Sample records for yeast extract hydrolysate

  1. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

  6. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  7. Combination of yeast hydrolysates to improve CHO cell growth and IgG production.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Mathilde; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Blanchard, Fabrice; Kapel, Romain; Oriol, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Many studies underlined the great benefits of hydrolysates used as additives in animal free media on cell culture performances. However, to precisely define hydrolysate supplementation strategies, a deeper understanding of their effect on cell growth and protein production is required. In the present study, the effect of addition of one yeast extract (YE) and two yeast peptones (named YP.A and YP.B) in a chemically defined medium was first assessed on cell culture performances. Interestingly, specific effects were found depending on the degree of degradation of yeast hydrolysates. The YE at 1 g L(-1) increased the maximal cell density by 70 %, while a mixture of YE (1 g L(-1)) and YP.A (4 g L(-1)) increased IgG production by 180 %. These conditions were then evaluated on the CHO cell kinetics all over cultures. Hydrolysates extended the cell growth phase in Erlenmeyer flask and increased the maximal growth rate in bioreactor up to 20 %. Cell growth stimulation induced by hydrolysates addition was linked with energetic metabolism improvement suggesting that they promote oxidative pathway. Furthermore, hydrolysates provided an additional source of substrate that supported cell growth despite glutamine limitation. PMID:23239488

  8. Yeast Protein Production on Corn Cob Hydrolysates 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    .2 and 0.5%) at a constant concentration of substrate (5%, wt/wt) while controlling temperature and pH and by studying effect of various hydrolysis times (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min). The hydrolysates were analyzed by determining the degree of hydrolysis...

  9. Nitrile and amide-hydrolysing activity of acrylic acid-tolerant yeast Trichosporon asahii ZZB-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengbo Zhang; Liang Gao; Chuntian Zhao; Juanping Qiu

    An ammonia acrylate-tolerant yeast ZZB-1, capable of nitrile- and amide-hydrolysing activity, was isolated from soil samples.\\u000a Based on the morphology, 18S rRNA gene, internal-transcribed-spacer and 26S rRNA gene D1\\/D2 domain sequences, this strain\\u000a was provisionally identified as Trichosporon asahii. Strain ZZB-1 contained a two-enzyme system, i.e. nitrile-hydrolysing and amide-hydrolysing activity for the hydrolysis of\\u000a nitriles\\/amides to corresponding acids and ammonia.

  10. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Grzenia; D. J. Schell; S. R. Wickramasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lewis Liu

    2011-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial\\u000a growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement\\u000a means is economically impractical, and overcoming the inhibitory effects of lignocellulose hydrolysate poses a significant\\u000a technical challenge for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production. Development of tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains has\\u000a demonstrated the

  12. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  17. Detoxification of Eucheuma spinosum Hydrolysates with Activated Carbon for Ethanol Production by the Salt-Tolerant Yeast Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Young; Kang, Chang Han; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-28

    The objective of this study was to optimize the slurry contents and salt concentrations for ethanol production from hydrolysates of the seaweed Eucheuma spinosum. A monosaccharide concentration of 44.2 g/l as 49.6% conversion of total carbohydrate of 89.1 g/l was obtained from 120 g dw/l seaweed slurry. Monosaccharides from E. spinosum slurry were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Addition of activated carbon at 2.5% (w/v) and the adsorption time of 2 min were used in subsequent adsorption treatments to prevent the inhibitory effect of HMF. The adsorption surface area of the activated carbon powder was 1,400-1,600 m(2)/g and showed selectivity to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) from monosaccharides. Candida tropicalis KCTC 7212 was cultured in yeast extract, peptone, glucose, and high-salt medium, and exposed to 80, 90, 100, and 110 practical salinity unit (psu) salt concentrations in the lysates. The 100 psu salt concentration showed maximum cell growth and ethanol production. The ethanol fermentations with activated carbon treatment and use of C. tropicalis acclimated to a high salt concentration of 100 psu produced 17.9 g/l of ethanol with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.40 from E. spinosum seaweed. PMID:25649983

  18. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

  19. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  20. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  1. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  2. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  3. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

  4. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical. PMID:26056774

  5. Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells by yeast hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun-Young; Bae, Song Hwan; Kwon, Ki Han; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-05-01

    In a previous study, it was reported that yeast hydrolysate (YH) was effective in promoting bone growth in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To further clarify the mechanism of YH, the effects of YH on proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in vitro were investigated using osteoblastic cell lines (MC3T3-E1). Cell proliferation increased significantly as much as 110% of the basal value when cells were treated with 100?µg/mL of YH. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased significantly with a YH concentration of 25-100?µg/mL, and the activity increased 152% that of the control at 100?µg/mL. The calcium content increased as much as 129% at 100?µg/mL YH. The gene expression levels of ALP and collagen type II (COL II) significantly increased approximately 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold of control, respectively, at 100?µg/mL. YH increased significantly the mRNA level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) but not in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, BMP-4, collagen type I (COL I) and osteonectin (ON) did not increase. In summary, YH increased the proliferation of osteoblasts and directly stimulated ALP and bone matrix proteins (e.g. BSP, COL II), and these increases trigger osteoblastic differentiation (e.g. mineralized nodule formation). PMID:21077261

  6. Yeast hydrolysate protects cartilage via stimulation of type II collagen synthesis and suppression of MMP-13 production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yooheon; Bae, Song Hwan; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-09-01

    Type II collagen (COL II) is one of the primary components of hyaline cartilage and plays a key role in maintaining chondrocyte function. COL II is the principal target of destruction, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have a major role in arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the chondroctye protection effects of specific fraction of yeast hydrolysate ((10-30?kDa molecular weight peptides). The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly increased in the YH-treated group compared to the control at concentrations above 50?µg/ml, respectively. The 200?µg/ml YH-treated group (3.43?±?0.23?µg/ml) showed significantly reduced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation relative to that in the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-treated control group (4.72?±?0.05?µg/ml). In the YH-treated group, MMP-13 level was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the IL-1?-treated group without YH treatment. However, MMP-1 and MMP-3 level were not different from that of control. Under the same conditions, we also examined mRNA levels of COL II. The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly higher in the YH-treated group than in the IL-1?-treated control group at concentrations above 100?µg/ml. In conclusion, YH stimulated COL II synthesis and significantly inhibited MMP-13 and GAG degradation caused by IL-1? treatment. PMID:23070893

  7. Bioconversion of water-hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate to motor fuel ethanol by xylose–fermenting yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Nigam

    2002-01-01

    Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate has been utilized as a substrate for ethanol production using Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Hydrolysate fermentability was considerable improved by boiling, and overliming up to pH 10.0 with solid Ca(OH)2 in combination with sodium sulfite. The percent total sugar utilized and ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) for the untreated hydrolysate were 20.15±0.17% and 0.19±0.003gpgs?1, respectively, compared

  8. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  9. Spray Drying of Extracts from Red Yeast Fermentation Broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. C. Teixeira; G. A. Teixeira; L. A. P. Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a pigmented material that is traditionally used in Asia as a food colorant. In addition to food applications, red yeast rice is known in traditional Chinese medicine for its therapeutic actions. The aim of this work was to study the quality interactions during spray drying of extracts from the Monascus ruber van Tiegham fermentation broth. The

  10. Quality assessment of lager brewery yeast samples and strains using barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Membrane active anti-yeast compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins, cause yeast membrane damage which is likely to affect yeast vitality and fermentation performance, parameters which are notoriously difficult to analyse. In this work the sensitivity of lager brewery yeast strains towards barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity was assessed with an optimised assay. It was found that yeast, obtained directly from a brewery, was much more sensitive towards the malt extracts than the same yeast strain propagated in the laboratory. Sensitivity to the malt extracts increased during the course of a laboratory scale fermentation when inoculated with brewery yeast. As the assay was able to differentiate yeast samples with different histories, it shows promise as a yeast quality assay measuring the yeast's ability to withstand stress which can be equated to vitality. The assay was also able to differentiate between different lager yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in the laboratory when challenged with a number of malt extracts of varying anti-yeast activity. The assessment of yeast strains in the presence of malt extracts will lead to the identification of yeast strains with improved quality/vitality that can withstand malt-associated anti-yeast activity during brewery fermentations. PMID:19171262

  11. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Zsófia; De Vrije, Truus; Budde, Miriam A W; Szengyel, Zsolt; Réczey, Kati; Claassen, Pieternel A M

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of "renewable" hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga elfii and Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. Tests on different medium compositions showed that both bacteria were able to produce hydrogen from paper sludge hydrolysate, but the amount of produced hydrogen and the requirement for other components differed. Hydrogen production by T. elfii strongly depended on the presence of yeast extract and salts. By contrast, C. saccharolyticus was less dependent on medium components but seemed to be inhibited by a component present in the sludge hydrolysate. Utilization of xylose was preferred over glucose by C. saccharolyticus. PMID:12721435

  12. Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

    2000-01-01

    Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

  13. In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A

    2005-01-01

    As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

  14. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic hydrolysate from Chrysanthemum waste degradation.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Hidalgo, Balkys; Monsalve-Marín, Felipe; Narváez-Rincón, Paulo César; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario Enrique

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol production derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of a hydrolysate from floriculture waste degradation was studied. The hydrolysate was produced from Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) waste degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus and characterized to determine the presence of compounds that may inhibit fermentation. The products of hydrolysis confirmed by HPLC were cellobiose, glucose, xylose and mannose. The hydrolysate was fermented by S. cerevisiae, and concentrations of biomass, ethanol, and glucose were determined as a function of time. Results were compared to YGC modified medium (yeast extract, glucose and chloramphenicol) fermentation. Ethanol yield was 0.45 g g(-1), 88 % of the maximal theoretical value. Crysanthemum waste hydrolysate was suitable for ethanol production, containing glucose and mannose with adequate nutrients for S. cerevisiae fermentation and low fermentation inhibitor levels. PMID:23117675

  15. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

  16. [Anti-yeast activity of ethanol extracts of Lilium candidum L].

    PubMed

    Mucaji, P; Hudecová, D; Haladová, M; Eisenreichová, E

    2002-11-01

    The paper deals with anti-yeast activity of ethanolic extracts from the flowers and bulbs of Lilium candidum L., Liliaceae, as well as some compounds isolated from these extracts. Several different methods were used for the determination of anti-yeast activity: Lowry method of protein determination, dilution and cultivation method. The extract from the bulbs was shown to be more active than the extract from the flowers, while isolated compounds were inactive against the tested yeasts. PMID:12501491

  17. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

  18. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  19. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  20. Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Herrero; Luis A. García; Mario Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole

  1. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  2. Fractionation of phenolic compounds extracted from propolis and their activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  3. Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Armenante, P.M. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science; Fava, F. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science; Kafkewitz, D. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-07-20

    The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded.

  4. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. PMID:21820955

  5. Accelerated solvent extraction of monacolin K from red yeast rice and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuqin Liu; Xingfeng Guo; Wenjuan Duan; Xiao Wang; Jinhua Du

    2010-01-01

    Monacolin K from red yeast rice was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The effects of various extraction parameters including extraction temperature, static extraction time and cycle index on yield were investigated using a DIONEX ASE 300 system to select the optimal conditions by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)3. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other...

  7. Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

    2007-01-01

    Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

  8. Treatment of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysates with advanced oxidative processes: a new and promising detoxification method to improve the bioconversion process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic constituents in biotechnological processes requires a selective separation of the main fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). During diluted acid hydrolysis for hemicellulose extraction, several toxic compounds are formed by the degradation of sugars and lignin, which have ability to inhibit microbial metabolism. Thus, the use of a detoxification step represents an important aspect to be considered for the improvement of fermentation processes from hydrolysates. In this paper, we evaluated the application of Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) for the detoxification of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the goal of improving ethanol bioproduction by Pichia stipitis yeast. Aiming to reduce the toxicity of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, different treatment conditions were analyzed. The treatments were carried out according to a Taguchi L16 orthogonal array to evaluate the influence of Fe+2, H2O2, UV, O3 and pH on the concentration of aromatic compounds and the fermentative process. Results The results showed that the AOPs were able to remove aromatic compounds (furan and phenolic compounds derived from lignin) without affecting the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Ozonation in alkaline medium (pH 8) in the presence of H2O2 (treatment A3) or UV radiation (treatment A5) were the most effective for hydrolysate detoxification and had a positive effect on increasing the yeast fermentability of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate. Under these conditions, the higher removal of total phenols (above 40%), low molecular weight phenolic compounds (above 95%) and furans (above 52%) were observed. In addition, the ethanol volumetric productivity by P. stipitis was increased in approximately twice in relation the untreated hydrolysate. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AOPs are a promising methods to reduce toxicity and improve the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:23414668

  9. Chromatin assembly in a yeast whole-cell?extract

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

    1997-01-01

    A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast. PMID:9256430

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Penland; Kirk R. Wilhelmus

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar for the isolation of Acanthamoeba from clinical specimens.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of patients with ocular acanthamebic infection from October 1993 to September 1997 to compare the recovery of Acanthamoeba from clinical specimens inoculated onto various media. We then compared the experimental recovery of 10 corneal isolates of Acanthamoeba

  11. Extracting Regulatory Sites from the Upstream Region of Yeast Genes by Computational Analysis of Oligonucleotide Frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. van Helden; B. Andre; J. Collado-Vides

    2002-01-01

    We present here a simple and fast method allowing the isolation of DNA binding sites for transcription factors from families of coregulated genes, with results illustrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although conceptually simple, the algorithm proved efficient for extracting, from most of the yeast regulatory families analyzed, the upstream regulatory sequences which had been previously found by experimental analysis. Furthermore, putative

  12. A single protocol for extraction of gDNA from bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Vingataramin, Laurie; Frost, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    Guanidine thiocyanate breakage of microorganisms has been the standard initial step in genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction of microbial DNA for two decades, despite the requirement for pretreatments to extract DNA from microorganisms other than Gram-negative bacteria. We report a quick and low-cost gDNA extraction protocol called EtNa that is efficient for bacteria and yeast over a broad range of concentrations. EtNa is based on a hot alkaline ethanol lysis. The solution can be immediately centrifuged to yield a crude gDNA extract suitable for PCR, or it can be directly applied to a silica column for purification. PMID:25757544

  13. A rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from yeasts and fungi isolated from Agave fourcroydes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Tapia-Tussell; Patricia Lappe; Miguel Ulloa; Andrés Quijano-Ramayo; Mirbella Cáceres-Farfán; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; Daisy Perez-Brito

    2006-01-01

    A simple and easy protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different yeast and filamentous fungal species is described.\\u000a This method involves two important steps: first, the disruption of cell walls by mechanical means and freezing; and second,\\u000a the extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The absorbance ratios (A260\\/A280) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. The main objective of this

  14. A rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from yeasts and fungi isolated from Agave fourcroydes.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Lappe, Patricia; Ulloa, Miguel; Quijano-Ramayo, Andrés; Cáceres-Farfán, Mirbella; Larqué-Saavedra, Alfonso; Perez-Brito, Daisy

    2006-05-01

    A simple and easy protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different yeast and filamentous fungal species is described. This method involves two important steps: first, the disruption of cell walls by mechanical means and freezing; and second, the extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The absorbance ratios (A(260)/A(280)) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. The main objective of this procedure is to extract pure DNA from yeast and filamentous fungi, including those with high contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. The yield and quality of the DNAs obtained were suitable for micro/minisatellite primer-polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting as well as for the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA. PMID:16691008

  15. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20?35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration. PMID:25138600

  16. Preparation of a ?-glutamylcysteine-enriched yeast extract from a newly developed GSH2-deficient strain.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Hiroaki; Suehiro, Mariko; Sugimoto, Reiko; Yamagishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcysteine (?-GC), the precursor of glutathione (GSH), may have significant health benefits as a dietary supplement, but there are few cost-effective methods available for its large-scale production. We developed an efficient method for producing ?-GC in a mutant yeast strain using a three-step breeding procedure and a unique cultivation process. In the first breeding step, we prepared a glutathione synthetase (GSH2)-deficient yeast mutant. In the second step, selenate (SeO(4)(2-)) sensitivity was introduced by crossing the GSH2-deficient mutant with a strain harboring the met30 mutation. In the final step, pantothenic acid auxotrophy was introduced by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The isolated strain displayed significantly enhanced cellular ?-GC when cultivated in synthetic medium without pantothenic acid, reaching a maximum level of 4.39% of dry cell weight. Using this strain, we were able to prepare a yeast extract containing approximately 13% ?-GC (w/w), which is markedly higher than the reported value (0.3%) of commercially available yeast extracts. The present method may facilitate large-scale ?-GC production for investigating the nutritive value and other benefits of dietary ?-GC. PMID:22986308

  17. Mining metabolites: extracting the yeast metabolome from the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikashi NobataPaul; Paul D. Dobson; Syed A. Iqbal; Pedro Mendes; Jun’ichi Tsujii; Douglas B. Kell; Sophia Ananiadou

    2011-01-01

    Text mining methods have added considerably to our capacity to extract biological knowledge from the literature. Recently\\u000a the field of systems biology has begun to model and simulate metabolic networks, requiring knowledge of the set of molecules\\u000a involved. While genomics and proteomics technologies are able to supply the macromolecular parts list, the metabolites are\\u000a less easily assembled. Most metabolites are

  18. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer. PMID:25353311

  19. Modification of collagen hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Šemrl-Kosma?; A. Gantar

    1995-01-01

    Collagen hydrolysates prepared by alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome leather waste were characterized and their condensates with long-chain carboxylic acids and their chlorides were synthesised. The syntheses were carried out under atmospheric pressure; in some cases a catalyst was used. The collagen hydrolysate and its condensate with oleic acid were grafted with ethylene- and propylene oxide, respectively. The extent

  20. Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-10-01

    Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

  1. Induction of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures by yeast extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Mizukami; Terumi Ogawa; Hiromu Ohashi; Brian E. Ellis

    1992-01-01

    A transient increase in rosmarinic acid (RA) content in cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was observed after addition of yeast extract (YE) to the suspension cultures, reaching a maximum at 24 hr. The highest increase of the RA content (2.5-fold) was obtained when 6-day-old cells in the exponential growth phase were treated with YE. Preceding the induced RA accumulation, phenylalanine

  2. Novel isolates for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Hou-Rui, Zhang; Xiang-Xiang, Qin; Silva, Silvio S; Sarrouh, Boutros F; Ai-Hua, Cai; Yu-Heng, Zhou; Ke, Jin; Qiu, Xiang

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, two new strians, Issatchenkia occidentalis (Lj-3, CCTCC M 2006097) and Issatchenkia orienalis (S-7, CCTCC M 2006098), isolated from different environments on solid media, were used in the detoxification process of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse. High-pressure liquid chromatography elution curve of UV-absorption compounds represented by acetic acid, furfural, and guaiacol (toxic compounds found in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate) showed that several chromatographic peaks were evidently diminished for the case of detoxified hydrolysate with isolate strains compared to the high peaks resulted for no detoxified hydrolysate. It was clear that these inhibitors were degraded by the two new isolates during their cultivation process. Fermentation results for the biodetoxified hydrolysate showed an increase in xylitol productivity (Q (p)) by 1.97 and 1.95 times (2.03 and 2.01 g l(-1) h(-1)) and in xylitol yield (Y (p)) by 1.72 and 1.65 times (0.93 and 0.89 g xylitol per gram xylose) for hydrolysate treated with S-7 and Lj-3, respectively, in comparison with no detoxified hydrolysate (1.03 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.54 g xylitol per gram xylose). This present work demonstrated the importance of Issatchenkia yeast in providing an effective biological detoxification approach to remove inhibitors and improve hydrolysate fermentability, leading to a high xylitol productivity and yield. PMID:18649037

  3. Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, K. I. R.; Araújo, P. V.; Sinisterra, R. D.; Cortés, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine (Cx) augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (?-cd) inclusion compounds, termed Cx:?-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:?-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a.) was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 ?g/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:?-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:?-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing ?-cd concentrations (1.71 ×103; 1.4 ×103; 3.45 ×103, and 3.74 ×103 CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:?-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of ?-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:?-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:?-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding. PMID:24031894

  4. Trophic effect of a methanol yeast extract on 3T3 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Dominique; Dillemans, Monique; Allardin, David; Priem, Fabian; Van Nedervelde, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    With regard to the increase of human life expectancy, interest for topical treatments aimed to counteract skin aging is still growing. Hence, research for bioactive compounds able to stimulate skin fibroblast activity is an attractive topic. Having previously described the effects of a new methanol yeast extract on growth and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied its effects on 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate its potential antiaging property. This investigation demonstrates that this extract increases proliferation as well as migration of 3T3 cells and decreases their entrance in senescence and apoptosis phases. Altogether, these results open new perspectives for the formulation of innovative antiaging topical treatments. PMID:25898765

  5. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    ?ezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

  6. A Yeast Metabolite Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing call for the absolute quantification of time-resolved metabolite data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as metabolites being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt concentrations often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, metabolite yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised metabolite leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate metabolites to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously. PMID:22952947

  7. Fractionation and characterization of a yeast mRNA splicing extract.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S C; Abelson, J

    1986-01-01

    We have fractionated a yeast whole cell extract that can accurately splice synthetic actin and CYH2 pre-mRNAs. Three fractions, designated I, II, and III, have been separated by use of ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on heparin agarose. Each fraction alone has no splicing activity. Fractions I and II allow the first step of the splicing reaction to proceed, giving rise to the splicing intermediates, free exon 1, and intron-exon 2. Addition of fraction III completes the reaction. Micrococcal nuclease treatment of the whole cell extract or of either fraction I or II abolished splicing activity, indicating that fractions I and II have RNA moieties that are required in the splicing reaction. The nature of the RNAs was examined using antibodies directed against the trimethylated cap structure unique to small nuclear RNAs. Preincubation of the whole cell extract with protein A-Sepharose coupled to trimethylated cap antibody abolished splicing activity. This indicates that at least one essential RNA component contains a trimethyl cap. Thus, in yeast as in mammalian systems, small nuclear RNAs are involved in mRNA splicing. Images PMID:3517868

  8. Simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomi, A. (Promon Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, Brazil); Aboutboul, H.; Schmidell, W.

    1981-01-01

    The simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate utilizing a yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from the commercial pressed yeast largely employed in Brazilian distilleries is described. The model used in the simulation is derived from batch experimental runs. In order to assess the economical competitiveness of the continuous fermentation, some additional concepts, such as cell recycle, and two fermentors connected in series with and without feed division of fresh substrate, are analyzed and compared.

  9. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  10. In vitro formation of the anthranoid scaffold by cell-free extracts from yeast-extract-treated Cassia bicapsularis cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Iman A M; Beuerle, Till; Ernst, Ludger; Abdel-Baky, Afaf M; Desoky, Ezz El-Din K; Ahmed, Amany S; Beerhues, Ludger

    2013-04-01

    The anthranoid skeleton is believed to be formed by octaketide synthase (OKS), a member of the type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily. Recombinant OKSs catalyze stepwise condensation of eight acetyl units to form a linear octaketide intermediate which, however, is incorrectly folded and cyclized to give the shunt products SEK4 and SEK4b. Here we report in vitro formation of the anthranoid scaffold by cell-free extracts from yeast-extract-treated Cassia bicapsularis cell cultures. Unlike field- and in vitro-grown shoots which accumulate anthraquinones, cell cultures mainly contained tetrahydroanthracenes, formation of which was increased 2.5-fold by the addition of yeast extract. The elicitor-stimulated accumulation of tetrahydroanthracenes was preceded by an approx. 35-fold increase in OKS activity. Incubation of cell-free extracts from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures with acetyl-CoA and [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA led to formation of torosachrysone (tetrahydroanthracene) and emodin anthrone, beside two yet unidentified products. No product formation occurred in the absence of acetyl-CoA as starter substrate. To confirm the identities of the enzymatic products, cell-free extracts were incubated with acetyl-CoA and [U-(13)C(3)]malonyl-CoA and (13)C incorporation was analyzed by ESI-MS/MS. Detection of anthranoid biosynthesis in cell-free extracts indicates in vitro cooperation of OKS with a yet unidentified factor or enzyme for octaketide cyclization. PMID:23395285

  11. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction of monacolin K from red yeast rice and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqin; Guo, Xingfeng; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua

    2010-10-15

    Monacolin K from red yeast rice was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The effects of various extraction parameters including extraction temperature, static extraction time and cycle index on yield were investigated using a DIONEX ASE 300 system to select the optimal conditions by an orthogonal test design L(9) (3)(3). The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature 120°C, static extraction time 7min, and cycle index 3. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of ASE extract and monacolin K was 5.35% and 9.26mg/g of dry red yeast rice, respectively. A separation and purification method of monacolin K was then established using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:2:5:5, v/v/v/v). From 300mg of crude extract, 51.2mg of monacolin K was obtained with the purity of 98.7%. The chemical structure of isolated compound was identified by UV, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:20869335

  13. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  14. Improving the robustness of a low-cost insect cell medium for baculovirus biopesticides production, via hydrolysate streamlining using a tube bioreactor-based statistical optimization routine.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hoai T; Chan, Leslie C L; Tran, Trinh T B; Nielsen, Lars K; Reid, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of an in vitro production process for baculovirus biopesticides is a growth medium that is efficacious, robust, and inexpensive. An in-house low-cost serum-free medium, VPM3, has been shown to be very promising in supporting Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) production in H. zea insect cell suspension cultures, for use as a biopesticide against the Heliothine pest complex. However, VPM3 is composed of a significant number of undefined components, including five different protein hydrolysates, which introduce a challenging lot-to-lot variability to the production process. In this study, an intensive statistical optimization routine was employed to reduce the number of protein hydrolysates in VPM3 medium. Nearly 300 runs (including replicates) were conducted with great efficiency by using 50 mL TubeSpin® bioreactors to propagate insect cell suspension cultures. Fractional factorial experiments were first used to determine the most important of the five default protein hydrolysates, and to screen for seven potential substitutes for the default meat peptone, Primatone RL. Validation studies informed by the screening tests showed that promising alternative media could be formulated based on just two protein hydrolysates, in particular the YST-AMP (Yeast Extract and Amyl Meat Peptone) and YST-POT (Yeast Extract and Lucratone Potato Peptone) combinations. The YST-AMP (meat-based) and YST-POT (meat-free) variants of VPM3 were optimized using response surface methodology, and were shown to be just as good as the default VPM3 and the commercial Sf-900 II media in supporting baculovirus yields, hence providing a means toward a more reproducible and scalable production process for HaSNPV biopesticides. PMID:22323401

  15. Red yeast rice extracts suppress adipogenesis by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors and gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taeil Jeon; Seong Gu Hwang; Shizuka Hirai; Tohru Matsui; Hideo Yano; Teruo Kawada; Beoung Ou Lim; Dong Ki Park

    2004-01-01

    The effects of red yeast rice extracts (RE) on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells were studied. RE were extracted from embryonic rice fermented with red yeast (Monascus ruber). These extracts significantly decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of both CCAAT\\/enhancer-binding protein (C\\/EBP) ? and peroxisome proliferator-activated

  16. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  17. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hussin, Aminuddin Bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  18. Copper and the ACE1 Regulatory Protein Reversibly Induce Yeast Metallothionein Gene Transcription in a Mouse Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski Culotta, Valeria; Hsu, Tsao; Hu, Stella; Furst, Peter; Hamer, Dean

    1989-11-01

    We describe a cell-free system in which the transcription of the yeast metallothionein gene is inducible by the addition of metal ions plus a specific regulatory protein. Efficient transcription requires the complete yeast ACE1 metalloregulatory protein, including both its DNA-binding and transactivation domains; a mouse nuclear extract providing RNA polymerase and general transcription factors; a template containing the ACE1 binding site; and Cu(I). Because the binding of ACE1 to DNA is dependent on Cu, it is possible to inhibit transcription by the use of Cu-complexing agents such as CN-. We have used this specific inhibition to show that the ACE1 regulatory protein is required for the maintenance as well as the formation of a functional preinitiation complex. The ability to reversibly induce yeast metallothionein gene transcription in vitro provides a powerful system for determining the molecular mechanism of a simple eukaryotic regulatory circuit.

  19. Hydrolysate detoxification with activated charcoal for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    A detoxification method using activated charcoal with concentrated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate improved the conversion of xylose to xylitol by the yeast Candida guilliermondii by 22%. This was achieved when the hydrolysate:charcoal ratio was 40 g g-1, resulting in removal of 27% of phenolic compounds. Under this condition, the xylitol yield factor (0.72 g g-1) and volumetric productivity (0.61 g

  20. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  1. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  2. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity. PMID:25672324

  3. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  4. Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; LeDuc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh

    2013-11-01

    To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4 °C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

  5. Enrichment of yeast thioredoxin by green tea extract through activation of Yap1 transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Takatsume, Yoshifumi; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Shingo; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2005-01-26

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is an important antioxidant present in all types of organisms. Besides its role as an antioxidant, TRX protects the gastric mucosa due to its antiinflammatory effect. In addition, TRX decreases allergenicity; therefore, the oral administration of TRX is of considerable interest with respect to its clinical use as well as the development of functional foods containing TRX. We have attempted to enrich the cellular TRX content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and found that green tea extract (Sunphenon), which is rich in catechins (polyphenols), activates the Yap1 transcription factor, leading to the induction of TRX2, a target of Yap1. Production of yeast TRX was monitored by both a TRX2-lacZ reporter expression assay and Western blotting using an anti-yeast TRX antibody. Maximal production of TRX was achieved in a medium containing 0.1% green tea extract at pH 7.6. We discuss the underlying mechanism by which green tea extract activates Yap1. PMID:15656669

  6. Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies on elastin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina

    2013-08-01

    The formation of reactive species and free radicals in water soluble elastin hydrolysates have been investigated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Elastin hydrolysates were obtained by hydrolysis of elastin extracted from aorta. An investigation of the photochemical properties of elastin hydrolysates in water was carried out using nanosecond laser irradiation. The transient spectra of elastin hydrolysates solution excited at 266 nm showed two bands. One of them with maximum at 295 nm and the second one with maximum at 400 nm. The reactions of hydrated electrons and ?OH radicals with elastin have been studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of elastin with e(aq)(-) small maximum absorption in UV and visible light was observed. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of the hydroxyl radicals with elastin two bands were observed. The first one at 320 nm and the second one at 410 nm. Reaction of OH radicals with elastin hydrolysates lead to formation of Tyr phenoxyl radicals with absorption at 410 nm. The influence of the addition of sodium azide NaN3 on the formation of the transients was evaluated. PMID:23702900

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

  8. Influence of hen age on the response of turkey poults to cold stress, Escherichia coli challenge, and treatment with a yeast extract antibiotic alternative.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Solis de Los Santos, F; Farnell, M B; Donoghue, A M

    2007-04-01

    Two battery experiments were conducted to evaluate a commercial yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune, in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of 1-wk-old turkeys. Experiment 1 used 1-d-old male poults that were the progeny of 33-wk-old hens in their second week of lay. Experiment 2 used male poults of the same genetic line from 40-wk-old hens in their eighth week of lay. Poults were fed a standard unmedicated turkey starter diet or the same diet with either a low level (504 g/t) or a high level (1,008 g/t) of yeast extract. Challenged birds were exposed to intermittent cold stress during wk 1 to 3 and to a respiratory E. coli challenge at 1 wk of age. In both experiments, BW at wk 1 was increased by feeding yeast extract. In experiment 1, challenged, control-fed birds had decreased BW at wk 3 and feed conversion was protected by both levels of yeast extract supplementation. In experiment 2, challenge had no effect on control-fed birds; however, yeast extract decreased the BW of challenged birds. In experiment 1, total leukocyte numbers were decreased by challenge of control-fed birds only, and there was no effect of challenge on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. In experiment 2, total leukocyte numbers were decreased and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was increased in challenged, control-fed birds. Percentage mortality was not affected by challenge in experiment 1; however, in experiment 2, mortality was increased by challenge of control-fed birds and those fed the lower level of yeast extract. These results suggest that hen age should be considered when designing studies to evaluate antibiotic alternatives and in making decisions for incorporating such alternatives into production. PMID:17369533

  9. [Xylitol production from corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Candida sp].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiang-Nian; Huang, Wei; Xia, Li-Ming

    2004-03-01

    Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol, has many interesting applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and odontological industries, owing to its high sweetening power, its anticariogenic properties, and its insulin-independent metabolism. The bioconversion of detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol by microorganisms could be a cheaper alternative to the current chemical process, since it is a simple process, with great specificity and low energy requirements. However, the success of fermentations for xylitol production depends on the productivity of the strain and its tolerance to different toxic or inhibitory compounds existing in the hydrolysates. In addition, a number of culture process parameters proved to have significant effects on xylitol production in hemicellulosic hydrolysate media. One of the most important control variables in this bioconversion is the aeration level, which affects the biochemical pathways in the xylose metabolism. The production of biomass is favored by aerobic conditions, while under anaerobic conditions xylose cannot be assimilated by yeast, whereas xylitol is formed in oxygen-limited incubation conditions. An adapted Candida sp. with enhanced resistance to the inhibitors in the hydrolysate can directly ferment the simply detoxified corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol. In the present study, the combined effects of shaking speed, C/ N ratio, initial pH, and inoculum level on the fermentation of corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol by an adapted Candida sp. were investigated using an orthogonal experimental design in flask. As a result, the optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: 180 r/min, a C/N ratio of 50, initial pH 5.5, and an inoculum level of 5% (volume ratio). Moreover, the optimum concentration factor of hydrolysate varied between 3.0 and 3.72 was obtained. Based on these results, in order to evaluate the effect of aeration rate on the fermentation of corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol in fermentor, batch fermentations were carried out in a 3.7 L stirred fermentor using four different aeration strategies, including three kind of two-stage aeration strategies, which provided relatively high aeration rate in the early stage but reduced it in the later stage, and including a one-stage aeration strategy provided a constant aeration rate. With respect to xylitol yield, the results indicated that two-stage aeration strategy was significantly superior to one-stage aeration strategy. The highest xylitol yield (0.75 g/g) was obtained with oxygen supply strategy C (3.75 L/min for first 24 h, then lowered it to 1.25 L/min, 2.5 L fermentation medium was employed). In this process, without extensive detoxification of hydrolysate, an adapted Candida sp. can efficiently ferment the simply treated corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol under the optimized fermentation conditions. This work should help the development of an efficient process for producing xylitol from corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate on a larger scale by bioconversion. PMID:15969126

  10. [Studies on the effects of carbon:nitrogen ratio, inoculum type and yeast extract addition on jasmonic acid production by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. strain RC1].

    PubMed

    Eng Sánchez, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2008-09-30

    Jasmonic acid is a native plant growth regulator produced by algae, microorganisms and higher plants. This regulator is involved in the activation of defence mechanisms against pathogens and wounding in plants. Studies concerning the effects of carbon: nitrogen ratio (C/Nr: 17, 35 and 70), type of inoculum (spores or mycelium) and the yeast extract addition in the media on jasmonic acid production by Botryodiplodia theobromae were evaluated. Jasmonic acid production was stimulated at the carbon: nitrogen ratio of 17. Jasmonic acid productivity was higher in the media inoculated with mycelium and in the media with yeast extract 1.7 and 1.3 times, respectively. PMID:18785793

  11. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Clemente

    2000-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates constitute an alternative to intact proteins and elemental formulas in the development of special formulations designed to provide nutritional support to patients with different needs. The production of extensive protein hydrolysates by sequential action of endopeptidases and exoproteases coupled with the development of post-hydrolysis procedures is considered the most effective way to obtain protein hydrolysates with defined characteristics.

  12. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Leng Teoh; Gillian Heard; Julian Cox

    2004-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and

  13. New protein hydrolysates from collagen wastes used as peptone for bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, E; Nustorova, M; Gushterova, A

    2007-01-01

    A simple and low-cost procedure was developed for the effective processing of native calf skin and blood wastes to produce protein hydrolysates. The method includes extraction of high-molecular-weight protein from the raw material, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the extracted residue. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed by inexpensive commercial subtilisin DY, produced by Bacillus subtilis strain DY possessing high specific activity. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, and amino acids of the obtained hydrolysates were determined and compared with those of the commonly used commercial casein hydrolysate (Fluka Biochemica, Switzerland). The newly obtained calf skin hydrolysate, called Eladin, was found to be suitable as a low-cost alternative peptone in growth media of different microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus. The method allows utilization of waste materials by converting them into valuable protein products that could find widespread application in microbiologic practice. PMID:17171464

  14. Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

    1997-01-01

    Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

  15. Extraction of ethanol with higher alcohol solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a solvent extraction screening study, several beta-branched alcohols in the 16 ­ 20 carbons range show improved extractive performance to recover ethanol from aqueous solutions compared to commonly studied solvents such as oleyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol. These beta-branched alcohols were selected ...

  16. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  17. HPLC measurement of guanine for the determination of nucleic acids (RNA) in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Todd; Jian Zhao; Graham Fleet

    1995-01-01

    A method based upon the assay of guanine is described for the determination of nucleic acid content in yeasts. Total nucleic acids are hydrolysed by hot perchloric acid and the resultant quantitative release of guanine is measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Due to the high RNA:DNA ratio in yeasts, the method can be used to estimate the RNA concentration in yeasts.

  18. A new ?-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native ?-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous ?-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing. PMID:22133603

  19. Ammonium Hydroxide Detoxification of Spruce Acid Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Alriksson; Ilona Sárvári Horvath; Anders Sjöde; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Leif J. Jönsson

    When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates\\u000a fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overtiming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several\\u000a nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of\\u000a NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition

  20. Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Alriksson; Ilona Sárvári Horváth; Anders Sjöde; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Leif J. Jönsson

    2005-01-01

    When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates\\u000a fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overliming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several\\u000a nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of\\u000a NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition

  1. [Comparative evaluation of protein hydrolysates in designing their based universal culture medium for the diagnosis of plague and cholera].

    PubMed

    Mazrukho, A B; Kaminski?, D I; Lomov, Iu M; Telesmanich, N R; Rozhkov, K K; Kruglikov, V D

    2011-06-01

    Various protein hydrolysates made in Russia and foreign countries were comparatively evaluated to use them to design a universal agarized culture medium for the diagnosis of plague and cholera. Pancreatic baker's yeast broth was found to be most effective among the test media. PMID:21851013

  2. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  3. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  4. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  5. PRODUCTION AND USE OF YEAST PECTOLYTIC ENZYMES TO AID PINEAPPLE JUICE EXTRACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Dzogbefia; E. Amoke; J. H. Oldham; W. O. Ellis

    2001-01-01

    A crude preparation of pectolytic enzyme was obtained by culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC512712) in pineapple juice. Maximum cell growth was obtained on the 6th day after inoculation. Correspondingly, optimum protein concentration and enzyme activity were also observed on the 6th day old culture. Although not purified, the addition of this crude enzyme extract to crushed pineapple mash at 0.02% resulted

  6. Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae : current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonius J. A. van Maris; Derek A. Abbott; Eleonora Bellissimi; Joost van den Brink; Marko Kuyper; Marijke A. H. Luttik; H. Wouter Wisselink; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production from plant biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great economic and environmental significance. This paper reviews the current status with respect to alcoholic fermentation of the main plant biomass-derived monosaccharides by this yeast. Wild-type S. cerevisiae strains readily ferment glucose, mannose and fructose via the Embden–Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, while galactose is fermented via the Leloir

  7. Determination of Cd(II) and Cd-metallothioneins in biological extracts using baker’s yeast and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amauri A. Menegário; Paulo S. Tonello; Priscila A. Biscaro; Ana L. Brossi-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    .  The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a sorbent material to separate Cd(II) and Cd-metallothionein complex (Cd-MT) has been explored. Solid–liquid phase extractions\\u000a were carried out in batch mode and the main parameters of the process (pH, temperature, time of incubation, amount of biomass\\u000a and analyte) were evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the yeast quantitatively retain (94 ? 5%) the Cd(II) while

  8. Antioxidant and functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel skin as influenced by average molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Cao, Zi-Hao; Wang, Bin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Rui; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates. PMID:25090114

  9. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11. PMID:21474306

  10. Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

  11. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Long; Wang, Zhao

    2005-09-10

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice straw was used for the culture of yeast Candida arborea AS1.257. The influences of gas flow rate, initial liquid volume, hole diameter of gas sparger and numbers of sieve plates on microbial biomass production were examined. The best results in the external-loop airlift bioreactor were obtained under 9.0 L initial liquid volume, 1.1 (v/v)/min gas flow rate during culture time of 0-24 h and 1.4 (v/v)/min gas flow rate of 24-48 h at 29+/-1 degrees C. The addition of the sieve plates in the riser of the external-loop airlift bioreactor increased productivity. After 48 h, under optimized operation conditions, crude protein productivity with one sieve and two sieves were 13.6 mg/mL and 13.7 mg/mL, respectively, comparing 12.7 mg/mL without sieves in the airlift bioreactor and 11.7 mg/mL in the in the 10-L mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It is feasible to operate the external-loop airlift bioreactors and possible to reduce the production cost for microbial biomass production from the rice straw hydrolysate. PMID:15978690

  12. Effects of vitamin D and yeast extract supplementation on turkey mortality and clostridial dermatitis incidence in a dexamethasone immunosuppression model.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Ratha, N C

    2014-12-01

    Clostridial dermatitis (CD) is a production disease of commercial turkeys that is characterized by sudden mortality in market-aged male birds and by lesions that include fluid and air bubbles under the skin of the thigh, breast, and tail area. We have developed a model for CD using dexamethasone (Dex) injection that suggests this disease may be related to stressors during the last stages of turkey production. Male turkeys were provided with control feed and water or with feed supplemented with a commercial yeast extract (YE) product, water supplemented with vitamin D (VD), or the combination. At 6, 11, and 15 wk of age birds were treated with three intramuscular injections of Dex over a 5-day period. Both YE and VD, but not the combination, decreased early mortality. At week 7 mortality was increased by VD, and cellulitis lesions were seen in 7/8 mortalities. Mortality at week 12 was decreased by both YE and the combination of YE and VD, and cellulitis lesions were seen in 8/17 mortalities. There were no significant differences in mortality at week 16. Total mortality was 66 birds, and 23 of these had cellulitis lesions (38%). There were no YE-treated birds with CD lesions; however, 67% of VD-treated birds had CD lesions. This study suggests that feed supplementation with YE may improve the ability of turkeys to withstand the stressors during late production and provide protection against the development of CD; however, high levels of VD supplementation may be detrimental. PMID:25619002

  13. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

  14. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  15. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  16. Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

    1996-10-01

    There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

  17. Release and ecological impact of algicidal hydrolysable polyphenols in Myriophyllum spicatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth M. Gross; Holger Meyer; Gerhard Schilling

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous acetone extracts of shoots of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) exhibit a strong inhibitory action against various coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and to a slightly less extent against chlorophytes and diatoms. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of a hydrolysable polyphenol, tellimagrandin II, which turned out to be the main inhibitory substance. Myriophyllum spicatum contains large amounts of this compound

  18. Comparison of extraction methods for quantitation of methionine and selenomethionine in yeast by species specific isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Sturgeon, Ralph E; McSheehy, Shona; Mester, Zoltán

    2004-11-01

    Fourteen extraction methods commonly cited in the literature were evaluated for the quantitation of methionine (Met) and selenomethionine (SeMet) in a yeast candidate certified reference material (CRM). Species specific isotope dilution (ID) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to effectively compensate for potential errors, such as losses during derivatization and clean up steps. Despite different extraction methods, the same derivatization procedure using methyl chloroformate was applied with a single exception, which was based on digestion with cyanogen bromide with 2% SnCl2 in 0.1 M HCl. Significant differences in measured Met and SeMet concentrations were obtained when different extraction methods were used. A 4 M methanesulfonic acid reflux digestion was found to be the most efficient for both analytes. Digestion with CNBr with 2% SnCl2 in 0.1 M HCl for the determination of SeMet showed the second highest extraction efficiency. Despite frequent use of enzymatic hydrolysis for the extraction of SeMet from yeast, very low extraction efficiencies for both analytes were obtained for four of eight tested methods. Among these, the highest extraction efficiencies for both analytes were obtained using 20mg pronase and 10mg lipase with incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h. However, recoveries remained nearly 30 and 50% lower for Met and SeMet, respectively, compared to extraction with methanesulfonic acid. Lowest extraction efficiencies for both analytes were obtained when HCl or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) digestions were used. Efficient extraction was also achieved using 200 mg (or 400 mg) of protease XIV with incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 h (or 24 h). Concentrations of 3331+/-45 and 3334+/-39 microg g(-1) (mean and one standard deviation, n = 4) for SeMet were obtained using 200 mg (72 h incubation) and 400 mg (24 h incubation) of protease XIV, respectively, in agreement with a value of 3404+/-38 microg g(-1) obtained using a methanesulfonic acid reflux. PMID:15560494

  19. Contribution of PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 to the resistance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 and PE-2 strains to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Romaní, Aloia; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-09-01

    PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 were previously identified as key genes for yeast tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. To better understand their contribution to yeast resistance to the multiple stresses occurring during lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentations, we overexpressed these genes in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCUG53310 and PE-2, and evaluated their impact on the fermentation of Eucalyptus globulus wood and corn cob hydrolysates. PRS3 overexpression improved the fermentation rate (up to 32%) and productivity (up to 48%) in different hydrolysates. ZWF1 and RPB4 overexpression did not improve the fermentation performance, but their increased expression in the presence of acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural was found to contribute to yeast adaptation to these inhibitors. This study expands our understanding about the molecular mechanisms involved in industrial yeast tolerance to the stresses occurring during lignocellulosic bioethanol production and highlights the importance of selecting appropriate strain backgrounds/hydrolysates combinations when addressing further improvement of these processes. PMID:25974617

  20. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses: II. Nutrient excretion and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that an equine diet formulated with chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials (DFM) and Yucca schidigera extract would decrease excretion of nutrients that have potential for environmental impact. Horses were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) the aforementioned additives. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co were included in the ADD diet at a 100% replacement rate of sulfate forms used in the CTRL diet. Additionally, the ADD diet included organic selenium yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract. Ten horses were fed the 2 experimental diets during two 42-d periods in a crossover design. Total fecal and urine collection occurred during the last 14 d of each period. Results indicate no significant differences between Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co concentrations excreted via urine (P > 0.05) due to dietary treatment. There was no difference between fecal Cu and Mn concentrations (P > 0.05) based on diet consumed. Mean fecal Zn and Co concentrations excreted by horses consuming ADD were greater than CTRL (P < 0.003). Differences due to diet were found for selenium fecal (P < 0.0001) and urine (P < 0.0001) excretions, with decreased concentrations found for horses consuming organic selenium yeast (ADD). In contrast, fecal K (%) was greater (P = 0.0421) for horses consuming ADD, whereas concentrations of fecal solids, total N, ammonia N, P, total ammonia, and fecal output did not differ between dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In feces stockpiled to simulate a crude composting method, no differences (P > 0.05) due to diet were detected for particle size, temperature, moisture, OM, total N, P, phosphate, K, moisture, potash, or ammonia N (P > 0.05). Although no difference (P = 0.2737) in feces stockpile temperature due to diet was found, temperature differences over time were documented (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the addition of certain chelated mineral sources, organic Se yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract did not decrease most nutrient concentrations excreted. Horses consuming organic selenium as part of the additive diet had lower fecal and urine Se concentrations, as well as greater fecal K concentrations. PMID:23881677

  1. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-05-01

    This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm). PMID:20501040

  2. Response of scab-susceptible (McIntosh) and scab-resistant (Liberty) apple tissues to treatment with yeast extract and Venturia inaequalis.

    PubMed

    Hrazdina, Geza; Borejsza-Wysocki, W

    2003-09-01

    Yeast extract and Venturia inaequalis treated intact scab-susceptible (McIntosh) and scab-resistant (Liberty) apple plants and their organs were analyzed for phenolic metabolites. The major phenolic compounds found in both non-treated and treated leaves were phloridzin and phloretin which accumulated in mM concentrations. Untreated and treated stems and roots contained only phloridzin as the major detectable metabolite during the course of the investigation. The accumulation of phloridzin and phloretin was not developmentally regulated, since they were present in both young and old leaves, and also in the intercellular washings of both scab-susceptible and scab-resistant plants. The major metabolites of both McIntosh and Liberty fruits were cinnamyl glucose and p-coumarylquinic acid, which increased 20-fold in Liberty fruit upon yeast extract treatment. The same compounds increased only 2-fold in McIntosh fruits. Minor compounds in the fruits of both cultivars were p-coumaric acid, phloridzin and phloretin, the latter compound being present at the threshold of detection. Biphenyl and dibenzofuran compounds, the major metabolites of elicitor treated Liberty cell suspension cultures, could not be detected in the intact plants. These results indicate differential response of plant organs and cell suspension cultures to elicitor treatment or pathogen invasion. PMID:12943766

  3. Measurement of the inhibitory potential and detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolysate for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Engel, R.E.; Nagle, N.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Microtox assay represents a rapid, accurate, and reproducible method for determining general microbial toxicity. This assay was used to evaluate the relative toxicity of a variety of hydrolysate samples derived from dilute-acid and alkaline biomass pretreatment. Toxicity is elicited from biomass degradation products, such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetic acid, generated during pretreatment. Microtox results indicate that the pretreatment samples examined ranged from 9 to 71 toxicity units (TU). Correlations of TU and sample absorbance at several wavelengths were evaluated for all sample series. Sample TU values best agreed with absorbance at 230 nm, but the unsatisfactory fit suggests that absorbance should not be used as an absolute measure of sample toxicity. Microtox data for pretreatment hydrolysate samples were correlated with the inhibition experienced by the ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D{sub 5}A, during the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process of pretreated biomass. None of the alkaline pretreatment conditions produced inhibition during SSF. However, the acid pretreatment conditions did produce a wide range of inhibitory and noninhibitory hydrolysates. In general, fermentation was inhibited for acid-pretreated hydrolysate samples with values exceeding 45 TU. Preliminary studies that focused on reducing hydrolysate sample toxicity (detoxification) indicate that adding perlite and zeolite had little effect. However, the use of charcoal, a universal flocculent, or ion-exchange resins significantly reduced sample toxicity, holding promise for the efficient bioconversion of pretreated biomass to ethanol. Moreover, the developed toxicity measurement assay can quickly monitor the quality of the pretreatment process. In this way, biomass conversion operation processes can be reliably controlled at the pilot and commercial scales. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. State of the Art Manufacturing of Protein Hydrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Braun, Steven

    The use of protein hydrolysates in microbiological media has been in existence for several decades and the basic manufacturing process of protein hydrolysates has remained the same. However, with increasing use of protein hydrolysates in specialized applications such as animal cell culture processes, the manufacturing of protein hydrolysates has dramatically improved and is still in its infancy to uncover the specific peptide, peptides and combination of individual amino acids that produce intended effects for that application. This will change as the protein hydrolysate manufacturers and end-users exchange information and work towards the common goal of developing the best protein hydrolysates for specific applications. This chapter will review the generic manufacturing of protein hydrolysates describing individual unit operations, problems faced by manufacturers and suggestions for obtaining consistent product and guidelines for the end-users in getting regulatory support and setting up reliable specifications. Finally the chapter concludes with future trends of protein hydrolysates.

  5. Diversity and Physiological Characterization of D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts Isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raquel M. Cadete; Monaliza A. Melo; Kelly J. Dussán; Rita C. L. B. Rodrigues; Silvio S. Silva; Jerri E. Zilli; Marcos J. S. Vital; Fátima C. O. Gomes; Marc-André Lachance; Carlos A. Rosa

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThis study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or

  6. Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and/or cellobiose by yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Thomas W.; Willis, Laura B.; Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai

    2013-09-10

    Provided herein are methods of using yeast cells to produce ethanol by contacting a mixture comprising xylose with a Spathaspora yeast cell under conditions suitable to allow the yeast to ferment at least a portion of the xylose to ethanol. The methods allow for efficient ethanol production from hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic material and sugar mixtures including at least xylose and glucose or xylose, glucose and cellobiose.

  7. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  8. Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

  9. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 244-251] PMID:23710634

  10. Discovery of N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate as an umami-enhancing maillard-modified nucleotide in yeast extracts.

    PubMed

    Festring, Daniel; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-10-13

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a commercial yeast extract involving medium-pressure RP-18 chromatography and ion-pair chromatography, followed by LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR, and CD spectroscopy, led to the discovery of the previously not reported umami-enhancing nucleotide diastereomers (R)- and (S)-N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Model experiments confirmed the formation of these diastereomers by a Maillard-type glycation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate with dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde, respectively. Sensory studies revealed umami recognition threshold concentrations of 0.19 and 0.85 mmol/L for the (S)- and (R)-configured diastereomers, respectively, and demonstrated the taste-enhancing activity of these nucleotides on monosodium l-glutamate solutions. PMID:20839805

  11. Identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast aqueous extract by 2D gel electrophoresis, nanoHPLC–ICP MS and nanoHPLC–ESI MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Tastet; Dirk Schaumlöffel; Brice Bouyssiere; Ryszard Lobinski

    2008-01-01

    An approach based on the consecutive use of nanoHPLC–ICP collision cell MS and nanoHPLC–electrospray MS was proposed for the analysis of water-soluble selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast after their separation by 2D gel electrophoresis (GE). An ultrasonic probe was employed for fast protein extraction avoiding sample heating and thus reducing the risk of protein degradation. The efficiency of different extraction

  12. Differential extraction of soluble pools from the cytosol and the vacuoles of yeast ( Candida utilis ) using DEAE-dextran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Huber-Wälchli; A. Wiemken

    1979-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Candida utilis cells was rapidly disrupted by a small dose of DEAE-dextran. The vacuolar membranes, in contrast, remained intact under isotonic conditions. Therefore, the cytosolic pool could be extracted in a first step, and in a second step, after disruption of the vacuoles, the vacuolar pool. The two extracts were studied in cells grown on different

  13. Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts

    PubMed Central

    Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

  14. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different ?-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced ?-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 ?g L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

  15. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from protein hydrolysate of lecithin-free egg yolk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pyo-Jam Park; Won-Kyo Jung; Kyung-Soo Nam; F. Shahidi; Se-Kwon Kim

    2001-01-01

    The protein extracted from lecithin-free egg yolk, normally discarded by lecithin processing plants, was hydrolyzed with the\\u000a aid of Alcalase, a commercial enzyme. The hydrolysate was separated through a series of ultrafiltration membranes with molecular\\u000a weight cutoffs of 10, 5, and 1 kDa; and three types of permeates including 10 K (permeate from 10 kDa), 5 K (permeate from\\u000a 5

  16. Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and enzymatic yeast extracts on the microbiological, biochemical and sensorial properties of Lben generic products.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Nicoletta P; Garau, Giovanni; Murgia, Marco A; Bennani, Abdelmajid; Deiana, Pietrino

    2014-05-01

    In this study we identified Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis, Kluyveromices lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant microorganisms of traditional Moroccan acid-alcoholic fermented milk named Lben. The low pH (3·8±0·3), lactose (16·8±3·4 mg/l) and lactic acid (8·16±0·6 mg/l) content indicated that a strong fermentation occurred in the traditional product which was also characterised by the substantial presence of ethanol and typical volatile carbonyl compounds (i.e., acetoin, diacetyl and acetaldehyde). Microbiological analyses of experimental Lben manufactured with selected strains (isolated from the traditional product) of Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis alone (batch A) and in combination with enzymatic extract of a K. lactis strain (batch B) indicated a good effectiveness of the starters employed (?1010 CFU/g of lactococci after 8 h of incubation) and a significant effect of the yeast enzyme extract on lactococci viability. Despite slight changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the two Lben during the 15 d storage period, volatile compounds (i.e. ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acetoin) were consistently higher in batch B. Moreover, sensorial analysis performed after 15 d of storage, highlighted higher odour and flavour intensity, vegetable odour and viscosity in batch B while batch A displayed higher astringency. PMID:24642233

  17. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 ?M TE·g?1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 ?M TE·g?1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  18. Efficacy of marine yeasts and baker's yeast as immunostimulants in Fenneropenaeus indicus: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Sarlin; Rosamma Philip

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of marine yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii (S8) and Candida tropicalis (S186) as immunostimulants to Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus was estimated in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S36. Biomass of yeast strains was prepared using Malt Extract Agar and incorporated into a standard diet to prepare yeast diets of varying concentrations. F. indicus were fed these diets for a period of

  19. Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

  20. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  1. Protective effects of flavonoids and extract from Vellozia kolbekii Alves against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in yeast.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carmelita Gomes; Carvalho, Camilla Dayane F; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Castro, Frederico A V; Alves, Ruy José Válka; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo; de Rezende, Cláudia Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Two flavonoids 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-6-prenylflavonol (1) and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-8-methyl-6-prenylflavonol (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of sheaths of Vellozia kolbekii Alves (Velloziaceae). This is the first time that compound 2 has been described. The crude extract and flavonoids were found to be active as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers and were able to the increase tolerance of the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2). The protective effect was correlated with a reduction in the oxidation of proteins and lipids. In addition, flavonoids isolated from Velloziaceae showed an inhibitory effect on mutations in p53, which is mutated and nonfunctional in more than 50% of cases of human cancer. PMID:21915628

  2. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40 % of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Preculturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  3. Xuezhikang, Extract of Red Yeast Rice, Improved Abnormal Hemorheology, Suppressed Caveolin-1 and Increased eNOS Expression in Atherosclerotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Bing; Liu, Mei-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Xuezhikang is the extract of red yeast rice, which has been widely used for the management of atherosclerotic disease, but the molecular basis of its antiatherosclerotic effects has not yet been fully identified. Here we investigated the changes of eNOS in vascular endothelia and RBCs, eNOS regulatory factor Caveolin-1 in endothelia, and hemorheological parameters in atherosclerotic rats to explore the protective effects of Xuezhikang. Methodology/Principal Findings Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n?=?12/group) group C, controls; group M, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induced atherosclerotic models; group X, HCD+Xuezhikang; and group L, HCD +Lovastatin. In group X, Xuezhikang inhibited oxidative stress, down-regulated caveolin-1 in aorta wall (P<0.05), up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and erythrocytes (P<0.05), increased NOx (nitrite and nitrate) in plasma and cGMP in erythrocyte plasma and aorta wall (P<0.05), increased erythrocyte deformation index (EDI), and decreased whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity (P<0.05), with the improvement of arterial pathology. Conclusions/Significance Xuezhikang up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and RBCs, increased plasma NOx and improved abnormal hemorheology in high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerotic rats. The elevated eNOS/NO and improved hemorheology may be beneficial to atherosclerotic disease. PMID:23675421

  4. Dry yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranveig Thattai (None; )

    2005-09-27

    Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

  5. Yeast virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REED B. WICKNER

    The three families of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses and two families of retroviruses (retrotranspo- sons) of the yeast Sacc\\/zaromyces cerevisiaeare all trans- mitted between cells only by cell fusion, probably re- flecting the high frequency of mating of yeast cells in nature. One dsRNA virus and two retroviruses appar- ently use ribosomal \\

  6. Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6% and an average bias of 1.4%. PMID:25673246

  7. Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland W. Moskowitz

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To review the current status of collagen hydrolysate in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Methods: Review of past and current literature relative to collagen hydrolysate metabolism, and assessment of clinical investigations of therapeutic trials in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Results: Hydrolyzed gelatin products have long been used in pharmaceuticals and foods; these products are generally recognized as safe food

  8. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-01-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

  9. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  10. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  11. A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence. PMID:22567033

  12. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides obtained from chicken collagen hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Saiga, Ai; Iwai, Koji; Hayakawa, Toru; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Shiniich; Nishimura, Toshihide; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2008-10-22

    In this study, collagen extracted from chicken legs (which are the yellow keratin parts containing a nail) was hydrolyzed with various enzymes, and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of each hydrolysate was determined. The hydrolysate by treatment with an Aspergillus species-derived enzyme had the highest activity (IC 50 = 260 microg/mL). The fraction of this hydrolysate obtained by ultrafiltration with a molecular-weight cutoff of 3000 Da (low fraction) had a stronger activity (IC 50 = 130 microg/mL) than the fractionated one. This fraction was further fractionated by HPLC, and the peptides in the fraction with high ACE-inhibitory activity were identified. The amino acid sequences of the four peptides were identified using a protein sequencer. These peptides were synthesized to confirm their ACE-inhibitory activities; this showed that peptides with a Gly-Ala-Hyp-Gly-Leu-Hyp-Gly-Pro sequence had the highest activity (IC 50 = 29 microM). When the low fraction was administered to spontaneous hypertensive rats, a decrease in their blood pressure was observed after 2 h of administration, and a significant decrease in blood pressure (-50 mmHg) was observed after 6 h. Moreover, long-term administration studies indicated that the low fraction showed a significant suppression of increased blood pressure. PMID:18808143

  13. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  14. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  15. Purification and characterisation of antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of venison protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Kyung Kim; Seung-Jae Lee; Byong-Tae Jeon; Sang-Ho Moon; BoKyung Kim; Tae-Kyu Park; Ji-Sook Han; Pyo-Jam Park

    2009-01-01

    To prepare antioxidative peptides from venison protein hydrolysates (APVPH), six proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis, and the antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates were investigated using a free radical scavenging assay. Among the hydrolysates, papain hydrolysates which had the highest free radical scavenging activity were further separated into four groups and purified using consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, two antioxidative peptides

  16. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively. PMID:25916261

  17. Method to produce succinic acid from raw hydrolysates

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia Y.; Nghiem, Nhuan Phu

    2004-06-01

    A method for producing succinic acid from industrial-grade hydrolysates is provided, comprising supplying an organism that contains mutations for the genes ptsG, pflB, and ldhA, allowing said organism to accumulate biomass, and allowing said organism to metabolize the hydrolysate. Also provided is a bacteria mutant characterized in that it produces succinic acid from substrate contained in industrial-grade hydrolysate in a ratio of between 0.6:1 and 1.3:1 succinic acid to substrate.

  18. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-16

    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)?m)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved. PMID:24188847

  19. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

  20. Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

  1. ACE-inhibitory activity of tilapia protein hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sivakumar Raghavan; Hordur G. Kristinsson

    2009-01-01

    Fish processing wastes can be used for preparing bioactive peptides with various functionalities. Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of tilapia protein hydrolysates and its corresponding fractionates. Tilapia protein was alkali-solubilised at pH 11.0 and recovered at pH 5.5 to obtain a stable substrate. This substrate was hydrolysed using two enzymes, Cryotin-F

  2. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Guo Zheng; Xiao-Long Chen; Zhao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice

  3. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Parreiras, Lucas S; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B; Bice, Benjamin D; Bonfert, Brandi L; Pinhancos, Rebeca C; Balloon, Allison J; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T; Simmons, Blake A; Hodge, David B; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  4. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  5. Collagen hydrolysate inhibits zymosan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Anita; Cozijnsen, Miranda; de Vrij, Gerrit; Garssen, Johan

    2013-07-01

    During the past years, evidence accumulated showing that glycine comprises anti-inflammatory activities. These effects occur, at least in part, via the activation of glycine-gated chloride channels (GlyR). Glycine is one of the major structural units of collagen, making up about 30% of the amino acids. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of collagen hydrolysate (CH) using the zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation mouse model. After oral intake of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg CH the plasma levels of glycine increased in a concentration-dependent manner. CH was able to counteract zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation locally (ear swelling) as well as systemically (IL-6 production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cells). The LPS-stimulated IL-6 production in whole blood correlated positively with the ear swelling response. This correlation was abolished by strychnine (a glycine receptor antagonist), indicating the involvement of GlyR. Collectively, these data show that CH is able to modulate inflammatory responses both locally as well as systemically. This effect might be constituted by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production via GlyR. PMID:23788175

  6. Amylase binding to starch granules under hydrolysing and non-hydrolysing conditions.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Gidley, Michael J

    2014-11-26

    Although considerable information is available about amylolysis rate, extent and pattern of granular starches, the underlying mechanisms of enzyme action and interactions are not fully understood, partly due to the lack of direct visualisation of enzyme binding and subsequent hydrolysis of starch granules. In the present study, ?-amylase (AA) from porcine pancreas was labelled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) fluorescent dye with maintenance of significant enzyme activity. The binding of FITC/TRITC-AA conjugate to the surface and interior of granules was studied under both non-hydrolysing (0 °C) and hydrolysing (37 °C) conditions with confocal microscopy. It was observed that enzyme binding to maize starch granules under both conditions was more homogenous compared with potato starch. Enzyme molecules appear to preferentially bind to the granules or part of granules that are more susceptible to enzymic degradation. The specificity is such that fresh enzyme added after a certain time of incubation binds at the same location as previously bound enzyme. By visualising the enzyme location during binding and hydrolysis, detailed information is provided regarding the heterogeneity of granular starch digestion. PMID:25256464

  7. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  8. Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.

    PubMed

    Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

  9. Candida utilis assimilates oligomeric sugars in rice straw hydrolysate via the Calcium-Capturing-by-Carbonation (CaCCO) process for glutathione- and cell-biomass production.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Zhao, Rui; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Rice-straw hydrolysate (RSH) prepared via the CaCCO (Calcium Capturing by Carbonation) process contains not only monosaccharides but also significant amounts of oligosaccharides. In this study, a glutathione-producing yeast, Candida utilis NBRC 0626, was found to assimilate those oligosaccharides. The yields of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dry cell weight (DCW) per consumed sugars in a medium with RSH after 72h incubation were 10.1mg/g-sugars and 0.49g/g-sugars, respectively. The yields were comparative to those in a medium containing a model monosaccharide mix, suggesting that the assimilated oligosaccharides contribute to additional GSH and DCW production. Glycosyl linkage analysis indicated that the yeast could cleave xylose-, galactose-, and arabinose residues as well as glucose residues at the non-reducing ends. After 72h incubation, 99.1% of the total glucose residues and 84.2% of the total xylose residues in RSH were depleted. Thus the yeast could be applied for efficient utilization of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25241674

  10. Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and ?-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified ?-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNF? and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas ?-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified ?-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that ?-glucan fractions or pure ?-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID:22848391

  11. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for maximal recovery of active monacolins and removal of toxic citrinin from red yeast rice by a full factorial design coupled with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guisheng; Fu, Lei; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-03-01

    This study optimised the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to achieve maximal recovery of active monacolins with minimal contents of citrinin from red yeast rice (RYR). A central composite design after a full factorial design was utilised to examine the different UAE parameters. The studies revealed that HAc%, extraction time and EtOH% had significant influences on the recovery yield of monacolins, while HAc% and EtOH% were key factors for the elimination of citrinin. The resulting optimal conditions were as follows: ultrasound power of 250 W, HAc% of 7.7%, RYR amount of 0.2 g (solvent-to-solid ratio 40 mL/g), extraction time of 50.7 min, EtOH% of 57.2% and extraction temperature of 20 °C. Under these conditions, at least 94.7% of monacolins was recovered and 87.7% of citrinin was removed from RYR. This optimised UAE condition was further evaluated for potential industrial application in manufacturing of RYR as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. PMID:25306334

  12. Short communication Antiproliferative activity of fish protein hydrolysates on human breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Picot; S. Bordenave; S. Didelot; I. Fruitier-Arnaudin; F. Sannier; G. Thorkelsson; F. Guerard; A. Chabeaud; J. M. Piot

    Antiproliferative activity of 18 fish protein hydrolysates was measured on 2 human breast cancer cell lines grown in vitro. Three blue whiting, three cod, three plaice and one salmon hydrolysates were identified as significant growth inhibitors on the two cancer cell lines. Preliminary analysis of hydrolysates composition evidenced they contained a complex mixture of free amino acids, peptides with various

  13. Variability of the response ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae strains to lignocellulose hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Modig; João R. M. Almeida; Marie F. Gorwa-Grauslund; Gunnar Lidén

    2008-01-01

    The development of tolerant microorganisms is needed for the efficient fermentation of inhibitory ligno- cellulose hydrolysates. In the current work, the fermenta- tion performance of six selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dilute-acid spruce hydrolysate was compared using two different modes of fermentation; either single pulse addition of hydrolysate to exponentially growing cells or continuous feeding of the same amount

  14. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Extensively Hydrolysed Infant Formulae and Their Estimated Daily Intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Krachler; E. Rossipal; G. Chan; J. Kerner; S. Kharb; R. Kakkar

    2000-01-01

    The 18 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn were determined in three extensively hydrolysed formulae by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two formulae were whey hydrolysates, whereas one was based on soy-bovine collagen hydrolysate. Two skim milk powder reference materials, analyzed to ensure the analytical

  15. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  16. Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

    2009-08-01

    To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 degrees C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

  17. Hydrolysable tannin fed to entire male pigs affects intestinal production, tissue deposition and hepatic clearance of skatole.

    PubMed

    ?andek-Potokar, M; Škrlep, M; Batorek Luka?, N; Zamaratskaia, G; Prevolnik Povše, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Kubale, V; Bee, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet of fattening boars was studied. Performance, reproductive organ weights, salivary gland morphology, boar taint compounds and skatole metabolism were evaluated. At 123 days of age and 52?±?6?kg liveweight, 24 Landrace?×?Large White boars were assigned within a litter to four treatment groups: control (T0 fed mixture with 13.2 MJ/kg, 17.5% crude proteins) and three experimental diets for which the T0 diet was supplemented with 1%, 2% and 3% of hydrolysable tannin-rich extract (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Pigs were kept individually with ad libitum access to feed and water and slaughtered at 193 days of age and 122?±?10?kg liveweight. Adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet had no negative effect on growth performance at 1% and 2%, whereas the 3% inclusion reduced feed intake and resulted in an adaptive response of the salivary glands (particularly parotid gland hypertrophy). Relative to T0, fat tissue skatole concentration was increased in the T1 group, but was similar in T2 and T3. Across treatments tissue skatole concentrations were proportional to the activity of hepatic CYP450. The results indicate the potential of tannin supplementation to reduce boar taint although further investigations are needed in order to establishing optimal dosage. PMID:25890671

  18. Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on hydrolyzed waste cassava starch for production of baking-quality yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony O. Ejiofor; Yusuf Chisti; Murray Moo-Young

    1996-01-01

    A fermentation medium based on waste cassava starch hydrolysate and a four-phase feeding strategy for a fed-batch culture of Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. Cassava starch isolated from the wastewater produced in processing of cassava mash into gari was liquefied with a thermostable 1.4-?-d-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.1) in the presence of 100 ppm Ca2+ at 80°C and pH 6.1–6.3 for

  19. Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

  20. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-01-01

    During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials a wide range of compounds which are inhibitory to microorganisms are formed or released. Based on their origin the inhibitors are usually divided in three major groups: weak acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. These compounds limit efficient utilisation of the hydrolysates for ethanol production by fermentation. If the inhibitors are identified and the mechanisms

  1. Novel antioxidant Peptide derived from the ultrafiltrate of ovomucin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Oun Ki; Ha, Go Eun; Han, Gi-Sung; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2013-07-31

    The techno-functional properties of ovomucin as a gel-forming agent and its biological properties are well-known. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity in ovomucin hydrolysate using radical scavenging assays. Electrophoresis showed that ovomucin isolated from whole egg was well separated. Ovomucin hydrolysis was carried out using microbial protease according to different incubation times. These ovomucin hydrolysates exhibited 85% antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay after a 2 h incubation with protease and retained 90% activity until 24 h. At an incubation time of 4 h, the activity of ovomucin hydrolysates reached approximately 90%, corresponding to 115 ?M gallic acid equivalent, regardless of the proteases used. The partially purified fraction of the hydrolysate by ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was collected and then analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two peptides, LDEPDPL and NIQTDDFRT, in this fraction were identified. The antioxidant activities of these two synthesized peptides were measured to be 51.8 and 24.7% by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. PMID:23834012

  2. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  3. YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston 7.1 Introduction Key Concepts · Genetic studies of the yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal experimental organism. It is a microorganism that has a fast biology. Yeast has been the focus of extensive studies in many aspects of molecular biology. These areas

  4. Genital Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Oriel; Betty M. Partridge; Maire J. Denny; J. C. Coleman

    1972-01-01

    Genital yeast infection was studied in 533 women seen in a department of venereology. Yeasts were recovered in culture from 138 patients (26% of the total). Candida albicans accounted for 112 (81%) of the isolates and Torulopsis glabrata for 22 (16%); other yeasts were uncommon. There was no evidence that the presence of yeasts was related to age. 32% of

  5. Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

  6. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

  7. Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla; da Silva, Débora Danielle Virgínio; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2011-07-01

    The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in 30.0 gl(-1) xylose, 30.0 gl(-1) glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl(-1) xylose and 2.0 gl(-1) glucose). The vacuum evaporated hydrolysate (80 gl(-1)) was detoxificated by ion exchange resin (A-860S; A500PS and C-150-Purolite®). The total phenolic compounds and acetic acid were 93.0 and 64.9%, respectively, removed by the resin hydrolysate treatment. All experiments were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks at 200 rpm, 30°C. The maximum XR (0.618 Umg (Prot) (-1)) and XDH (0.783 Umg (Prot) (-1)) enzymes activities was obtained using inoculum previously growth in both sugars mixture. The highest cell concentration (10.6 gl(-1)) was obtained with inoculum pre-cultivated in the glucose. However, the xylitol yield and xylitol volumetric productivity were favored using the xylose as carbon source. In this case, it was observed maximum xylose (81%) and acetic acid (100%) consumption. It is very important to point out that maximum enzymatic activities were obtained when the mixture of sugars was used as carbon source of inoculum, while the highest fermentative parameters were obtained when xylose was used. PMID:20683763

  8. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields. PMID:20801647

  9. Efficient production of sophorolipids by Starmerella bombicola using a corncob hydrolysate medium.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuka; Horiuchi, Jun-ichi

    2015-03-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are amphiphilic compounds produced from a variety of saccharides and vegetable oils by the yeast Starmerella bombicola and related strains, and they have commercial uses as detergents. In the present study, SL production was investigated using a corncob hydrolysate (CCH) medium derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks as a source of hydrophilic carbon substrates. Excess sulfuric acid concentrations during pretreatment of the corncobs increased the furfural concentrations and turned the CCH dark brown. The optimal sulfuric acid concentration was 1% (w/v), and the treated CCH, containing 45 g/l glucose, allowed the production of 33.7 g/l of SLs following 4 days of cultivation. Additional autoclaving (121°C, 20 min) inhibited SL production and cell growth by 36% and 40%, respectively. Ammonium nitrate (0.1 g-N/l) restored SL production to the autoclaved CCH. Finally, a cost-effective SL production of 49.2 g/l, with a volumetric productivity of 12.3 g/l/day, was achieved using CCH medium during batch cultivation in a jar fermentor. PMID:25240400

  10. Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuels production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement means is economically impractical and overcoming the i...

  11. Identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast aqueous extract by 2D gel electrophoresis, nanoHPLC-ICP MS and nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Laure; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Bouyssiere, Brice; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2008-05-30

    An approach based on the consecutive use of nanoHPLC-ICP collision cell MS and nanoHPLC-electrospray MS was proposed for the analysis of water-soluble selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast after their separation by 2D gel electrophoresis (GE). An ultrasonic probe was employed for fast protein extraction avoiding sample heating and thus reducing the risk of protein degradation. The efficiency of different extraction steps were critically evaluated by total selenium analysis and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-ICP MS. Prior to electrophoresis proteins were purified by acetone precipitation. The protein-containing spots from 2D GE were excised and digested with trypsin. The digests obtained were analyzed by nanoHPLC-ICP MS in order to check for the presence of selenium-containing peptides; this allowed the detection of target proteins for further analyses (two out of five spots). The subsequent analyses of the selected digests by nanoHPLC-ES MS/MS allowed the attribution of amino acid sequences to peaks detected by ICP MS revealing the presence of two selenium-containing proteins: SIP 18 and HSP 12. PMID:18585195

  12. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of fluorescent enzymatic mature and senescent crosslinks of collagen in bone hydrolysate using single-column high performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Viguet-Carrin; E. Gineyts; C. Bertholon; P. D. Delmas

    2009-01-01

    A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed including an internal standard for the measurement of mature and senescent crosslinks concentration in non-demineralized bone hydrolysates. To avoid the demineralization which is a tedious step, we developed a method based on the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure to clean-up the samples. It resulted in sensitive and accurate measurements: the

  13. Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins.

    PubMed

    Langmaier, F; Mokrejs, P; Kolomaznik, K; Mladek, M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of waste collagen proteins (H), from current industrial manufacture (leather, edible meat product casings, etc.) of mean molecular mass 20-30 kDa by a reaction with dialdehyde starch (DAS), produces hydrogels applicable as biodegradable (or even edible) packaging materials for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Thermo-reversibility of prepared hydrogels is given by concentrations of H and DAS in a reaction mixture. At concentrations of H 25-30% (w/w) and that of DAS 15-20% (related to weight of hydrolysate), thermo-reversible hydrogels arise, which can be processed into packaging materials by a technique similar to that of soft gelatin capsules (SGC). Exceeding the limit of 20% DAS leads to hydrogels that are thermo-reversible only in part, a further increase in DAS concentration then leads to thermo-irreversible gels whose processing into biodegradable packaging materials necessitates employment of other procedures. PMID:17376664

  14. Hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate cross-linked with dialdehyde starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; M. Mládek; P. Mokrejš

    2009-01-01

    Processing hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate (H) cross-linked with dialdehyde starch (DAS) by dipping or casting into biodegradable\\u000a materials for various applications, is complicated by their marked tendency to aging. One-hour action by temperatures at 60–90 °C\\u000a reduces sorbed water content in hydrogels by approx. 12%; dependence of the extent of this reduction on temperature (within\\u000a the mentioned range) was not detected.

  15. Short peptide fragments with antiulcer activity from a collagen hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Zolotarev; K. E. Badmaeva; Z. V. Bakaeva; G. E. Samonina; G. N. Kopylova; A. K. Dadayan; Yu. B. Zverkov; S. K. Garanin; B. V. Vaskovsky; I. P. Ashmarin; N. F. Myasoedov

    2006-01-01

    A peptide acidic hydrolysate of collagen (PHC) was obtained under conditions (4 N HCl) ensuring the predominant formation\\u000a of short peptides, glyprolines. They were separated and their antiulcer activity was studied. Thirty individual peptides with\\u000a molecular masses of 174–420 amu were isolated from the PHC by HPLC. The PHC was shown to predominantly contain 2-to 4-aa peptides,\\u000a including PG, GP,

  16. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system.

    PubMed

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of all the hydrolysates i.e. flavourzyme (0.81?±?0.04), alcalase (1.16?±?0.05) and corolase (1.42?±?0.12) was higher than the WPC (0.19?±?0.01). Among these, whey protein hydrolysates prepared using corolase showed maximum antioxidant activity. Total 15 ?-lactoglobulin, 1 ?-lactoalbumin, and 6 ?-casein derived peptide fragments were identified in the WPHs by LC-MS/MS. Due to their size and characteristic amino acid composition, all the identified peptides may contribute for the antioxidant activity. The strawberry and chocolate flavoured milk was supplemented with WPC and WPHs and 2 % addition has shown increase in antioxidant activity upto 42 %. The result suggests that WPH could be used as natural biofunctional ingredients in enhancing antioxidant properties of food products. PMID:26028704

  17. Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 17 March 1997? The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.?? PMID:9279143

  18. Safety evaluation of fish protein hydrolysate supplementation in malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Nesse, Knut Olav; Nagalakshmi, A P; Marimuthu, P; Singh, Mamta; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Ho, Manki; Simon, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Amizate® is a proprietary protein hydrolysate preparation derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using endogenous hydrolytic enzymes; it contains mostly free amino acids and short peptides, as well as small amounts of micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals). In this study, the safety of supplementation with fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was examined in 438 malnourished children in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. The children were between the ages of six to eight and met the Gomez classification for mild or moderate malnutrition. They were randomized to receive one of three interventions for four months, including a chocolate drink (control), or Amizate® (3 or 6g/day) in a chocolate drink. Administration of Amizate® was well-tolerated, with no adverse events reported. Growth (i.e., body weight gain, changes in height, and body mass index) was not negatively impacted by administration of Amizate®, and routine biochemical analysis of blood and urine samples did not reveal any abnormalities that were attributable to the intervention. Findings from this study demonstrate that daily consumption of 3 or 6g of fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was safe and suitable for supplementing the diets of malnourished children. PMID:24569051

  19. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  20. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

  1. Yeast Education Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

  2. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

  3. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Vaginal Yeast Infection Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ...

  4. Chemical and thermal cross-linking of collagen and elastin hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sionkowska; J. Skopinska-Wisniewska; M. Gawron; J. Kozlowska; A. Planecka

    2010-01-01

    Chemical and thermal cross-linking of collagen soluble in acetic acid and elastin hydrolysates soluble in water have been studied. Solutions of collagen and elastin hydrolysates were treated using variable concentrations of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Moreover, diepoxypropylether (DEPE) has been used as cross-linking agent. Films made of collagen and elastin hydrolysates were also treated with temperature at

  5. Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-xin HUO; Zheng ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated. The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS). Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by

  6. Protein hydrolysates from meriga ( Cirrhinus mrigala) egg and evaluation of their functional properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chalamaiah; G. Narsing Rao; D. G. Rao; T. Jyothirmayi

    2010-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from underutilised meriga (Cirrhinus mrigala) fish egg were prepared by using commercial Alcalase and papain enzymes. The degree of hydrolysis was 62% for Alcalase and 17.1% for papain, after 90min digestion at 50–55 and 60–65°C, respectively. The protein content of Alcalase-produced hydrolysate was higher (85%) than that of papain hydrolysate (70%) (p<0.05). Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein

  7. CLONTECHInnovative Yeast Protocols Handbook

    E-print Network

    Erickson, F. Les

    CLONTECHInnovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Yeast Protocols Handbook PT3024-1 (PR13103 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY #12;Yeast Protocols Handbook CLONTECH Laboratories, Inc. www.clontech.com Protocol # PT3024-1 2 Version # PR13103 I. Introduction 4 II. Introduction to Yeast Promoters 5 III. Culturing

  8. Production of d-Mannitol and Glycerol by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    1968-01-01

    D-Mannitol has not so far been known as a major product of sugar metabolism by yeasts. Three yeast strains, a newly isolated yeast from soy-sauce mash, Torulopsis versatilis, and T. anomala, were found to be good mannitol producers. Under optimal conditions, the isolate produced mannitol at good yield of 30% of the sugar consumed. Glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycerol, and xylitol were suitable substrates for mannitol formation. High concentrations of yeast extract, Casamino Acids, NaCl, and KCl in media affected significantly the mannitol yield, whereas high levels of inorganic phosphate did not show any detrimental effect. PMID:5749751

  9. Media for preservative resistant yeasts: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hocking, A D

    1996-04-01

    An international collaborative study was carried out to determine the most effective medium for selective isolation and enumeration of preservative resistant yeasts. Such a medium should prevent the growth of other yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are tolerant to lower levels of commonly used food preservatives, and sensitive yeasts such as Rhodotorula species. The study compared two non-selective media that are in common use for cultivation of yeasts from foods, Malt Extract agar (MEA) and Tryptone Glucose Yeast extract agar (TGY) with media made selective for preservative resistant yeasts by addition of 0.5% acetic acid to these two basal media (MEAA and TGYA). A fifth medium, Zygosaccharomyces bailii medium (ZBM) was also included in the study. These media were compared for their efficacy in selective isolation and enumeration of the preservative resistant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Pichia membranaefaciens. MEA and TGY without acetic acid were used as control, non-selective media, and Rhodotorula glutinis was the preservative sensitive control culture. Seven laboratories in six countries took part in the study. Of the non-selective media, TGY generally gave the highest counts, and TGY amended with 0.5% acetic acid (TGYA) was the best medium for recovery of all three preservative-resistant yeasts. ZBM was found to be selective for Z. bailii, but counts of this yeast on ZBM were significantly lower than on TGYA. R. glutinis did not grow on any of the selective media. PMID:8796419

  10. Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

  11. [Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].

    PubMed

    Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

  12. Enzymatic activity of yeasts isolated from the inflamed mammary secretion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wawron, W; Bochniarz, M; Szczubia?, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from inflammatory mammary secretion. The yeasts isolated from cows with clinical and sub-clinical mastitis (134 strains) included: Candida krusei (62 strains), Candida kefyr (48 strains), Candida lusitaniae (17 strains) and Candida famata (7 strains). The API ZYM system was used containing substrates to assess 19 hydrolytic enzymes. Substantial differences in the number and activity of hydrolyses were demonstrated in individual species. In Candida krusei, acid phosphatase showed the highest activity (4.36 points), in Candida kefyr and Candida lusitaniae--leucine arylamidase (4.93 and 4.25 points, respectively), in Candida famata--alpha-glucosidase (4.75 points). No activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha-mannosidase or alpha-fucosidase was observed in any of the yeasts examined. PMID:21528713

  13. Industrial robust yeast isolates with great potential for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Romaní, Aloia; Ruiz, Héctor A; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-06-01

    The search of robust microorganisms is essential to design sustainable processes of second generation bioethanol. Yeast strains isolated from industrial environments are generally recognised to present an increased stress tolerance but no specific information is available on their tolerance towards inhibitors that come from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. In this work, a strategy for the selection of different yeasts using hydrothermal hydrolysate from Eucalyptus globulus wood, containing different concentrations of inhibitors, was developed. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four Kluyveromyces marxianus strains isolated from industrial environments and four laboratory background strains were evaluated. Interestingly, a correlation between final ethanol titer and percentage of furfural detoxification was observed. The results presented here highlight industrial distillery environments as a remarkable source of efficient yeast strains for lignocellulosic fermentation processes. Selected strains were able to resourcefully degrade furfural and HMF inhibitors, producing 0.8g ethanol/Lh corresponding to 94% of the theoretical yield. PMID:24704884

  14. Electrical stimulation of the energy metabolism in yeast cells using a planar Ti-Au-electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Reiher, A; Warnke, C; Radoch, S; Witte, H; Krtschil, A; Mair, T; Müller, S C; Krost, A

    2006-04-01

    We report on the influence of dielectric pulse injection on the energy metabolism of yeast cells with a planar interdigitated electrode interface. The energy metabolism was measured via NADH fluorescence. The application of dielectric pulses results in a distinct decrease of the fluorescence, indicating a response of the energy metabolism of the yeast cells. The reduction of the NADH signal significantly depends on the pulse parameters, i.e., amplitude and width. Furthermore, the interface is used to detect electrical changes in the cell-electrolyte system, arising from glucose-induced oscillations in yeast cells and yeast extract, by dielectric spectroscopy at 10 kHz. These dielectric investigations revealed a beta(1)-dispersion for the system electrolyte/yeast cells as well as for the system electrolyte/yeast extract. In agreement with control measurements we obtained a glycolytic period of 45 s for yeast cells and of 11 min for yeast extract. PMID:17031550

  15. Effect of Casein Hydrolysates on Yogurt Fermentation and Texture Properties during Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang-Zhong Zhao; Jin-Shui Wang; Mou-Ming Zhao; Yue-Ming Jiang; Cui Chun

    Summary Effects of casein hydrolysates by papain on acidification of the yogurts and growth of probiotic bacteria during yogurt fermentation have been investigated. The viability of pro- biotic bacteria and texture characteristics of the yogurts during storage at 4 °C have been evaluated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yogurts. The post-fermentation acidification was retarded

  16. Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse using recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Mart??n; Mats Galbe; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Leif J Jönsson

    2002-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated by steam explosion at 205 and 215°C and hydrolysed with cellulolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were subjected to enzymatic detoxification by treatment with the phenoloxidase laccase and to chemical detoxification by overliming. Approximately 80% of the phenolic compounds were specifically removed by the laccase treatment. Overliming partially removed the phenolic compounds, but also other fermentation inhibitors such

  17. Development of a simple and sensitive fluorimetric method for isolation of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -hydrolysing bacteria R.L. Harcourt*, I. Horne, T.D. Sutherland, B.D. Hammock1 , R.J. Russell and J.G. Oakeshott . Incorporation of coumaphos into agar plates allowed the rapid detection of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria when tool to screen for bacteria possessing phosphotriesterase activity. INTRODUCTION Organophosphorus (OP

  18. Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nag-Jong Kim; Hui Li; Kwonsu Jung; Ho Nam Chang; Pyung Cheon Lee

    2011-01-01

    Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up

  19. Species distribution of ferric hydrolysates in microwave enhanced Fenton-like process and possible mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Yang; Peng Wang; Yuan Liu

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the investigations were firstly focused on the effect of microwave on the species distribution of ferric hydrolysates, as well as the effect of hydrolysates speciation on the treatment efficiency of organic compounds in the process of coagulation. A ferron-complexation timed spectrophotometric method was used to classify the Fe(III) speciation under different reaction conditions. Effects of microwave

  20. Anti-oxidative and anti-aging activities of collagen hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengchu Liu; Dexiang Peng; Jingya Yang; Yingsen Li; Jiale Li

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is a family of fibrous proteins present in skin, bone, tendon, teeth, cartilage of multicellular organisms. Collagen and its hydrolysate were prepared from squid skin hydrolyzed with proteases. The collagen hydrolysate obtained could remarkably extend the lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. The maximum lifespan fruit flies increased from 60 days (control groups), to 80 to 84 days (treated

  1. Characterization and Bioactivity of Hydrolysates produced from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Justification: Interest in protein hydrolysates is increasing because of their improved functionality and health benefits, particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, compared to their parent proteins. Large-scale production of hydrolysates is expensive, and one way to minimize co...

  2. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600MPa for 5min at 24°C or high temperature (HT) for 30min at 100°C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600MPa levels led to significantly (P<0.05) improved (>40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. PMID:26041225

  3. Transformation of Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

    1978-01-01

    A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

  4. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26?g/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. PMID:25977046

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys can get an infection of the ...

  6. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  7. Studies on methanol - oxidizing yeast. III. Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Volfová, O

    1975-01-01

    Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid was studied in cells and cell-free extract of the yeast Candida boidinii No. 11Bh. Methanol oxidase, an enzyme oxidizing methanol to formaldehyde, was formed inducibly after the addition of methanol to yeast cells. The oxidation of methanol by cell-free extract was dependent on the presence of oxygen and independent of any addition of nicotine-amide nucleotides. Temperature optimum for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was 35 degrees C, pH optimum was 8.5. The Km for methanol was 0.8mM. The cell-free extract exhibited a broad substrate specificity towards primary alcohols (C1--C6). The activity of methanol oxidase was not inhibited by 1mM KCN, EDTA or monoiodoacetic acid. The strongest inhibitory action was exerted by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Both the cells and the cell-free extract contained catalase which participated in the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the enzyme was constitutively formed by the yeast. The pH optimum for the degradation of H2O2 was in the same range as the optimum for methanol oxidation, viz. at 8.5. Catalase was more resistant to high pH than methanol oxidase. The cell-free extract contained also GSH-dependent NAD-formaldehyde dehydrogenase with Km = 0.29mM and NAD-formate dehydrogenase with Km = 55mM. PMID:240764

  8. An Ontology-Empowered Model for Annotating Protein-Protein Interaction Data: a Case Study for Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Haarslev, Volker

    for Budding Yeast Arash Shaban-Nejad and Volker Haarslev Dept. Computer Science and Software Eng to support and improve data mining tasks of yeast protein interactions for knowledge discovery on our experience in extracting knowledge from current data and information sources of the yeast protein

  9. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  10. Pityrosporum yeasts--what's new?

    PubMed

    Faergemann, J

    1997-01-01

    The lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale is a member of the normal human cutaneous flora in adults but also associated with several skin diseases. In pityriasis versicolor, under the influence of predisposing factors, P. ovale changes from the round blastospore form to the mycelial form. A great problem in pityriasis versicolor is the high rate of recurrence and to avoid this a prophylactic treatment is mandatory. Pityrosporum folliculitis is a chronic disease characterized by pruritic follicular papules and pustules located primarily on the upper trunk, neck and upper arms. In direct microscopy clusters of round budding yeast cells are found. The disease responds rapidly to antimycotic therapy. There are now many studies indicating that P. ovale plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Many of these are treatment studies showing a good effect of antimycotics paralleled by a reduction in number of organisms. Severe seborrhoeic dermatitis often difficult to treat is associated with AIDS. In peripheral blood from a high number of patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis we found an increase in number of natural killer T-cells and decreased PHA and Con-A stimulation. Secondary we found low serum IgG antibody titres in patients compared to controls. Other studies have found a reduced lymphocyte stimulation reaction when lymphocytes from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis were stimulated with a P. ovale extract. Additionally, IL-2 and IFN gamma production by lymphocytes from patients was markedly depressed and IL-10 synthesis were increased after stimulation with P. ovale extract. The majority of adult patients with atopic dermatitis localized to the head, neck and scalp are prick-test positive to a protein P. ovale extract. One study showed that p. ovale extracts increased IL-4, IL-10 and IgE synthesis in patients with atopic dermatitis. There are also treatment studies indicating that antifungal treatment may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:9370147

  11. Mitochondrial assembly in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les A Grivell; Marta Artal-Sanz; Gertjan Hakkaart; Liesbeth de Jong; Leo G. J Nijtmans; Katinka van Oosterum; Michel Siep; Hans van der Spek

    1999-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is likely to be the first organism for which a complete inventory of mitochondrial proteins and their functions can be drawn up. A survey of the 340 or so proteins currently known to be localised in yeast mitochondria reveals the considerable investment required to maintain the organelle’s own genetic system, which itself contributes seven key components

  12. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  13. Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

  14. Collagen metabolism of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage as modulated by bovine collagen hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Schadow, Saskia; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Lochnit, Günter; Kordelle, Jens; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE(2), MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n?=?5-12). The significance was set to p?0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE(2) levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA. PMID:23342047

  15. Collagen Metabolism of Human Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage as Modulated by Bovine Collagen Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Schadow, Saskia; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Lochnit, Günter; Kordelle, Jens; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0–10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE2, MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n?=?5–12). The significance was set to p?0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE2 levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA. PMID:23342047

  16. Production of arabitol by yeasts: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kordowska-Wiater, M

    2015-08-01

    Arabitol belongs to the pentitol family and is used in the food industry as a sweetener and in the production of human therapeutics as an anticariogenic agent and an adipose tissue reducer. It can also be utilized as a substrate for chemical products such as arabinoic and xylonic acids, propylene, ethylene glycol, xylitol and others. It is included on the list of 12 building block C3-C6 compounds, designated for further biotechnological research. This polyol can be produced by yeasts in the processes of bioconversion or biotransformation of waste materials from agriculture, the forest industry (l-arabinose, glucose) and the biodiesel industry (glycerol). The present review discusses research on native yeasts from the genera Candida, Pichia, Debaryomyces and Zygosaccharomyces as well as genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are able to utilize biomass hydrolysates to effectively produce l- or d-arabitol. The metabolic pathways of these yeasts leading from sugars and glycerol to arabitol are presented. Although the number of reports concerning microbial production of arabitol is rather limited, the research on this topic has been growing for the last several years, with researchers looking for new micro-organisms, substrates and technologies. PMID:25809659

  17. Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

  18. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 ?g/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24772406

  19. Synthesis of non-hydrolysable mimics of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mahipal; Raghupathy, Riya; Saikam, Varma; Dara, Saidulu; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Sawant, Sanghapal D; Mayor, Satyajit; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2014-02-21

    Synthesis of first generation non-hydrolysable C-phosphonate GPI analogs, viz., 6-O-(2-amino-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-d-myo-inositol-1-O-(sn-3,4-bis(palmitoyloxy)butyl-1-phosphonate) and 6-O-(2-amino-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-d-myo-inositol-1-O-(sn-2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)propyl-1-phosphonate) 23b, is reported. The target compounds were synthesized by the coupling of ?-pseudodisaccharide 21 with phosphonic acids 18a and 18b respectively in quantitative yield followed by de-protection. These synthetic C-phosphonate GPI-probes were resistant to phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and also showed moderate inhibition of the enzyme activity. PMID:24413835

  20. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and ?-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution. PMID:23998904

  1. Effect of hydrolysed egg protein on brain tryptophan availability.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E Siobhan; Slettenaar, Marieke; Quadt, Frits; Giesbrecht, Timo; Kloek, Joris; Gerhardt, Cindy; Bot, Arjen; Eilander, Ans; Wiseman, Sheila

    2011-02-01

    Serotonin synthesis critically depends on plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP). Earlier studies have shown that for mood and cognitive benefits to occur, the ratio between TRP and other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) has to be increased by approximately 40 %. The present study investigated the dose-dependent effects of a TRP-rich hydrolysed protein (egg-protein hydrolysate, EPH) on the plasma TRP:LNAA. Moreover, it was investigated whether EPH could increase TRP:LNAA in the presence of 2 g of milk protein (MP). In a randomised double-blind crossover design, plasma amino acids were measured every 30 min for 3·5 h after ingestion of a drink containing either three different doses of 4, 8 and 12 g EPH containing 270, 560 or 800 mg of TRP, respectively, the combination of 4 g EPH and 2 g MP (74 mg TRP), or 4 g MP (148 mg TRP) in twenty healthy subjects with a mean age of 52 years. All three EPH doses caused significant increases of TRP:LNAA above 40 % at 30, 60 and 90 min after consumption in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the 4 g EPH, the increase in TRP:LNAA in the 4 g EPH with 2 g MP condition was significantly lower at 60 min (63 v. 44 %, P < 0·001) and did not differ significantly at 90 min (58 v. 53 %, P>0·05). The present study showed that a low dose of 4 g EPH with even the addition of 2 g MP was sufficient to increase the ratio of TRP:LNAA above 40 %. Thus, EPH offers a viable ingredient to increase TRP availability. PMID:21269547

  2. Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, A J; Rai, P S; Marchbank, T; Taylor, G W; Ghosh, S; Ritz, B W; Playford, R J

    2005-01-01

    Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support “intestinal health”. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity. Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [3H] thymidine incorporation into epithelial rat intestinal RIE-1 and human colonic HT29 cells. Effects on restitution (cell migration) were analysed using wounded HT29 monolayers and its ability to influence gastric injury analysed using a rat indomethacin restraint model. Partial characterisation of bioactive agents was performed using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Results: Both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased by about threefold when added at 1 mg/ml (p<0.01). Gastric injury was reduced by 59% when gavaged at 25 mg/ml (p<0.05), results similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 12.5 ?g/ml. The vast majority of biological activity was soluble in ethanol, with glutamine in its single, di-, and tripeptide forms probably accounting for approximately 40% of the total bioactivity seen. Fatty acid constituents may also have contributed to cell migratory activity. Conclusions: Fish protein hydrolysate possesses biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies appear justified. PMID:15888784

  3. Collagen hydrolysate intake increases skin collagen expression and suppresses matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Zague, Vivian; de Freitas, Vanessa; da Costa Rosa, Marina; de Castro, Geórgia Álvares; Jaeger, Ruy G; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M

    2011-06-01

    The effect of daily ingestion of collagen hydrolysate (CH) on skin extracellular matrix proteins was investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet containing 12% casein as the reference group or CH as the treatment group. A control group was established in which animals were fed a non-protein-modified AIN-93 diet. The diets were administered continuously for 4 weeks when six fresh skin samples from each group were assembled and subjected to extraction of protein. Type I and IV collagens were studied by immunoblot, and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 were assessed by zymography. The relative amount of type I and IV collagens was significantly (P?

  4. Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) on mice skin photoaging induced by UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Hou, Hu; Zhao, Xue; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2009-08-01

    Collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) and hydrolyzed to prepare collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The protective effects of JC and JCH against UV-induced damages to mice skin were evaluated and compared in this article. JC and JCH could alleviate the UV-induced abnormal changes of antioxidative indicators, including the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondiaidehyde (MDA). JC and JCH could protect skin lipid and collagen from the UV radiation damages. Furthermore, the changes of total ceramide and glycosaminoglycan in skin were recovered significantly by JC and JCH. The action mechanisms mainly involved the antioxidative properties and the repairing to endogenous collagen synthesis of JC and JCH in vivo. JCH with the lower molecular weight showed much higher effects than JC. The results indicated that JCH was a novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:19723203

  5. Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

  6. Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl

    E-print Network

    Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

  7. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  8. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of fluorescent enzymatic mature and senescent crosslinks of collagen in bone hydrolysate using single-column high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Viguet-Carrin, S; Gineyts, E; Bertholon, C; Delmas, P D

    2009-01-01

    A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed including an internal standard for the measurement of mature and senescent crosslinks concentration in non-demineralized bone hydrolysates. To avoid the demineralization which is a tedious step, we developed a method based on the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure to clean-up the samples. It resulted in sensitive and accurate measurements: the detection limits as low as 0.2 pmol for the pyridimium crosslinks and 0.02 pmol for the pentosidine. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were as low as 5% and 2%, respectively, for all crosslinks. PMID:19027371

  9. Engineering Corynebacterium crenatum to produce higher alcohols for biofuel using hydrolysates of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Su, Haifeng; Jiang, Juan; Lu, Qiuli; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Tian; Zhao, Hai; Wang, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Early trials have demonstrated great potential for the use of duckweed (family Lemnaceae) as the next generation of energy plants for the production of biofuels. Achieving this technological advance demands research to develop novel bioengineering microorganisms that can ferment duckweed feedstock to produce higher alcohols. In this study, we used relevant genes to transfer five metabolic pathways of isoleucine, leucine and valine from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae into the bioengineered microorganism Corynebacterium crenatum. Experimental results showed that the bioengineered strain was able to produce 1026.61 mg/L of 2-methyl-1-butanol by fermenting glucose, compared to 981.79 mg/L from the acid hydrolysates of duckweed. The highest isobutanol yields achieved were 1264.63 mg/L from glucose and 1154.83 mg/L from duckweed, and the corresponding highest yields of 3-methyl-1-butanol were 748.35 and 684.79 mg/L. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of using bioengineered C. crenatum as a platform to construct a bacterial strain that is capable of producing higher alcohols. We have also shown the promise of using duckweed as the basis for developing higher alcohols, illustrating that this group of plants represents an ideal fermentation substrate that can be considered the next generation of alternative energy feedstocks. PMID:25889648

  10. Single-cell protein production by the acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from acid hydrolysates of waste paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ivarson, K.C.; Morita, H.

    1982-03-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH less than 1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 4 degrees C was diluted with water to a pH of less than 0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. (Refs. 30).

  11. Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

  12. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

  13. Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nag-Jong; Li, Hui; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2011-08-01

    Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up to 30.5% mannitol and 6.98% glucose in the hydrolysate solids. Ethanogenic recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 was able to utilize both mannitol and glucose and produced 0.4g ethanol per g of carbohydrate when cultured in L. japonica hydrolysate supplemented with Luria-Bertani medium and hydrolytic enzymes. The strategy of acid hydrolysis followed by simultaneous enzyme treatment and inoculation with E. coli KO11 could be a viable strategy to produce ethanol from marine alga biomass. PMID:21640583

  14. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes A. Alves; Maria G. A. Felipe; JoÃo B. Almeida E. Silva; Silvio S. Silva; Arnaldo M. R. Prata

    1998-01-01

    In order to remove or reduce the concentrations of toxic substances present in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a for xyloseto-xylitol bioconversion, the hydrolysate was pretreated by changing the initial pH level through the combination\\u000a of different bases and acids with or without the subsequent addition of activated charcoal. Attention was given to the influence\\u000a of the fermentation time as well.

  15. Eucalyptus hydrolysate detoxification with activated charcoal adsorption or ion-exchange resins for xylitol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Canilha; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Ana Irene Nápoles Solenzal

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate used for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 was previously treated either with ion-exchange resins or with activated charcoal adsorption combined with pH adjustment, in order that acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed. The best results for xylitol yield factor (0.76g\\/g) and volumetric productivity (0.68g\\/(lh) were attained when a three-fold concentrated hydrolysate was treated with

  16. Antioxidant properties of whey protein hydrolysates as measured by three methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriena Dryáková; Anne Pihlanto; Pertti Marnila; Ladislav ?urda; Hannu J. T. Korhonen

    2010-01-01

    Four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Protamex) were used for the preparation of whey protein hydrolysates.\\u000a The aim of this research was to find out whether these hydrolysates can be used as a source of whey derived antioxidants.\\u000a Hydrolyzed samples, including their unhydrolyzed protein solutions were tested by the ABTS (2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic\\u000a acid) decolorization assay, by the total radical-trapping potential

  17. Purification of a histidine-containing peptide with calcium binding activity from shrimp processing byproducts hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangrong HuangLie; Lie Ren; Jiaxin Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The shrimp processing byproducts were hydrolyzed by various proteases, and calcium binding activity of the hydrolysates was\\u000a examined. Among the digests, trypsin digest showed the most potent calcium binding activity (0.294 mmol\\/g-protein) and highest\\u000a degree of hydrolysis (18.4%). The trypsin hydrolysate was fractionated according to the molecular weights using ultrafiltration\\u000a membrane system. The lowest molecular weight fraction (<1 kDa) showed the highest

  18. Human insulinotropic response to oral ingestion of native and hydrolysed whey protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Power; A. Hallihan; P. Jakeman

    2009-01-01

    The insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysate, independent of carbohydrate, is\\u000a not known. This study examined the effect of protein hydrolysis on the insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein.\\u000a Sixteen healthy males ingested a 500 mL solution containing either 45 g of whey protein (WPI) or whey protein hydrolysate\\u000a (WPH). The estimated

  19. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus ) collagen hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zunying Liu; Yicheng Su; Mingyong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional\\u000a properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion\\u000a activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates

  20. Biotransformation of vegetable and fruit processing wastes into yeast biomass enriched with selenium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olena Stabnikova; Jing-Yuan Wang; Hong Bo Ding; Joo-HwaTay

    2005-01-01

    Water extracts of cabbage, watermelon, a mixture of residual biomass of green salads and tropical fruits were used for yeast cultivation. These extracts contained from 1420 to 8900 mg\\/l of dissolved organic matter, and from 600 to 1800 mg\\/l of nitrogen. pH of the extracts was in the range from 4.1 to 6.4. Biomass concentration of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEE

  1. Yeast expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

  2. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  3. Biochemical Comparison of Commercial Selenium Yeast Preparations.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Sheena; Owens, Rebecca; Ward, Patrick; Connolly, Cathal; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition. The addition of Se to the diet through dietary supplements or fortified food/feed is increasingly common owing to the often sub-optimal content of standard diets of many countries. Se supplements commercially available include the inorganic mineral salts such as sodium selenite or selenate, and organic forms such as Se-enriched yeast. Today, Se yeast is produced by several manufacturers and has become the most widely used source of Se for human supplementation and is also widely employed in animal nutrition where approval in all species has been granted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Characterisation and comparison of Se-enriched yeast products has traditionally been made by quantifying total selenomethionine (SeMet) content. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it does not consider the effects of Se deposition on subsequent digestive availability. In this study, an assessment was made of the water-soluble extracts of commercially available Se-enriched yeast samples for free, peptide-bound and total water-soluble SeMet. Using LC-MS/MS, a total of 62 Se-containing proteins were identified across four Se yeast products, displaying quantitative/qualitative changes in abundance relative to the certified reference material, SELM-1 (P value <0.05; fold change ?2). Overall, the study indicates that significant differences exist between Se yeast products in terms of SeMet content, Se-containing protein abundance and associated metabolic pathways. PMID:25855372

  4. Effects of Pro-Hyp, a collagen hydrolysate-derived peptide, on hyaluronic acid synthesis using in vitro cultured synovium cells and oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates in a guinea pig model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiroki; Iida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Proline-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) stimulated hyaluronic acid production in cultured synovium cells. It was detected in guinea pig blood after oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates. Oral administration of collagen hydrolysates increased the amount of proteoglycans in the epiphyses. It also reduced the morphological changes associated with osteoarthritic cartilage destruction of the knee joint. The results suggest that collagen hydrolysates have therapeutic potential for treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:20944430

  5. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic and antitumor effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijun; Yu, Wancong; Wang, Hua; Kou, Xiaohong

    2012-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate (CAH) on antihyperlipidemic and antitumor functions. The antihyperlipidemic results showed that CAH exhibited a dose dependent ability to decrease the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Additionally, the appearance of the hyperlipidemic livers was ameliorated significantly. The antitumor results showed that CAH administration significantly increased the tumor inhibition rate and decreased tumor volume. CAH was also able to increase the spleen index and promote spleen lymphocyte proliferation. In addition, CAH treatment led to a remarkable rise in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while dramatically decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Most importantly, we found that the physical conditions, such as appetite, activity, and coat luster of the mice in the CAH test group were better than those in the tumor control (TC) and positive control (PC) groups. These results taken together indicate that CAH warrants being further investigated and developed as an adjunctive element for hepatic lipid control, as well as antitumor and hypolipidemic therapies. PMID:22972402

  7. Chicken collagen hydrolysate protects rats from hypertension and cardiovascular damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Kouguchi, Tomomi; Shimizu, Muneshige; Ohmori, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) has strong angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we investigated the chronic therapy effects of CCH on blood pressure and vascular relaxation in a cardiovascular damage model of Wistar-Kyoto rats induced by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Following co-treatment with CCH for 4 weeks, the increment of systolic blood pressure was suppressed significantly. At 8 weeks, the vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta increased significantly, and cardiovascular damage was ameliorated. The concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in blood was reduced significantly by long-term administration of CCH, whereas the nitric oxide concentration was increased significantly at 1 hour post-treatment. The results suggest that beneficial effects of CCH result from antihypertensive function, but also from inhibition of cardiovascular damage to the endothelial cells via its ACE inhibitory activity and regulation of nitric oxide and ICAM-1, which suggests that CCH may be useful as a medicinal food for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:20170381

  8. Microbiological characteristics and physiological functionality of new records of yeasts from wild flowers in yokjido, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25071392

  9. Microbiological Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of New Records of Yeasts from Wild Flowers in Yokjido, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Se-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25071392

  10. Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure

    PubMed Central

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  11. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

  12. Rapid isolation of yeast genomic DNA: Bust n' Grab

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Susanna; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Peterson, Kenneth R

    2004-01-01

    Background Mutagenesis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) often requires analysis of large numbers of yeast clones to obtain correctly targeted mutants. Conventional ways to isolate yeast genomic DNA utilize either glass beads or enzymatic digestion to disrupt yeast cell wall. Using small glass beads is messy, whereas enzymatic digestion of the cells is expensive when many samples need to be analyzed. We sought to develop an easier and faster protocol than the existing methods for obtaining yeast genomic DNA from liquid cultures or colonies on plates. Results Repeated freeze-thawing of cells in a lysis buffer was used to disrupt the cells and release genomic DNA. Cell lysis was followed by extraction with chloroform and ethanol precipitation of DNA. Two hundred ng – 3 ?g of genomic DNA could be isolated from a 1.5 ml overnight liquid culture or from a large colony. Samples were either resuspended directly in a restriction enzyme/RNase coctail mixture for Southern blot hybridization or used for several PCR reactions. We demonstrated the utility of this method by showing an analysis of yeast clones containing a mutagenized human ?-globin locus YAC. Conclusion An efficient, inexpensive method for obtaining yeast genomic DNA from liquid cultures or directly from colonies was developed. This protocol circumvents the use of enzymes or glass beads, and therefore is cheaper and easier to perform when processing large numbers of samples. PMID:15102338

  13. Improved bioethanol production using fusants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, K

    2012-06-01

    The present research deals with the development of a hybrid yeast strain with the aim of converting pentose and hexose sugar components of lignocellulosic substrate to bioethanol by fermentation. Different fusant strains were obtained by fusing protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae and Pichia stipitis. The fusants were sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorter and further confirmed by molecular characterization. The fusants were evaluated by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture and the highest ethanol producing fusant was used for further study to ferment hydrolysates produced by acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton gin waste. Among the various fusant and parental strains used under present study, RPR39 was found to be stable and most efficient strain giving maximum ethanol concentration (76.8 ± 0.31 g L(-1)), ethanol productivity (1.06 g L(-1) h(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.458 g g(-1)) by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture under test conditions. The fusant has also shown encouraging result in fermenting hydrolysates of cotton gin waste with ethanol concentration of 7.08 ± 0.142 g L(-1), ethanol yield of 0.44 g g(-1), productivity of 0.45 g L(-1) h(-1) and biomass yield of 0.40 g g(-1). PMID:22639357

  14. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  15. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  16. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  17. Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wierckx, Nick; Koopman, Frank; Bandounas, Luaine; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2010-05-01

    The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-2-methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre-)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that specifically metabolize the fermentation inhibitors while preserving the sugars for subsequent use by the fermentation host. The bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 was isolated from enrichment cultures with HMF as the sole carbon source and was found to metabolize many of the toxic constituents of lignocellulosic hydrolysate including furfural, HMF, acetate, formate and a host of aromatic compounds. Remarkably, this microorganism does not grow on the most abundant sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates: glucose, xylose and arabinose. In addition, C. basilensis HMF14 can produce polyhydroxyalkanoates. Cultivation of C. basilensis HMF14 on wheat straw hydrolysate resulted in the complete removal of furfural, HMF, acetate and formate, leaving the sugar fraction intact. This unique substrate profile makes C. basilensis HMF14 extremely well suited for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates prior to their use as fermentation feedstock. PMID:21255332

  18. Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Wierckx, Nick; Koopman, Frank; Bandounas, Luaine; De Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5?hydroxy?2?methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre?)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that specifically metabolize the fermentation inhibitors while preserving the sugars for subsequent use by the fermentation host. The bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 was isolated from enrichment cultures with HMF as the sole carbon source and was found to metabolize many of the toxic constituents of lignocellulosic hydrolysate including furfural, HMF, acetate, formate and a host of aromatic compounds. Remarkably, this microorganism does not grow on the most abundant sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates: glucose, xylose and arabinose. In addition, C. basilensis HMF14 can produce polyhydroxyalkanoates. Cultivation of C. basilensis HMF14 on wheat straw hydrolysate resulted in the complete removal of furfural, HMF, acetate and formate, leaving the sugar fraction intact. This unique substrate profile makes C. basilensis HMF14 extremely well suited for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates prior to their use as fermentation feedstock. PMID:21255332

  19. Amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions from porcine collagen.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jing; Li, Bo

    2012-10-01

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of different hydrolysates from porcine collagen were analyzed. The gelatin was hydrolyzed for antioxidative peptides with various proteases, namely papain, protease from bovine pancreas, protease from Streptomyces, and cocktail mixture of protease from bovine pancreas and protease from Streptomyces. The hydrolysates were assessed using methods of DPPH radical-scavenging ability, metal-chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. It was found that the collagen hydrolysates by different protease treatments had different amino acid compositions and antioxidant properties. However, the contents of Hyp and Pro were improved and the content of Gly was decreased in each collagen hydrolysate compared with collagen. The hydrolysate prepared with the cocktail mixture of proteases, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, was separated into 6 fractions by gel filtration chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated by ion exchange chromatography. Fraction 2b with abundant basic amino acids and Fraction 2d which was slightly acidic fractions had higher radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities, and both Fraction 2b and 2d contained more hydrophobic amino acids. The results confirmed that the antioxidative peptides were rich in Hyp, Pro and Gly, which accounted for half of amino acid composition. This article added further support to the preparation of natural antioxidative peptides from porcine skin collagen. PMID:23064526

  20. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-08-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  1. Toxic effects of dietary hydrolysed lipids: an in vivo study on fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sæle, Øystein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Olsvik, Pål A; Hjelle, Jan I; Harboe, Torstein; Hamre, Kristin

    2013-03-28

    We have previously described that fish larvae absorb a larger fraction of dietary monoacylglycerol than TAG. To investigate how dietary hydrolysed lipids affect a vertebrate at early life stages over time, we fed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae six diets with different degrees of hydrolysed lipids for 30 d. The different diets had no effect on growth, but there was a positive correlation between the level of hydrolysed lipids in the diets and mortality. Important genes in lipid metabolism, such as PPAR, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), were regulated by the different diets. Genes involved in the oxidative stress response did not respond to the increased lipid hydrolysation in the diets. However, enterocyte damage was observed in animals fed diets with 2.7 % NEFA (diet 3) or more. It is thus possible that mortality was due to infections and/or osmotic stress due to the exposure of the subepithelial tissue. In contrast to earlier experiments showing a positive effect of dietary hydrolysed lipids, we have demonstrated a toxic effect of dietary NEFA on Atlantic cod larvae. Toxicity is not acute but needs time to accumulate. PMID:22813630

  2. Defatted Jatropha curcas flour and protein isolate as materials for protein hydrolysates with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Estrada, Duly M; Segura-Campos, Maira R; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A; Betancur-Ancona, David A

    2013-05-01

    Jatropha curcas L. protein hydrolysates were produced by treatment of a non-toxic genotype with Alcalase as well as the digestive enzymes pepsin and pancreatin. The J. curcas protein hydrolysate produced with the pepsin-pancreatin system from protein isolate had the highest TEAC value and was shown to undergo single-electron transfer reactions in the ABTS(+) reduction assay, demonstrating its antioxidant capacity. Testing of antimicrobial activity in the J. curcas protein hydrolysates against seven bacterial pathogens showed no growth inhibitory effect in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. More ACE-I inhibitory active peptides were produced in the Alcalase hydrolysates obtained from J. curcas protein isolate. The protein hydrolysate obtained with Alcalase from defatted J. curcas flour as well as from the protein isolate showed the highest inhibitory effect of ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma. It is expected that the information collated will facilitate new applications of proteins present in Jatropha plant. PMID:23265458

  3. Virtual Yeast Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

  4. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  5. Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Yeast Metabolism Lab Mrs. Zimmerman 10/22/10 #12;Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Oxygen Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water Energy #12;Yeast · Unicellular · Eukaryotic (like us) · Kingdom Fungi" Saccharomyces cerevisiae #12;Alcoholic Fermentation · Some organisms, including yeast, can create energy without

  6. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  7. Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant

    2005-01-01

    The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  9. Antifungal activity of saponin-rich extracts of Phytolacca dioica and of the sapogenins obtained through hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Di Liberto, Melina; Svetaz, Laura; Furlán, Ricardo L E; Zacchino, Susana A; Delporte, Carla; Novoa, Marco A; Asencio, Marcelo; Cassels, Bruce K

    2010-07-01

    A saponin-rich extract of Phytolacca dioica L. berries, its acid hydrolysate, and its major aglycone, phytolaccagenin, were assayed for antifungal activity against ATCC standard cultures of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and against clinical isolates of these fungi. The activity of the extract was either low or negligible, but the hydrolysate, containing the sapogenins, including phytolaccagenin, and also pure phytolaccagenin, showed promising antifungal potency. Hydrolysis of a natural product extract is shown to be a useful modification leading to improved bioactivity. PMID:20734930

  10. Production of feather protein hydrolysate by keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. kr2.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Adriane; Pimentel, Fernanda A; Sangali, Sidnei; de Jong, Erna V; Brandelli, Adriano

    2007-11-01

    A feather protein hydrolysate was produced using the keratinolytic bacterium Vibrio sp. strain kr2. Complete feather degradation was observed in medium containing up to 60 g L(-1) raw feathers. Cultivation on 40, 60 or 80 g L(-1) feathers for five days resulted in similar amounts of soluble protein, reaching maximum values around 2.5 g L(-1). Maximum yields of soluble protein were achieved at 30 degrees C and initial pH ranging from 6.0 to 8.0. Strain kr2 was effective in producing keratin hydrolysate from chicken feathers. Bacterial feather hydrolysate has the potential for utilization as an ingredient in animal feed or as organic fertilizer, thereby reducing the environmental impact of feather waste from the poultry industry. PMID:17223559

  11. Acid-generated soy protein hydrolysates and their interfacial behavior on model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Julio C; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A

    2014-11-10

    The present work attempts to provide data to warrant the consideration of soy proteins (SP) as potentially useful biomolecules for practical chemical and surface applications. Despite their sundry properties, SP use has been limited by their high molecular weight. In response to this limitation, we analyze acid hydrolysates of soy proteins (0.1 N HCl, 70 °C) for surface modification. Techniques typical in protein (SDS-PAGE) as well as colloidal (charge demand and electrophoretic mobility) analyses were used to follow the effects of molecular changes that occur upon hydrolysis. Adsorption experiments on hydrophobic (polypropylene) and mineral (aluminum oxide) surfaces were subsequently carried out to further interrogate the surface activity resultant from soy hydrolysis. It was found that during adsorption the hydrolysates tended to form less surface aggregates and adsorbed at faster rates compared with unmodified SP. Overall, the benefits derived from the application of SP hydrolysates are highlighted. PMID:25314296

  12. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Miansong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Changheng

    2012-10-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates (RPH) from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum were investigated. R. esculentum was hydrolysed sequentially with pepsin and papain, and then the hydrolysate was ultrafiltered with a 2000 Da cut-off membrane. It was found that RPH contained high levels of Gly, Glu, Pro, Asp and Ala, having potential ACE inhibitory activity in vitro with an IC(50) of 1.28 mg/ml. It was also found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in spontaneously hypertensive rats after single and chronic oral administration of RPH, indicating that RPH had an antihypertensive effect. In addition, oral administration of RPH decreased total serum cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with high-fat diet. These results indicate that RPH may prove to be a promising functional food for the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. PMID:23442666

  13. Mathematical modeling of hydrolysate diffusion and utilization in cellulolytic biofilms of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Lochner, Adriane [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The morphological and structural properties of microbial biofilms are influenced by internal substrate diffusion and utilization processes. In the case of microbial hydrolysis of plant cell walls, only thin and uniform biofilm structures are typically formed by cellulolytic microorganisms. In this study, we develop a hydrolysate diffusion and utilization model system to examine factors influencing cellulolytic biofilm formation. Model simulations using Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis as a representative organism, reveal that the growth of the cellulolytic biofilm is limited by hydrolysate utilization but not diffusion. As a consequence, the cellulolytic biofilm has a uniform growth rate, and there is a hydrolysate surplus that diffuses through the cellulolytic biofilm into the bulk solution where it is consumed by planktonic cells. Predictions based on the model were tested in a cellulose fermentation study and the results are consistent with the model and previously reported experimental data. The factors determining the rate-limiting step of biofilm growth are also analyzed.

  14. Cystationine synthesis in yeast: an alternative pathway for homocysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savin, M A; Flavin, M

    1972-10-01

    Cystathionine synthesis from O-acetylhomoserine and cysteine has been demonstrated in yeast extracts for the first time. The activity is less than that of O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase, but it is higher than that reported for homoserine O-transacetylase and therefore should not be growth limiting. Cystathionine synthase seems to share the regulatory properties of the sulfhydrylase, and both activities are missing from the methionine auxotroph Saccharomyces cerevisiae EY9, suggesting that both reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme. However, cystathionine synthase activity was lost during purification of the sulfhydrylase, suggesting that the two reactions may be catalyzed by separate enzymes. Since previous studies have shown that yeast extracts can catalyze the cleavage of cystathionine to homocysteine, our results show the existence of two complete alternate pathways for homocysteine biosynthesis in yeast. Which of these is the major physiological pathway remains to be determined. PMID:4263404

  15. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Buckley; Rebecca L. Thomson; Alison M. Coates; Peter R. C. Howe; Mark O. DeNichilo; Michelle K. Rowney

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPIHD) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial,

  16. Enhancement of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide removal from industrial wastewater using a cascade of hydrolyser–desorber loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Rahimpour; H. R. Mottaghi; M. M. Barmaki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, removal of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide from wastewater of conventional urea plant in both high and low concentration (ppm scale) levels using a cascade of hydrolyser–desorber loops has been investigated. In conventional urea plants, wastewater treatment sections including co-current configuration of hydrolyser were designed according to the old environmental standards. Nevertheless, the amounts of urea and

  17. Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau

    2003-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

  18. Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

    2011-01-01

    The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

  19. Genome evolution in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

  20. METHODS TO IDENTIFY YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are commonly identified from either phenotype or, more recently, from diagnostic gene sequences. Methods based on phenotype include fermentation reactions on a select set of sugars and growth responses on various carbon and nitrogen sources or on other diagnostic compounds. Isolates are fur...

  1. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  2. Rapid Differentiation Between Nocardia and Streptomyces by Paper Chromatography of Whole-Cell Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Gordon, Ruth E.; Lechevalier, H. A.

    1964-01-01

    Whole-cell hydrolysates were prepared from 58 strains of nocardiae and streptomycetes. Strains morphologically intermediate between the two genera and morphological variants of the same strains were included. Paper chromatograms made from the whole-cell hydrolysates clearly demonstrated meso-diaminopimelic acid as a major constituent of cultures of Nocardia spp., and LL-diaminopimelic acid as a major constituent of cultures of Streptomyces spp. In cultures of ten strains of N. madurae and of three of N. pelletieri, meso-diaminopimelic acid predominated, thereby supporting the assignment of these species to the genus Nocardia. PMID:14215972

  3. Enhanced mobility of organic thin film transistors by water absorption of collagen hydrolysate gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chao-Ying; Hwang, Jenn-Chang; Chang, Ting-Hao; Li, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Shih-Han; Mao, Lung-Kai; Tsai, Li-Shiuan; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Hsu, Shawn S. H.

    2013-07-01

    Collagen hydrolysate is a nature protein, which works well as the gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The pentacene OTFTs exhibit a field-effect mobility (?FE) value of 0.8 cm2V-1s-1 and an on/off ratio of 105 in vacuum. The drain current is greatly enhanced and the ?FE value increases to ca. 15.5 cm2V-1s-1 when OTFTs are exposed to air. The enhancement of ?FE is attributed to the interaction of water and OH-groups in collagen hydrolysate in air ambient.

  4. Culture Duration Modulates Collagen Hydrolysate-Induced Tissue Remodeling in Chondrocyte-Seeded Agarose Hydrogels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Ng; Justin D. Saliman; Evan Y. Lin; Lauren Y. Statman; Lindsay E. Kugler; Sean B. Lo; Gerard A. Ateshian; Clark T. Hung

    2007-01-01

    Media supplementation with collagen hydrolysate was hypothesized to increase the collagen content in engineered cartilage.\\u000a By d28, hydrolysate at 0.5 mg\\/mL increased type II collagen content and 1 mg\\/mL increased mechanical properties, total collagen\\u000a content, and type II collagen content over controls. By d42, however, controls possessed the highest GAG content and compressive\\u000a Young’s modulus. Real-time PCR found that 1 mg\\/mL increased type

  5. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Siemensma; James Babcock; Chris Wilcox; Hans Huttinga

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield\\u000a Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements\\u000a while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined\\u000a processing. At the heart of the

  6. Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.

    PubMed

    Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

  7. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed. PMID:22940803

  8. Yeasts associated with Manteca.

    PubMed

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Schirone, Maria; Martuscelli, Maria; Gatti, Monica; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Neviani, Erasmo

    2003-04-01

    Manteca is a traditional milk product of southern Italy produced from whey deriving from Caciocavallo Podolico cheese-making. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the microbiological properties of this product and particularly about the presence, metabolic activities, and technological significance of the different yeast species naturally occurring in Manteca. High numbers of yeasts were counted after 7 days ripening (10(4)-10(5) cfu g(-1)) and then decreased to 10(2) at the end. A total of 179 isolates were identified and studied for their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The most frequently encountered species were Trichosporon asahii (45), Candida parapsilosis (33), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (32), Candida inconspicua (29). Some of these yeasts showed lipolytic activity (32 strains) and proteolytic activity (29 strains), NaCl resistance up to 10% and growth up to 45 degrees C (42 strains). Biogenic amines were formed by proteolytic strains, in particular phenylethylamine, putrescine and spermidine. Spermidine was produced by all the yeasts tested in this work, but only Trichosporon produced a great quantity of this compound. Histamine was not detectable. Caseinolytic activity was common to almost all strains, corresponding to the ability to efficiently split off amino-terminal amino acids. The highest and most constant activity expressed by all species was X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The findings suggest that the presence of yeasts may play a significant role in justifying interactions with lactic acid bacteria, and consequently with their metabolic activity in the definition of the peculiar characteristics of Manteca cheese. PMID:12702448

  9. Oxidation Reduction Potential of Complex Iron Compounds in Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Coolidge

    1931-01-01

    WHEN an alkaline extract of yeast is saturated with ammonium sulphate there is precipitated, with the protein, cytochrome `C' and a complex iron compound giving no visible spectrum. The latter can be separated from the proteins slowly by ultra-filtration. It remains in solution when the protein, with the cytochrome `C', is precipitated by trichloracetic acid.

  10. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  11. Diversity and Physiological Characterization of D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts Isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest

    PubMed Central

    Cadete, Raquel M.; Melo, Monaliza A.; Dussán, Kelly J.; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Silva, Silvio S.; Zilli, Jerri E.; Vital, Marcos J. S.; Gomes, Fátima C. O.; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L) culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g) and productivities (0.62 g/L·h to 0.75 g/L·h). Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g), with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g) and productivity (0.2 g/L·h), while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22912807

  12. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  13. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  14. Improvement of butanol production from a hardwood hemicelluloses hydrolysate by combined sugar concentration and phenols removal.

    PubMed

    Mechmech, Fatma; Chadjaa, Hassan; Rahni, Mohamed; Marinova, Mariya; Ben Akacha, Najla; Gargouri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using hardwood hemicellulosic pre-hydrolysate recovered from a dissolving pulping process for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation has been investigated. Dilutions and detoxification methods based on flocculation and nanofiltration were tested to determine the inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds and to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors removal on fermentation. Flocculation carried out with ferric sulfate was the most effective method for removal of phenolics (56%) and acetic acid (80%). The impact on fermentation was significant, with an ABE production of 6.40g/L and 4.25g/L when using flocculation or combined nanofiltration/flocculation respectively, as compared to a non-significant production for the untreated hydrolysate. By decreasing the toxicity effect of inhibitors, this study reports for the first time that the use of these techniques is efficient to increase the inhibitory concentration threshold of phenols, from 0.3g/L in untreated hydrolysate, to 1.1g/L in flocculated and in nanofiltrated and flocculated hydrolysates. PMID:26046428

  15. Self-assembly of a peptide amphiphile based on hydrolysed Bombyx mori silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinming; Hao, Ruiwen; Huang, Lei; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2011-10-01

    An octapeptide, GAGAGAGY, was obtained by a novel method, i.e. hydrolysing Bombyx mori silk fibroin. Afterward, a dodecanoic acid-peptide conjugation was synthesized. This amphiphile assembled into cylindrical nanofibers of planar ?-sheets at pH 9 and twisted ?-sheets at pH 4. PMID:21858302

  16. The utilization of diets containing high levels of fish protein hydrolysate by turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aires Oliva-Teles; António Luis Cerqueira; Paula Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to compare growth and feed utilization of turbot juveniles (mean initial weight of 58.5 g) fed diets including standard fish meal (diet A) or LT fish meal (diet B) from Denmark as the only protein sources, or standard fish meal and 5, 15 or 25% of a fish protein hydrolysate (diets C, D and

  17. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Margarita D.; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8?mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05?U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03?U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2?U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%), total phenolics (15.3–27.2??g/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7–242.8??g/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

  18. Whey protein hydrolysate: Functional properties, nutritional quality and utilization in beverage formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhicha Sinha; C. Radha; Jamuna Prakash; Purnima Kaul

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the functional and nutritional properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to formulate a beverage mix. WPC hydrolysates were produced using fungal protease and papain, at time intervals of 20, 40 and 60min and were analyzed for proximate composition and functional properties. A beverage was formulated with hydrolyzed WPC, skim

  19. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  20. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  1. Production of fumaric acid by fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates derived from cassava bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Carta; C. R. Soccol; L. P. Ramos; J. D. Fontana

    1999-01-01

    Cassava bagasse is a starch-rich lignocellulosic residue (50% of starch, by weight, on a dry basis) which is discarded daily into rivers. The enzymatic hydrolysate of cassava bagasse was used as the sole carbon source to produce fumaric acid by submerged fermentation using several Rhizopus strains. This work was developed in several steps. Six different sources of nitrogen and six

  2. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, ?- and ?-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  3. Production of goat milk protein hydrolysate enriched in ACE-inhibitory peptides by ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Carpio, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; Almécija, María del Carmen; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2014-11-01

    A global process for the production of goat milk hydrolysates enriched in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides was proposed. Firstly, the protein fractions (caseins and whey proteins) were separated by ultrafiltration through a 0·14 ?m ceramic membrane. The casein fraction obtained in the retentate stream of the above filtration step was subsequently hydrolysed with a combination of subtilisin and trypsin. After 3 h of reaction, the hydrolysate produced presented an IC50 of 218·50 ?g/ml, which represent a relatively high ACE inhibitory activity. Finally, this hydrolysate was filtered through a 50 kDa ceramic membrane until reaching a volume reduction factor of 3. The permeate produced presented an improvement of more than 30% in the ACE inhibitory activity. In contrast, the retentate was concentrated in larger and inactive peptides which led to a decrease of more than 80% in its inhibitory activity. The process suggested in this work was suitable to obtain a potent ACE inhibitory activity product able to be incorporated into food formulas intended to control or lower blood pressure. Moreover, the liquid product could be easily stabilised by spray dried if it would be necessary. PMID:25003564

  4. Culture duration modulates collagen hydrolysate-induced tissue remodeling in chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth W; Saliman, Justin D; Lin, Evan Y; Statman, Lauren Y; Kugler, Lindsay E; Lo, Sean B; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2007-11-01

    Media supplementation with collagen hydrolysate was hypothesized to increase the collagen content in engineered cartilage. By d28, hydrolysate at 0.5 mg/mL increased type II collagen content and 1 mg/mL increased mechanical properties, total collagen content, and type II collagen content over controls. By d42, however, controls possessed the highest GAG content and compressive Young's modulus. Real-time PCR found that 1 mg/mL increased type II collagen gene expression in d0 constructs, but increased MMP expression with no effect on type II collagen on d28. A 10 mg/mL concentration produced the lowest tissue properties, the lowest type II collagen gene expression on d0, and the highest MMP gene expression on d28. These results indicate that the duration of culture modulates the response of chondrocytes to collagen hydrolysate in 3D culture, transforming the response from positive to negative. Therefore, collagen hydrolysate as a media supplement is not a viable long-term method to improve the collagen content of engineered cartilage tissue. PMID:17721729

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol)–collagen hydrolysate thermoplastic blends: I. Experimental design optimisation and biodegradation behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexy; D. Bakoš; S. Hanzelová; L. Kukolíková; J. Kupec; K. Charvátová; E. Chiellini; P. Cinelli

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid blends based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and collagen hydrolysate (CH), an abundant, added value waste product of the leather industry, have been processed by melt blow extrusion to environmentally degradable films. Optimisation of the blend compositions was performed in respect of mechanical properties of the films. The experimental design method (DOE) was used for the understanding of the structure–property

  6. Evaluation of the hypotensive potential of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mariza; da Costa, Elizabete Lourenço; Gontijo, José Antônio Rocha; Netto, Flávia Maria

    2008-09-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive activity of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The hydrolyzed collagens were subjected to ultrafiltration using membranes with cutoffs of 30-50 kDa (permeate P1), 5-8 kDa (permeate P2), or 1-2 kDa (permeate P3) in order to obtain products with a narrower range of molecular size. The hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagens and their permeates showed low ACE inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 5.42-15.58 mg of protein/mL). However, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a significant increase in the ACE inhibitory potency of the hydrolyzed collagens was observed (IC(50) = 0.97-4.02 mg of protein/mL). Permeates had a higher ACE inhibitory activity and hypotensive activity than non-ultrafiltered hydrolysates. The P1 permeate of bovine and porcine collagen and the P3 fraction of the porcine collagen hydrolysate exhibited the best antihypertensive activity in vivo, promoting a maximum reduction in blood pressure of 22 mm Hg, 21.33 mm Hg, and 21.33 mm Hg, respectively, while lisinopril promoted a maximum reduction of 51.00 mm Hg. These results suggest that the commercial collagen hydrolysates of bovine and porcine origin may be a potential source of bioactive peptides. PMID:18800907

  7. Characterization of collagen from haddock skin and wound healing properties of its hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qi Feng; Liu, Han; Yan, Jing Quan; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Liu, Ya; Li, Jing; Li, Jing Jing

    2015-02-01

    Collagen, one of the most abundant structural proteins found in vertebrates, has been extensively used for biomedical applications. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) skins and to investigate the biological function of ASC hydrolysates in wound healing. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE and FTIR suggested that the ASC is most likely type I collagen with well-maintained helical structures. Both the denaturation and shrinkage temperatures of ASC isolated from haddock skins were lower than those of mammalian collagens. The average molecular weights of hydrolysates decreased with the increase in HCl concentration as well as hydrolysis times. ASC and hydrolysates with more molecules (53.8 kDa) decreased the bleeding and clotting times and promoted order 2 vessel formation effectively. All the experimental groups, including the ASC group and its hydrolysate groups, could accelerate epithelialization and shorten the wound healing time of mice. The ASC from haddock skin could therefore serve as an alternative collagen for skin wound healing. PMID:25730323

  8. HYDROLYSE DES TRIGLYCRIDES A CHAINES LONGUES DANS LA CAILLETTE DU VEAU PRRUMINANT

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    « lipase » capable d'hydrolyser les trigly- cérides à chaînes longues au niveau de la caillette. Cette lipase est différente de l'estérase prégas- trique puisque, in vitro, GROSSKOPF (1965) a montré que cette dernier acide. L'action de cette lipase est loin d'être négligeable car les quantités d'acides gras qu

  9. Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program has set goals of making ethanol cost competitive by 2012 and replacing 30% of 2004 transportation supply with biofuels by 2030. Both goals require improvements in conversions of cellulosic biomass to sugars as well as improvements in fermentation rates and yields. Current best pretreatment processes are reasonably efficient at making the cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin matrix amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, but they release a number of toxic compounds into the hydrolysate which inhibit the growth and ethanol productivity of fermentation organisms. Conditioning methods designed to reduce the toxicity of hydrolysates are effective, but add to process costs and tend to reduce sugar yields, thus adding significantly to the final cost of production. Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production will likely require enhanced understanding of the source and mode of action of hydrolysate toxic compounds, the means by which some organisms resist the actions of these compounds, and the methodology and mechanisms for conditioning hydrolysate to reduce toxicity. This review will provide an update on the state of knowledge in these areas and can provide insights useful for the crafting of hypotheses for improvements in pretreatment, conditioning, and fermentation organisms.

  10. Abstract. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/ inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    the development of many types of cancers (1, 2). A typical example is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that comes active inflammatory process in the gut and includes two diseases: ulcerative colitis (UC) and CrohnAbstract. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/ inactivates anti-inflammatory

  11. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Forbes; C. O'Reilly; L. McLaughlin; G. Gilleran; M. Tuohy; E. Colleran

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the

  12. ''Is Yeast Alive?''

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Katrenia Hosea-Flanigan (Frank Cody High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore the characteristics of living organisms to determine whether yeast meets the criteria of a living thing. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  13. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysates. This approach offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes and highlights the potential of these wastes as substrates for the generation of second-generation biofuels. PMID:19371919

  14. Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management. PMID:19122811

  15. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Díaz, José A; Lee, Samuel A

    2011-02-01

    A growing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent diagnoses of invasive fungal infections, including those caused by unusual yeasts. The incidence of non-albicans species of Candida is increasing compared with that of Candida albicans, and several species, such as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, may be resistant to azole antifungal therapy. Trichosporon species are the second most common cause of fungaemia in patients with haematological malignant disease and are characterised by resistance to amphotericin and echinocandins and poor prognosis. Rhodotorula species belong to the family Cryptococcaceae, and are a cause of catheter-related fungaemia, sepsis, and invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients. An increasing number of sporadic cases of invasive fungal infections by non-neoformans cryptococci have been reported in immunocompromised hosts, especially for patients with advanced HIV infection or cancer who are undergoing transplant. Other uncommon yeasts that can cause invasive disease in severely immunosuppressed patients include Geotrichum, Hansenula, Malassezia, and Saccharomyces. Host immune status is a crucial determinant of the type of invasive fungal infection a patient is at risk for. Diagnosis can be challenging and relies heavily on traditional cultures of blood and other sterile sites, although serum (1,3)-?-D-glucan testing might have an adjunctive role. Although rare yeasts are emerging as opportunistic human pathogens, diagnosis remains challenging and treatment suboptimal. PMID:21272794

  16. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the ? and ? 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (< 3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, and > 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  17. Yeast interactions and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation. PMID:12892919

  18. Conservation of yeasts by dehydration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Beker; Alexander Rapoport

    The presented material concerns the theoretical basis for obtaining high-quality active dry biopreparations. It deals with the present understanding of anabiosis, contains data on yeast resistance against dehydration and the limits for preserving the viability of microorganisms in anabiosis. The process of water transport in yeast biomass during dehydration is discussed.\\u000a The changes and transformations in yeast cells occuring after

  19. Fortified versus incurred residues: extraction of furazolidinone metabolite from prawn.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lesley; Croft, Meg; Murby, John

    2015-06-01

    Most methods reported in the literature for determination of nitrofuran metabolites use the same extraction and derivatisation conditions to hydrolyse and extract the protein-bound residues from animal tissue. While undertaking certification of reference materials for nitrofuran metabolites in freeze-dried prawn, it was found that these conditions are satisfactory for recovery of spiked residues; however, extraction efficiencies of incurred furazolidinone could be substantially increased by further optimisation of the extraction conditions. The availability of a suitable certified reference material allows laboratories to ensure that their method is optimised for incurred residues. PMID:25862475

  20. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta.

    PubMed

    Loh, Daphne Sue Yen; Er, Hui Meng; Chen, Yu Sui

    2009-12-10

    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations. PMID:19778596

  1. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  2. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  3. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  4. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  5. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...

  6. A combined chemical and enzymatic method to determine quantitatively the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Marion; Vax, Amélie; Formosa, Cécile; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; François, Jean M

    2014-09-01

    A reliable method to determine cell wall polysaccharides composition in yeast is presented, which combines acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulphuric acid treatment is used to determine mannans, whereas specific hydrolytic enzymes are employed in a two sequential steps to quantify chitin and the proportion of ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,6)-glucan in the total ?-glucan of the cell wall. In the first step, chitin and ?-(1,3)-glucan were hydrolysed into their corresponding monomers N-acetylglucosamine and glucose, respectively, by the combined action of a chitinase from Streptomyces griseus and a pure preparation of endo/exo-?-(1,3)-glucanase from Trichoderma species. This step was followed by addition of recombinant endo-?-(1,6)-glucanase from Trichoderma harzianum with ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger to hydrolyse the remaining ?-glucan. This latter component corresponded to a highly branched ?-(1,6)-glucan that contained about 75-80% of linear ?-(1,6)-glucose linked units as deduced from periodate oxidation. We validated this novel method by showing that the content of ?-(1,3), ?-(1,6)-glucan or chitin was dramatically decreased in yeast mutants defective in the biosynthesis of these cell wall components. Moreover, we found that heat shock at 42 °C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and treatment of this yeast species and Candida albicans with the antifungal drug caspofungin resulted in 2- to 3-fold increase of chitin and in a reduction of ?-(1,3)-glucan accompanied by an increase of ?-(1,6)-glucan, whereas ethanol stress had apparently no effect on yeast cell wall composition. PMID:25041403

  7. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

  8. Re-assessment of YAP1 and MCR1 contributions to inhibitor tolerance in robust engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Development of robust yeast strains that can efficiently ferment lignocellulose-based feedstocks is one of the requirements for achieving economically feasible bioethanol production processes. With this goal, several genes have been identified as promising candidates to confer improved tolerance to S. cerevisiae. In most of the cases, however, the evaluation of the genetic modification was performed only in laboratory strains, that is, in strains that are known to be quite sensitive to various types of stresses. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing genes encoding the transcription factor (YAP1) and the mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (MCR1), either alone or in combination, in an already robust and xylose-consuming industrial strain of S. cerevisiae and evaluated the effect during the fermentation of undiluted and undetoxified spruce hydrolysate. Overexpression of either gene resulted in faster hexose catabolism, but no cumulative effect was observed with the simultaneous overexpression. The improved phenotype of MCR1 overexpression appeared to be related, at least in part, to a faster furaldehyde reduction capacity, indicating that this reductase may have a wider substrate range than previously reported. Unexpectedly a decreased xylose fermentation rate was also observed in YAP1 overexpressing strains and possible reasons behind this phenotype are discussed. PMID:25147754

  9. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

    2006-01-01

    Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

  10. Yeast Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Rollides; Thomas J. Walsh

    A number of yeast fungi are pathogenic, but the two genera that contain the most important animal and human pathogens are\\u000a Candida and Cryptococcus. In addition, there are a number of other yeasts that have been, more rarely, implicated in disease.

  11. Yeast interactions and wine flavour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Fleet

    2003-01-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions

  12. Preservation of manipulated yeast diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong Kyun Kim; Hae-Yoon Chung

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated yeast diet can be usedfor seed production of aquacultural organisms.Various methods for preserving the yeast dietduring the periods of circulation in marketwere tested, and the preservation of the yeastdiet by freeze-drying was the best. With thispreservation method, the manipulated yeastswere maintained fairly well (up to 71%) whenstored for three weeks under refrigeratedcondition (4 °C), while more than 80% ofthe

  13. APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

  14. Metabolomics analysis of soy hydrolysates for the identification of productivity markers of mammalian cells for manufacturing therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason; Shah, Bhavana; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Bhebe, Prince; Zhang, Zhongqi; Nicklaus, Michele; Kombe, Maua C

    2015-01-01

    Soy hydrolysates are widely used as a nutrient supplement in mammalian cell culture for the production of recombinant proteins. The batch-to-batch variability of a soy hydrolysate often leads to productivity differences. This report describes our metabolomics platform, which includes a battery of LC-MS/MS modes of operation, and advanced data analysis software for automated data processing. The platform was successfully used for screening productivity markers in soy hydrolysates during the production of two therapeutic antibodies in two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. A total of 123 soy hydrolysate batches were analyzed, from which 62 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #1 and 12 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #2. For cell line #1, out of 19 amino acids, 106 other metabolites and 4,131 peptides identified in the soy hydrolysate batches being used, several nucleosides and short hydrophobic peptides showed negative correlation with antibody titer, while ornithine, citrulline and several amino acids and organic acids correlated positively with titer. For cell line #2, only ornithine and citrulline showed strong positive correlation. When ornithine was spiked into the culture media, both cell lines demonstrated accelerated cell growth, indicating ornithine as a root cause of the performance difference. It is proposed that better soy hydrolysate performance resulted from better bacterial fermentation during the hydrolysate production. A few selected markers were used to predict the performance of other soy hydrolysate batches for cell line #1. The predicted titers agreed with the experimental values with good accuracy. PMID:25583076

  15. Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

  16. Isolation and identification of antioxidant peptides derived from whey protein enzymatic hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wu, Hui; Ling, Yu-Fang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2013-08-01

    To isolate and identify antioxidant peptides from enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein, whey protein isolate was hydrolysed by different protease (trypsin, pepsin, alcalase 2·4L, promatex, flavourzyme, protease N). The hydrolysate generated by alcalase 2·4L had the highest antioxidant activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide radicals and in a linoleic acid peroxidation system induced by Fe2+. The IC50 values of DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities of the hydrolysate decreased significantly (6·89 and 38·88%, respectively) after treatment with macroporous adsorption resin. Seven different peptides showing strong antioxidant activities were isolated from the hydrolysate using consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass and amino acids sequences of the purified peptides were determined using a Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF MS). One of the antioxidative peptides, Trp-Tyr-Ser-Leu, displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50=273·63 ?m) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=558·42 ?m). These results suggest that hydrolysates from whey proteins are good potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23876604

  17. Production of feather hydrolysates with antioxidant, angiotensin-I converting enzyme- and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Roberta; Daroit, Daniel J; Correa, Ana P F; Meira, Stela M M; Mosquera, Mauricio; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-09-25

    The antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of feather hydrolysates obtained with the bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 were investigated. Keratin hydrolysates were produced with different concentrations of thermally denatured feathers (10-75 g l(-1)) and initial pH values (6.0-9.0). Soluble proteins accumulated in high amounts in media with 50 and 75 g l(-1) of feathers, reaching values of 18.5 and 22 mg ml(-1), respectively, after 48 hours of cultivation. In media with 50 g l(-1) of feathers, initial pH had minimal effect after 48 hours. Maximal protease production was observed after 24 hours of cultivation, and feather concentration and initial pH values showed no significant effect on enzyme yields at this time. Feather hydrolysates displayed in vitro antioxidant properties, and optimal antioxidant activities were observed in cultures with 50 g l(-1) feathers, at initial pH 8.0, after 48 hours growth at 30°C. Also, feather hydrolysates were demonstrated to inhibit the angiotesin I-converting enzyme by 65% and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by 44%. The bioconversion of an abundant agroindustrial waste such as chicken feathers can be utilized as a strategy to obtain hydrolysates with antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Feather hydrolysates might be employed as supplements in animal feed, and also as a potential source of bioactive molecules for feed, food and drug development. PMID:25038398

  18. Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Koji; Hasegawa, Takanori; Taguchi, Yasuki; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi; Higashi, Akane; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nakabo, Yukihiro; Ohtsuki, Kozo

    2005-08-10

    In the present study, we identified several food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of some gelatin hydrolysates. Healthy human volunteers ingested the gelatin hydrolysates (9.4-23 g) from porcine skin, chicken feet, and cartilage after 12 h of fasting. Negligible amounts of the peptide form of hydroxyproline (Hyp) were observed in human blood before the ingestion. After the oral ingestion, the peptide form of Hyp significantly increased and reached a maximum level (20-60 nmol/mL of plasma) after 1-2 h and then decreased to half of the maximum level at 4 h after the ingestion. Major constituents of food-derived collagen peptides in human serum and plasma were identified as Pro-Hyp. In addition, small but significant amounts of Ala-Hyp, Ala-Hyp-Gly, Pro-Hyp-Gly, Leu-Hyp, Ile-Hyp, and Phe-Hyp were contained. PMID:16076145

  19. Pyrochars from bioenergy residue as novel bio-adsorbents for lignocellulosic hydrolysate detoxification.

    PubMed

    Monlau, F; Sambusiti, C; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Solhy, A; Barakat, A

    2015-07-01

    The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. PMID:25863902

  20. Biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Su, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2009-12-01

    A "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. In this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with Cellulomonas uda E3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees C), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees C), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. This temperature-shift strategy was shown to markedly increase the reducing sugar (especially, monosaccharide and disaccharide) concentration in the hydrolysate while hydrolyzing pure (carboxymethyl-cellulose, xylan, avicel and cellobiose) and natural (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse and Napier-grass) cellulosic materials. The cellulosic hydrolysates from CMC and xylan were successfully converted to H(2) via dark fermentation with Clostridium butyricum CGS5, attaining a maximum hydrogen yield of 4.79 mmol H(2)/g reducing sugar. PMID:19604692

  1. Antihypertensive effect of enzymatic hydrolysate of collagen and Gly-Pro in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Toshiaki; Yamanaka, Akiko; Otsuka, Tatsuro; Yamashita, Eiichi; Maruyama, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    Continuous oral feeding of enzymatic hydrolysate of porcine skin collagen showed an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We isolated an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide, Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Pro (IC(50)=91 microM), from the hydrolysate, but the ACE inhibitory activities of the other peptides isolated were weak. Although the ACE inhibitory activity of Gly-Pro (IC(50)=360 microM) was not potent, Gly-Pro exists in collagen as a large number of repeated sequences. We then examined the antihypertensive effect of Gly-Pro. Orally administered Gly-Pro at 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood pressure of SHRs, and at 50 mg/kg it also showed a tendency to lower the blood pressure. Oral administration of Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Pro (10 or 30 mg/kg) also decreased the blood pressure of SHRs. PMID:19809172

  2. [Effect of troxerutin and cerebroproptein hydrolysate injection on platelet aggregation and thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiu-Chen; Yu, Zhao-Jin; Sun, Hai-Gang; Yu, Jian-Kun; Wei, Min-Jie

    2011-02-01

    This study was purposed to explore the effect of troxerotin and cerebroproptein hydrolysate injection (TCHI) on platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo. The inhibitory rate of TCHI at different concentrations on platelet aggregation was determined by platelet aggregometer. The relationship between dose and effect was established. The effect of troxerutin and cerebroproptein hydrolysate injection on thrombosis was determined by the carotid thrombosis model of rats. The results showed that the TCHI could inhibit thrombosis and platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent way. When the concentration of TCHI total nitrogen was 5 µg/ml, the inhibition rate of platelet aggregation reached to the highest value of 28.61 ± 22.07%, which is 2.5 times as much as that with 100 µg/ml aspirin. It is concluded that the TCHI has antiaggregative and antithrombotic activity effects against platelet aggregation and thrombosis. PMID:21362250

  3. Minimal nutritional requirements for immobilized yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Dale, M C; Okos, M R

    1990-12-01

    The effect of reduced nutritional levels (particularly nitrogen source) for immobilized K. fragilis type yeast were studied using a trickle flow, "differential" plug flow type reactor with cells immobilized by adsorption onto an absorbant packing matrix. Minimizing nutrient levels in a feed stream to an immobilized cell reactor (ICR) might have the benefits of reducing cell growth and clogging problems in the ICR, reducing feed preparation costs, as well as reducing effluent disposal costs. In this study step changes in test feed medium nutrient compositions were introduced to the ICR, followed by a return to a basal medium. Gas evolution rates were monitored and logged on a continuous basis, and effluent cell density was used as an indicator of cell growth rate of the immobilized cell mass. Startup of the reactor using a YEP medium showed a rapid buildup of cells in the reactor during the initial 110 h operation. The population density then stabilized at 1.6 x 10(11) cells/g sponge. A defined medium containing a complex mix of essential nutrients with an inorganic nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate) was able to maintain 90% of the productivity in the ICR as compared to the YEP medium, but proved unable to promote growth of the immobilized cell mass during startup. Experiments on reduced ammonium sulfate in the defined medium, and reduced yeast extract and peptone in YEP medium indicated that stable productivity could be maintained for extended periods (80 h) in the complete absence of any nutrients besides a few salts (potassium phosphate and magnesium sulfate). It was found that productivity rates dropped by 35-65% from maximal values as nitrogenous nutrients were eliminated from the test mediums, while growth rates (as determined by shed cell density from the reactor) dropped by 75-95%. Thus, nutritional deficiencies largely decoupled growth and productivity of the immobilized yeast which suggests productivity is both growth- and non-growth-associated for the immobilized cells. A yeast extract concentration of 0.375 g/L with or without 1 g/L ammonium sulfate was determined to be the minimum level which gave a sustained increase in productivity rates as compared to the nutritionally deficient salt medium. This represents a 94% reduction in complex nitrogenous nutrient levels compared to standard YEP batch medium (3 g/L YE and 3.5 g/L peptone). PMID:18595037

  4. 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Baer; Beatriz de la Calle; Philip Taylor

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although\\u000a 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been\\u000a done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs\\u000a and is difficult

  5. Removal of Thrombus from Aortocoronary Bypass Grafts and Coronary Arteries Using the 6Fr Hydrolyser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility and safety of a 6Fr hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter, the Hydrolyser, in native coronary arteries and aortocoronary bypass grafts. With use of a conventional contrast injector, saline solution is injected into the narrow lumen of the catheter which makes a 180° bend at the tip. The resultant high-velocity jet (150 km\\/hour) is directed over a sidehole

  6. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

  7. Hydrolysed Casein Diet Protects BB Rats from Developing Diabetes by Promoting Islet Neogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gen-Sheng Wang; Heidi Gruber; Peter Smyth; Olga Pulido; Lawrence Rosenberg; William Duguid; Fraser W Scott

    2000-01-01

    Feeding diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats a hydrolysed-casein (HC)-based semi-purified diet results in two-to-three-fold fewer diabetes cases compared with feeding cereal-based diets such as NIH-07 (NIH). We showed previously that young NIH-fed BBdp rats had decreased islet area at a time when classic insulitis was minimal. Rats fed an HC diet maintained near normal islet area followed 3–4 weeks later by

  8. Use of plant protein hydrolysates for varicella virus production in Serum-Free Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bok-Hwan Chun; Yong Kwon Lee; Won-Gi Bang; Namhyun Chung

    2005-01-01

    Serum-free media containing no animal-derived components were assessed for their efficacy to produce live attenuated varicella virus. Serum-free medium containing an ultrafiltrate of soy protein acid hydrolysate and lipid resulted in a viral production yield comparable to media containing fetal bovine serum, indicating that varicella virus can be produced without the risk of contamination associated with the use of bovine

  9. Comparative ethanol productivities of different Zymomonas recombinants fermenting oat hull hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh G. Lawford; Joyce D. Rousseau; Jeffrey S. Tolan

    2001-01-01

    Iogen Corporation of Ottawa, Canada, has recently built a 50 t\\/d biomass-to-ethanol demonstration plant adjacent to its enzyme\\u000a production facility. Iogen has partnered with the University of Toronto to test the C6\\/C5 cofermentation performance characteristics\\u000a of National Renewable Energy Laboratory's metabolically engineered Zymomonas mobilis using its biomass hydrolysates. In this study, the biomass feedstock was an agricultural waste, namely oat

  10. Curing adhesives of urea-formaldehyde type with collagen hydrolysates of chrome-tanned leather waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; J. Šivarová; M. Mládek; K. Kolomazník

    2004-01-01

    Condensation of dimethylol-urea (DMU) mixed with urea (U) and collagen hydrolysate (H), obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome-tanned leather waste, without added acid curing agents in the solid phase was studied through DSC and TG techniques in a temperature interval up to 220°C. Among both techniques TG proved be more useful.While the DMU+U mix produced methylene-oxide (-CH2-O-CH2-) and methylene (-CH2-)

  11. Plasticizing collagen hydrolysate with glycerol and low-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycols)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; P. Mokrejs; K. Kolomaznik; M. Mladek

    2008-01-01

    The plasticizing efficiency of glycerol (GLY)and poly(ethylene glycols) of molecular mass 300–3350Da (PEG 300–PEG 3350) for films of collagen hydrolysate (H) was assessed on the basis of the glass transition temperature depression (?Tg). The plasticizing effect of hydrophilic plasticizers was separated from the plasticizing effect of water absorbed to H films by means of two-stage differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The

  12. Relationship between collagen hydrolysate molecular weight and peptide substantivity to hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GILBERT R. MINTZ; GALE M. REINHART

    Synopsis Cosmetic grade collagen hydrolysates were incubated with virgin (natural) and bleached\\/waved (damaged) hair tresses. The bound collagen peptides were removed by both a high-temperature (50øC) and a high-salt (0.5 M NaCI) soak. As much as four times more fluorescamine reactive and hydroxyproline-containing peptides are removed from damaged than from natural hair. Gel filtration shows differences in the molec- ular

  13. Hydrolysable amino acids in sediments from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Horsfall; George A. Wolff

    1997-01-01

    The distributions of hydrolysable amino acids have been examined in replicate sediment cores from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. The amino acid concentrations in surficial sediments ranged from 11.4 to 12.6 ?mol g?1 dry sediment, with a mean of 11.8 ?mol g?1 dry sediment, and decreased with increasing sediment depth, but showed a marked maximum between

  14. Agglomeration Tendency during Top-Spray Fluidized Bed Coating with Gelatin and Starch Hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Dewettinck; Winy Messens; Lidewij Deroo; André Huyghebaert

    1999-01-01

    Top-spray fluidized bed coating of glass beads with gelatin and starch hydrolysate leads to an `all or nothing' side-effect agglomeration, that is, a drastic collapse of the fluid-bed when a critical spray rate is exceeded. This undesirable side-effect agglomeration is primarily influenced by the type of coating, and more specifically its hygroscopicity, water binding capacity and viscosity. Hydrolyzed gelatin permits

  15. Amaranth seed protein hydrolysates have in vivo and in vitro antihypertensive activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Fritz; Bruno Vecchi; Gustavo Rinaldi; María Cristina Añón

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the hydrolytic release of encrypted peptides with antihypertensive activity from storage proteins of Amaranthus mantegazzianus, as determined by in vitro assays, for the first time by in vivo studies in animal models, and by ex vivo assays. Hydrolysates with hydrolysis degree (DH) of 45% and 65% (IC50 0.12mg\\/ml, equivalent to 300–600?M) exhibited

  16. Inhibition of growth of Zymomonas mobilis by model compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the pretreatment of biomass feedstocks and subsequent conditioning prior to saccharification, many toxic compounds are produced or introduced which inhibit microbial growth and in many cases, production of ethanol. An understanding of the toxic effects of compounds found in hydrolysate is critical to improving sugar utilization and ethanol yields in the fermentation process. In this study, we established a useful tool for surveying hydrolysate toxicity by measuring growth rates in the presence of toxic compounds, and examined the effects of selected model inhibitors of aldehydes, organic and inorganic acids (along with various cations), and alcohols on growth of Zymomonas mobilis 8b (a ZM4 derivative) using glucose or xylose as the carbon source. Results Toxicity strongly correlated to hydrophobicity in Z. mobilis, which has been observed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for aldehydes and with some exceptions, organic acids. We observed Z. mobilis 8b to be more tolerant to organic acids than previously reported, although the carbon source and growth conditions play a role in tolerance. Growth in xylose was profoundly inhibited by monocarboxylic organic acids compared to growth in glucose, whereas dicarboxylic acids demonstrated little or no effects on growth rate in either substrate. Furthermore, cations can be ranked in order of their toxicity, Ca++ >?>?Na+?>?NH4+?>?K+. HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), furfural and acetate, which were observed to contribute to inhibition of Z. mobilis growth in dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate, do not interact in a synergistic manner in combination. We provide further evidence that Z. mobilis 8b is capable of converting the aldehydes furfural, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and to some extent syringaldehyde to their alcohol forms (furfuryl, vanillyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl and syringyl alcohol) during fermentation. Conclusions Several key findings in this report provide a mechanism for predicting toxic contributions of inhibitory components of hydrolysate and provide guidance for potential process development, along with potential future strain improvement and tolerance strategies. PMID:23837621

  17. Quantification of hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) in human blood after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumihito Sugihara; Naoki Inoue; Masanori Kuwamori; Makoto Taniguchi

    Plasma levels of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) in healthy volunteers (n=5) after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate were estimated by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The ratio of Hyp-Gly to Pro-Hyp was distributed in the range of 0.063–0.221. This is a first report for quantification of food-derived Hyp-Gly in human plasma.

  18. Heat-treated biodegradable films and foils of collagen hydrolysate crosslinked with dialdehyde starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; P. Mokrejs; M. Mladek

    2010-01-01

    Gels of collagen hydrolysate (H) crosslinked with dialdehyde starch (DAS) are marked by a strong tendency to aging, which\\u000a means a certain problem during their processing into biodegradable packaging materials. Applying casting technology and drying\\u000a these materials by heating air-dry films and foils for a limited time (1–4 h) at 105 °C may eliminate the aging problem. Solubility\\u000a of heat-treated films

  19. Quantification of hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) in human blood after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Fumihito; Inoue, Naoki; Kuwamori, Masanori; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2012-02-01

    Plasma levels of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) in healthy volunteers (n=5) after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate were estimated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The ratio of Hyp-Gly to Pro-Hyp was distributed in the range of 0.063-0.221. This is a first report for quantification of food-derived Hyp-Gly in human plasma. PMID:22040651

  20. Biodegradable packing materials based on waste collagen hydrolysate cured with dialdehyde starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; M. Mládek; P. Mokrejš; K. Kolomazník

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate (H) of mean M\\u000a w 15–30 kDa obtained from waste collagen from meat casings manufacture, cross-linked with 15% (based on H) polymeric dialdehyde\\u000a starch (DAS), have a marked tendency to ageing, which shows in hydrogel gradually increasing rigidity and decreasing thermo-reversibility.\\u000a Methods of thermal analysis (DSC, TG) proved that ageing of hydrogels is not related with

  1. Cross-linking epoxide resins with hydrolysates of chrome-tanned leather waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; P. Mokrejs; K. Kolomazník; M. Mládek; R. Karnas

    2007-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to investigate the reaction of diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA) of\\u000a mean molecular mass 348–480 Da, with collagen hydrolysate of chrome-tanned leather waste in a solvent-free environment. The\\u000a reaction leads to biodegradable polymers that might facilitate recycling of plastic parts in products of the automotive and\\/or\\u000a aeronautics industry provided with protective films on this

  2. Curing of urea-formaldehyde adhesives with collagen type hydrolysates under acid condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Langmaier; J. Šivarová; K. Kolomazník; M. Mládek

    2004-01-01

    Condensation of dimethylol urea and its mixtures with urea or hydrolysate of chrome-tanned leather waste (mass fraction in\\u000a mixture 0.05) in the presence of a variable quantity of phthalic acid, as acid curing agent (within mass fraction limits 0.01-0.1),\\u000a was studied through TG technique. During condensation of sole dimethylol urea or of its mixture with urea, oxy-methylene as\\u000a well as

  3. Study on effect of jellyfish collagen hydrolysate on anti-fatigue and anti-oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Feng Ding; Yan-Yan Li; Jia-Jie Xu; Xiu-Rong Su; Xiang Gao; Fu-Peng Yue

    2011-01-01

    Many bioactive peptides possess specific biological properties that make potential ingredients of health-promoting foods. Jellyfish, which is rich in collagen, has high nutritious and medicinal value. In this study, jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH) were produced. The in vivo anti-fatigue activity and in vivo antioxidant activity of JCH were determined, respectively. Climbing endurance tests of mice were carried out after 6w

  4. Relation between lipase structures and their catalytic ability to hydrolyse triglycerides and phospholipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Gutiérrez-Ayesta; Amalia A. Carelli; María L. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Lipases with different structures were investigated for their catalytic ability to hydrolyse sunflower oil, soybean lecithin and their mixtures in heptane at 60°C in a biphasic mixture heptane-buffer pH 7.0. Besides, the substrate adsorption mechanism was studied theoretically with the Chem 3D 5.0 Ultra program and the MM2 (Cambridge Soft) method by using trilinolein and phosphatidylcholine as system models of

  5. Quantitative Untersuchungen über die extracelluläre Hydrolyse von Kohlenhydraten durch Juniperus communis -Gewebekulturen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Constabel

    1963-01-01

    Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse 1.Durch Gewebekulturen vonJuniperus communis werden neben Stärke und Saccharose auch Maltose und Raffinose extracellulär hydrolysiert.2.Bei der Hydrolyse der genannten Kohlenhydrate wird in jedem Fall die Monosaccharidstufe erreicht. Der Hexosenanteil an den Hydrolysaten ist beträchtlich.3.Glucose und Fructose sind im Hydrolysat von Saccharose am Ende einer Gewebepassage im Verhältnis 1:1 vorhanden.4.Durch Schnittverletzung der Gewebe vor der Beimpfung der Nährböden

  6. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B? (FB?), partially hydrolysed FB?, hydrolysed FB? and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB? on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Irene; Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Varga, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Christiane; Slavik, Veronika; Reisinger, Nicole; Malachová, Alexandra; Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week, urine and faeces samples were collected over 24?h and analysed for fumonisin metabolites as well as for the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio by validated LC-MS/MS based methods. While the latter was significantly increased in the FB1 positive control group, the Sa/So ratios of the partially and fully hydrolysed fumonisins were indifferent from the negative control group. Although NDF was partly cleaved during digestion, the liberated amounts of FB1 did not raise the Sa/So ratio. These results show that the investigated alkaline and thermal processing products of FB1 were, at the tested concentrations, non-toxic for rats, and suggest that according food processing can reduce fumonisin toxicity for humans. PMID:25475052

  7. Optimization of the Preparation of Fish Protein Anti-Obesity Hydrolysates Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yanping; Peng, Chen; Wang, Jinju

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not significant, and the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis by alkaline protease were initial pH 11, temperature 39 °C, enzyme dosage 122 U/mL and 10 h of hydrolysis time. Under these conditions, the porcine pancreas lipase and the ?-amylase inhibitory rate could reach 53.04% ± 1.32% and 20.03 ± 0.89%, while predicted value were 54.63% ± 1.75%, 21.22% ± 0.70%, respectively. In addition, Lineweaver-Burk plots showed noncompetitive inhibition. The Ki value calculated was 84.13 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that fish water-soluble protein could be used for obtaining anti-obesity hydrolysates. PMID:23377020

  8. Detoxification of biomass hydrolysates with nucleophilic amino acids enhances alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Carvin, Jamarius; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds generated in biomass pretreatment hinder the biochemical conversion of biomass hydrolysates to biofuels. A novel approach of detoxifying hydrolysates with amino acids for ethanol production was developed. Among the 20 amino acids assessed for their detoxification efficiency and nucleophilicity, cysteine was the most effective one. It increased both ethanol productivity and final yield of biomass hydrolysates from 0.18 (untreated) to 1.77 g/L/h and from 0.02 to 0.42 g/g, respectively. Detoxification efficiency was followed by histidine and it increased the final yield to 0.42 g/g, then by lysine, tryptophan and asparagine. It was observed all five effective amino acids contained reactive side-chain functional groups, which played important roles in the amino acid detoxification reaction. The study further showed cysteine and glycine detoxifications were temperature and pH dependent. The mechanistic study using mass spectrometry revealed thiazolidine carboxylic acid, a Schiff base, was formed by condensation of aldehyde and cysteine. PMID:25812813

  9. Metabolism of Multiple Aromatic Compounds in Corn Stover Hydrolysate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Austin, Samantha; Kontur, Wayne S; Ulbrich, Arne; Oshlag, J Zachary; Zhang, Weiping; Higbee, Alan; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Hodge, David B; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-07-21

    Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates hold great potential as a feedstock for microbial biofuel production, due to their high concentration of fermentable sugars. Present at lower concentrations are a suite of aromatic compounds that can inhibit fermentation by biofuel-producing microbes. We have developed a microbial-mediated strategy for removing these aromatic compounds, using the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. When grown photoheterotrophically in an anaerobic environment, R. palustris removes most of the aromatics from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH), while leaving the sugars mostly intact. We show that R. palustris can metabolize a host of aromatic substrates in ACSH that have either been previously described as unable to support growth, such as methoxylated aromatics, and those that have not yet been tested, such as aromatic amides. Removing the aromatics from ACSH with R. palustris, allowed growth of a second microbe that could not grow in the untreated ACSH. By using defined mutants, we show that most of these aromatic compounds are metabolized by the benzoyl-CoA pathway. We also show that loss of enzymes in the benzoyl-CoA pathway prevents total degradation of the aromatics in the hydrolysate, and instead allows for biological transformation of this suite of aromatics into selected aromatic compounds potentially recoverable as an additional bioproduct. PMID:26121369

  10. Enhanced xylitol production by precultivation of Candida guilliermondii cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rita C L B; Sene, Luciane; Matos, Gilvane S; Roberto, Inês C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Felipe, Maria G A

    2006-07-01

    The present work evaluated the key enzymes involved in xylitol production (xylose reductase [XR] and xylitol dehydrogenase [XDH]) and their correlation with xylose, arabinose, and acetic acid assimilation during cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. For this purpose, inocula previously grown either in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH) or in semidefined medium (xylose as a substrate) were used. The highest xylose/acetic acid consumption ratio (1.78) and the lowest arabinose consumption (13%) were attained in the fermentation using inoculum previously grown in semidefined medium (without acetic acid and arabinose). In this case, the highest values of XR (1.37 U mg prot(-1)) and XDH (0.91 U mg prot(-1)) activities were observed. The highest xylitol yield (approximately 0.55 g g(-1)) and byproducts (ethanol and glycerol) formation were not influenced by inoculum procedure. However, the cell previously grown in the hydrolysate was effective in enhancing xylitol production by keeping the XR enzyme activity at high levels (around 0.99 U.mg(prot) (-1)), reducing the XDH activity (34.0%) and increasing xylitol volumetric productivity (26.5%) with respect to the inoculum cultivated in semidefined medium. Therefore, inoculum adaptation to SBHH was shown to be an important strategy to improve xylitol productivity. PMID:16775788

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

  12. Novel antioxidative peptides from the protein hydrolysate of oysters (Crassostrea talienwhanensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiukuan; Li, Wei; He, Yunhai; Ren, Dandan; Kow, Felicia; Song, Linlin; Yu, Xingju

    2014-02-15

    The antioxidative activity of hydrolysate peptides from oysters (Crassostrea talienwhanensis) was investigated. After hydrolysis with subtilisin, the yields of the peptides that were soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble) and the antioxidant activities of the resulting hydrolysate were determined using an orthogonal design and a hydroxyl radical scavenging reaction. The hydrolysate was fractionated using Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography, and the two resulting bioactive peptides were subsequently purified by RP-HPLC with a Kromasil C18 (ODS) column. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS/MS. The critical reaction temperature, pH, hydrolysis time and enzyme-to-substrate (E/S) ratio were determined for the optimum hydrolysis with subtilisin, and the E/S ratio was found to be the most critical reaction condition. The amino acid sequences of the peptides (518 and 440 Da) were proline-valine-methionine-glycine-aspartic acid (PVMGA) and glutamine-histidine-glycine-valine (QHGV), respectively. These two novel peptides exhibited high antioxidative actions based on their hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. PMID:24128574

  13. Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. METHODS Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time (90-180 min), and enzyme/substrate ratio [60-90 Anson-unit (AU)/kg protein] to achieve maximum antioxidant activity. Experiments were designed according to the central composite design. RESULTS Each of the studied variables had a significant effect on responses (P < 0.05). Optimal conditions to achieve antioxidant activity were, temperature (48.27 °C), time (158.78), min and enzyme/substrate ratio (83.35) Anson-unit/kg protein. Under these conditions, antioxidant activity was 68.21%, R2 for model was 0.983. The values indicated the high accuracy of the model to predict the reaction conditions considering different variables. The chemical analysis of protein hydrolysate showed high protein content (83.78%) and low fat content (0.34%). CONCLUSION Our results showed that protein hydrolysate of sheep visceral, can be used as a natural antioxidant with high nutritional value. PMID:25258632

  14. On the location of acid-hydrolysable carbon in lunar soil fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallick, A. E.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.; Stephenson, A.; Morris, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    Soil fines exposed on the lunar surface accumulate small metallic iron particles and solar wind-derived carbon. In previous work, it has been suggested that an intimate association exists between one particular carbon phase, hydrolysable carbon, and very fine iron droplets, where the carbon is in solid solution in the iron. The earlier hypothesis of a constant carbon in iron concentration across a broad range of droplet sizes is testable by combining hydrolysable carbon determinations with a variety of magnetic measurements sensitive to different droplet diameters. New measurements of ferromagnetic resonance response on density and magnetic separates from size fractions of soil 12023 are interpreted as evidence that hydrolysable carbon is preferentially associated with the larger, magnetically stable single-domain iron particles rather than with the smaller superparamagnetic droplets. For the former, there is a quite uniform ratio of iron to carbon both within a series of separates from a single soil, and among soils of widely varying FeO content.

  15. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  16. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

    1957-01-01

    tablespoons sugar ll/z teaspoons salt cup shortening 1/4 CUP lukewarm water 2 packages yeast or 2 yeast cakes 39'4 CUPS flour Apple Coffee Cake. Scald milk and stir in sugar, salt and shorten~r , Cool to lukewarm. Sprinkle or crumble yeast tnto nit1.... Honey twist. Streusel coffee cake. Butterscotch pecan rolls. STREUSEL COFFEE CAKE 2 tablespoons butter or margarine 2 tablespoons sugar cup flour CUP fine bread crumbs 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon Cream fat and sugar. Add flour, bread crumbs...

  18. Polyglutamine misfolding in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein misfolding is associated with many human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. Protein misfolding often results in the formation of intracellular or extracellular inclusions or aggregates. Even though deciphering the role of these aggregates has been the object of intense research activity, their role in protein misfolding diseases is unclear. Here, I discuss the implications of studies on polyglutamine aggregation and toxicity in yeast and other model organisms. These studies provide an excellent experimental and conceptual paradigm that contributes to understanding the differences between toxic and protective trajectories of protein misfolding. Future studies like the ones discussed here have the potential to transform basic concepts of protein misfolding in human diseases and may thus help to identify new therapeutic strategies for their treatment. PMID:22052348

  19. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...such ingredients shall be computed on the basis of the total weight of the ingredients. (7) Autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed plant protein, milk protein hydrolysate, and monosodium glutamate. (8) Sugars (sucrose and dextrose)....

  20. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...such ingredients shall be computed on the basis of the total weight of the ingredients. (7) Autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed plant protein, milk protein hydrolysate, and monosodium glutamate. (8) Sugars (sucrose and dextrose)....

  1. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...such ingredients shall be computed on the basis of the total weight of the ingredients. (7) Autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed plant protein, milk protein hydrolysate, and monosodium glutamate. (8) Sugars (sucrose and dextrose)....

  2. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...such ingredients shall be computed on the basis of the total weight of the ingredients. (7) Autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed plant protein, milk protein hydrolysate, and monosodium glutamate. (8) Sugars (sucrose and dextrose)....

  3. 9 CFR 319.281 - Bockwurst.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...such ingredients shall be computed on the basis of the total weight of the ingredients. (7) Autolyzed yeast extract, hydrolyzed plant protein, milk protein hydrolysate, and monosodium glutamate. (8) Sugars (sucrose and dextrose)....

  4. Rapid identification of bioactive peptides with antioxidant activity from the enzymatic hydrolysate of Mactra veneriformis by UHPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lingchong; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xinzhi; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-15

    Analysis of peptide components of protein hydrolysates is often difficult due to the lack of suitable analytical methods. In the present study, an UHPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS method was developed and used to identify peptides derived from the protein hydrolysate of Mactra veneriformis. The peptide sequences were deduced by de novo sequencing based on MS/MS fragmentation data. A total of 21 peptides, four nucleobases, and one nucleoside were identified from the hydrolysate using this method. These peptides were chemically synthesised and showed antioxidant activity in radical scavenging assays. This method is suitable for quick, sensitive, and accurate analysis of complex protein hydrolysates. PMID:25149015

  5. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. This fact sheet provides basic information about red ... supplements. Some red yeast rice products contain a contaminant called citrinin, which can cause kidney failure. Tell ...

  6. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-Q. Ding; E. Bill; A. X. Trautwein; H. J. Hartmann; U. Weser

    1994-01-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)\\/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than

  7. Sociobiology of the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wloch-Salamon, Dominika M

    2014-04-01

    Social theory has provided a useful framework for research with microorganisms. Here I describe the advantages and possible risks of using a well-known model organism, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitnessbased Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence of apoptosis. PMID:24736156

  8. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  9. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  10. Acid trehalase in yeasts and filamentous fungi: localization, regulation and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Parrou, Jean Luc; Jules, Matthieu; Beltran, Gemma; François, Jean

    2005-04-01

    Yeasts and filamentous fungi are endowed with two different trehalose-hydrolysing activities, termed acid and neutral trehalases according to their optimal pH for enzymatic activity. A wealth of information already exists on fungal neutral trehalases, while data on localization, regulation and function of fungal acid trehalases have remained elusive. The gene encoding the latter enzyme has now been isolated from two yeast species and two filamentous fungi, and sequences encoding putative acid trehalase can be retrieved from available public sequences. Despite weak similarities between amino acids sequences, this type of trehalase potentially harbours either a transmembrane segment or a signal peptide at the N-terminal sequence, as deduced from domain prediction algorithms. This feature, together with the demonstration that acid trehalase from yeasts and filamentous fungi is localized at the cell surface, is consistent with its main role in the utilisation of exogenous trehalose as a carbon source. The growth on this disaccharide is in fact pretty effective in most fungi except in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast species actually exhibits a "Kluyver effect" on trehalose. Moreover, an oscillatory behaviour reminiscent of what is observed in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures at low dilution rate is also observed in batch growth on trehalose. Finally, the S. cerevisiae acid trehalase may also participate in the catabolism of endogenous trehalose by a mechanism that likely requires the export of the disaccharide, its extracellular hydrolysis, and the subsequent uptake of the glucose released. Based on these recent findings, we suggest to rename "acid" and "neutral" trehalases as "extracellular" and "cytosolic" trehalases, which is more adequate to describe their localization and function in the fungal cell. PMID:15780651

  11. Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

  12. Comparison of antioxidant activities of onion and garlic extracts by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and radical scavenging activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Nuutila; Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä; Marjukka Aarni; Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of selected varieties and parts of garlic and onion were determined by two methods: inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated rat hepatocytes and scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. The total phenolics and the main flavonoids of the hydrolysed onion and garlic samples were also analysed. The antioxidant activities obtained

  13. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  14. Enhanced lipid production with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate by Rhodotorula glutinis using a high cell density culture strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, energy crisis and environmental issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming, etc. has roused peoples' concern. Biodiesel, as renewable energy, has attracted much attention to deal with such problems. This work studied the lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate. The results indicated that R. glutinis had high tolerance to the inhibitors in corncob hydrolysate and it could utilize undetoxified corncob hydrolysate directly for lipid production. The cell grew well with undetoxified hydrolysate in the batch culture of 5L fermentor with the optimized C/N ratio of 75, lipid titer and lipid content reached 5.5g/L and 36.4%, respectively. High cell density culture with two-stage nitrogen feeding strategy was studied to enhance the lipid production, biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of 70.8, 33.5g/L and 47.2% were obtained. The results indicated the potential application for lipid production by R. glutinis with corncob hydrolysate directly. PMID:25585258

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

  16. Enhanced bioproduction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cesário, M Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; van Keulen, Frederik; Ferreira, Bruno S; da Fonseca, M Manuela R

    2014-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum-derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolise glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSHs), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated about 70%gpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)(P(3HB))/g cell dry weight (CDW) with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached about 60%gP(3HB)/g CDW and 0.19g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred-tank reactors (STRs) on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 hours of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 gP(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6g/L hour, respectively. The selected feeding strategy successfully overcame the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) phenomenon observed with sugar mixtures containing hexoses and pentoses. This is the first work describing fed-batch cultivations aiming at PHA production using real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Additionally, the P(3HB) volumetric productivities attained are by far the highest ever achieved on agricultural waste hydrolysates. PMID:24157713

  17. Drying enhances immunoactivity of spent brewer's yeast cell wall ?-d-glucans.

    PubMed

    Liepins, Janis; Kova?ova, Elena; Shvirksts, Karlis; Grube, Mara; Rapoport, Alexander; Kogan, Grigorij

    2015-07-20

    Due to immunological activity, microbial cell wall polysaccharides are defined as 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). Cell walls of spent brewer's yeast also have some BRM activity. However, up to date there is no consensus on the use of spent brewer's yeast d-glucan as specific BRM in humans or animals. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of spent brewer's yeast ?-d-glucans as BRM, and drying as an efficient pretreatment to increase ?-d-glucan's immunogenic activity. Our results revealed that drying does not change spent brewer's yeast biomass carbohydrate content as well as the chemical structure of purified ?-d-glucan. However, drying increased purified ?-d-glucan TNF-? induction activity in the murine macrophage model. We presume drying pretreatment enhances purity of extracted ?-d-glucan. This is corroborated with FT-IR analyses of the ?-d-glucan spectra. Based on our results, we suggest that dry spent brewer's yeast biomass can be used as a cheap source for high-quality ?-d-glucan extraction. Drying in combination with carboxylmethylation (CM), endows spent brewer's yeast ?-d-glucan with the immunoactivity similar or exceeding that of a well-characterized fungal BRM pleuran. PMID:25858155

  18. Unrefined wood hydrolysates are viable reactants for the reproducible synthesis of highly swellable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Laleh; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-08-01

    A value-adding robust and sequential synthetic pathway was elaborated to produce hydrogel structures with ionic character from crude acetylated galactoglucomannan-rich wood hydrolysate (WH). The WH was first-step liquor originating from a sulphite cracking pulp process for dissolving pulp. The synthetically modified WH fractions were verified at each step by NMR and FTIR, and the hydrogels were characterized with respect to their swelling and mechanical properties. Altering the crosslinking chemistry and the content of ionic moieties resulted in hydrogels with various swelling ratios and mechanical properties. Renewable hydrogel formulations with swelling ratios as high as Qeq=270 were achieved. PMID:24751275

  19. Upgrading of straw hydrolysate for production of hydrogen and phenols in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Thygesen; Massimo Marzorati; Nico Boon; Anne Belinda Thomsen; Willy Verstraete

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), hydrolysate produced by\\u000a hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was used for hydrogen production\\u000a during selective recovery of phenols. The average H(2) production rate\\u000a was 0.61 m(3) H(2)\\/m(3) MEC center dot day and equivalent to a rate of\\u000a 0.40 kg COD\\/m(3) MEC center dot day. The microbial community in the\\u000a anode biofilm was adapted by

  20. Separation of Iron-Binding Peptides from Shrimp Processing By-products Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangrong Huang; Zhangyan Ren; Jiaxin Jiang

    Separation of iron-binding peptides derived from shrimp processing by-products (SPB) by Alacase hydrolysis was investigated.\\u000a The highest iron-binding capacity of the hydrolysate (17.5 ?mol\\/g of protein) was obtained with Alacase at a degree of hydrolysis\\u000a of 8%. The molecular weight (MW) distribution on gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed that it was ranging from 1 to\\u000a 6 kDa. By separating with ion-exchange chromatography

  1. Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunhong; Liu, Wen; Feng, Zhibiao; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary ?-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge. PMID:25290460

  2. Comparison of methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate for bacterial cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. In order to decrease the production cost of bacterial cellulose, lignocellulose-based media have considerable potential as alternative cost-effective feedstocks. However, pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose to sugars also generate fermentation inhibitors. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is needed to achieve efficient production of BC. In this investigation, different methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate prior to production of BC were compared with respect to effects on potential inhibitors and fermentable sugars, sugar consumption, BC yield, and cell viability. The objectives were to identify efficient detoxification methods and to achieve a better understanding of the role played by different inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Results In a first series of experiments, the detoxification methods investigated included treatments with activated charcoal, alkali [sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide (overliming), and ammonium hydroxide], anion and cation ion-exchange resins, and reducing agents (sodium sulfite and sodium dithionite). A second series of detoxification experiments included enzymatic treatments (laccase and peroxidase). The potential inhibitors studied included aliphatic acids, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. The best effects in the first series of detoxification experiments were achieved with activated charcoal and anion exchanger. After detoxification with activated charcoal the BC yield was 8.2 g/L, while it was 7.5 g/L in a reference medium without inhibitors. Treatments with anion exchanger at pH 10 and pH 5.5 gave a BC yield of 7.9 g/L and 6.3 g/L, respectively. The first series of experiments suggested that there was a relationship between the BC yield and phenolic inhibitors. Therefore, the second series of detoxification experiments focused on treatments with phenol-oxidizing enzymes. The BC yield in the laccase-detoxified hydrolysate reached 5.0-5.5 g/L after 14 days cultivation, which demonstrated the important inhibitory role played by phenolic compounds. Conclusions The investigation shows that detoxification methods that efficiently remove phenolics benefit bacterial growth and BC production. Negative effects of salts could not be excluded and the osmotolerance of Gluconacetobacter xylinus needs to be further investigated in the future. Combinations of detoxification methods that efficiently decrease the concentration of inhibitors remain as an interesting option. PMID:24119691

  3. Coherent regulation in yeast’s cell-cycle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Ne?e; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan

    2015-05-01

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast’s cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield an exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  4. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

  5. Improved extraction procedure for carotenoids from human milk.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Hurtienne, A; Bathe, K

    2000-05-01

    An improved method for the extraction of the major carotenoids from human milk is described. Carotenoids were extracted from milk first with ethanol and n-hexane. Then, polar xanthophylls were extracted from n-hexane into ethanol/water. The remaining n-hexane was evaporated, the residue combined with the ethanolic milk fraction and the mixture briefly saponified. Carotenoids were extracted from the hydrolysate with n-hexane, combined with the polar xanthophylls from the non-saponified ethanol/water-extract and separated by HPLC. Using this method we were able to significantly improve the recovery of xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin from human milk. The recovery rate of all carotenoids was > 90%. This method might not only be of value for milk but should be especially useful in the extraction of carotenoids from human tissues such as the adipose tissue. PMID:10883400

  6. Antioxidant and sensory properties of protein hydrolysate derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by one- and two-step hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Kishimura, Hideki

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant and sensory properties of Nile tilapia protein hydrolysates prepared by one- and two-step hydrolysis using commercial proteases were investigated. Hydrolysates prepared using single protease including Alcalase (HA), Flavourzyme (HF), Protamex (HPr) and papain (HPa) had increases in antioxidant activities as the degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased up to 40 % (P?hydrolysates, HA having 40 % DH showed the highest antioxidant activities. When HA was further hydrolysed by papain, the resulting hydrolysate (HAPa) exhibited the highest antioxidant activities for all assays tested (P?hydrolysate with antioxidant properties and reduced bitterness, which could serve as the functional supplement. PMID:26028714

  7. 280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors By TIM STEARNS, HONG MA, and DAVID BOTSTEIN The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a popular high status of yeast as an experimental system is in large part due to the work of the many geneticists

  8. Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    106 Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast 1. Plan to do steps 1-10 in the yeast immunofluorescence method. But, start with 100 mls of cells at OD600=0.2. Then, do all steps in quadruplicate. Do pretreatment, and digest cells for 10 minutes. 2. Pool all yeast in SPC + Pics in one

  9. Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jo

    Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast A. Wise J. Hardin focuses on the analysis of data from a yeast DNA microarray experiment. The biological question that motivates our research is "What genetic changes in yeast happen over time?" In order to explore the research

  10. APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    containers in which 2.5 kg of dextrose is packaged. Throughout this chapter, YNB -AA/AS refers to yeastAPPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

  11. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Microbes_040115-1.html Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay News ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin For closed ...

  12. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  13. Cofermentation of Glucose, Xylose, and Cellobiose by the Beetle-Associated Yeast Spathaspora passalidarum

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts. PMID:22636012

  14. Investigation on chemical cross-linked collagen phosphoric acid hydrolysates with cyanuric chloride by differential scanning calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Chakarska; S. Todinova; K. Idakieva

    2010-01-01

    The process of cross-linking of collagen phosphoric acid hydrolysates (CH) with cyanuric chloride (CY) was studied by the\\u000a increase in the denaturation temperature using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This measurement gave indications\\u000a concerning the efficiency of the treatment, i.e., the extent of cross-linking of the collagen hydrolysates. The optimal conditions\\u000a for cross-linking were determined: CH\\/CY in a ratio 1:1, reaction

  15. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme type on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Venuste, Muhamyankaka; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shoemaker, Charles F; Karangwa, Eric; Abbas, Shabbar; Kamdem, Patrick Eugene

    2013-04-30

    Nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal and their hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis with alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex or neutrase were evaluated. The hydrolysis process significantly increased protein content from 67.07% to 92.22%. All the essential amino acids met the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO/FAO) suggested requirements for children and adults. The amino acid score (AAS) of meal was increased from 65.59 to 73.00 except for flavourzyme (62.97) and protamex (62.50). The Biological Value (BV) was increased from 53.18 to 83.44 except for protamex (40.97). However hydrolysis decreased the Essential Amino Acid/Total Amino Acid ratio (EAA/TAA) from 32.98% to 29.43%. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was comparable to that of good quality protein (1.5) except for flavourzyme hydrolysate which had PER1 = 0.92, PER2 = 1.03, PER3 = 0.38. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 71.32% to 77.96%. Antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg mL(-1), the hydrolysates had increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities from 21.89% to 85.27%, the reducing power increased from Abs(700nm) 0.21 to 0.48. Metal (Iron) chelating ability was improved from 30.50% to 80.03% at 1 mg mL(-1). Hydrolysates also showed better capabilities to suppress or delay lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. Different proteases lead to different Degrees of Hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, amino acid composition and sequence, which influenced the nutritional properties and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates. Alcalase was the most promising protease in production of pumpkin protein hydrolysates with improved nutritional quality, while flavourzyme was best in production of hydrolysates with improved antioxidative activity among various assays. These results showed that hydrolysates from by-products of pumpkin oil-processing might serve as alternative sources of dietary proteins with good nutritional quality, and protection against oxidative damage. PMID:23591974

  16. Cytosolic Hsp60 can modulate proteasome activity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kalderon, Bella; Kogan, Gleb; Bubis, Ettel; Pines, Ophry

    2015-02-01

    Hsp60, an essential oligomeric molecular mitochondrial chaperone, has been subject to rigorous basic and clinical research. With yeast as a model system, we provide evidence for the ability of cytosolic yHsp60 to inhibit the yeast proteasome. (i) Following biological turnover of murine Bax (a proteasome substrate), we show that co-expression of cytosolic yHsp60 stabilizes Bax, enhances its association with mitochondria, and enhances its killing capacity. (ii) Expression of yHsp60 in the yeast cytosol (yHsp60c) inhibits degradation of a cytosolic protein ?MTS-Aco1 tagged with the degron SL17 (a ubiquitin-proteasome substrate). (iii) Conditions under which Hsp60 accumulates in the cytosol (elevated Hsp60c or growth at 37 °C) correlate with reduced 20 S peptidase activity in proteasomes purified from cell extracts. (iv) Elevated yHsp60 in the cytosol correlate with accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. (v) According to 20 S proteasome pulldown experiments, Hsp60 is physically associated with proteasomes in extracts of cells expressing Hsp60c or grown at 37 °C. Even mutant Hsp60 proteins, lacking chaperone activity, were still capable of proteasome inhibition. The results support the hypothesis that localization of Hsp60 to the cytosol may modulate proteasome activity according to cell need. PMID:25525272

  17. Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland; University of Lausanne REV)

    2012-12-04

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

  18. Yeast proteome map (update 2006).

    PubMed

    Perrot, Michel; Guieysse-Peugeot, Anne-Laure; Massoni, Aurélie; Espagne, Christelle; Claverol, Stéphane; Silva, Raquel Monteiro; Jenö, Paul; Santos, Manuel; Bonneu, Marc; Boucherie, Hélian

    2007-04-01

    To improve the potential of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic investigations in yeast we have undertaken the systematic identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins separated on 2-D gels. We report here the identification of 187 novel protein spots. They were identified by two methods, mass spectrometry and gene inactivation. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast 2-D proteome map to 602, i.e. nearly half the detectable spots of the proteome map. These spots correspond to 417 different proteins. The reference map and the list of identified proteins can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM). PMID:17351888

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

  20. Looking beyond Saccharomyces: the potential of non-conventional yeast species for desirable traits in bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Radecka, Dorota; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Mateo, Raquel Quintilla; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2015-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for millennia in the production of food and beverages and is by far the most studied yeast species. Currently, it is also the most used microorganism in the production of first-generation bioethanol from sugar or starch crops. Second-generation bioethanol, on the other hand, is produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks that are pretreated and hydrolyzed to obtain monomeric sugars, mainly D-glucose, D-xylose and L-arabinose. Recently, S. cerevisiae recombinant strains capable of fermenting pentose sugars have been generated. However, the pretreatment of the biomass results in hydrolysates with high osmolarity and high concentrations of inhibitors. These compounds negatively influence the fermentation process. Therefore, robust strains with high stress tolerance are required. Up to now, more than 2000 yeast species have been described and some of these could provide a solution to these limitations because of their high tolerance to the most predominant stress conditions present in a second-generation bioethanol reactor. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the non-conventional yeast species showing unusual tolerance to these stresses, namely Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (osmotolerance), Kluyveromyces marxianus and Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha (thermotolerance), Dekkera bruxellensis (ethanol tolerance), Pichia kudriavzevii (furan derivatives tolerance) and Z. bailii (acetic acid tolerance). PMID:26126524

  1. Enhancement of fermentable sugar yield by competitive adsorption of non-enzymatic substances from yeast and cellulase on lignin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhancement of enzymatic digestibility by some supplementations could reduce enzyme loading and cost, which is still too high to realize economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. A recent study indicates that yeast hydrolysates (YH) have improved the efficiency of cellulases on digestibility of furfural residues (FR). In the current work, the components of YH were separated by centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography and finally characterized in order to better understand this positive effect. Results A 60.8% of nitrogen of yeast cells was remained in the slurry (YHS) after hydrothermal treatment. In the supernatant of YH (YHL), substances of high molecular weight were identified as proteins and other UV-absorbing compounds, which showed close molecular weight to components of cellulases. Those substances attributed to a synergetic positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis of FR. The fraction of YHL ranged from 1.19 to 2.19 mL (elution volume) contained over 50% of proteins in YHL and had the best performance in stimulating the release of glucose. Experiment results proved the adsorption of proteins in YHL on lignin. Conclusions Supplementation of cellulases with YH enhances enzymatic digestibility of FR mainly by a competitive adsorption of non-enzymatic substances on lignin. The molecular weight of these substances has a significant impact on their performance. Different strategies can be used for a good utilization of yeast cells in terms of biorefinery concept. PMID:24650152

  2. The yeast enzyme Eht1 is an octanoyl-CoA:ethanol acyltransferase that also functions as a thioesterase

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Michael J; Bull, Ian D; Curnow, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are secondary metabolites that are produced during microbial fermentation, in fruiting plants and in higher organisms during ethanol stress. In particular, volatile medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters are important flavour compounds that impart desirable fruit aromas to fermented beverages, including beer and wine. The biochemical synthesis of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters is poorly understood but likely involves acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferases. Here, we characterize the enzyme ethanol hexanoyl transferase 1 (Eht1) from the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Full-length Eht1 was successfully overexpressed from a recombinant yeast plasmid and purified at the milligram scale after detergent solubilization of sedimenting membranes. Recombinant Eht1 was functional as an acyltransferase and, unexpectedly, was optimally active toward octanoyl-CoA, with kcat?=?0.28?±?0.02/s and KM?=?1.9?±?0.6 ?m. Eht1 was also revealed to be active as a thioesterase but was not able to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acyl esters, in contrast to the findings of a previous study. Low-resolution structural data and site-directed mutagenesis provide experimental support for a predicted ?/?-hydrolase domain featuring a Ser–Asp–His catalytic triad. The S. cerevisiae gene YBR177C/EHT1 should thus be reannotated as coding for an octanoyl-CoA:ethanol acyltransferase that can also function as a thioesterase. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308280

  3. Sporulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accompanied by synthesis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, H

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional TLC analysis of 32P-labeled nucleotides extracted from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals that two highly phosphorylated nucleotides are synthesized during sporulation. These nucleotides have been identified as adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (ppppA) and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (pppppA). The synthesis of ppppA and pppppA commences late in sporulation and follows formation of ascospores. The maximum concentration of ppppA and pppppA in sporulating yeast cultures was 2% and 1.5%, respectively, that of ATP. Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and 5'-pentaphosphate are unique to this stage of yeast development and are absent in vegetative yeast cells. Since these nucleotides are also absent in asporogenous a/a and alpha/alpha cells, it is reasonable to propose that they are signal nucleotides marking one of the stages of yeast development--i.e., ascospore formation. Images PMID:3517867

  4. Red yeast rice: a new hypolipidemic drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Journoud; Peter J. H Jones

    2004-01-01

    Red yeast rice is a source of fermented pigment with possible bioactive effect. Evidence shows that fermented red yeast rice lowers cholesterol levels moderately compared to other statin drugs, but with the added advantage of causing less adverse effects. A review of the body of evidence surrounding the properties of red yeast rice underscores its potential as a new alternative

  5. Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Caridi

    2006-01-01

    Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic

  6. YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism for 21st Century Biology David Botstein*,1, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT In this essay, we revisit the status of yeast as a model system for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated

  7. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  8. Mössbauer studies on yeast metallothionein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X.-Q.; Bill, E.; Trautwein, A. X.; Hartmann, H. J.; Weser, U.

    1994-12-01

    Iron-substituted yeast metallothionein, Fe(II)-yeast-MT, has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron in the protein is in the high-spin ferrous state. As maximum metal content, 4 Fe(II)/molecule has been determined, with the 4 metal ions forming a diamagnetic cluster due to the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Fe(II) ions via bridging thiolates. In case the iron titration is less than 4 Fe(II)/apoprotein, the ions are magnetically noninteracting, with each individual Fe(II) behaving similar to Fe(II) in reduced rubredoxin.

  9. Combined nuclear measurements of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, N. S.; Al-Saleh, K. A.; Arafah, D.-E.; Halim, N. A.

    1987-05-01

    Combined Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to determine the elemental composition of yeast. Results reveal no toxic elements (e.g. Ag, Pb, etc) in yeast. Yet results display some similarities in concentrations of some elements (e.g. Ti, Mn, Ni, Cu and Sr), large differences are observed for others (e.g. S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn). Variations are accounted due to different growing media or contamination during processing.

  10. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  11. Lipid accumulation by pelletized culture of Mucor circinelloides on corn stover hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Reis, Cristiano E R; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil accumulated by fungal cells is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and lignocellulosic materials can serve as the carbon source to support the fungal growth. The dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover can effectively break down its lignin structure, and this process generates a hydrolysate containing mostly xylose at very dilute concentration and numerous by-products that may significantly inhibit the cell growth. This study utilized corn stover hydrolysate as the culture media for the growth of Mucor circinelloides. The results showed that Mucor cells formed pellets during the cell growth, which facilitates the cell harvest from dilute solution. The results also showed that the inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid could be avoided if their concentration was low. In fact, all these by-products may be assimilated as carbon sources for the fungal growth. The results proved the feasibility to reuse the cultural broth water for acid pretreatment and then use for subsequent cell cultivation. The results will have a direct impact on the overall water usage of the process. PMID:25080382

  12. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements. PMID:25756593

  13. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 ?g/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 ?g/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin ?+? conglutin. PMID:24128446

  14. Quantification of glucose, xylose, arabinose, furfural, and HMF in corncob hydrolysate by HPLC-PDA-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejun; Ai, Ning; Zhang, Haiyan; Lu, Meizhen; Ji, Dengxiang; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2012-05-15

    Lignocellulose and other carbohydrates are being studied extensively as potential renewable carbon sources for liquid biofuels and other valuable chemicals. In the present study, a simple, sensitive, selective, and reliable HPLC method using a photodiode array (PDA) detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of important sugars (D(+)-cellobiose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose), furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The analysis was carried out on an Aminex HPX-87H column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m particle size). Ultra-pure water with 0.00035 M H(2)SO(4) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The temperature of the ELSD drift tube was kept at 50 °C, the carrier gas pressure was 350 kPa, and the gain was set at 7. Furfural and 5-HMF were quantified on a PDA detector at 275 nm and 284 nm, respectively. The sugar concentrations were determined by ELSD. This method was validated for accuracy and precision. The regression equation revealed a good linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9986 ± 0.0012) within the test ranges. The method showed good reproducibility for the quantification of six analytes in corncob hydrolysate, with intra- and inter-day variations less than 1.12%. This method is also convenient because it allows the rapid analysis of the primary products of biomass hydrolysis and carbohydrate degradation. PMID:22516168

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovalbumin and the functional properties of the hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2014-10-01

    Ovalbumin is the predominant protein in egg white and is widely used in cell culture. However, it also can be used to produce peptides with various functional properties. The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze ovalbumin using various enzyme, incubation time, and temperature combinations, and to compare the functional properties of the hydrolysates. Ovalbumin (20 mg/mL) was hydrolyzed with 1% of pepsin, trypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, papain, and alcalase, singly or in combination at 37°C, and then the enzymes were inactivated at 100°C for 15 min. Hydrolyzing ovalbumin with pepsin (OAPe), pepsin + papain (OAPePa), pepsin + alcalase (OAPeAl), alcalase + trypsin (OAAlTr), and ?-chymotrypsin (OACh) was also effective in producing peptides from ovalbumin, and the peptides produced had strong iron- and copper-binding capacities and antioxidant capability. However, the best treatment of all was the OAAlTr treatment, which showed the highest iron-chelating and antioxidant activities among the enzyme treatments (P < 0.05). Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified numerous peptides (<5 kDa) from the OAPe, OAPeAl, OACh, OAAlTr, and OAPePa hydrolysates of ovalbumin, but the number and size of peptides varied widely depending on the treatments. The enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased the functionality of ovalbumin, and the improvement depended upon the composition of peptides produced rather than the number of the peptides produced. PMID:25085935

  16. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties of bovine collagen hydrolysates produced by Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622 collagenase.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carolina A; Campos, Júlia Furtado; Filho, José L Lima; Converti, Attilio; da Cunha, Maria G Carneiro; Porto, Ana L F

    2015-07-01

    A 2(3) full factorial design was used to identify the main effects and interactions of pH, collagen concentration and temperature on the degree of collagen hydrolysis (DH) by collagenase from Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622. Increases in both pH and collagen concentration improved DH, and a positive interaction effect was observed for these variables. On the other hand, temperature had a negative main effect on DH. The maximum value of DH (4.65 ?g/mL) was achieved at 7.5 mg/mL collagen concentration, pH 8.0 and 25 °C. The peptide profile showed several peptides with molecular weights lower than 2 kDa and exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. An antioxidant activity of 84.7?±?0.24 % towards the radical ABTS•?+?was obtained with 50 mg/mL hydrolysates. This study demonstrated that collagen hydrolysed by P. aurantiogriseum URM 4622 collagenase possesses interesting antibacterial and antioxidant activities. PMID:26139912

  17. Fabrication, properties and bioapplications of cellulose/collagen hydrolysate composite films.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ying; Yang, Juan; Liu, Pan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Xianzheng; Zhang, Lina

    2013-02-15

    In this work, a series of cellulose/collagen hydrolysate (RC/CH) films were prepared in NaOH/urea aqueous solution via a simple, low-cost and green pathway. To overcome the disadvantages (brittleness, poor water resistance) of CH as biomaterials, CH was combined with regenerated cellulose (RC) film to construct RC/CH composite materials, leading to vast improvement of the water resistance of CH. Crosslinking with genipin further improved the mechanical properties of the RC/CH films in the wet state. Their structure and properties were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), amino acid analysis, tensile testing, cell adhesion and toxicity tests. The mechanical properties and water resistance of the crosslinked RC/CH films were significantly improved, which made collagen hydrolysate as biomaterial could be used at wet state. Moreover, the RC/CH films exhibited good biocompatibility by proliferation of COS7 cells on the surface, supporting cell adhesion and growth. PMID:23399216

  18. Major amino acids in collagen hydrolysate regulate the differentiation of mouse embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Inoue, Yu; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2013-09-01

    To take advantage of the therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it is necessary to regulate their differentiation in response to defined factors. In this study, in order to explore novel molecules that regulate the differentiation of ESCs, we investigated whether collagen hydrolysate, collagen-characteristic amino acids, glycine (Gly), l-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (l-Hyp); or dipeptides, proline-hydroxyproline and hydroxyproline-glycine regulate the differentiation of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs). We identified that treatment with collagen hydrolysate or Gly repressed the expression of the mesendodermal markers, Brachyury and Foxa2 in EBs and maintained the undifferentiated state of mESCs in a feeder-free monolayer culture. In contrast, l-Hyp promoted the expression of Brachyury, Mixl1, Gsc and Foxa2 in EBs. And the treatment with l-Hyp promoted cardiac differentiation within EBs, which was proven by the spontaneous contraction of cardiomyocytes and the expression of the cardiac markers, ?-MHC, MLC-2v and Nkx2.5. Results suggest that l-Hyp is a promising new inducer for reproducible and efficient differentiation of mesendoderm lineages. PMID:23623897

  19. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiko Mukai; Chiharu Nishimori; Ikuko Wilson Fujishige; Akihiro Mizuno; Toshiro Takahashi; Kazuo Sato

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was

  20. Analysis of metabolic fluxes for better understanding of mechanisms related to lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijie; Gao, Yang; Chen, Jun; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Bao, Jie; Hua, Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Microbial fermentation for producing biodiesel from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is receiving increasing attention and attempts have been made to screen an oleaginous Trichosporon sp. with high lipid content and a strong tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysates. In order to better understand mechanisms related to its lipid accumulation, metabolic flux analysis was performed under 5gL(-1) ammonium sulfate (high nitrogen) and/or 0.4gL(-1) ammonium sulfate (low nitrogen) conditions. Cell growth phase and lipid accumulation phase were shown for cells grown under low nitrogen condition. Results of flux distribution demonstrated that NADPH provided by cytosolic malic enzyme and the acetyl-CoA from cytoplasmic citrate by the ATP: citrate lyase were the two primary sources for excess lipid accumulation. Flux data also supported the fact that the citrate pyruvate cycle plays an essential role in the lipid accumulation. The flux information obtained could also motivate new design strategies for oleaginous yeasts for enhanced biodiesel production. PMID:23306122

  1. Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Michael; Hong, Eurie L.; Amundsen, Craig; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Chan, Esther T.; Christie, Karen R.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dwight, Selina S.; Engel, Stacia R.; Fisk, Dianna G.; Hirschman, Jodi E.; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Karra, Kalpana; Krieger, Cynthia J.; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Nash, Rob S.; Park, Julie; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Simison, Matt; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D.

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD, http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the community resource for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SGD project provides the highest-quality manually curated information from peer-reviewed literature. The experimental results reported in the literature are extracted and integrated within a well-developed database. These data are combined with quality high-throughput results and provided through Locus Summary pages, a powerful query engine and rich genome browser. The acquisition, integration and retrieval of these data allow SGD to facilitate experimental design and analysis by providing an encyclopedia of the yeast genome, its chromosomal features, their functions and interactions. Public access to these data is provided to researchers and educators via web pages designed for optimal ease of use. PMID:22110037

  2. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing ?-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2?mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9?mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4?mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  3. Concentration-Dependent Effects of Rhodiola Rosea on Long-Term Survival and Stress Resistance of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: The Involvement of YAP 1 and MSN2/4 Regulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bayliak, Maria M.; Burdyliuk, Nadia I.; Izers’ka, Lilia I.; Lushchak, Volodymyr I.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration-dependent effects of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on long-term survival and stress resistance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. At low concentrations, R. rosea aqueous extract extended yeast chronological lifespan, enhanced oxidative stress resistance of stationary-phase cells and resistance to number stressors in exponentially growing cultures. At high concentrations, R. rosea extract sensitized yeast cells to stresses and shortened yeast lifespan. These biphasic concentration-responses describe a common hormetic phenomenon characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Yeast pretreatment with low doses of R. rosea extract enhanced yeast survival and prevented protein oxidation under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Positive effect of R. rosea extract on yeast survival under heat shock exposure was not accompanied with changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of oxidized proteins. The deficiency in transcriptional regulators, Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1, abolished the positive effect of low doses of R. rosea extract on yeast viability under stress challenges. Potential involvement of Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1 regulatory proteins in realization of R. rosea beneficial effects is discussed. PMID:24659935

  4. Yeast Cultures in Ruminant Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA

    2007-01-01

    Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The

  5. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roma Batra; Teun Boekhout; Eveline Guého; F. Javier Cabañes; Thomas L. Dawson; Aditya K. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    PubMed Central

    Austriaco, O. P., Nicanor

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death. PMID:22876361

  7. Effect of spray drying on the sensory and physical properties of hydrolysed casein using gum arabic as the carrier.

    PubMed

    Subtil, S F; Rocha-Selmi, G A; Thomazini, M; Trindade, M A; Netto, F M; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2014-09-01

    This study was aimed at spray drying hydrolysed casein using gum Arabic as the carrier agent, in order to decrease the bitter taste. Three formulations with differing proportions of hydrolysed casein: gum Arabic (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70) were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility in water and in oil, particle size and distribution, particle morphology, thermal behaviour (DSC) and bitter taste by a trained sensory panel using a paired-comparison test (free samples vs. spray dried samples). The proportion of hydrolysed casein did not affect the morphology of the microspheres. The spray drying process increased product stability and modified the dissolution time, but had no effect on the ability of the material to dissolve in either water or oil. The sensory tests showed that the spray drying process using gum Arabic as the carrier was efficient in attenuating or masking the bitter taste of the hydrolysed casein. PMID:25190858

  8. A TECHNIQUE TO RECOVER TRACER AS CARBOXYL-CARBON AND ALPHA-NITROGEN FROM AMINO ACIDS IN SOIL HYDROLYSATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotope analysis of biochemical compounds provides an unequivocal means for detecting assimilation of tracer C and N into microbial biomass. A diffusion method recently developed to determine amino acid-N by ninhydrin oxidation of soil hydrolysates was modified to permit simultaneous collection of ...

  9. Poly(vinyl alcohol)–collagen hydrolysate thermoplastic blends: II. Water penetration and biodegradability of melt extruded films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexy; D. Bakoš; G. Crko?ová; Z. Kramárová; J. Hoffmann; M. Julinová; E. Chiellini; P. Cinelli

    2003-01-01

    Water solubility of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is related to degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight and modification during blending in the presence of other processing additives. In the present paper the effect of collagen hydrolysate (CH), an abundant waste product of the leather industry, and glycerol on PVA water sensitivity has been investigated. This study is a continuation of the previous

  10. Rapid method for the isolation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline from concentrated bone hydrolysates by liquid chromatographic techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lamprecht

    1997-01-01

    A rapid method for the isolation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylridinoline from bone by liquid chromatographic methods is described. Decalcified bone is hydrolysed in 7 M hydrochloric acid. After evaporation of the acid, the high molecular mass dark coloured degradation products are removed by adsorption on non-polar adsorbents. The pyridinolines are separated from the majority of the amino acids by adsorption

  11. Iron (II)-chelating activity of buffalo ?S-casein hydrolysed by corolase PP, alcalase and flavourzyme.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Arvind; Bajaj, Rajesh; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a vital substance for human health which participates in many biochemical reactions. It also act as initiator for many harmful oxidative process. Buffalo ?S-casein enriched fraction (80 %) was hydrolysed independently by corolase PP (H1), alcalase (H2), flavourzyme (H3) and sequentially by alcalase-flavourzyme (H4). After ultrafiltration (10 and 3 kDa) hydrolysates were analysed for their iron chelation activity using ferrozine. For H1 group of hydrolysates highest iron (II)-chelation activity (265.58 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) was found after 8 h of hydrolysis for H2 (267.56 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) and H3 group of hydrolysates (380.68 ?M Fe(2+/)mg protein) after 6 h of hydrolysis. Sequential hydrolysis was not effective for iron (II)-chelation activity. 3 kDa fractions show higher iron (II)-chelation activity than 10 kDa fraction. Flavourzyme was more effective for generation of iron (II)-chelating peptides from buffalo ?S-casein. PMID:26028776

  12. Susceptibility of wheat gluten to enzymatic hydrolysis following deamidation with acetic acid and sensory characteristics of the resultant hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Liao; Chao-ying Qiu; Tong-xun Liu; Mou-ming Zhao; Jiao-yan Ren; Hai-feng Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid (HCl) deamidation pretreatment on the susceptibility of wheat gluten to enzymatic hydrolysis by Pancreatin and sensory characteristics of the resultant hydrolysates was investigated. At two degrees of deamidation (24% and 60%, with or without moisture-heating, respectively), wheat gluten pretreated by acetic acid deamidation was more susceptible to be hydrolyzed as evaluated by

  13. Intragastric infusion of pea-protein hydrolysate reduces test-meal size in rats more than pea protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen Häberer; Maria Tasker; Martin Foltz; Nori Geary; Margriet Westerterp; Wolfgang Langhans

    2011-01-01

    Because protein hydrolysates are digested faster than the corresponding proteins, they may increase or hasten the acute eating-inhibitory effect of protein. Potential mediating mechanisms include accelerated or greater release of satiating gut peptides and activation of metabolic signals that inhibit eating. We tested these hypotheses in adult male rats that were surgically equipped with intragastric (IG) cannulas and adapted to

  14. Production of recombinant porcine lactoferrin exhibiting antibacterial activity in methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lai, Yi-Wen; Yen, Chih-Ching; Lin, Yuh-Yih; Lu, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Lin, Yi-Jiun; Lin, Chin-Wen; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2004-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a metal-binding glycoprotein exhibiting multifunctional immunoregulation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-endotoxin and antiviral activities. Uptake of porcine lactoferrin (PLF) has been shown to enhance resistance to diarrhea and anemia in neonatal piglets. In this study, the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, was used to express a recombinant PLF (rPLF) gene from swine mammary gland. A synthetic secretion cassette was constructed using the inducible promoter of the alcohol oxidase-1 gene (AOX1) and the yeast alpha-mating factor signal peptide. After electroporation and Zeocin selection, several clones expressed high levels of rPLF protein which constitutes more than 30% of the total protein. A time-course study showed that rPLF mRNA transcripts are stably expressed during 120 h of culture induction. rPLF was exported into the culture supernatant at approximately 87 mg/l and a large portion of rPLF was accumulated in the cell cytoplasm at approximately 760 mg/l after 72 h of methanol induction. Recombinant PLF protein was purified via a heparin column using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The glycosylation of P. pastoris-derived rPLF was analyzed and similar patterns to milk PLF were observed. Pepsin hydrolysate of rPLF displayed high bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 under scanning electron microscopy observation and minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration tests. Our results suggested that the methylotrophic yeast-inducible system is suitable for large-scale production of active antibacterial rPLF glycoprotein. PMID:16088216

  15. Antimicrobial action of hydrolyzed chitosan against spoilage yeasts and lactic acid bacteria of fermented vegetables.

    PubMed

    Savard, Tony; Beaulieu, Carole; Boucher, Isabelle; Champagne, Claude P

    2002-05-01

    The antimicrobial properties of various chitosan-lactate polymers (ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 MDa in molecular weight) against two yeasts isolated from fermented vegetables and against three lactic acid bacteria from a mixed starter for sauerkraut on methylene blue agar (MBA) and in vegetable juice medium (VJM) were investigated. Chitosan-lactate reduced the growth of all microorganisms in solid (MBA) as well as in liquid (VJM) medium. In MBA, a concentration of 5 g/liter was needed to inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces bayanus, while 1 g/liter was sufficient to inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces unisporus. Lactic acid bacteria were also inhibited in this range of concentrations. The low-molecular-weight chitosan-lactate DP3 (0.5 kDa) was most efficient in solid medium (MBA), and inhibitory activities decreased with increasing hydrolysate lengths. In liquid medium (VJM), 0.5 g of chitosan-lactate per liter reduced the growth rates for both yeasts, but 10 g/liter was insufficient to prevent yeast growth. Intermediate-molecular-weight chitosan-lactate (5 kDa) was more efficient than chitosan of low molecular weight. Native chitosan (1.2 MDa) showed no inhibition in either medium. Microscopic examination of S. unisporus Y-42 after treatment with chitosan-lactate DP25 showed agglutination of a refractive substance on the entire cell wall, suggesting an interaction between chitosan and the cell wall. When chitosanase was added to the culture media containing chitosan-lactate, refractive substances could not be observed. PMID:12030295

  16. Clinical inquiry: is red-yeast rice a safe and effective alternative to statins?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Hwa Shawn; Neher, Jon; Safranek, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    In patients with known coronary artery disease and dyslipidemia (secondary prevention), therapy with red-yeast rice extract containing naturally-occurring lovastatin is associated with a 30% reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and a 60% reduction in myocardial infarction (MI), similar to the effect of statin medications. PMID:25671533

  17. Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber, including extractable antioxidant properties, protein contents, and soluble and insoluble fiber compositions treatments were able to significantly increase releasable antioxidant properties ranging from 28 to 65, from

  18. Overexpression of a small medicinal peptide from ginseng in the yeast Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajun Yan; Jingchun Chen; Jun Li

    2003-01-01

    A medicinal peptide, Gsp, which was initially extracted from the traditional medicinal herb ginseng, has potential use as a drug against diabetes. Gsp is a low molecular weight protein that we have secreted in a recombinant form from the yeast Pichia pastoris. A DNA fragment encoding four copies of the Gsp protein each separated by a basic amino acid was

  19. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    (is a grass-roof a vegetation area?) · object ontologies are hierarchical (tree / forrest / vegetation · buildings · vegetation · roads #12;Interactive object extraction #12;Interactive object extraction angles in man-made structures · measurement accuracy of human operator is lower than that of automatic

  20. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11?mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  1. In Vitro Proliferation and Anti-Apoptosis of the Papain-Generated Casein and Soy Protein Hydrolysates towards Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB1.19)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Casein and soy protein were digested by papain to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) 7.3%–13.3%, to obtain respective six casein and soy protein hydrolysates, aiming to clarify their in vitro proliferation and anti-apoptosis towards a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19 cells). Six casein and soy protein hydrolysates at five levels (0.01–0.2 mg/mL) mostly showed proliferation as positive 17?-estradiol did, because they conferred the osteoblasts with cell viability of 100%–114% and 104%–123%, respectively. The hydrolysates of higher DH values had stronger proliferation. Casein and soy protein hydrolysates of the highest DH values altered cell cycle progression, and enhanced cell proportion of S-phase from 50.5% to 56.5% and 60.5%. The two also antagonized etoposide- and NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In apoptotic prevention, apoptotic cells were decreased from 31.6% to 22.6% and 15.6% (etoposide treatment), or from 19.5% to 17.7% and 12.4% (NaF treatment), respectively. In apoptotic reversal, soy protein hydrolysate decreased apoptotic cells from 13.3% to 11.7% (etoposide treatment), or from 14.5% to 11.0% (NaF treatment), but casein hydrolysate showed no reversal effect. It is concluded that the hydrolysates of two kinds had estradiol-like action on the osteoblasts, and soy protein hydrolysates had stronger proliferation and anti-apoptosis on the osteoblasts than casein hydrolysates. PMID:26090716

  2. The neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Luyun; Wu, Xiaosa; Lv, Yanfang; Xu, Yongxia; Mi, Geng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-06-01

    To observe the neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of the grass carp protein hydrolysates (GPH) obtained from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin by enzymatic hydrolysis. GPH prepared using Protamex, at different (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 %) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The DPPH radial scavenging, reducing power and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation activities of GPH were significantly improved by a low DH (5 %) compared with those of GPH with a higher DH (p?

  3. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH. PMID:24360475

  4. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  5. Absorption and effectiveness of orally administered low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Kamiyama, Mari; Shimizu, Muneshige; Kamiyama, Shin; Taguchi, Yasuki; Sone, Hideyuki; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Yuji; Komai, Michio

    2010-01-27

    Collagen, a major extracellular matrix macromolecule, is widely used for biomedical purposes. We investigated the absorption mechanism of low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate (LMW-CH) and its effects on osteoporosis in rats. When administered to Wistar rats with either [(14)C]proline (Pro group) or glycyl-[(14)C]prolyl-hydroxyproline (CTp group), LMW-CH rapidly increased plasma radioactivity. LMW-CH was absorbed into the blood of Wistar rats in the peptide form. Glycyl-prolyl-hydroxyproline tripeptide remained in the plasma and accumulated in the kidney. In both groups, radioactivity was retained at a high level in the skin until 14 days after administration. Additionally, the administration of LMW-CH to ovariectomized stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats increased the organic substance content and decreased the water content of the left femur. Our findings show that LMW-CH exerts a beneficial effect on osteoporosis by increasing the organic substance content of bone. PMID:19957932

  6. A new view concerning the effects of collagen hydrolysate intake on skin properties.

    PubMed

    Zague, Vivian

    2008-10-01

    Dietary supplements (vitamins, polyphenols, micronutrients and proteins) have demonstrated beneficial effects on skin health. The classical route of administration of active compounds is by topical application and manufactures have substantial experience of formulating ingredients in this field. However, the use of functional foods or nutraceuticals for improving skin condition is increasing. The preclinical efficacy assays and bioavailability trials provide a basis from which to establish appropriate collagen hydrolysate (CH) intakes that might impact skin health outcomes. This commentary deals essentially with the general aspects of CH, bioavailability and findings of preclinical studies concerning the effects of CH intake on skin. To comprehensively study the different benefits of CH on skin, controlled clinical trials are needed in addition to the previous pre-clinical and bioavailability assays. Gaps in knowledge are identified and suggestions are made for future research. PMID:18784933

  7. Death by a thousand cuts: the challenges and diverse landscape of lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Zhang, Yaoping; Bates, Donna M.; Keating, David H.; Sato, Trey K.; Ong, Irene M.; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) inhibitors are a large class of bioactive molecules that arise from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation of plant biomass. These diverse compounds reduce lignocellulosic biofuel yields by inhibiting cellular processes and diverting energy into cellular responses. LCH inhibitors present one of the most significant challenges to efficient biofuel production by microbes. Development of new strains that lessen the effects of LCH inhibitors is an economically favorable strategy relative to expensive detoxification methods that also can reduce sugar content in deconstructed biomass. Systems biology analyses and metabolic modeling combined with directed evolution and synthetic biology are successful strategies for biocatalyst development, and methods that leverage state-of-the-art tools are needed to overcome inhibitors more completely. This perspective considers the energetic costs of LCH inhibitors and technologies that can be used to overcome their drain on conversion efficiency. We suggest academic and commercial research groups could benefit by sharing data on LCH inhibitors and implementing “translational biofuel research.” PMID:24672514

  8. Production of flavour-active methionol from methionine metabolism by yeasts in coconut cream.

    PubMed

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2010-10-15

    Yeasts Candida kefyr NCYC143, Candida utilis CUM, Kluyveromyces lactis KL71, Saccharomyces bayanus SB1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, Saccharomyces chevalieri CCICC1028, Candida famata (previously Torulopsis candida) CCICC1041 and Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus CBS254 were screened for their ability to produce flavour-active methionol (3-methylthio-1-propanol) in coconut cream supplemented with l-methionine. The yeasts varied with their ability to produce methionol from methionine with Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 producing the most, followed by Kluyveromyces lactis KL71. Little methionol was produced by the other yeasts. Methionol production by Kluyveromyces lactis KL71 was subjected to further studies under different conditions of initial pH (4.0-6.3), temperature (20-33 °C), l-methionine concentration (0.05-0.25%) and yeast extract concentration (0-0.50%); optimal conditions were established at pH 5.0, 33.0 °C, 0.15% l-methionine and 0.05% yeast extract. CharmAnalysis™ using SPME-GC-MS was conducted on the coconut cream ferment; methional (3-methylthio-1-propanal), methionol and 2-phenylethyl acetate were found to be the most potent aroma-active compounds. The product of coconut cream fermentation by Kluyveromyces lactis KL71 may be considered as a novel, plant-based, natural and complex flavoring bioingredient in food applications. PMID:20805008

  9. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  10. Two Novel Antioxidant Nonapeptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Skate (Raja porosa) Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the preparation conditions of neutrase hydrolysate (SMH) from skate (Raja porosa) muscle protein were optimized using orthogonal L9(3)4 tests, and R values indicated that pH was the most important factor affecting HO· scavenging activity of SMH. Under the optimum conditions of pH 7.0, enzymolysis temperature 60 °C, enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) 2%, and enzymolysis time 5 h, EC50 of SMH on HO· was 2.14 ± 0.17 mg/mL. Using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC, two novel antioxidant nonapeptides (SP-A and SP-B) were isolated from SMH and their amino acid sequences were found to be APPTAYAQS (SP-A) and NWDMEKIWD (SP-B) with calculated molecular masses of 904.98 Da and 1236.38 Da, respectively. Both showed strong antioxidant activities. SP-A and SP-B exhibited good scavenging activities on HO· (EC50 0.390 and 0.176 mg/mL), DPPH· (EC50 0.614 and 0.289 mg/mL), and O2?· (EC50 0.215 and 0.132 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. SP-B was also effective against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The aromatic (2Trp), acidic (2Asp and Glu), and basic (Lys) amino acid residues within the sequences of SP-B might account for its pronounced antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggested that protein hydrolysate and peptides from skate muscle might be effective as food additives for retarding lipid peroxidation occurring in foodstuffs. PMID:25854645

  11. Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Yeast Metabolism Lab Purpose: To determine the effects of different carbohydrates on the metabolism of live yeast. Background: Some organisms are capable of photosynthesis- using energy captured treatment (yeast+water, yeast+glucose, or yeast+sweetener) will produce the most carbon dioxide (CO2) from

  12. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 time more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  13. Morphology of a human-derived YAC in yeast meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Loidl; Harry Scherthan; Johan T. Den Dunnen; Franz Klein

    1995-01-01

    In meiosis of human males DNA is packaged along pachytene chromosomes about 20 times more compactly than in meiosis of yeast. Nevertheless, a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) shows the same degree of compaction of DNA as endogenous chromosomes in meiotic prophase nuclei of yeast. This suggests that in yeast meiosis, human and yeast DNA adopt a similar organization of

  14. The proteolytic system of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rendueles, P; Villa, L; Arbesú, M J; Escudero, B

    1991-06-15

    Proteinase and peptidase activities of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were investigated. Several intracellular proteolytic enzymes were found: two endoproteinases, one carboxypeptidase, one aminopeptidase and one dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase. In addition, proteinase inhibitors were detected. In fresh crude extracts an activation procedure is needed to measure maximal activities of endoproteinases and carboxypeptidase, whose level is markedly dependent on growth medium composition and on growth phase, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase activities are very little, if at all, regulated by the carbon source. PMID:1884996

  15. Improving energetics of triacylglyceride extraction from wet oleaginous microbes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Robert M; McCurdy, Alex T; Ogborn, Mariah K; Wahlen, Bradley D; Quinn, Jason C; Pease, Leonard F; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    Oleaginous microbes can upgrade carbon to lipids, which can be used as a feedstock to produce renewable replacements for petroleum-based compounds. Efficient extraction of lipids from oleaginous microbes typically involves dewatering and drying of the biomass. Problematically, drying often requires an amount of energy approaching that available from the cells. Here, we report an approach for the high efficiency extraction of triacylglycerides (TAG) from wet oleaginous microbes, bypassing the drying process. Solvent candidates for extraction of wet oleaginous biomass were identified using ASPEN's databases to determine an activity based selectivity coefficient. Optimal extraction conditions were determined which resulted in >91% extraction of TAG from yeast, bacteria, and microalgae. Experimental data was integrated into system models to evaluate the energetics of the processes compared to traditional extraction methods. The net energy ratio (NER) of a traditional dry solvent extraction is 0.84, whereas the approach presented here has a NER of 0.34 for yeast. PMID:25000397

  16. Production of malt extract and beer from Nigerian sorghum varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. C Odibo; L. N Nwankwo; R. C Agu

    2002-01-01

    Two sorghum varieties were studied with a view to producing wort and evaporated wort (extract), in the form that the extract could keep for a longer period and used for brewing when required. When mashed using commercial brewing enzymes, the sorghum samples produced sufficient sugars and amino acids required for yeast growth and alcohol production during fermentation. Fermentation studies showed

  17. Yeast ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  18. Architecture of a yeast U6 RNA gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Eschenlauer, J B; Kaiser, M W; Gerlach, V L; Brow, D A

    1993-01-01

    The promoters of vertebrate and yeast U6 small nuclear RNA genes are structurally dissimilar, although both are recognized by RNA polymerase III. Vertebrate U6 RNA genes have exclusively upstream promoters, while the U6 RNA gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SNR6) has internal and downstream promoter elements that match the tRNA gene intragenic A- and B-block elements, respectively. Substitution of the SNR6 A or B block greatly diminished U6 RNA accumulation in vivo, and a subcellular extract competent for RNA polymerase III transcription generated nearly identical DNase I protection patterns over the SNR6 downstream B block and a tRNA gene intragenic B block. We conclude that the SNR6 promoter is functionally similar to tRNA gene promoters, although the effects of extragenic deletion mutations suggest that the downstream location of the SNR6 B block imposes unique positional constraints on its function. Both vertebrate and yeast U6 RNA genes have an upstream TATA box element not normally found in tRNA genes. Substitution of the SNR6 TATA box altered the site of transcription initiation in vivo, while substitution of sequences further upstream had no effect on SNR6 transcription. We present a model for the SNR6 transcription complex that explains these results in terms of their effects on the binding of transcription initiation factor TFIIIB. Images PMID:8474459

  19. Characterization of the Yeast Transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor E. Velculescu; Lin Zhang; Wei Zhou; Jacob Vogelstein; Munira A. Basrai; Douglas E Bassett; Phil Hieter; Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the set of genes expressed from the yeast genome, herein called the transcriptome, using serial analysis of gene expression. Analysis of 60,633 transcripts revealed 4,665 genes, with expression levels ranging from 0.3 to over 200 transcripts per cell. Of these genes, 1981 had known functions, while 2684 were previously uncharacterized. The integration of positional information with gene

  20. Malassezia Baillon, emerging clinical yeasts.

    PubMed

    Batra, Roma; Boekhout, Teun; Guého, Eveline; Cabañes, F Javier; Dawson, Thomas L; Gupta, Aditya K

    2005-12-01

    The human and animal pathogenic yeast genus Malassezia has received considerable attention in recent years from dermatologists, other clinicians, veterinarians and mycologists. Some points highlighted in this review include recent advances in the technological developments related to detection, identification, and classification of Malassezia species. The clinical association of Malassezia species with a number of mammalian dermatological diseases including dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, psoriasis, folliculitis and otitis is also discussed. PMID:16084129