and Triticum) group and their derived allotetraploids by screening a large number of loci using amplified fragment length polymorphism and DNA gel blot analysis and by assaying the extent of cytosine methylation. We found that sequence elimination is one of the major and immediate responses of the wheat genome to wide hybridization or allopolyploidy, that it affects a large fraction of the genome, and that it is reproducible. In one cross between AE: sharonensis x AE: umbellulata, 14% of the loci from AE: sharonensis were eliminated compared with only 0.5% from AE: umbellulata, with most changes occurring in the F1 hybrid. In contrast, crosses between AE: longissima x T. urartu showed that sequence elimination was more frequent after chromosome doubling. Alterations in cytosine methylation occurred in approximately 13% of the loci, either in the F1 hybrid or in the allopolyploid. For eight of nine bands that were isolated, the sequences that underwent elimination corresponded to low-copy DNA, whereas alterations in methylation patterns affected both repetitive DNA sequences, such as retrotransposons, and low-copy DNA in approximately equal proportions. PMID:11487690

Shaked, H; Kashkush, K; Ozkan, H; Feldman, M; Levy, A A

2001-08-01

322

Sequence Elimination and Cytosine Methylation Are Rapid and Reproducible Responses of the Genome to Wide Hybridization and Allopolyploidy in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, followed by chromosome doubling, can lead to the formation of new allopolyploid species. Recent studies indicate that allopolyploid formation is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes, although little is known about the type of changes that occur, how rapidly they occur, and the type of sequences involved. To address these matters, we have surveyed F1 hybrids between diploid species from the wheat (Aegilops and Triticum) group and their derived allotetraploids by screening a large number of loci using amplified fragment length polymorphism and DNA gel blot analysis and by assaying the extent of cytosine methylation. We found that sequence elimination is one of the major and immediate responses of the wheat genome to wide hybridization or allopolyploidy, that it affects a large fraction of the genome, and that it is reproducible. In one cross between Ae. sharonensis × Ae. umbellulata, 14% of the loci from Ae. sharonensis were eliminated compared with only 0.5% from Ae. umbellulata, with most changes occurring in the F1 hybrid. In contrast, crosses between Ae. longissima × T. urartu showed that sequence elimination was more frequent after chromosome doubling. Alterations in cytosine methylation occurred in ?13% of the loci, either in the F1 hybrid or in the allopolyploid. For eight of nine bands that were isolated, the sequences that underwent elimination corresponded to low-copy DNA, whereas alterations in methylation patterns affected both repetitive DNA sequences, such as retrotransposons, and low-copy DNA in approximately equal proportions. PMID:11487690

Shaked, Hezi; Kashkush, Khalil; Ozkan, Hakan; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.

2001-01-01

323

DPPA3 prevents cytosine hydroxymethylation of the maternal pronucleus and is required for normal development in bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Dppa3 has been described in mice as an important maternal factor contributed by the oocyte that participates in protecting the maternal genome from oxidation of methylated cytosines (5mC) to hydroxymethylated cytosines (5hmC). Dppa3 is also required for normal mouse preimplantation development. This gene is poorly conserved across mammalian species, with less than 32% of protein sequence shared between mouse, cow and human. RNA-seq analysis of bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos revealed that DPPA3 transcripts are some of the most highly abundant mRNAs in the oocyte, and their levels gradually decrease toward the time of embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of DPPA3 by injection of siRNA in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes was used to assess its role in epigenetic remodeling and embryo development. DPPA3 knockdown resulted in increased intensity of 5hmC staining in the maternal pronucleus (PN), demonstrating a role for this factor in the asymmetric remodeling of the maternal and paternal PN in bovine zygotes. Also, DPPA3 knockdown decreased the developmental competence of parthenogenetic and in vitro fertilized embryos. Finally, DPPA3 knockdown embryos that reached the blastocyst stage had significantly fewer ICM cells as compared with control embryos. We conclude that DPPA3 is a maternal factor important for correct epigenetic remodeling and normal embryonic development in cattle, indicating that the role of DPPA3 during early development is conserved between species. PMID:25147917

Bakhtari, Azizollah; Ross, Pablo J

2014-09-01

324

A G468-T AMPD1 mutant allele contributes to the high incidence of myoadenylate deaminase deficiency in the Caucasian population.  

PubMed

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency is the most common metabolic disorder of skeletal muscle in the Caucasian population, affecting approximately 2% of all individuals. Although most deficient subjects are asymptomatic, some suffer from exercise-induced myalgia suggesting a causal relationship between a lack of enzyme activity and muscle function. In addition, carriers of this derangement in purine nucleotide catabolism may have an adaptive advantage related to clinical outcome in heart disease. The molecular basis of myoadenylate deaminase deficiency in Caucasians has been attributed to a single mutant allele characterized by double C to T transitions at nucleotides +34 and +143 in mRNA encoded by the AMPD1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction-based strategies have been developed to specifically identify this common mutant allele and are considered highly sensitive. Consequently, some laboratories preferentially use this technique over other available diagnostic tests for myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. We previously identified a G468-T mutation in one symptomatic patient who was only heterozygous for the common AMPD1 mutant allele. In this report, nine additional individuals with this compound heterozygous genotype are revealed in a survey of 48 patients with documented deficiency of skeletal muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase and exercise-induced myalgia. Western blot analysis of leftover biopsy material from one of these individuals does not detect any immunoreactive myoadenylate deaminase polypeptide. Baculoviral expression of the G468-T mutant allele produces a Q156H substitution enzyme exhibiting labile catalytic activity. These combined results demonstrate that the G468-T transversion is dysfunctional and further indicate that AMPD1 alleles harboring this mutation contribute to the high incidence of partial and complete myoadenylate deaminase deficiency in the Caucasian population. Consequently, genetic tests for abnormal AMPD1 expression designed to diagnose patients with metabolic myopathy, and to evaluate genetic markers for clinical outcome in heart disease should not be based solely on the detection of a single mutant allele. PMID:12117480

Gross, M; Rötzer, E; Kölle, P; Mortier, W; Reichmann, H; Goebel, H H; Lochmüller, H; Pongratz, D; Mahnke-Zizelman, D K; Sabina, R L

2002-08-01

325

Effects of garlic and black grape extracts on the activity of adenosine deaminase from cancerous and noncancerous human urinary bladder tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Possible effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and black grape (Fructus vitis minuta) with known antioxidant potential on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities were investigated in cancerous and noncancerous\\u000a human bladder tissues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The effects of garlic and black grape extracts on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities were measured in 20 pairs of cancer\\u000a and adjacent normal human bladder tissues with and without pre-incubation

?lker Durak; Hasan Biri; ?mge B. Ergüder; Erdinç Devrim; Ça?r? ?enocak; Asl?han Avc?

2007-01-01

326

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase from Bacillus megaterium  

PubMed Central

The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of Bacillus megaterium PBGD permitted the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution. PMID:23908040

Azim, N.; Deery, E.; Warren, M. J.; Erskine, P.; Cooper, J. B.; Wood, S. P.; Akhtar, M.

2013-01-01

327

Association of improved cardiac function in donors with C34T mutation of the AMP deaminase 1 gene.  

PubMed

Possession of the C34T mutation in AMP deaminase (AMPD1) gene has been shown to be associated with attenuation of the progression of heart failure and improved survival in ischemic heart disease. In this study, we examined the frequency of the mutation in the heart with good and poor cardiac function and in healthy controls. We found that there was no difference in the frequency of the mutation between the patients with heart failure and healthy controls. However, the frequency of the mutation in the healthy donor hearts was much higher when compared to healthy controls or donors with failing hearts. PMID:16021915

Yuen, A H Y; Yacoub, M H; Birks, E J; Kalsi, K K; Johnson, P H; Smolenski, R T

2005-01-01

328

Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes  

PubMed Central

Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

Enenkel, Cordula

2014-01-01

329

The adenosine deaminases of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum exhibit surprising differences in ligand specificity  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum cause malaria, so proteins essential for their survival in vivo are potential anti-malarial drug targets. Adenosine deaminases (ADA) catalyze the irreversible conversion of adenosine into inosine, and play a critical role in the purine salvage pathways of Plasmodia and their mammalian hosts. Currently, the number of selective inhibitors of Plasmodium ADAs is limited. One potent and widely used inhibitor of the human ADA (hADA), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonly)adenine (EHNA), is a very weak inhibitor (Ki = 120uM) of P. falciparum ADA (pfADA). EHNA-like compounds are thus excluded from consideration as potential inhibitors of Plasmodium ADA in general. However, EHNA activity in P. vivax ADA (pvADA) has not been reported. Here we applied computational molecular modeling to identify the mechanisms of the ligand recognition unique for P. vivax and P. falciparum ADA. Based on the computational studies, we performed molecular biology experiments to show that EHNA is at least 60-fold more potent against pvADA (Ki = 1.9uM) than against pfADA. The D172A pvADA mutant is bound even more tightly (Ki = 0.9uM). These results improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ADA ligand recognition and species-selectivity, and facilitate the rational design of novel EHNA-based ADA inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs. To demonstrate a practical application of our findings we have computationally predicted a novel potential inhibitor of pvADA selective versus the human ADA. PMID:22481078

Ivanov, Andrei A.; Matsumura, Ichiro

2012-01-01

330

Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (Pfada) in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Effusions in a Low Incidence Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have assessed the diagnostic ability of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) in detecting tuberculous pleural effusions, with good specificity and sensitivity reported. However, in North Western Europe pfADA is not routinely used in the investigation of a patient with an undiagnosed pleural effusion, mainly due to a lack of evidence as to its utility in populations with low mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) incidence. Methods Patients presenting with an undiagnosed pleural effusion to a tertiary pleural centre in South-West England over a 3 year period, were prospectively recruited to a pleural biomarker study. Pleural fluid from consecutive patients with robust 12-month follow up data and confirmed diagnosis were sent for pfADA analysis. Results Of 338 patients enrolled, 7 had confirmed tuberculous pleural effusion (2%). All mTB effusions were lymphocyte predominant with a median pfADA of 72.0 IU/L (range- 26.7 to 91.5) compared to a population median of 12.0 IU/L (range- 0.3 to 568.4). The optimal pfADA cut off was 35 IU/L, which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9%) for the exclusion of mTB, and sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI; 42.2-97.6%) with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.732–1.000). Discussion This is the first study examining the diagnostic utility of pfADA in a low mTB incidence area. The chance of an effusion with a pfADA under 35 IU/L being of tuberculous aetiology was negligible. A pfADA of over 35 IU/L in lymphocyte-predominant pleural fluid gives a strong suspicion of mTB. PMID:25647479

Arnold, David T.; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Fairbanks, Lynette D.; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Clive, Amelia O.; Morley, Anna J.; Medford, Andrew R. L.; Maskell, Nicholas A.

2015-01-01

331

Iron Inhibits Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase Enzymatic Activity and Modulates Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination*  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) are critical for the maturation of the antibody response. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR and SHM by deaminating deoxycytidines (dCs) in switch (S) and V(D)J region DNA, respectively, to generate deoxyuracils (dUs). Processing of dUs by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) yields abasic sites, which are excised by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, eventually generating double strand DNA breaks, the obligatory intermediates of CSR. Here, we found that the bivalent iron ion (Fe2+, ferrous) suppressed CSR, leading to decreased number of switched B cells, decreased postrecombination I?-CH transcripts, and reduced titers of secreted class-switched IgG1, IgG3, and IgA antibodies, without alterations in critical CSR factors, such as AID, 14-3-3?, or PTIP, or in general germline IH-S-CH transcription. Fe2+ did not affect B cell proliferation or plasmacytoid differentiation. Rather, it inhibited AID-mediated dC deamination in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibition of intrinsic AID enzymatic activity by Fe2+ was specific, as shown by lack of inhibition of AID-mediated dC deamination by other bivalent metal ions, such as Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and the inability of Fe2+ to inhibit UNG-mediated dU excision. Overall, our findings have outlined a novel role of iron in modulating a B cell differentiation process that is critical to the generation of effective antibody responses to microbial pathogens and tumoral cells. They also suggest a possible role of iron in dampening AID-dependent autoimmunity and neoplastic transformation. PMID:22556412

Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J.; Tran, Daniel C.; Patel, Pina J.; Dao, Lisa; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

2012-01-01

332

RNA editing of hepatitis B virus transcripts by activation-induced cytidine deaminase  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models. In the DNA deamination model, AID converts cytidine bases in DNA into uridine. The uridine is recognized by the DNA repair system, which produces DNA strand breakages and point mutations. In the alternative model, RNA edited by AID is responsible for triggering CSR and SHM. However, RNA deamination by AID has not been demonstrated. Here we found that C-to-T and G-to-A mutations accumulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleocapsid DNA when AID was expressed in HBV-replicating hepatic cell lines. AID expression caused C-to-T mutations in the nucleocapsid DNA of RNase H-defective HBV, which does not produce plus-strand viral DNA. Furthermore, the RT-PCR products of nucleocapsid viral RNA from AID-expressing cells exhibited significant C-to-T mutations, whereas viral RNAs outside the nucleocapsid did not accumulate C-to-U mutations. Moreover, AID was packaged within the nucleocapsid by forming a ribonucleoprotein complex with HBV RNA and the HBV polymerase protein. The encapsidation of the AID protein with viral RNA and DNA provides an efficient environment for evaluating AID’s RNA and DNA deamination activities. A bona fide RNA-editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1, induced a similar level of C-to-U mutations in nucleocapsid RNA as AID. Taken together, the results indicate that AID can deaminate the nucleocapsid RNA of HBV. PMID:23341589

Liang, Guoxin; Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Guangyan; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Fu, Weixin; Koura, Miki; Wakae, Kousho; Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi

2013-01-01

333

RNA editing of hepatitis B virus transcripts by activation-induced cytidine deaminase.  

PubMed

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models. In the DNA deamination model, AID converts cytidine bases in DNA into uridine. The uridine is recognized by the DNA repair system, which produces DNA strand breakages and point mutations. In the alternative model, RNA edited by AID is responsible for triggering CSR and SHM. However, RNA deamination by AID has not been demonstrated. Here we found that C-to-T and G-to-A mutations accumulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleocapsid DNA when AID was expressed in HBV-replicating hepatic cell lines. AID expression caused C-to-T mutations in the nucleocapsid DNA of RNase H-defective HBV, which does not produce plus-strand viral DNA. Furthermore, the RT-PCR products of nucleocapsid viral RNA from AID-expressing cells exhibited significant C-to-T mutations, whereas viral RNAs outside the nucleocapsid did not accumulate C-to-U mutations. Moreover, AID was packaged within the nucleocapsid by forming a ribonucleoprotein complex with HBV RNA and the HBV polymerase protein. The encapsidation of the AID protein with viral RNA and DNA provides an efficient environment for evaluating AID's RNA and DNA deamination activities. A bona fide RNA-editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1, induced a similar level of C-to-U mutations in nucleocapsid RNA as AID. Taken together, the results indicate that AID can deaminate the nucleocapsid RNA of HBV. PMID:23341589

Liang, Guoxin; Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Guangyan; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Fu, Weixin; Koura, Miki; Wakae, Kousho; Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi

2013-02-01

334

Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Does Not Impact Murine Meiotic Recombination  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was first described as the triggering enzyme of the B-cell?specific reactions that edit the immunoglobulin genes, namely somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class switch recombination. Over the years, AID was also detected in cells other than lymphocytes, and it has been assigned additional roles in the innate defense against transforming retroviruses, in retrotransposition restriction and in DNA demethylation. Notably, AID expression was found in germline tissues, and in heterologous systems it can induce the double-strand breaks required for the initiation of meiotic recombination and proper gamete formation. However, because AID-deficient mice are fully fertile, the molecule is not essential for meiosis. Thus, the remaining question that we addressed here is whether AID influences the frequency of meiotic recombination in mice. We measured the recombination events in the meiosis of male and female mice F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and BALB/c, in Aicda+/+ and Aicda?/? background by using a panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that distinguishes C57BL/6J from BALB/c genome across the 19 autosomes. In agreement with the literature, we found that the frequency of recombination in the female germline was greater than in male germline, both in the Aicda+/+ and Aicda?/? backgrounds. No statistical difference was found in the average recombination events between Aicda+/+ and Aidca?/? animals, either in females or males. In addition, the recombination frequencies between single-nucleotide polymorphisms flanking the immunoglobulin heavy and immunoglobulin kappa loci was also not different. We conclude that AID has a minor impact, if any, on the overall frequency of meiotic recombination. PMID:23550130

Cortesao, Catarina S.; Freitas, Raquel F.; Barreto, Vasco M.

2013-01-01

335

AMP deaminase deficiency is associated with lower sprint cycling performance in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

AMP deaminase (AMPD) deficiency is an inherited disorder of skeletal muscle found in approximately 2% of the Caucasian population. Although most AMPD-deficient individuals are asymptomatic, a small subset has exercise-related cramping and pain without any other identifiable neuromuscular complications. This heterogeneity has raised doubts about the physiological significance of AMPD in skeletal muscle, despite evidence for disrupted adenine nucleotide catabolism during exercise in deficient individuals. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of AMPD deficiency on exercise performance with mixed results. This study was designed to circumvent the perceived limitations in previous reports by measuring exercise performance during a 30-s Wingate test in 139 healthy, physically active subjects of both sexes, with different AMPD1 genotypes, including 12 AMPD-deficient subjects. Three of the deficient subjects were compound heterozygotes characterized by the common c.34C>T mutation in one allele and a newly discovered AMPD1 mutation, c.404delT, in the other. While there was no significant difference in peak power across AMPD1 genotypes, statistical analysis revealed a faster power decrease in the AMPD-deficient group and a difference in mean power across the genotypes (P = 0.0035). This divergence was most striking at 15 s of the 30-s cycling. Assessed by the fatigue index, the decrease in power output at 15 s of exercise was significantly greater in the deficient group compared with the other genotypes (P = 0.0006). The approximate 10% lower mean power in healthy AMPD-deficient subjects during a 30-s Wingate cycling test reveals a functional role for the AMPD1 enzyme in sprint exercise. PMID:17463303

Fischer, Heléne; Esbjörnsson, Mona; Sabina, Richard L; Strömberg, Anna; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Norman, Barbara

2007-07-01

336

Macrophages mediate gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma by upregulating cytidine deaminase.  

PubMed

Resistance to pharmacologic agents used in chemotherapy is common in most human carcinomas, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), which is resistant to almost all drugs, including gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog used as a first-line treatment. Poor survival rates of PDA patients have, therefore, not changed much over 4 decades. Recent data indicated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which are abundant in the microenvironment of several tumors, including PDA, secrete pro-tumorigenic factors that contribute to cancer progression and dissemination. In this study, we show for the first time that TAMs can also induce chemoresistance of PDA by reducing gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Macrophages co-cultured with cancer cells or TAM-conditioned medium significantly reduced apoptosis and activation of the caspase-3 pathway during gemcitabine treatment. In vivo PDA models of mice, which have reduced macrophage recruitment and activation, demonstrated improved response to gemcitabine compared with controls. Similarly, inhibition of monocytes/macrophages trafficking by a CSF1-receptor antagonist GW2580 augmented the effect of gemcitabine in a transgenic mouse PDA model that was resistant to gemcitabine alone. Analysis of multiple proteins involved in gemcitabine delivery and metabolism revealed that TAMs induced upregulation of cytidine deaminase (CDA), the enzyme that metabolizes the drug following its transport into the cell. Decreasing CDA expression by PDA cells blocked the protective effect of TAMs against gemcitabine. These results provide the first evidence of a paracrine effect of TAMs, which mediates acquired resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Modulation of macrophage trafficking or inhibition of CDA may offer a new strategy for augmenting the response of PDA to chemotherapy. PMID:23995783

Weizman, N; Krelin, Y; Shabtay-Orbach, A; Amit, M; Binenbaum, Y; Wong, R J; Gil, Z

2014-07-17

337

Mutations in the human adenosine deaminase gene that affect protein structure and RNA splicing.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (ADA; adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) deficiency is one cause of the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency. To identify mutations responsible for ADA deficiency, we synthesized cDNAs to ADA mRNAs from two cell lines, GM2756 and GM2825A, derived from ADA-deficient immunodeficient patients. Sequence analysis of GM2756 cDNA clones revealed a different point mutation in each allele that causes amino acid changes of alanine to valine and arginine to histidine. One allele of GM2825A also has a point mutation that causes an alanine to valine substitution. The other allele of GM2825A was found to produce an mRNA in which exon 4 had been spliced out but had no other detrimental mutations. S1 nuclease mapping of GM2825A mRNAs showed equal abundance of the full-length ADA mRNA and the ADA mRNA that was missing exon 4. Several of the ADA cDNA clones extended 5' of the major initiation start site, indicating multiple start sites for ADA transcription. The point mutations in GM2756 and GM2825A and the absence of exon 4 in GM2825A appear to be directly responsible for the ADA deficiency. Comparison of a number of normal and mutant ADA cDNA sequences showed a number of changes in the third base of codons. These changes do not affect the amino acid sequence. Analyses of ADA cDNAs from different cell lines detected aberrant RNA species that either included intron 7 or excluded exon 7. Their presence is a result of aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and is not related to mutations that cause ADA deficiency. PMID:3475710

Akeson, A L; Wiginton, D A; States, J C; Perme, C M; Dusing, M R; Hutton, J J

1987-08-01

338

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia media of consistently high quality is essential for the genetic manipulation of yeast. Autoclaving coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

Winston, Fred

339

The intronome of budding yeasts.  

PubMed

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors. PMID:21819948

Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-01-01

340

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

341

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent\\u000a a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25%\\u000a of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces.

Jose Manuel Ageitos; Juan Andres Vallejo; Patricia Veiga-Crespo; Tomas G. Villa

2011-01-01

342

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

343

Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

1992-01-01

344

Comparison of adenosine deaminase levels in serum and synovial fluid between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme being involved in purine metabolism and plays a significant role in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of adenosine deaminase levels in differentiating between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Material and methods Thirty patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 osteoarthritis patients enrolled the study. They were matched in sex and age. Using the ROC curve, we determined the optimal serum and synovial cutoff for rheumatoid effusion. Results The results showed a statistically significant difference between ADA levels in joint effusion and serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (p<0.001). Synovial fluid cutoff value for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis was 20 with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 80% and the serum cutoff value was 15 with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 53.3%. Area under ROC curve for synovial ADA, ESR and CRP co-linearity was 99%. Conclusion We concluded that synovial total ADA assay can be a sensitive and specific test, being suitable for rapid diagnosis of rheumatoid effusions. PMID:22567181

Zakeri, Zahra; Izadi, Shahrokh; Niazi, Abassali; Bari, Zohre; Zendeboodi, Soodabeh; Shakiba, Mansoor; Mashhadi, Mohammadali; Narouie, Behzad; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad

2012-01-01

345

Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) gene specifies transcripts that initiate from a constitutively active alternative promoter.  

PubMed

The human ADAR1 gene specifies two size forms of RNA-specific adenosine deaminase, an interferon (IFN) inducible approximately 150 kDa protein and a constitutively expressed N-terminally truncated approximately 110 kDa protein, encoded by transcripts with alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters. We have now identified a new class of ADAR1 transcripts, with alternative 5'-structures and a deduced coding capacity for the approximately 110 kDa protein. Nuclease protection and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) revealed five major ADAR1 transcriptional start sites that mapped within the previously identified and unusually large (approximately 1.6 kb) exon 2. These transcripts were observed with RNA from human amnion U cells and placenta tissue. Their abundance was not affected by IFN-alpha treatment of U cells in culture. Transfection analysis identified a functional promoter within human genomic DNA that mapped to the proximal exon 2 region of the ADAR1 gene. Promoter activity was not affected by IFN. These results suggest that transcripts encoding the constitutively expressed approximately 110 kDa form of the ADAR1 editing enzyme are initiated from multiple promoters, including one within exon 2, that collectively contribute to the high basal level of deaminase activity observed in nuclei of mammalian cells. PMID:11111054

Kawakubo, K; Samuel, C E

2000-11-27

346

Guanine repeat-containing sequences confer transcription-dependent instability in an orientation-specific manner in yeast  

PubMed Central

Non-B DNA structures are a major contributor to the genomic instability associated with repetitive sequences. Immunoglobulin switch Mu (S?) region sequence is comprised of guanine-rich repeats and has high potential for forming G4 DNA, in which one strand of DNA folds into an array of guanine quartets. Taking advantage of the genetic tractability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a recombination assay to investigate mechanisms involved in maintaining stability of G-rich repetitive sequence. By embedding S? sequence within recombination substrates under the control of a tetracycline-regulatable promoter, we demonstrate that the rate and orientation of transcription both affect the stability of S? sequence. In particular, the greatest instability was observed under high-transcription conditions when the S? sequence was oriented with the C-rich strand as the transcription template. The effect of transcription orientation was enhanced in the absence of the Type IB topoiosmerase Top1, possibly due to enhanced R-loop formation. Loss of Sgs1 helicase and RNase H activity also increased instability, suggesting they may cooperatively function to reduce the formation of non-B DNA structures in highly transcribed regions. Finally, the S? sequence was unstable when transcription elongation was perturbed due to a defective THO complex. In a THO-deficient background, there was further exacerbation of orientation-dependent instability associated with the ectopically expressed, single-strand cytosine deaminase AID. The implications of our findings to understanding instability associated with potential G4 DNA forming sequences are discussed. PMID:21813340

Kim, Nayun; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

2011-01-01

347

Understanding the structural and dynamic consequences of DNA epigenetic modifications: Computational insights into cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation.  

PubMed

We report a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of up to a microsecond combined simulation time designed to probe epigenetically modified DNA sequences. More specifically, by monitoring the effects of methylation and hydroxymethylation of cytosine in different DNA sequences, we show, for the first time, that DNA epigenetic modifications change the molecule's dynamical landscape, increasing the propensity of DNA toward different values of twist and/or roll/tilt angles (in relation to the unmodified DNA) at the modification sites. Moreover, both the extent and position of different modifications have significant effects on the amount of structural variation observed. We propose that these conformational differences, which are dependent on the sequence environment, can provide specificity for protein binding. PMID:25625845

Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Gouveia, Leonor; Kanna, Charan Raju; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Platts, Jamie A; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

2014-12-01

348

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase from Haemophilus aegyptius bound covalently to DNA.  

PubMed

A DNA (cytosine)-5-methyltransferase from Haemophilus aegyptius (M.Hae III), which catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to DNA, has been crystallized as a covalent complex with a suicide oligonucleotide substrate. Crystals of the co-complex were grown by vapor diffusion with hanging droplets, using polyethylene glycol 3500 as the precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1); the unit cell parameters are a = 57.6 A, b = 108.0 A, c = 155.8 A with two protein-DNA complexes in the asymmetric unit. Complete sets of native and derivative data have been collected to 2.7 A using a laboratory source. PMID:8176750

Reinisch, K M; Chen, L; Verdine, G L; Lipscomb, W N

1994-05-13

349

HIV-1 Vif protein blocks the cytidine deaminase activity of B-cell specific AID in E. coli by a similar mechanism of action.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Vif protein protects viral replication in non-permissive cells by inducing degradation of APOBEC3G via ubiquitination and proteasomal pathway, although new studies indicate a putative role in Vif's direct inhibition of APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G is member of a homologous family of proteins with cytidine deaminase activity expressed with characteristic tissue specificity, that in humans consist of APOBEC1, APOBEC2, APOBEC3A-H, APOBEC4 and the activation-induced deaminase (AID), a B lymphoid protein necessary for somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and class switch recombination. In this work we show that Vif can counteract AID's activity in E. coli in absence of specific eukaryotic co-factors necessary for AID induced somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and to stimulate class switch recombination in B-cells. We show that AID inhibition is mediated by a direct protein-protein interaction via unique amino acid D118 an homologous mutant responsible for the species-specific restriction of HIV-1 Vif protein existent for APOBEC3G. These results raise the hypothesis that Vif related proteins can act as a broad inhibitor of deaminase activity. Moreover as AID and Vif evolved in different cellular environments, these results may indicate that Vif related proteins might mimic cellular factors that interact with a structural conserved domain of cytidine deaminases during evolution. PMID:16580072

Santa-Marta, Mariana; Aires da Silva, Frederico; Fonseca, Ana Margarida; Rato, Sylvie; Goncalves, Joao

2007-01-01

350

Evaluation of adenosine deaminase activity and antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 in cerebrospinal fluid and the radioactive bromide partition test for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different biochemical and serological tests have been described recently for the early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. None of these tests has yet gained widespread acceptance in clinical medicine or in microbiology laboratories. To investigate this problem we evaluated adenosine deaminase activity (ADA), an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects antibody to antigen 5 of

Y M Coovadia; A Dawood; M E Ellis; H M Coovadia; T M Daniel

1986-01-01

351

The influence of phosphatidate bilayers on pig heart AMP deaminase. Crucial role of pH-dependent lipid-phase transition.  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidate bilayers composed of dilauroylphosphatidate, dimyristoylphosphatidate, dipalmitoylphosphatidate and dioleoylphosphatidate were prepared. Their interaction with AMP deaminase isolated from pig heart was investigated. Dioleoylphosphatidate bilayers were found to exert non-competitive inhibition on the AMP deaminase with a Ki of 15 x 10(-6) M. This inhibition is three orders of magnitude stronger than that exerted by orthophosphate. The phosphatidate species containing saturated fatty acids were either non-inhibitory or inhibited enzyme activity rather poorly. However, alkalinization of the medium from pH 6.5 to pH 7.9 led to the inhibition of pig heart AMP deaminase by dilauroylphosphatidate bilayers. This was accompanied by the fluidization of the saturated phosphatidate species, i.e. the lowering of their phase transition temperature in alkaline pH, as measured by light-scattering and fluorescence scans. The possible significance of these findings for the regulation of AMP deaminase activity in vivo by natural membranes is discussed. PMID:3214434

Wo?niak, M; Kossowska, E; Purzycka-Preis, J; Zydowo, M M

1988-01-01

352

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

2012-09-01

353

Adenosine Deaminase Activity Is a Sensitive Marker for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleuritis in Patients with Very Low CD4 Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adenosine Deaminase Activity (ADA) is a commonly used marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. There has been concern about its usefulness in immunocompromised patients, especially HIV positive patients with very low CD4 counts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of ADA in pleural fluid in patients with low CD4 counts. Materials and Methods:

Kamaldeen Baba; Anwar A. Hoosen; Nina Langeland; Anne M. Dyrhol-Riise

2008-01-01

354

Recombinant protein production in yeasts.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production is a multibillion-dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of a production host. While one single perfect host for every protein does not exist, several expression systems ranging from bacterial hosts to mammalian cells have been established. Among them, yeast cell factories combine the advantages of being single cells, such as fast growth and easy genetic manipulation, as well as eukaryotic features including a secretory pathway leading to correct protein processing and post-translational modifications. In this respect, especially the engineering of yeast glycosylation to produce glycoproteins of human-like glycan structures is of great interest. Additionally, different attempts of cellular engineering as well as the design of different production processes that are leading to improved productivities are presented. With the advent of cheaper next-generation sequencing techniques, systems biotechnology approaches focusing on genome scale analyses will advance and accelerate yeast cell factories and thus recombinant protein production processes in the near future. In this review we summarize advantages and limitations of the main and most promising yeast hosts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Hansenula polymorpha as those presently used in large scale production of heterologous proteins. PMID:22160907

Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola; Dato, Laura; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo

2012-01-01

355

Diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy using the biologic parameters adenosine deaminase, lysozyme, and interferon gamma.  

PubMed

We compared the parameters pleural adenosine deaminase (PADA, determined in 405 patients), the PADA/serum ADA ratio (P/SADA; 276 cases), pleural lysozyme (PLYS, 276 cases), the PLYS/serum LYS ratio (P/SLYS; 276 cases), and pleural interferon gamma (IFN, 145 cases) regarding their ability to differentiate tuberculous pleural effusions from others. The 405 pleural effusions were classified by previously established criteria as tuberculous (91), neoplastic (110), parapneumonic (58), empyemas (10), transudates (88), or miscellaneous (48). The intermean differences between the tuberculous group and each of the others were statistically significant for all five parameters (p < 0.01 for PLYS and P/SLYS with respect to the empyema group; p < 0.001 otherwise), except for PADA and P/SADA with respect to the empyema group. All the tuberculous pleurisy cases had PADA values of 47 U/L or more, as compared to only 5 percent of the other cases (sensitivity, 100 percent; specificity, 95 percent). P/SADA was above 1.5 in 85.7 percent of tuberculous effusions and 11 percent of the others (sensitivity, 85.7 percent; specificity, 89 percent). PLYS, with a diagnostic threshold of 15 g/ml, had a sensitivity of 85.7 percent and a specificity of 61.6 percent; P/SLYS, with a threshold of 1.1, had a sensitivity of 67.3 percent and a specificity of 90.3 percent; and IFN, with a threshold of 140 pg/ml, had a sensitivity of 94.2 percent and a specificity of 91.8 percent. The lowest misclassification rate was achieved by PADA, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) with respect to P/SADA, PLYS, and P/SLYS, but not with respect to IFN. The only significant pairwise correlations among these parameters were between P/SLYS and PADA and between P/SLYS and P/SADA. We conclude that PADA and IFN are useful parameters for early diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy, and that the other parameters considered have no advantages over PADA and IFN for this purpose (though the high specificity of P/SLYS may be noted). PMID:8432137

Valdés, L; San José, E; Alvarez, D; Sarandeses, A; Pose, A; Chomón, B; Alvarez-Dobaño, J M; Salgueiro, M; Rodríguez Suárez, J R

1993-02-01

356

Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica  

PubMed Central

Background The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of a few vertebrate species that have developed natural freeze tolerance, surviving days or weeks with 65–70% of its total body water frozen in extracellular ice masses. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia. Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase (AMPD) plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Results Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to ~1.0) and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg·ATP and Mg·ADP and inhibited by Mg·GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated) enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5°C) and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose) that accumulates during freezing. Conclusion Maintenance of long term viability under the ischemic conditions in frozen muscle requires attention to the control of cellular energetics. Differential regulatory controls on AMPD by mechanisms including binding to muscle proteins, actions allosteric effectors, glucose and temperature effects and reversible phosphorylation adjust enzyme function for an optimal role in controlling cellular adenylate levels in ischemic frozen muscle. Stable modification of AMPD properties via freeze-responsive phosphorylation may contribute both to AMPD control and to coordinating AMPD function with other enzymes of energy metabolism in cold ischemic muscle. PMID:18430211

Dieni, Christopher A; Storey, Kenneth B

2008-01-01

357

Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.  

PubMed Central

The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID:11772392

Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

2002-01-01

358

Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases.  

PubMed

The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene. PMID:19458006

Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perkovi?, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

2009-08-01

359

Regulation of rat AMP deaminase 3 (isoform C) by development and skeletal muscle fibre type.  

PubMed Central

AMP deaminase (AMPD) is characterized by a multigene family in rodents and man. Highly conserved rat and human AMPD1 and AMPD2 genes produce protein products that exhibit cross-species immunoreactivities (AMPD1, rat isoform A and human isoform M; AMPD2, rat isoform B and human isoform L). A third gene, AMPD3, has been described in humans, but antisera raised against its purified protein product (isoform E) reportedly does not cross-react with a third activity purified from rat tissues (isoform C). This study was designed to address this latter issue by cloning, sequencing and expressing rat AMPD3 cDNA species. Similarly to the human AMPD3 gene, the rat AMPD3 gene produces multiple transcripts that differ at or near their 5' ends. The boundary at which these alternative sequences diverge is precisely conserved in both species. Across the region that is common to all rat and human AMPD3 cDNA species, nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences are 89% and 93% identical respectively, although the rat open reading frame is lacking two separate in-frame codons in the 5' end. Extreme 5' regions between the two species are entirely divergent, and one alternative rat sequence is predicted to confer at least 36 additional N-terminal residues to its encoded AMPD3 polypeptide. A comparison of 3' untranslated regions indicates that the rat sequence is 250 bp longer and contains multiple consensus polyadenylation signals. Examination of relative rat AMPD3 gene expression shows (1) variable patterns of alternative mRNA abundance across adult tissues, (2) developmental regulation in skeletal muscle and liver, and (3) greater mRNA abundance in adult red (soleus) than in mixed (plantaris) and white (outer gastrocnemius) skeletal muscle. Finally, baculoviral expression of rat and human AMPD3 proteins produces enzymes that are chromatographically and kinetically similar. Moreover, both recombinant activities immunoreact with anti-C and anti-E serum. These combined results demonstrate that rat isoform C and human isoform E are homologous cross-species AMPD3 proteins. PMID:9291127

Mahnke-Zizelman, D K; D'cunha, J; Wojnar, J M; Brogley, M A; Sabina, R L

1997-01-01

360

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

361

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

362

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

with 5 g yeast supplement (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biosafe) per day in a latin square design. Diets by yeast treatment. Supplementation of yeast in- creased acetate: propionate ratio, butyrate, isoacids, p number in the rumen fluid rapidly declined when dietary yeast was ceased. Further- more, yeast cells

Boyer, Edmond

363

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses a key early step of the haem-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue. Since PBGD catalyses a reaction which is common to the biosynthesis of both haem and chlorophyll, structural studies of a plant PBGD enzyme offer great potential for the discovery of novel herbicides. Until recently, structural data have only been available for the Escherichia coli and human forms of the enzyme. Expression in E. coli of a codon-optimized gene for Arabidopsis thaliana PBGD has permitted for the first time the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the enzyme from a plant species at high resolution. PMID:23192030

Roberts, A.; Gill, R.; Hussey, R. J.; Mikolajek, H.; Erskine, P. T.; Cooper, J. B.; Wood, S. P.; Chrystal, E. J. T.; Shoolingin-Jordan, P. M.

2012-01-01

364

Deep-sequencing identification of the genomic targets of the cytidine deaminase AID and its cofactor RPA in B lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The cytidine deaminase AID hypermutates immunoglobulin genes but can also target oncogenes, leading to tumorigenesis. The extent of AID’s promiscuity and its predilection for immunoglobulin genes are unknown. We report here that AID interacted broadly with promoter-proximal sequences associated with stalled polymerases and chromatin-activating marks. In contrast, genomic occupancy of replication protein A (RPA), an AID cofactor, was restricted to immunoglobulin genes. The recruitment of RPA to the immunoglobulin loci was facilitated by phosphorylation of AID at Ser38 and Thr140. We propose that stalled polymerases recruit AID, thereby resulting in low frequencies of hypermutation across the B cell genome. Efficient hypermutation and switch recombination required AID phosphorylation and correlated with recruitment of RPA. Our findings provide a rationale for the oncogenic role of AID in B cell malignancy. PMID:21113164

Yamane, Arito; Resch, Wolfgang; Kuo, Nan; Kuchen, Stefan; Li, Zhiyu; Sun, Hong-wei; Robbiani, Davide F; McBride, Kevin; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

2010-01-01

365

Deep-sequencing identification of the genomic targets of the cytidine deaminase AID and its cofactor RPA in B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The cytidine deaminase AID hypermutates immunoglobulin genes but can also target oncogenes, leading to tumorigenesis. The extent of AID's promiscuity and its predilection for immunoglobulin genes are unknown. We report here that AID interacted broadly with promoter-proximal sequences associated with stalled polymerases and chromatin-activating marks. In contrast, genomic occupancy of replication protein A (RPA), an AID cofactor, was restricted to immunoglobulin genes. The recruitment of RPA to the immunoglobulin loci was facilitated by phosphorylation of AID at Ser38 and Thr140. We propose that stalled polymerases recruit AID, thereby resulting in low frequencies of hypermutation across the B cell genome. Efficient hypermutation and switch recombination required AID phosphorylation and correlated with recruitment of RPA. Our findings provide a rationale for the oncogenic role of AID in B cell malignancy. PMID:21113164

Yamane, Arito; Resch, Wolfgang; Kuo, Nan; Kuchen, Stefan; Li, Zhiyu; Sun, Hong-wei; Robbiani, Davide F; McBride, Kevin; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

2011-01-01

366

AID upmutants isolated using a high-throughput screen highlight the immunity/cancer balance limiting DNA deaminase activity.  

PubMed

DNA deaminases underpin pathways in antibody diversification (AID) and anti-viral immunity (APOBEC3s). Here we show how a high-throughput bacterial papillation assay can be used to screen for AID mutants with increased catalytic activity. The upmutations focus on a small number of residues, some highlighting regions implicated in AID's substrate interaction. Many of the upmutations bring the sequence of AID closer to that of APOBEC3s. AID upmutants can yield increased antibody diversification, raising the possibility that modification of AID's specific activity might be used to regulate antibody diversification in vivo. However, upmutation of AID also led to an increased frequency of chromosomal translocations, suggesting that AID's specific activity may have been limited by the risk of genomic instability. PMID:19543289

Wang, Meng; Yang, Zizhen; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S

2009-07-01

367

Inhibition of AMP deaminase activity does not improve glucose control in rodent models of insulin resistance or diabetes.  

PubMed

Inhibition of AMP deaminase (AMPD) holds the potential to elevate intracellular adenosine and AMP levels and, therefore, to augment adenosine signaling and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To test the latter hypothesis, novel AMPD pan inhibitors were synthesized and explored using a panel of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models focusing on confirming AMPD inhibitory potency and the potential of AMPD inhibition to improve glucose control in vivo. Repeated dosing of selected inhibitors did not improve glucose control in insulin-resistant or diabetic rodent disease models. Mice with genetic deletion of the muscle-specific isoform Ampd1 did not showany favorable metabolic phenotype despite being challenged with high-fat diet feeding. Therefore, these results do not support the development of AMPD inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25459661

Admyre, Therese; Amrot-Fors, Lena; Andersson, Maria; Bauer, Martin; Bjursell, Mikael; Drmota, Tomas; Hallen, Stefan; Hartleib-Geschwindner, Judith; Lindmark, Bo; Liu, Jianming; Löfgren, Lars; Rohman, Mattias; Selmi, Nidhal; Wallenius, Kristina

2014-11-20

368

Sterols in yeast subcellular fractions.  

PubMed

Yeast is the most primitive organism synthesizing substantial amounts of sterols. Because of this eucaryotic organism's versatility in growth conditions, ease of culture, well-defined genetic mechanism, and characteristic subcellar architecture, it is readily applied to studies of the role of sterols in the general economy of the cell. Sterols exist in two major forms, as the free sterol, or esterified with long chain fatty acids. The importance of sterols for this organism can be demonstrated using a naturally occurring antimycotic azasterol. This agent inhibits yeast growth. Three effects are seen on sterol synthesis: inhibition of the enzymes delta14-reductase, sterol methyltransferase, and methylene reductase. Cells cultured on respiratory substrates are more sensitive to inhibition than are cells growing on glucose. We have demonstrated a relationship between respiratory competency and sterol biosynthesis in this organism. Many mutants altered in sterol synthesis are respirationally defective and must grow fermentatively. One clone has temperature conditional respiration. Experiments with purified mitochondria, prepared from this mutant and its isogenic wildtype, show that the mutant organism is able to respire at the higher temperature but lacks the ability to couple respiration to phosphorylation. No similar loss is seen in the wild-type clones. Data are given which support the proposal that, for inclusion in mitochondrial structures, yeast cells may discriminate among sterols available from the total sterol pool in favor of ergosterol. PMID:364234

Parks, L W; McLean-Bowen, C; Taylor, F R; Hough, S

1978-10-01

369

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

370

Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.  

PubMed

The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

2014-12-01

371

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

372

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

373

Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties, we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences, namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine, respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast, capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly, the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition, free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here. PMID:25494783

Shanak, Siba; Helms, Volkhard

2014-12-14

374

Gas-phase interactions between lead(II) ions and cytosine: tandem mass spectrometry and infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

Gas-phase interactions between Pb(2+) ions and cytosine (C) were studied by combining tandem mass spectrometry, infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Both singly and doubly charged complexes were generated by electrospray. The [Pb(C)-H](+) complex was extensively studied, and this study shows that two structures, involving the interaction of the metal with the deprotonated canonical keto-amino tautomer of cytosine, are generated in the gas phase; the prominent structure is the bidentate form involving both the N1 and O2 electronegative centers. The DFT study also points out a significant charge transfer from the nucleobase to the low-lying p orbitals of the metal and a strong polarization of the base upon complexation. The various potential energy surfaces explored to account for the fragmentation observed are consistent with the high abundance of the [PbNH2](+) fragment ion. PMID:25044836

Salpin, Jean-Yves; Haldys, Violette; Guillaumont, Sébastien; Tortajada, Jeanine; Hurtado, Marcela; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar

2014-10-01

375

Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

McGinnis, M. R.

1996-01-01

376

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

377

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe con- struction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier,

K. F. Lowes; C. A. Shearman; J. Payne; D. MacKenzie; D. B. Archer; R. J. Merry; M. J. Gasson

2000-01-01

378

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based model to study yeast population in batch cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based simulator, models the evolution of a yeast population by setting up rules of behaviour for each individual cell according to their own biological rules and characteristics. It takes into account the uptake, metabolism, budding reproduction and viability of the yeast cells, over a period of time in the bulk of a liquid medium, occupying a three dimensional

Marta Ginovart; Joan Xifré; Daniel López; Moises Silbert

379

Adsorption of Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil on Sulfide-Modified Montmorillonite: FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffractometry Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the interactions of nucleic acid bases with and adsorption on clays were studied at two pHs (2.00, 7.00) using different techniques. As shown by Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies and X-ray diffractometry, the most important finding of this work is that nucleic acid bases penetrate into the interlayer of the clays and oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+, thus, this interaction cannot be regarded as a simple physical adsorption. For the two pHs the order of the adsorption of nucleic acid bases on the clays was: adenine ? cytosine > thymine > uracil. The adsorption of adenine and cytosine on clays increased with decreasing of the pH. For unaltered montmorillonite this result could be explained by electrostatic forces between adenine/cytosine positively charged and clay negatively charged. However for montmorillonite modified with Na2S, probably van der Waals forces also play an important role since both adenine/cytosine and clay were positively charged. FT-IR spectra showed that the interaction between nucleic acid bases and clays was through NH+ or NH{2/+} groups. X-ray diffractograms showed that nucleic acid bases adsorbed on clays were distributed into the interlayer surface, edge sites and external surface functional groups (aluminol, silanol) EPR spectra showed that the intensity of the line g ? 2 increased probably because the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ by nucleic acid bases and intensity of the line g = 4.1 increased due to the interaction of Fe3+ with nucleic acid bases. Mössbauer spectra showed a large decreased on the Fe2+ doublet area of the clays due to the reaction of nucleic acid bases with Fe2+.

Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Berndt, Graciele; de Souza Junior, Ivan G.; de Souza, Cláudio M. D.; Paesano, Andrea; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Santana, Henrique; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

2011-10-01

380

A Role for MAPK\\/ERK in Sympathetic Neuron Survival: Protection against a p53Dependent, JNK-Independent Induction of Apoptosis by Cytosine Arabinoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimitotic nucleoside cytosine arabinoside (araC) causes apoptosis in postmitotic neurons for which two mechanisms have been suggested: (1) araC directly inhibits a trophic factor- maintained signaling pathway required for survival, effectively mimicking trophic factor withdrawal; and (2) araC induces ap- optosis by a p53-dependent mechanism distinct from trophic factor withdrawal. In rat sympathetic neurons, we found that araC treatment

Christopher N. G. Anderson; Aviva M. Tolkovsky

1999-01-01

381

Adsorption of adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil on sulfide-modified montmorillonite: FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry studies.  

PubMed

In the present work the interactions of nucleic acid bases with and adsorption on clays were studied at two pHs (2.00, 7.00) using different techniques. As shown by Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies and X-ray diffractometry, the most important finding of this work is that nucleic acid bases penetrate into the interlayer of the clays and oxidize Fe(2+) to Fe(3+), thus, this interaction cannot be regarded as a simple physical adsorption. For the two pHs the order of the adsorption of nucleic acid bases on the clays was: adenine???cytosine?>?thymine?>?uracil. The adsorption of adenine and cytosine on clays increased with decreasing of the pH. For unaltered montmorillonite this result could be explained by electrostatic forces between adenine/cytosine positively charged and clay negatively charged. However for montmorillonite modified with Na(2)S, probably van der Waals forces also play an important role since both adenine/cytosine and clay were positively charged. FT-IR spectra showed that the interaction between nucleic acid bases and clays was through NH(+) or NH (2) (+) groups. X-ray diffractograms showed that nucleic acid bases adsorbed on clays were distributed into the interlayer surface, edge sites and external surface functional groups (aluminol, silanol) EPR spectra showed that the intensity of the line g???2 increased probably because the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) by nucleic acid bases and intensity of the line g?=?4.1 increased due to the interaction of Fe(3+) with nucleic acid bases. Mössbauer spectra showed a large decreased on the Fe(2+) doublet area of the clays due to the reaction of nucleic acid bases with Fe(2+). PMID:21717172

Carneiro, Cristine E A; Berndt, Graciele; de Souza Junior, Ivan G; de Souza, Cláudio M D; Paesano, Andrea; da Costa, Antonio C S; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Santana, Henrique; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

2011-10-01

382

Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2012-01-01

383

Methylation by a Unique ?-class N4-Cytosine Methyltransferase Is Required for DNA Transformation of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM6725  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic microorganisms capable of using complex substrates offer special advantages for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. Members of the Gram-positive bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are anaerobic thermophiles with optimum growth temperatures between 65°C and 78°C and are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known. In fact, they efficiently use biomass non-pretreated as their sole carbon source and in successive rounds of application digest 70% of total switchgrass substrate. The ability to genetically manipulate these organisms is a prerequisite to engineering them for use in conversion of these complex substrates to products of interest as well as identifying gene products critical for their ability to utilize non-pretreated biomass. Here, we report the first example of DNA transformation of a member of this genus, C. bescii. We show that restriction of DNA is a major barrier to transformation (in this case apparently absolute) and that methylation with an endogenous unique ?-class N4-Cytosine methyltransferase is required for transformation of DNA isolated from E. coli. The use of modified DNA leads to the development of an efficient and reproducible method for DNA transformation and the combined frequencies of transformation and recombination allow marker replacement between non-replicating plasmids and chromosomal genes providing the basis for rapid and efficient methods of genetic manipulation. PMID:22928042

Chung, Daehwan; Farkas, Joel; Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Olivar, Estefania; Westpheling, Janet

2012-01-01

384

Methylation by a unique ?-class N4-cytosine methyltransferase is required for DNA transformation of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM6725.  

PubMed

Thermophilic microorganisms capable of using complex substrates offer special advantages for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. Members of the gram-positive bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are anaerobic thermophiles with optimum growth temperatures between 65°C and 78°C and are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known. In fact, they efficiently use biomass non-pretreated as their sole carbon source and in successive rounds of application digest 70% of total switchgrass substrate. The ability to genetically manipulate these organisms is a prerequisite to engineering them for use in conversion of these complex substrates to products of interest as well as identifying gene products critical for their ability to utilize non-pretreated biomass. Here, we report the first example of DNA transformation of a member of this genus, C. bescii. We show that restriction of DNA is a major barrier to transformation (in this case apparently absolute) and that methylation with an endogenous unique ?-class N4-Cytosine methyltransferase is required for transformation of DNA isolated from E. coli. The use of modified DNA leads to the development of an efficient and reproducible method for DNA transformation and the combined frequencies of transformation and recombination allow marker replacement between non-replicating plasmids and chromosomal genes providing the basis for rapid and efficient methods of genetic manipulation. PMID:22928042

Chung, Daehwan; Farkas, Joel; Huddleston, Jennifer R; Olivar, Estefania; Westpheling, Janet

2012-01-01

385

Cytosine Arabinoside and Mitoxantrone Followed by Second Allogeneic Transplant for the Treatment of Children With Refractory Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative option for most patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). However, persistent disease and relapse rates after transplant range from 26% to 58%. We report the successful use of second HSCT after preparation with mitoxantrone and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) for patients with refractory or recurrent disease. Between 1993 and 2006, 5 children who underwent HSCT at our institution as initial therapy for JMML had persistent disease or relapsed. Pre-HSCT conditioning varied and donors were either HLA-matched siblings (n=2) or matched unrelated donors (n=3). After initial HSCT, they subsequently received high-dose Ara-C (3 g/m2 IV) every 12 hours on days ?8 through ?3 and mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2/d IV) on days ?8, ?7, ?6 followed by second HSCT from their original donors. All 5 patients are alive at 88, 179, 199, 234, and 246 months with no evidence of JMML, no significant toxicity, and 100% donor chimera as determined by PCR short-tandem repeat analysis. Our experience supports second transplant utilizing high-dose Ara-C and mitoxantrone in children with JMML who do not respond or relapse after first transplant. PMID:24322499

Patel, Sachit A.; Grovas, Alfred C.; Gordon, Bruce G.; Harper, James L.; Warkentin, Phyllis I.; Wisecarver, James L.; Sanger, Warren G.; Coccia, Peter F.

2014-01-01

386

Theoretical investigation of the proton transfer mechanism in guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine base pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio constrained molecular dynamics and metadynamics were employed to investigate the mechanism of proton transfer in guanine-cytosine (GC) and adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs in the gas phase at room temperature. It is shown that double proton transfer (DPT) in the GC base pair is a concerted and asynchronous mechanism, and three pathways with a similar free energy barrier start from the canonical GC and end up in its "rare" imino-enol tautomer. The activation energy for the route that the DPT starts from the hydrogen atom movement in the O6(G)-N4(C) bridge is approximately 1.0 kcal/mol higher than that which starts in the N1(G)-N3(C) bridge. For the AT base pair, a stable intermediate state is identified in the two-dimensional free energy surface of the DPT event. We found that the movement of the hydrogen atom in the N1(A)-N3(T) bridge occurs before the movement of the hydrogen atom in the N6(A)-O4(T) bridge. Thus, it is demonstrated that the DPT in AT base pairs is a stepwise and an asynchronous mechanism.

Xiao, Shiyan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yuan; Lin, Xiangsong; Liang, Haojun

2012-11-01

387

How the CCA-Adding Enzyme Selects Adenine over Cytosine at Position 76 of tRNA  

SciTech Connect

CCA-adding enzymes [ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyltransferases] add CCA onto the 3' end of transfer RNA (tRNA) precursors without using a nucleic acid template. Although the mechanism by which cytosine (C) is selected at position 75 of tRNA has been established, the mechanism by which adenine (A) is selected at position 76 remains elusive. Here, we report five cocrystal structures of the enzyme complexed with both a tRNA mimic and nucleoside triphosphates under catalytically active conditions. These structures suggest that adenosine 5'-monophosphate is incorporated onto the A76 position of the tRNA via a carboxylate-assisted, one-metal-ion mechanism with aspartate 110 functioning as a general base. The discrimination against incorporation of cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) at position 76 arises from improper placement of the {alpha} phosphate of the incoming CTP, which results from the interaction of C with arginine 224 and prevents the nucleophilic attack by the 3' hydroxyl group of cytidine75.

B Pan; Y Xiong; T Steitz

2011-12-31

388

Cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone followed by second allogeneic transplant for the treatment of children with refractory juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative option for most patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). However, persistent disease and relapse rates after transplant range from 26% to 58%. We report the successful use of second HSCT after preparation with mitoxantrone and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) for patients with refractory or recurrent disease. Between 1993 and 2006, 5 children who underwent HSCT at our institution as initial therapy for JMML had persistent disease or relapsed. Pre-HSCT conditioning varied and donors were either HLA-matched siblings (n=2) or matched unrelated donors (n=3). After initial HSCT, they subsequently received high-dose Ara-C (3 g/m IV) every 12 hours on days -8 through -3 and mitoxantrone (10 mg/m/d IV) on days -8, -7, -6 followed by second HSCT from their original donors. All 5 patients are alive at 88, 179, 199, 234, and 246 months with no evidence of JMML, no significant toxicity, and 100% donor chimera as determined by PCR short-tandem repeat analysis. Our experience supports second transplant utilizing high-dose Ara-C and mitoxantrone in children with JMML who do not respond or relapse after first transplant. PMID:24322499

Patel, Sachit A; Coulter, Don W; Grovas, Alfred C; Gordon, Bruce G; Harper, James L; Warkentin, Phyllis I; Wisecarver, James L; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F

2014-08-01

389

Application of arabinofuranosyl cytosine in the kinetic analysis and quantitation of DNA repair in human cells after ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a technique whereby 3-h pulses of arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C) and hydroxyurea (HU) are used to analyze the kinetics of repair with time after ultraviolet irradiation in human fibroblasts. We demonstrate that this technique offers a significant improvement over existing repair assays in its ability to visualize between 57 and 100% of all sites undergoing repair in a given period of time. In addition, kinetic analyses of repair are more easily made and yield more information than techniques such as repair replication or unscheduled DNA synthesis. We have also examined the nature of the inhibition event by ara-C and have determined that repair breaks accumulate in the presence of ara-C and HU only up to a certain time beyond which no further breaks appear. The time needed to reach this saturation point depends on the number of sites undergoing repair during the treatment time. This observation is discussed with respect to a possible mechanism of excision repair inhibition by ara-C and HU.

Snyder, R.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Regabn, J.D.

1981-08-01

390

Genomic Change, Retrotransposon Mobilization and Extensive Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Brassica napus Introgressions from Two Intertribal Hybridizations  

PubMed Central

Hybridization and introgression represent important means for the transfer and/or de novo origination of traits and play an important role in facilitating speciation and plant breeding. Two sets of introgression lines in Brassica napus L. were previously established by its intertribal hybridizations with two wild species and long-term selection. In this study, the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) were used to determine their genomic change, retrotransposon mobilization and cytosine methylation alteration in these lines. The genomic change revealed by the loss or gain of AFLP bands occurred for ?10% of the total bands amplified in the two sets of introgressions, while no bands specific for wild species were detected. The new and absent SSAP bands appeared for 9 out of 11 retrotransposons analyzed, with low frequency of new bands and their total percentage of about 5% in both sets. MSAP analysis indicated that methylation changes were common in these lines (33.4–39.8%) and the hypermethylation was more frequent than hypomethylation. Our results suggested that certain extents of genetic and epigenetic alterations were induced by hybridization and alien DNA introgression. The cryptic mechanism of these changes and potential application of these lines in breeding were also discussed. PMID:23468861

Zhang, Xueli; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Sun, Genlou; Li, Zaiyun

2013-01-01

391

High-dose cytosine arabinoside plus etoposide as initial treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia: a single centre study.  

PubMed

In a single centre, 52 newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under the age of 56 years received induction chemotherapy commencing with high-dose cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and etoposide (Protocol BF11), followed by Ara-C, 6 thioguanine (6TG). A total of 67% of patients entered remission using these drugs. An anthracycline was added for those patients not in remission. The overall remission rate (CR) was 86.5% (45/52), with a minimum follow-up of 90 days. Patients are hospitalised for relatively short periods, and consequently require less blood product and antibiotic support. Patients in continuing first remission following induction with Ara-C and etoposide are similar in number to those in continuing first remission who initially received an anthracycline. This would imply that the efficiency of Ara-C and etoposide in inducing long-term disease-term survival is comparable with anthracycline-containing regimens. We conclude that high-dose Ara-C and etoposide used in the first induction cycle for treating AML have good antileukaemic effect with acceptable toxicity. PMID:2245176

Parikh, P; Powles, R; Treleaven, J; Helenglass, G; Gore, M; Rose, M; Talbot, D; Milan, S; Smith, C; Pinkerton, R

1990-11-01

392

Synthesis and Biochemical Testing of 3-(Carboxyphenylethyl)imidazo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazines as Inhibitors of AMP Deaminase.  

PubMed

C-Ribosyl imidazo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazines and 3-[2-(3-carboxyphenyl)ethyl]-3,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8-ols represent two classes of known AMP deaminase inhibitors. A combination of the aglycone from the former class with the ribose phosphate mimic from the latter led to the 3-[2-(3-carboxyphenyl)ethyl]imidazo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazines, which represent a new class of AMP deaminase inhibitors. The best compound, 3-[2-(3-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthyl)ethyl]imidazo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine (8), was a good inhibitor of all three human AMPD recombinant isozymes (AMPD1, AMPD2, and AMPD3; IC50 = 0.9-5.7 ?M) but a poor inhibitor of the plant recombinant enzyme (Arabidopsis FAC1; IC50 = 200 ?M). PMID:24900209

Lindell, Stephen D; Maechling, Simon; Sabina, Richard L

2010-09-01

393

YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database.  

PubMed

The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated 'metabolomic' database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

2012-01-01

394

Cardiac muscle AMP-deaminase from a 10-year-old male heterozygous for the AMPD1 C34T mutation.  

PubMed

A C34T mutation in the AMPD1 gene is proposed to cause local or systemic augmentations in blood adenosine level and improvement of prognoses in heart diseases like congestive heart failure or heart ischemic disease. This study examines some physico-chemical properties of AMP-deaminase isolated from cardiac muscle of a 10-year-old boy heterozygote for this mutation. PMID:20544536

Rybakowska, I; Baku?a, S; Klimek, J; Milczarek, R; Smolenski, R T; Kaletha, K

2010-06-01

395

Improved growth performance of the mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings using a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase-producing isolate of Pseudoalteromonas maricaloris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from the mangrove Avicennia\\u000a marina rhizosphere that grows along the Abu Dhabi coast, United Arab Emirates (UAE), an isolate of Pseudoalteromonas maricaloris (Wild type strain) (WT) produced relatively high levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in vitro.\\u000a Application of this WT strain under greenhouse conditions to A. marina seedlings significantly (P P in planta endogenous plant

Khaled A. El-Tarabily; Tarek Youssef

396

Azospirillum lipoferum strain AZm5 containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase improves early growth of tomato seedlings under nitrogen deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated the ability of two wild strains of Azospirillum, A. lipoferum AZm5 and A. brasilense VS9, to produce ACC deaminase. We tested the effects of a deficiency and medium doses of nitrogenous fertilizers on the growth\\u000a and physiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. ACE VF55) inoculated with both Azospirillum strains independently. Tomato plants were

Rosalba Esquivel-Cote; Rosa María Ramírez-Gama; Guadalupe Tsuzuki-Reyes; Alma Orozco-Segovia; Pilar Huante

2010-01-01

397

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

PubMed Central

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

2000-01-01

398

Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.  

PubMed

The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required. PMID:16345154

Henry, N

1976-03-01

399

Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

1982-01-01

400

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

401

Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

1988-01-01

402

The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis  

PubMed Central

Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

2014-01-01

403

The yeast expression system for recombinant glycosyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases are increasingly being used for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides. Since these enzymes are difficult to purify from natural sources, expression systems for soluble forms of the recombinant enzymes have been developed. This review focuses on the current state of development of yeast expression systems. Two yeast species have mainly been used, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Safety

Martine Malissard; Steffen Zeng; Eric G. Berger

1999-01-01

404

Production of serpins using yeast expression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpins occupy a unique niche in the field of biology. As more of them are discovered, the need to produce sufficient quantities of each to aid experimental and therapeutic research increases. Yeast expression systems are well suited for the production of recombinant serpins. The genetics of many yeast species is well understood and readily manipulated to induce the targeted over-production

Philip A. Pemberton; Phillip I. Bird

2004-01-01

405

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically  

E-print Network

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

Asbury, Chip

406

Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

2004-01-01

407

Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This submission includes sections for the Preface, Use of this Book, Table of Contents and a chapter entitled Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts, which are to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. This book has been prepared by a team of international ex...

408

Mechanism of interferon action: functionally distinct RNA-binding and catalytic domains in the interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase.  

PubMed Central

The 1,226-amino-acid sequence of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (dsRAD) contains three copies (RI, RII, and RIII) of the highly conserved subdomain R motif commonly found in double-stranded RNA-binding proteins. We have examined the effects of equivalent site-directed mutations in each of the three R-motif copies of dsRAD on RNA-binding activity and adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Mutations of the R motifs were analyzed alone as single mutants and in combination with each other. The results suggest that the RIII copy is the most important of the three R motifs for dsRAD activity and that the RII copy is the least important. The RIII mutant lacked detectable enzymatic activity and displayed greatly diminished RNA-binding activity. Site-directed mutations within the highly conserved CHAE sequence of the postulated C-terminal deaminase catalytic domain destroyed enzymatic activity but did not affect RNA-binding activity. These results indicate that the three copies of the RNA-binding R subdomain are likely functionally distinct from each other and also from the catalytic domain of dsRAD. PMID:8627722

Liu, Y; Samuel, C E

1996-01-01

409

Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins.  

PubMed

Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic bacteria; (d) inhibition of tartrate salt crystallization; (e) interaction with flor wines; (f) prevention of haze; (g) reinforcement of aromatic components; (h) wine enrichment during aging on fine lees; (i) yeast flocculation and autolysis in sparkling wines. Further discoveries related to their enological functions are foreseeable. Yeast-derived mannoproteins may well induce chemical, sensorial and health benefits, thus greatly improving wine quality. PMID:16622788

Caridi, Andrea

2006-01-01

410

Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.  

PubMed

Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

2014-05-20

411

Hydrocortisone in culture protects the blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia from the lethal effects of cytosine arabinoside  

SciTech Connect

The blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) respond to many of the same regulatory mechanisms that control normal hemopoiesis. These include the growth factors that bind to membrane receptors and steroid hormones or vitamins that have intracellular receptors. The authors report the effects in culture of the steroid glucocorticoid hydrocortisone on freshly explanted AML blasts from patients and on two continuous AML cell lines. Only small changes in clonogenic cell numbers in suspension cultures were seen in the presence of hydrocortisone. The most striking effect of the hormone was on the sensitivity of blasts cells to cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). In contrast to the response of AML blast cells to retinoic acid, a ligand for intracellular steroid receptors that sensitizes some blast populations to ara-C, hydrocortisone reduced the toxic effects of the drug. The protective action of hydrocortisone was not mediated through the cell cycle since exposure of blasts to hydrocortisone did not affect the percentage of cells in DNA synthesis as measured with the tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) suicide technique. The hydrocortisone effect could be demonstrated using a pulse (20 min) exposure protocol. Blasts pulsed with increasing specific activities of 3HTdR showed the usual response pattern with an initial loss in plating efficiency to about 50% of control, followed by a plateau, regardless of whether the cells had been exposed to hydrocortisone. Control blasts exposed to increasing ara-C concentrations gave very similar dose-response curves; in striking contrast, blast cells cultured in hydrocortisone, then pulsed with ara-C did not lose colony-forming ability even though the same population was sensitive to 3HTdR.

Yang, G.S.; Wang, C.; Minkin, S.; Minden, M.D.; McCulloch, E.A. (Ontario Cancer Institute, University of Toronto (Canada))

1991-07-01

412

Folding properties of cytosine monophosphate kinase from E. coli indicate stabilization through an additional insert in the NMP binding domain.  

PubMed

The globular 25 kDa protein cytosine monophosphate kinase (CMPK, EC ID: 2.7.4.14) from E. coli belongs to the family of nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases (NMPK). Many proteins of this family share medium to high sequence and high structure similarity including the frequently found ?/? topology. A unique feature of CMPK in the family of NMPKs is the positioning of a single cis-proline residue in the CORE-domain (cis-Pro124) in conjunction with a large insert in the NMP binding domain. This insert is not found in other well studied NMPKs such as AMPK or UMP/CMPK. We have analyzed the folding pathway of CMPK using time resolved tryptophan and FRET fluorescence as well as CD. Our results indicate that unfolding at high urea concentrations is governed by a single process, whereas refolding in low urea concentrations follows at least a three step process which we interpret as follows: Pro124 in the CORE-domain is in cis in the native state (N(c)) and equilibrates with its trans-isomer in the unfolded state (U(c) - U(t)). Under refolding conditions, at least the U(t) species and possibly also the U(c) species undergo a fast initial collapse to form intermediates with significant amount of secondary structure, from which the trans-Pro124 fraction folds to the native state with a 100-fold lower rate constant than the cis-Pro124 species. CMPK thus differs from homologous NMP kinases like UMP/CMP kinase or AMP kinase, where folding intermediates show much lower content of secondary structure. Importantly also unfolding is up to 100-fold faster compared to CMPK. We therefore propose that the stabilizing effect of the long NMP-domain insert in conjunction with a subtle twist in the positioning of a single cis-Pro residue allows for substantial stabilization compared to other NMP kinases with ?/? topology. PMID:24205218

Beitlich, Thorsten; Lorenz, Thorsten; Reinstein, Jochen

2013-01-01

413

Folding Properties of Cytosine Monophosphate Kinase from E. coli Indicate Stabilization through an Additional Insert in the NMP Binding Domain  

PubMed Central

The globular 25 kDa protein cytosine monophosphate kinase (CMPK, EC ID: 2.7.4.14) from E. coli belongs to the family of nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinases (NMPK). Many proteins of this family share medium to high sequence and high structure similarity including the frequently found ?/? topology. A unique feature of CMPK in the family of NMPKs is the positioning of a single cis-proline residue in the CORE-domain (cis-Pro124) in conjunction with a large insert in the NMP binding domain. This insert is not found in other well studied NMPKs such as AMPK or UMP/CMPK. We have analyzed the folding pathway of CMPK using time resolved tryptophan and FRET fluorescence as well as CD. Our results indicate that unfolding at high urea concentrations is governed by a single process, whereas refolding in low urea concentrations follows at least a three step process which we interpret as follows: Pro124 in the CORE-domain is in cis in the native state (Nc) and equilibrates with its trans-isomer in the unfolded state (Uc - Ut). Under refolding conditions, at least the Ut species and possibly also the Uc species undergo a fast initial collapse to form intermediates with significant amount of secondary structure, from which the trans-Pro124 fraction folds to the native state with a 100-fold lower rate constant than the cis-Pro124 species. CMPK thus differs from homologous NMP kinases like UMP/CMP kinase or AMP kinase, where folding intermediates show much lower content of secondary structure. Importantly also unfolding is up to 100-fold faster compared to CMPK. We therefore propose that the stabilizing effect of the long NMP-domain insert in conjunction with a subtle twist in the positioning of a single cis-Pro residue allows for substantial stabilization compared to other NMP kinases with ?/? topology. PMID:24205218

Beitlich, Thorsten; Lorenz, Thorsten; Reinstein, Jochen

2013-01-01

414

De novo methylation of CpG island sequences in human fibroblasts overexpressing DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies showing a correlation between the levels of DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (DNA MTase) enzyme activity and tumorigenicity have implicated this enzyme in the carcinogenic process. Moreover, hypermethylation of CpG island-containing promoters is associated with the inactivation of genes important to tumor initiation and progression. One proposed role for DNA MTase in tumorigenesis is therefore a direct role in the de novo methylation of these otherwise unmethylated CpG islands. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased levels of DNA MTase could directly affect CpG island methylation. A full-length cDNA for human DNA MTase driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter was constitutively expressed in human fibroblasts. Individual clones derived from cells transfected with DNA MTase (HMT) expressed 1- to 50-fold the level of DNA MTase protein and enzyme activity of the parental cell line or clones transfected with the control vector alone (Neo). To determine the effects of DNA MTase overexpression on CpG island methylation, we examined 12 endogenous CpG island loci in the HMT clones. HMT clones expressing > or = 9-fold the parental levels of DNA MTase activity were significantly hypermethylated relative to at least 11 Neo clones at five CpG island loci. In the HMT clones, methylation reached nearly 100% at susceptible CpG island loci with time in culture. In contrast, there was little change in the methylation status in the Neo clones over the same time frame. Taken together, the data indicate that overexpression of DNA MTase can drive the de novo methylation of susceptible CpG island loci, thus providing support for the idea that DNA MTase can contribute to tumor progression through CpG island methylation-mediated gene inactivation. PMID:8754856

Vertino, P M; Yen, R W; Gao, J; Baylin, S B

1996-01-01

415

Biosorption of mercury on magnetically modified yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized perchloric acid. The magnetically modified yeast cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron spin resonance (ESR). Hg2+ biosorption-desorption properties of magnetically modified yeast cells from synthetic solutions were utilized in batch system. The biosorption process was fast; 80% of

Handan Yavuz; Adil Denizli; Hakan Güngüne?; Mirka Safarikova; Ivo Safarik

2006-01-01

416

Copper Biosorption on Magnetically Modified Yeast Cells Under Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water-based magnetic fluid stabilized perchloric acid. The magnetically modified yeast cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu biosorption properties of magnetically modified yeast cells from synthetic solutions were utilized in a continuous magnetic system. The Cu ion-binding capacity decreased drastically with the increase of the

Lokman Uzun; Necdet Sa?lam; Mirka Safarikova; Ivo Safarik; Adil Denizli

2011-01-01

417