Note: This page contains sample records for the topic yeast extract hydrolysate from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...



40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...



40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement of a tolerance. This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food commodities when applied/used for the...



40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...



40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...



Comparison of Yeast Growth in Mesquite Wood Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Hot-water extracts of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) wood were assayed for their total carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and glucose content. These hydrolysates were then used as complete media for yeast growth. A total of 10 strains of yeasts were evaluated for their biomass production in the mesquite wood hydrolysates. Levels of utilizable carbohydrate proved to be the limiting factor for yeast growth in the hydrolysates.

Stanlake, Gary J.



Combination of yeast hydrolysates to improve CHO cell growth and IgG production.  


Many studies underlined the great benefits of hydrolysates used as additives in animal free media on cell culture performances. However, to precisely define hydrolysate supplementation strategies, a deeper understanding of their effect on cell growth and protein production is required. In the present study, the effect of addition of one yeast extract (YE) and two yeast peptones (named YP.A and YP.B) in a chemically defined medium was first assessed on cell culture performances. Interestingly, specific effects were found depending on the degree of degradation of yeast hydrolysates. The YE at 1g L(-1) increased the maximal cell density by 70%, while a mixture of YE (1g L(-1)) and YP.A (4g L(-1)) increased IgG production by 180%. These conditions were then evaluated on the CHO cell kinetics all over cultures. Hydrolysates extended the cell growth phase in Erlenmeyer flask and increased the maximal growth rate in bioreactor up to 20%. Cell growth stimulation induced by hydrolysates addition was linked with energetic metabolism improvement suggesting that they promote oxidative pathway. Furthermore, hydrolysates provided an additional source of substrate that supported cell growth despite glutamine limitation. PMID:23239488

Mosser, Mathilde; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Blanchard, Fabrice; Kapel, Romain; Oriol, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie



Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana



Biological detoxification of different hemicellulosic hydrolysates using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast.  


This work had as its main objective to contribute to the development of a biological detoxification of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from different biomass plants using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast. Tests with hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse in different concentrations were carried out to evaluate the influence of the hydrolysate concentration on the inhibitory compounds removal from the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, without reduction of sugar concentration. The highest reduction values of inhibitors concentration and less sugar losses were observed when the fivefold concentrated hydrolysate was treated by the evaluated yeast. In these experiments it was found that the high sugar concentrations favored lower sugar consumption by the yeast. The highest concentration reduction of syringaldehyde (66.67%), ferulic acid (73.33%), furfural (62%), and 5-HMF (85%) was observed when the concentrated hydrolysate was detoxified by using this yeast strain after 24 h of experimentation. The results obtained in this work showed the potential of the yeast Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 as detoxification agent of hemicellulosic hydrolysate of different biomass plants. PMID:20844925

Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Moutta, Rondinele de Oliveira; Ferraz, Flavio de Oliveira; Vieira, Emlio Rosa; Nogueira, Andrei Santini; Baratella, Bruno Fernandes; Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos; Hou-Rui, Zhang; da Silva, Slvio Silvrio



Evaluation of an adapted inhibitor-tolerant yeast strain for ethanol production from combined hydrolysate of softwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the potential of an adapted inhibitor-tolerant yeast strain developed in our lab to produce ethanol from softwood, the effect of furfural and HMF presented in defined medium and pretreatment hydrolysate on cell growth was investigated. And the efficiency of ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysate mixed with pretreatment hydrolysate of softwood by bisulfite and sulfuric acid pretreatment

Shen Tian; Junyong Zhu; Xiushan Yang



Yeast strains for ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates during in situ detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast strains Y1, Y4 and Y7 demonstrated high conversion efficiencies for sugars and high abilities to tolerate or metabolize inhibitors in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Strains Y1 and Y4 completely consumed the glucose within 24h in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysate during in situ detoxification, and the maximum ethanol yields reached 0.49g and 0.45g ethanol\\/g glucose, equivalent to maximum theoretical values of 96%

Shen Tian; Guixiong Zhou; Fei Yan; Yong Yu; Xiushan Yang



Protein concentrates from yeast cultured in wood hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida utilis NRRL Y-900 cells were cultured in glucose solutions generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Eucalyptus globulus wood. Yeast biomass was subjected to chemical treatments with NH4OH solutions in order to obtain protein concentrates with high nutritive value having low contents of nucleic acids and high digestibility. Under selected conditions, 95% of the initial nucleic acids were removed from

C. Alvarez



Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium  


This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)



Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial\\u000a growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement\\u000a means is economically impractical, and overcoming the inhibitory effects of lignocellulose hydrolysate poses a significant\\u000a technical challenge for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production. Development of tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains has\\u000a demonstrated the

Z. Lewis Liu



Extractive fermentation for enhanced gellan-hydrolysing enzyme production by Bacillus thuringiensis H14  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extractive fermentation process using PEG and potassium phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was developed for enhanced production of gellan-hydrolysing enzyme by Bacillus thuringiensis H14. Five different Bacillus sp. were tested for their ability to synthesize gellan-hydrolysing enzyme. Bacillus thuringiensis H14 was found to be the best organism for gellan-hydrolysing enzyme production. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH

R. M. Banik; A. Santhiagu



Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain.  


The production of fuel ethanol from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre-treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real-world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined their toxicological effect on yeast. By correlating the potential inhibitor abundance to the growth-inhibiting properties of the corresponding hydrolysates, we identified furfural as an important contributor to hydrolysate toxicity for yeast. Subsequently, we conducted a targeted evolution experiment to improve growth behaviour of the half industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3400 in the hydrolysates. After about 300 generations, representative clones from these evolved populations exhibited significantly reduced lag phases in medium containing the single inhibitor furfural, but also in hydrolysate-supplemented medium. Furthermore, these strains were able to grow at concentrations of hydrolysates that effectively killed the parental strain and exhibited significantly improved bioconversion characteristics under industrially relevant conditions. The improved resistance of our evolved strains was based on their capacity to remain viable in a toxic environment during the prolonged, furfural induced lag phase. PMID:21261870

Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe



Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.  


This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin



Citric acid production from Aspergillus niger MT-4 using hydrolysate extract of the insect Locusta migratoria.  


Citric acid (CA) is the most important organic acid used in the food and other industries. Locusta migratoria is an insect species, which has rich nutritional composition (especially protein) and cultivated in some countries. Therefore, the present study investigated the usability of hydrolysate extract of L. migratoria biomass as substrate for the production of CA from Aspergillus niger MT-4. The insect extract (IE) was found to be rich in ash (34.9g/100g), protein (35.6g/100g) and mineral contents. Yeast extract was found to be the most favorable substrate for biomass production, whereas the maximum production of CA (41.8g/L) was achieved in the medium containing IE. Besides, uniform pellets with the smallest size (4mm) were observed in IE medium. It was thought that rich magnesium (6.78g/100g) and manganese (1.14g/100g) contents of IE increased the production of CA, resulting in the formation of small uniform pellets. This is the first report on the effect of protein-rich insect biomasses on the production of CA. In this regard, L. migratoria biomass was tested for the first time as a CA-production substrate. PMID:22323475

Taskin, Mesut; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Incekara, Umit



Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.  


Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. PMID:22528299

Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maa; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J



Ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates with yeast cells immobilized on corn stalk.  


The aim of the present study was to examine ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using whole cells of S. cerevisiae immobilized on corn stalks. In order to improve cell immobilization efficiency, biological modification of the carrier was carried out by cellulase hydrolysis. The results show that proper modification of the carrier with cellulase hydrolysis was suitable for cell immobilization. The mechanism proposed, cellulase hydrolysis, not only increased the immobilized cell concentration, but also disrupted the sleek surface to become rough and porous, which enhanced ethanol production. In batch fermentation with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 202.64 1.86 g/l, an optimal ethanol concentration of 87.91 1.98 g/l was obtained using a modified corn stalk-immobilized cell system. The ethanol concentration produced by the immobilized cells was 6.9% higher than that produced by the free cells. Ethanol production in the 14th cycle repeated batch fermentation demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized yeast cells. Under continuous fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor, the maximum ethanol concentration of 84.85 g/l, and the highest ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g (of reducing sugar) were achieved at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.10 h, whereas the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 43.54 g/l/h was observed at a HRT of 1.55 h. PMID:22395912

Yan, Shoubao; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao



Development of a yeast strain for xylitol production without hydrolysate detoxification as part of the integration of co-product generation within the lignocellulosic ethanol process.  


The present study verified an applicable technology of xylitol bioconversion as part of the integration of co-product generation within second-generation bioethanol processes. A newly isolated yeast strain, Candida tropicalis JH030, was shown to have a capacity for xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate without detoxification. The yeast gives a promising xylitol yield of 0.71 g(p) g(s)(-1) from non-detoxified rice straw hydrolysate that had been prepared by the dilute acid pretreatment under severe conditions. The yeast's capacity was also found to be practicable with various other raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, silvergrass, napiergrass and pineapple peel. The lack of a need to hydrolysate detoxification enhances the potential of this newly isolated yeast for xylitol production and this, in turn, has the capacity to improve economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:21095119

Huang, Chiung-Fang; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song



Novel strategies to improve co-fermentation of pentoses with D-glucose by recombinant yeast strains in lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Economically feasible production of second-generation biofuels requires efficient co-fermentation of pentose and hexose sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates under very harsh conditions. Bakers yeast is an excellent, traditionally used ethanol producer but is naturally not able to utilize pentoses. This is due to the lack of pentose-specific transporter proteins and enzymatic reactions. Thus, natural yeast strains must be modified by genetic engineering. Although the construction of various recombinant yeast strains able to ferment pentose sugars has been described during the last two decades, their rates of pentose utilization is still significantly lower than D-glucose fermentation. Moreover, pentoses are only fermented after D-glucose is exhausted, resulting in an uneconomical increase in the fermentation time. In this addendum, we discuss novel approaches to improve utilization of pentoses by development of specific transporters and substrate channeling in enzyme cascades.

Oreb, Mislav; Dietz, Heiko; Farwick, Alexander; Boles, Eckhard



Fed-batch production of baker's yeast using millet ( Pennisetum typhoides ) flour hydrolysate as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fermentation medium based on millet (Pennisetum typhoides) flour hydrolysate and a four-phase feeding strategy for fed-batch production of baker's yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are presented. Millet flour was prepared by dry-milling and sieving of whole grain. A 25% (w\\/v) flour mash was liquefied with a thermostable 1,4-a-d-glucanohydrolase (EC in the presence of 100 ppm Ca2+, at 80C, pH 6.16.3, for

A O Ejiofor; Y Chisti; M Moo-Young



BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) (MEAYM). January 2001. ... M182 Malt Extract Agar for Yeasts and Molds (MEAYM). ... More results from


BAM Media M151: Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M151: Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract Broth (TPGY). ... M151 Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract Broth (TPGY). ... More results from


21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...



21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...



Optimization of the Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Rapeseed Oil and Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aqueous enzymatic extraction method was developed to obtain free oil and protein hydrolysates from dehulled rapeseeds.\\u000a The rapeseed slurry was treated by the chosen combination of pectinase, cellulase, and ?-glucanase (4:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) at concentration\\u000a of 2.5% (v\\/w) for 4h. This was followed by sequential treatments consisting of alkaline extraction and an alkaline protease\\u000a (Alcalase2.4L) hydrolysis to both produce a

Shao Bing Zhang; Zhang Wang; Shi Ying Xu



Xylitol Production from Corn Cobs Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate by Candida tropicalis Immobilized Cells in Hydrogel Copolymer Carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of five yeast strains (locally isolated) to ferment xylose to xylitol were screened using a corn cobs hydrolysate. Candida tropicalis proved to be the best producer. The effects of culture conditions, namely initial pH, nitrogen source and yeast extract concentration on xylitol production were evaluated. The conditions for batch production of xylitol, using C. tropicalis immobilized growing yeast



Evaluation of Zymomonas-based ethanol production from a hydrolysed waste starch stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual starch from flour wet milling, supplemented with crushed wheat grains, was hydrolysed and evaluated for ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 and an industrial ethanol-producing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The feasibility of replacing yeast extract with ammonium sulphate or corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in the hydrolysed waste starch (HWS) media was confirmed. With glucose concentrations of

Linda Davis; Peter Rogers; John Pearce; Paul Peiris



Contribution to the Study of the Fermentation of Cellulose Hydrolysates by Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast phyla have been selected for the cellobiose and soluble cellodextrins fermentation. A study of the glucosidase of the Torulopsis Molischiana phylum is presented. Torulopsis M. glucosidase is exocellular with a glycoproteinic nature and its activity ...

P. Gonde



Separation and determination of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers and their hydrolysates in the flaxseed extract by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaxseed contains the largest amount of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) oligomers and is the richest dietary source of SDG. SDG oligomers in the flaxseed extract are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The hydrolysates of SDG oligomers are complicated because of the production of

Xin Li; Jian-Ping Yuan; Shi-Ping Xu; Jiang-Hai Wang; Xin Liu



Extremely Rapid Extraction of DNA from Bacteria and Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple and rapid method for extracting genomic DNA from Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts is presented. In this method, bacteria or yeasts are lysed directly by phenol and the supernatant is extracted with chloroform to remove traces of phenol. The supernatant contains DNA that is suitable for molecular analyses, such as PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and genomic

Hai-Rong Cheng; Ning Jiang



Yeast hydrolysate protects cartilage via stimulation of type II collagen synthesis and suppression of MMP-13 production.  


Type II collagen (COL II) is one of the primary components of hyaline cartilage and plays a key role in maintaining chondrocyte function. COL II is the principal target of destruction, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have a major role in arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the chondroctye protection effects of specific fraction of yeast hydrolysate ((10-30?kDa molecular weight peptides). The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly increased in the YH-treated group compared to the control at concentrations above 50?g/ml, respectively. The 200?g/ml YH-treated group (3.43??0.23?g/ml) showed significantly reduced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation relative to that in the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-treated control group (4.72??0.05?g/ml). In the YH-treated group, MMP-13 level was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the IL-1?-treated group without YH treatment. However, MMP-1 and MMP-3 level were not different from that of control. Under the same conditions, we also examined mRNA levels of COL II. The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly higher in the YH-treated group than in the IL-1?-treated control group at concentrations above 100?g/ml. In conclusion, YH stimulated COL II synthesis and significantly inhibited MMP-13 and GAG degradation caused by IL-1? treatment. PMID:23070893

Lee, Hyun-Sun; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yooheon; Bae, Song Hwan; Suh, Hyung Joo



Oil production by the yeast Trichosporon dermatis cultured in enzymatic hydrolysates of corncobs.  


Corncob was hydrolyzed with Trichoderma reesei cellulase and used as substrate for growth by the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis without detoxification or addition of a nitrogen source or trace elements. A total biomass of 24.4g/L with a lipid content of 40.1% (corresponding to a lipid yield of 9.8g/L), and a high lipid coefficient (lipid yield per mass of sugar, %g/g) of 16.7 could be achieved after cultivation for 7days. Therefore, T. dermatis is a promising strain for microbial oil production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:22366612

Huang, Chao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-de; Ma, Long-Long



Spray Drying of Extracts from Red Yeast Fermentation Broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red yeast rice is a pigmented material that is traditionally used in Asia as a food colorant. In addition to food applications, red yeast rice is known in traditional Chinese medicine for its therapeutic actions. The aim of this work was to study the quality interactions during spray drying of extracts from the Monascus ruber van Tiegham fermentation broth. The

C. C. C. Teixeira; G. A. Teixeira; L. A. P. Freitas



Utilisation of spent brewer's yeast for yeast extract production by autolysis: The effect of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, autolysis was induced by incubating cell suspensions of spent brewer's yeast at elevated temperatures of 45, 50, 55 and 60C with a reaction time ranging from 8 to 72h. Contents and yields of solid, ?-amino nitrogen, protein and carbohydrate were determined. It can be said that optimum temperature and time for the production of yeast extract was

Hasan Tanguler; Huseyin Erten



The Effect of Different Temperatures on Autolysis of Baker's Yeast for the Production of Yeast Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the optimum autolysis conditions for the production of yeast extract, which is used to give a meaty flavor to food products and to increase their nutritional value. Autolysis was induced by incubating baker's yeast cell suspensions at different temperatures (45, 50, 55, and 60 C) with a reaction time ranging from 8 to 72 h.



21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of...



Inhibition of Spoiling Yeasts of Fruit Juices through Citrus Extracts.  


This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena



Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang



Immunoblotting histones from yeast whole-cell protein extracts.  


Histones are small basic proteins that are core components of chromatin. As such, they are essential for cell viability and genomic stability and their levels are tightly controlled. In addition, histone tails are subject to extensive posttranslational modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, that play critical roles in many cellular processes. To quickly screen for alterations in histone levels and/or their modifications in yeast mutants under different growth conditions, we present a fast and reliable protocol for whole-cell protein extract preparation and immunoblotting. PMID:23818662

Rossmann, Marlies P; Stillman, Bruce



Systematic identification of yeast proteins extracted into model wine during aging on the yeast lees.  


Total protein and protein-associated mannan concentrations were measured, and individual proteins were identified during extraction into model wines over 9 months of aging on the yeast lees following completion of fermentations by seven wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In aged wines, protein-associated mannan increased about 6-fold (+/-66%), while total protein only increased 2-fold (+/-20%), which resulted in a significantly greater protein-associated mannan/total protein ratio for three strains. A total of 219 proteins were identified among all wine samples taken over the entire time course. Of the 17 "long-lived" proteins detected in all 9 month samples, 13 were cell wall mannoproteins, and four were glycolytic enzymes. Most cytosolic proteins were not detected after 6 months. Native mannosylated yeast invertase was assayed for binding to wine tannin and was found to have a 10-fold lower affinity than nonglycosylated bovine serum albumin. Enrichment of mannoproteins in the aged model wines implies greater solution stability than other yeast proteins and the possibility that their contributions to wine quality may persist long after bottling. PMID:20108898

Rowe, Jeffrey D; Harbertson, James F; Osborne, James P; Freitag, Michael; Lim, Juyun; Bakalinsky, Alan T



Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48 C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze



Quantitative evaluation of intracellular metabolite extraction techniques for yeast metabolomics.  


Accurate determination of intracellular metabolite levels requires well-validated procedures for sampling and sample treatment. Several methods exist for metabolite extraction, but the literature is contradictory regarding the adequacy and performance of each technique. Using a strictly quantitative approach, we have re-evaluated five methods (hot water, HW; boiling ethanol, BE; chloroform-methanol, CM; freezing-thawing in methanol, FTM; acidic acetonitrile-methanol, AANM) for the extraction of 44 intracellular metabolites (phosphorylated intermediates, amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides) from S. cerevisiae cells. Two culture modes were investigated (batch and chemostat) to check for growth condition dependency, and three targeted platforms were employed (two LC-MS and one GC/MS) to exclude analytical bias. Additionally, for the determination of metabolite recoveries, we applied a novel approach based on addition of (13)C-labeled internal standards at different stages of sample processing. We found that the choice of extraction method can drastically affect measured metabolite levels, to an extent that for some metabolites even the direction of changes between growth conditions can be inverted. The best performances, in terms of efficacy and metabolite recoveries, were achieved with BE and CM, which yielded nearly identical levels for the metabolites analyzed. According to our results, AANM performs poorly in yeast and FTM cannot be considered adequate as an extraction method, as it does not ensure inactivation of enzymatic activity. PMID:19653633

Canelas, Andr B; ten Pierick, Angela; Ras, Cor; Seifar, Reza M; van Dam, Jan C; van Gulik, Walter M; Heijnen, Joseph J



Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole

Mnica Herrero; Luis A. Garca; Mario Daz



Production and rheological properties of a succinoglycan from Pseudomonas sp. 31260 grown on wood hydrolysates.  


Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31260 produced substantial amounts of anionic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a mineral acid hydrolysate of wood, prepared using the "Tennessee Valley Authority" process. Partially purified EPS production approached 16.5 g/L (as hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitate) when the pH of the hydrolysate was initially adjusted to 7.5 and amended with 0.05% each of peptone and yeast extract. This EPS, now characterized as a succinoglycan, is composed of glucose, galactose, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate. Solutions of this EPS are pseudoplastic, and under specified conditions, are rheologically comparable with commercially available xanthan. PMID:8542556

Meade, M J; Tanenbaum, S W; Nakas, J P



Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids.  


The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dich!orobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623396

Armenante, P M; Fava, F; Kafkewitz, D



Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded.

Armenante, P.M. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science; Fava, F. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science; Kafkewitz, D. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences



Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with\\u000a the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools.\\u000a Both phosphate and yeast extract

Clarice M. A. Chagas; Talita L. Honorato; Gustavo A. S. Pinto; Geraldo A. Maia; Sueli Rodrigues



Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to evaluate the fermentability of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane\\u000a bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing using Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast. The inoculum was obtained from yeast culture in a medium containing glucose as a carbon source supplemented\\u000a with rice bran extract, CaCl22H2O and (NH4)2SO4 in 50mL Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 20mL of medium, initial

Vincius F. N. Silva; Priscila V. Arruda; Maria G. A. Felipe; Adilson R. Gonalves; George J. M. Rocha



Ethanol production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production was evaluated from wheat straw (WS) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate using an adapted and parent strain of Pichiastipitis. NRRL Y-7124. The treatment by boiling and overliming with Ca(OH)2 significantly improved the fermentability of the hydrolysate. Ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) and productivity (Qp av) were increased 2.40.10 and 5.70.24 folds, respectively, compared to neutralized hydrolysate. Adaptation of the yeast to the

J. N Nigam



Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata

S. Weckesser; K. Engel; B. Simon-Haarhaus; A. Wittmer; K. Pelz; C. M. Schempp



Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber  

PubMed Central

Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5days, at 28C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nanomembranes (Millipore YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed deposits of organic matter in the junction of the cuticles that probably collaborates to the sealing of the cuticles, increasing the brightness and softness. Conclusions These results show that the enzymatic method to produce keratin peptides for hair care products is an attractive and eco- friendly method with a great potential in the cosmetic industry.



In vitro and in vivo satietogenic effect of yeast extracts and control of food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extracts, by their nutritional characteristics, have a high potential as a source of biologically active molecules and\\u000a functional food ingredients. In this work, in vitro and in vivo satietogenic effect of yeast extracts was examined. The in\\u000a vitro results obtained for the first time showed that a yeast extract strongly stimulated the secretion of cholecystokinin\\u000a (CCK) from endocrine STC-1

Lucie Catiau; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Didier Guillochon; Rozenn Ravallec


Defensive and secondary metabolism in Astragalus chrysochlorus cell cultures, in response to yeast extract stressor.  


In this study it was aimed to investigate inducibility of secondary metabolism in Astragalus chrysochlorus by yeast extract which is known to cause the synthesis of defensive phenolic metabolites. Cell suspension cultures of Astragalus chrysochlorus responded to elicitor treatment (10 gl(-1) yeast extract) by increasing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL E.C. activity the key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Yeast extract was added on 13th day in the cultures when cells were at early stage of logarithmic phase. The highest PAL activity (2.71 U microg protein(-1) min(-1)) was measured at 36 hr after addition of yeast extract and increasing of total phenolics accompanied with 221 microg g(-1) value as fresh weight (FW). Total phenolic content reached maximum value, 343.86 microg g(-1) FW, at 48 hr while control's value was 162 microg g(-1) FW. Maximum PAL activity and total phenolic content were 2.88 and 2.12 times higher than the controls of A. chrysochlorus cells, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a positive correlation between induced PAL activity and accumulation of total phenolics. It is considered that early defense response given to environmental stressors such as biotic and abiotic factors by upregulation of phenolic branch of secondary metabolism occurs in A. chrysochlorus with addition of yeast extract. PMID:20112863

Cakir, Ozgur; Ari, Sule



Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks.2.?White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000?mg\\/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added;

E. Gurbuz; T. Balevi; V. Kurtoglu; Y. Oznurlu



Growth promoting substance in yeast extract for methylotrophic growth of Candida boidinii.  


A growth-promoting substance (GPS) for methylotrophic yeasts was purified from yeast extract. The purified GPS showed growth promotion by reducing the lag time of the growth of methylotrophic Candida boidinii, while the growth rate at the exponential phase was the same as that of growth without GPS. GPS was finally identified to be L-proline by the criteria of instrumental analysis and chemical shift assignments. PMID:16926518

Adachi, Osao; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Toyama, Hirohide; Matsushita, Kazunobu



Yeast Extract Stimulates Glucose Metabolism and Inhibits Lipolysis in Rat Adipocytes in Vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods contain bioactive components that contribute to optimal health. Food-grade yeast may contain components that enhance cellular glucose metabolism. We tested the effect of brewer's yeast (Saccha- romyces cerevisiae) extract (YE), in vitro on rat fat cell glucose transport, glucose metabolism to lipid, and lipolysis. YE was fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography on a C18 open column using ammonium acetate (0.05

Neile K. Edens; Lisa A. Reaves; Marti S. Bergana; Irene L. Reyzer; Patrick O'Mara; Jeffrey H. Baxter; Maureen K. Snowden


21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...



21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...



21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...



Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas



Chromatin Assembly in a Yeast Whole-Cell Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.



Polypeptide nature of growth requirement in yeast extract for Thermoplasma acidophilum.  

PubMed Central

The active component(s) in yeast extract required by Thermoplasma acidophilum for growth is polypeptide in nature. A fraction from yeast extract was isolated and partially characterized as one or more peptides of molecular weight about 1,000 containing 8 to 10 amino acids. Although it was composed largely of basic and dicarboxylic amino acids, only one amino group per molecule was free. The polypeptide(s) appeared to bind avidly to cations. No other organic compounds except glucose were needed by Thermoplasma. Among several hundred known compounds tested, only glutathione plus Fe2+ or Fe3+, clostridial ferredoxin, and spinach ferredoxin elicited any growth response.

Smith, P F; Langworthy, T A; Smith, M R



Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey po...


Enzyme-assisted extraction of lipids directly from the culture of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.  


Lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms are a potential feedstock for biodiesel production and chemical synthesis. Yet, the costs of microbial lipids remain high, partially because the lipid recovery process is tedious and costly. In the present study, enzyme-assisted extraction of lipids from the culture of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was carried out. With a heat pre-treatment with microwave, enzymatic treatment with the recombinant ?-1,3-glucomannanase, plMAN5C, and extraction with ethyl acetate, 96.6% of the total lipids were extracted from R. toruloides cells at room temperature and atmospheric pressure directly from the culture without dewatering. Therefore, this process could significantly reduce energy consumption and costs for lipids extraction from the yeast. PMID:22361072

Jin, Guojie; Yang, Fan; Hu, Cuimin; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K



Properties of anaerobic granular sludge as affected by yeast extract, cobalt and iron supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of yeast extract (YE), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) on anaerobic bacterial granules grown in eight laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors was investigated using a factorial design. The experiment was performed in three periods in which different chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates were applied to the reactors. The COD digestion rate and the specific activity of

Chun Fang Shen; Naim Kosaric; Roman Blaszczyk



Extracting Regulatory Sites from the Upstream Region of Yeast Genes by Computational Analysis of Oligonucleotide Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a simple and fast method allowing the isolation of DNA binding sites for transcription factors from families of coregulated genes, with results illustrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although conceptually simple, the algorithm proved efficient for extracting, from most of the yeast regulatory families analyzed, the upstream regulatory sequences which had been previously found by experimental analysis. Furthermore, putative

J. van Helden; B. Andre; J. Collado-Vides




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...


A rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from yeasts and fungi isolated from Agave fourcroydes.  


A simple and easy protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different yeast and filamentous fungal species is described. This method involves two important steps: first, the disruption of cell walls by mechanical means and freezing; and second, the extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The absorbance ratios (A(260)/A(280)) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. The main objective of this procedure is to extract pure DNA from yeast and filamentous fungi, including those with high contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. The yield and quality of the DNAs obtained were suitable for micro/minisatellite primer-polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting as well as for the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA. PMID:16691008

Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Lappe, Patricia; Ulloa, Miguel; Quijano-Ramayo, Andrs; Cceres-Farfn, Mirbella; Larqu-Saavedra, Alfonso; Perez-Brito, Daisy



A DNA extraction and purification method for several yeast genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity and other branches of biological research require rapid and inex- pensive methods to extract and purify DNA, able to process several samples simultaneous- ly, thus allowing an extensive approach to the molecular study of diversity in nature. One problem is the necessity of choosing between rapid methods able to produce relatively crude products or time-consuming procedure yielding nucleic acids




Inhibition of Candida albicans yeast-hyphal transition and biofilm formation by Solidago virgaurea water extracts.  


Xerostomia is a decrease of saliva secretion, which can unbalance the oral microflora, mainly to the benefit of Candida albicans. The aim of the present study was to find a plant extract that could create an unfavourable environment for Candida, and would, therefore, be appropriate for use in a dry-mouth daily-care mouthwash. Water extract from the herbaceous plant Solidago virgaurea (Goldenrod) was selected due to its saponin content (plant detergents). Saponin concentrations reached 0.7 and 0.95 mg ml(-1) in S. virgaurea subsp. virgaurea and S. virgaurea subsp. alpestris extracts, respectively. C. albicans was grown in liquid medium and cells were counted by microscopic examination after 0, 4 and 24 h of incubation. Solidago extracts did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans (four strains), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius or Enterococcus faecalis. When inocula were incubated with Solidago extract for 4 and 24 h, we observed a decrease in Candida yeast-hyphal transition. Candida biofilms were then prepared in microtitre plates and treated with plant extracts at 0 h, to estimate biofilm formation, or at 18 h to estimate the effect of the saponin on pre-formed biofilms. Biofilm formation and pre-formed biofilms were both strongly inhibited. In conclusion, the S. virgaurea extract was efficient against two key virulence factors of C. albicans: the yeast-hyphal transition phase and biofilm formation. PMID:22422572

Chevalier, Marlne; Medioni, Etienne; Prcheur, Isabelle



Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing.  


This work aims to evaluate the fermentability of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing using Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast. The inoculum was obtained from yeast culture in a medium containing glucose as a carbon source supplemented with rice bran extract, CaCl(2)2H(2)O and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) in 50mL Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 20mL of medium, initial 5.5 pH under agitation of an orbital shaker (200rpm) at 30C for 24h. The cellulosic hydrolysates, prior to being used as a fermentation medium, were autoclaved for 15min at 0.5atm and supplemented with the same nutrients employed for the inoculum, except the glucose, using the same conditions for the inoculum, but with a period of 48h. Preliminary results showed the highest consumption of glucose (97%) for all the hydrolysates, at 28h of fermentation. The highest concentration of ethanol (20.5g/L) was found in the procedure of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing (195C/10min in 20L reactor) and delignificated with NaOH 1.0% (w/v), 100C, 1h in 500mL stainless steel ampoules immersed in an oil bath. PMID:20740373

Silva, Vincius F N; Arruda, Priscila V; Felipe, Maria G A; Gonalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M



Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.  


Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture. PMID:23196255

Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond



Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg\\/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the

Piero M. Armenante; Fabio Fava; David Kafkewitz



Induction of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures by yeast extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient increase in rosmarinic acid (RA) content in cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was observed after addition of yeast extract (YE) to the suspension cultures, reaching a maximum at 24 hr. The highest increase of the RA content (2.5-fold) was obtained when 6-day-old cells in the exponential growth phase were treated with YE. Preceding the induced RA accumulation, phenylalanine

Hajime Mizukami; Terumi Ogawa; Hiromu Ohashi; Brian E. Ellis



Coupling of killer virus transcription with translation in yeast cell-free extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmically inherited killer virus of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae expresses its dsRNA genome via apparently uncapped viral transcripts produced in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Virions of this naturally temperature-sensitive virus can be added to cell-free translational extracts of uninfected yeast cells resulting in a reaction in which viral transcription and transla- tion are coupled at 15 C in vitro.

Francis P. Barbone; Michael J. Leibowitz



Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.



Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.  


Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat



Irreversible Metabolic Transitions: The Glucose 6Phosphate Metabolism in Yeast Cell-Free Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state and dynamic behavior of a partial glycolytic reaction sequence are investigated in cell-free extracts of yeast. Pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase cooperate to a multienzyme system centered around the 6-phosphofructokinase (6-PFK) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) cycle. The reaction system operates under thermodynamically open conditions maintained by a continuous supply of substrates, i.e., glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P),

Marie-Agns Coevoet; Jean-Franois Hervagault



Construction and Characterization of Cellulolytic Yeasts,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in many biotechnical processes where plant raw material is utilized. However, S. cerevisiae cannot hydrolyse cellulose, the major renewable resource on earth. The successful construction of cellulolytic yeast str...

M. Penttilae



Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol  

PubMed Central

Chlorhexidine (Cx) augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (?-cd) inclusion compounds, termed Cx:?-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:?-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a.) was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 ?g/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:?-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:?-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing ?-cd concentrations (1.71 103; 1.4 103; 3.45 103, and 3.74 103 CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:?-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of ?-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:?-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:?-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding.

Teixeira, K. I. R.; Araujo, P. V.; Sinisterra, R. D.; Cortes, M. E.



Insect cuticle and yeast extract effects on germination, growth, and production of hydrolytic enzymes by Nomuraea rileyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval cuticle ofHelicoverpa (Heliothis)zea and yeast extract added to a minimal medium (MM) induced germination of conidia ofNomuraea rileyi whereas sterile distilled water or MM alone did not. Yeast extract increased mycelial yield, but when cuticle was added, mycelial yield significantly decreased. Proteases and chitinases ofN. rileyi were only expressed when cuticle was added to the MM.

G. N. El-Sayed; C. M. Ignoffo; T. D. Leathers; S. C. Gupta



Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min



Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate.  


Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects of seven selected vitamins: d-biotin, pyridoxine, p-aminobenzoic acid, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pantothenic acid, and riboflavin, on cell growth and lactic acid production were investigated to provide the basis for the optimization of vitamin supplementation to minimize the cost. Pantothenic acid was the most required compound while the other six vitamins were also essential for high lactic acid productivity. As a result of the optimization, 15 g/l yeast extract could be successfully replaced with 19.3 g/l Soytone supplemented with the vitamins, resulting in a production of 125 g/l lactic acid from 150 g/l glucose. The volumetric productivity and lactate yield were 2.27 g/l/h and 92%, respectively, which were higher than those with 15 g/l yeast extract. The raw material cost was estimated to be 21.4 cent/kg lactic acid, which was only approximately 41% of that with yeast extract. PMID:10689079

Kwon; Lee; Lee; Keun Chang Y; Chang



Improvement of functional properties of cod frame protein hydrolysates using ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymic hydrolysis was applied for the efficient recovery of the protein sources from the fish processing by-product, cod frame. The enzyme used for the hydrolysis was crude proteinase extracted from tuna pyloric caeca. The resultant hydrolysate, cod frame protein hydrolysate (CFPH), was separated based on the molecular weight of the peptides in the hydrolysate and several functional properties were examined,

You-Jin Jeon; Hee-Guk Byun; Se-Kwon Kim



High chromium yeast supplementation improves glucose tolerance in pigs by decreasing hepatic extraction of insulin.  


Twenty Landrace x Yorkshire cross pigs (body wt, 47.9+/-2.9 kg) were used to evaluate effects of dietary high chromium (Cr) yeast supplementation on plasma kinetics of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Pigs were provided free access to either a control diet (C) containing 204 microg Cr/kg or a diet supplemented with an additional 200 microg Cr/kg as high Cr yeast (CR) for between 23 and 30 d. After overnight food deprivation, dextrose (500 g/L) was infused through a jugular vein catheter at a dose of 0.5 g glucose/kg body weight with an infusion rate of 10 g glucose/min within 6 min. High Cr yeast supplementation did not affect body weight gain or food intake. There were no differences in fasting plasma concentrations of either glucose or C-peptide, although basal plasma concentration of insulin tended to be higher in pigs fed CR (P<0.10). Plasma glucose concentrations were lower (P<0.01) at postinfusion times 5, 10, 15 and 20 min in pigs fed CR. Plasma insulin concentrations in pigs fed CR were higher (P<0.05) at 2 and 0 min before the completion of dextrose infusion. However, the increase in plasma insulin concentrations was not accompanied by a comparable elevation in plasma C-peptide concentrations. The 30-min (postinfusion) area of plasma glucose concentrations tended to be lower (P<0.10) in pigs fed CR, but there were no differences in 30-min areas of either plasma insulin or plasma C-peptide concentrations between treatments. Plasma clearance rates of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were higher and their half-lives shorter (P<0.05) in pigs fed CR. In conclusion, dietary high Cr yeast supplementation improved glucose tolerance, possibly through a decrease in hepatic extraction of insulin. PMID:10801929

Guan, X; Matte, J J; Ku, P K; Snow, J L; Burton, J L; Trottier, N L



Flavins contained in yeast extract are exploited for anodic electron transfer by Lactococcus lactis.  


Cyclic voltammograms of yeast extract-containing medium exhibit a clear redox peak around -0.4V vs. Ag|AgCl. Fermentative bacterium Lactococcus lactis was hereby shown to exploit this redox compound for extracellular electron transfer towards a graphite anode using glucose as an electron donor. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that this may be a flavin-type compound. The ability of L. lactis to exploit exogenous flavins for anodic glucose oxidation was confirmed by tests where flavin-type compounds were supplied to the bacterium in well defined media. Based on its mid-point potential, riboflavin can be regarded as a near-optimal mediator for microbially catalyzed anodic electron transfer. Riboflavin derivative flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was also exploited by L. lactis as a redox shuttle, unlike flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), possibly due to the absence of a specific transporter for the latter. The use of yeast extract in microbial fuel cell media is herein discouraged based on the related unwanted artificial addition of redox mediators which may distort experimental results. PMID:19717350

Masuda, Masaki; Freguia, Stefano; Wang, Yung-Fu; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji



Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.  


Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4?-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3?-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound. PMID:21706170

Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie



[Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].  


Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed. PMID:16886437

Krajewska-Ku?ak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W



Overcoming inhibitors in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate: improving fermentability by feedstock detoxification and adaptation of Pichia stipitis.  


In order to improve the fermentative efficiency of sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production, various methods to mitigate the effects of inhibitory compounds were employed. These methods included detoxification treatments utilizing activated charcoal, anion exchange resin, overliming, and ethyl acetate extraction. Results demonstrated the greatest fermentative improvement of 50% wood hydrolysate (v/v) by Pichia stipitis with activated charcoal treatment. Another method employed to reduce inhibition was an adaptation procedure to produce P. stipitis stains more tolerant of inhibitory compounds. This adaptation resulted in yeast variants capable of improved fermentation of 75% untreated wood hydrolysate (v/v), one of which produced 9.8g/l0.6 ethanol, whereas the parent strain produced 0.0g/l0.0 within the first 24h. Adapted strains RS01, RS02, and RS03 were analyzed for glucose and xylose utilization and results demonstrated increased glucose and decreased xylose utilization rates in comparison to the wild type. These changes in carbohydrate utilization may be indicative of detoxification or tolerance activities related to proteins involved in glucose and xylose metabolism. PMID:21614610

Stoutenburg, Rosanna M; Perrotta, Joseph A; Nakas, James P



Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole) proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels,

Anssi H Manninen; Manninen Nutraceuticals Oy



Effectiveness of modified yeast cell wall extracts to reduce aflatoxin B1 absorption in dairy ewes.  


This study investigated the effect of a modified yeast cell wall extract preparation (YCW) on the excretion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in feces, urine, and milk of dairy ewes fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Sixteen ewes in mid-lactation were assigned to 4 treatment groups: control, AF (60 ?g of AFB1/kg of feed), YCW (2 g/kg of feed), and AF+YCW. The trial consisted of a short-term (3-d) exposure period followed by a long-term (21-d) exposure period. At the end of each exposure period, milk, urine, and feces were collected over 72 h. The treatments did not affect feed intake, milk production, milk composition, or body weight. The presence of AFM1 was detected in all matrices, whereas AFB1 was only present in feces. Daily excretion was higher following long-term exposure and reached 26.9 ?g of AFB1/d in feces, 37.2 ?g of AFM1/d in feces, and 10.7 ?g of AFM1/d in urine. Supplementation with YCW was effective in increasing aflatoxin excretion in feces in the long-term exposure (up to 156% increase). The effect was accompanied by a trend of decreasing urinary excretion of AFM1. In contrast, the addition of YCW to the contaminated diet did not affect the transfer of aflatoxins from feed to milk under the present experimental conditions with low-producing ewes. The transfer rates of AFM1 in milk ranged from 0.24 to 0.54%. In conclusion, feed supplementation with YCW reduced the absorption of AFB1 and increased the elimination of AFB1 and AFM1 in ewe feces. Yeast cell wall extract could be used to protect ruminants from chronic exposure to aflatoxins present in feeds. PMID:22032384

Firmin, S; Morgavi, D P; Yiannikouris, A; Boudra, H



Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.  


This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000?mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500?mg/kg YE?+?500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60?d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW?+?YE groups during the 60?d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60?d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE?+?YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60?d growing period. PMID:22029790

Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y



Statistical optimization of xylitol production from corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Candida tropicalis HDY-02.  


The statistical experimental designs were adopted to optimize the culture medium in xylitol production by Candida tropicalis HDY-02 with corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate as substrate. In the first step, Plackett-Burman design was used for screening the important variables. KH(2)PO(4), yeast extract, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and MgSO(4)7H(2)O were found to significantly affect xylitol yield. In the second step, central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum level of each of the significant variables. A second-order polynomial was determined by the multiple regression analysis of the experimental data. The interactive effects of yeast extract and MgSO(4)7H(2)O on xylitol yield of C. tropicalis HDY-02 were determined to be significant. The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum combinations for xylitol yield were 5 gl(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 1.3 gl(-1) KH(2)PO(4), 4.6 gl(-1) yeast extract and 0.6 gl(-1) MgSO(4)7H(2)O. Under these optimal conditions, the continuous fed-batch experiments could produce xylitol of 58 gl(-1) with a yield of 0.73 g g(-1) xylose. PMID:20466087

Ling, Hongzhi; Cheng, Keke; Ge, Jingping; Ping, Wenxiang



The effect of yeast extract supplementation on the production of lactic acid from whey permeate by Lactobacillus helueticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and continuous two-stage cultures have been conducted in order to determine the effect of yeast extract (YE) on the homolactic fermentation of whey permeate byLactobacillus helveticus. Supplementation with YE had a significant effet on lactic acid concentration, volumetric productivity, and substrate conversion, but not on lactic acid yield. Volumetric productivity in the first stage increased from 2 to 9

A. Aeschlimann; U. von Stockar



Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...


The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe prevention of cardiovascular risk, as occurs in lipoprotein disorders, is required since childhood. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in a group of children affected by primary dyslipidemia, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols.

O. Guardamagna; F. Abello; V. Baracco; B. Stasiowska; F. Martino



Purification and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of sardinelle ( Sardinella aurita) by-products proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to utilise sardinelle (Sardinellaaurita) protein by-products, which is normally discarded as industrial waste in the process of fish manufacturing, heads and viscera proteins were hydrolysed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative peptides. All hydrolysates showed different degrees of hydrolysis and varying degrees of antioxidant activities. Hydrolysate generated with crude enzyme extract from sardine (Sardinapilchardus) displayed high antioxidant activity,

Ali Bougatef; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Lala Manni; Rozenn Ravallec; Ahmed Barkia; Didier Guillochon; Moncef Nasri



An improvement in Pichia stipitis fermentation of acid-hydrolysed hemicellulose achieved by overliming (calcium hydroxide treatment) and strain adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentability of a corn cob, acid-hydrolysed hemicellulose by Pichia stipitis was considerably improved by pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2. The total sugars utilized and ethanol yield for the untreated hydrolysate were 18% and 0.21 g\\/g, respectively, compared with 82% and 0.32 g\\/g respectively for the treated material. Adaptation of the yeast to the hydrolysate resulted in a significantly higher fermentation rate

S. Amartey



Microbial oil production from corncob acid hydrolysate by Trichosporon cutaneum.  


Corncob was treated by dilute H(2)SO(4). The hydrolysate contained 45.7 g sugar/l. Without concentration or adding other nutrients, the hydrolysate, after being detoxified by overliming and adsorption with activated charcoal, was used for oil production using Trichosporon cutaneum. After 8 days' growth in shake-flasks, the biomass was 22.1 g/l with a lipid content of 36%. The lipid yield per mass of sugar was 17.4% (w/w). Corncob thus is a promising raw material for microbial oil production by this yeast. PMID:22350288

Chen, Xue-fang; Huang, Chao; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-de; Ma, Long-long



Yeast extract mediated autoinduction of lacUV5 promoter: an insight.  


We report a simple and cost-effective autoinducible media component responsible for the autoinduction of proteins in Escherichia coli under lacUV5 promoter system. Yeast extract (YE) at high concentration was found to stimulate the expression of T7 RNA polymerase in BL21(DE3) cells while such an effect was not seen in BL21A1 cells. A systematic study on the effect of varying concentrations of YE indicated several folds higher expression of genes viz., human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhGCSF), human interferon alpha 2b (rhIFN-alpha2b) and Staphylokinase (rSAK) in BL21(DE3) cells in the absence of any specific inducer like IPTG or additional lactose. Additional investigations on the inducible component of the YE revealed the presence of significant amount of endogenous lactose as the contributory factor for the observed autoinduction phenomenon. This paper highlights the easy scalability of the use of the present media component for large-scale production in biotechnology industry. PMID:19666150

Nair, Rahul; Salvi, Pankaj; Banerjee, Sampali; Raiker, Veena A; Bandyopadhyay, Suman; Soorapaneni, Sudheerbabu; Kotwal, Prakash; Padmanabhan, Sriram



Selection and characterization of a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii strain for ethanol production at high temperature from cassava starch hydrolysate.  


Pichia kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 was isolated from traditional fermented pork sausage by an enrichment technique in a yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, supplemented with 4 % (v/v) ethanol at 40 C and selected based on its ethanol fermentation ability at 40 C in YPD broth composed of 16 % glucose, and in a cassava starch hydrolysate medium composed of cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 16 % glucose. The strain produced ethanol from cassava starch hydrolysate at a high temperature up to 45 C, but the optimal temperature for ethanol production was at 40 C. Ethanol production by this strain using shaking flask cultivation was the highest in a medium containing cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 18 % glucose, 0.05 % (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.09 % yeast extract, 0.05 % KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05 % MgSO(4)7H(2)O, with a pH of 5.0 at 40 C. The highest ethanol concentration reached 7.86 % (w/v) after 24 h, with productivity of 3.28 g/l/h and yield of 85.4 % of the theoretical yield. At 42 C, ethanol production by this strain became slightly lower, while at 45 C only 3.82 % (w/v) of ethanol, 1.27 g/l/h productivity and 41.5 % of the theoretical yield were attained. In a study on ethanol production in a 2.5-l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm throughout the fermentation, P. kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 7.35 % (w/v) after 33 h, a productivity of 2.23 g/l/h and a yield of 79.9 % of the theoretical yield. PMID:23132277

Yuangsaard, Napatchanok; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Yamada, Mumoru; Limtong, Savitree



Evaluation of the yeast-extract signaling pathway leading to silymarin biosynthesis in milk thistle hairy root culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of silymarin, a potent antihepatotoxic compound, from the dried fruits of Silybum marianum L. Gaertn in hairy root cultures can be stimulated by a yeast extract elicitor. These results correlated with culture time,\\u000a and the biosynthesis reached a maximum of 0.47mgg?1 DW by 72h after culture (2-fold higher than the control). Lipoxygenase activity and linoleic acid content were

Tahereh Hasanloo; Roshanak Sepehrifar; Hassan Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Shams



Silver toxicity to ferrous iron and pyrite oxidation and its alleviation by yeast extract in cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ferrous-ion oxidation byThiobacillusferrooxidans was inhibited by 10-6 M Ag+ while a slight inhibition of growth was apparent with 10-7 M Ag+. The threshold toxic concentration was the seme for four different test strains. While prolonged lag phases resulted from culture exposure to Ag+, Fe2+ oxidation rates after the onset of growth showed little variation under these conditions. Yeast extract

Olli H. Tuovinen; Jaakko Puhakka; Paula Hiltunen; Katherine M. Dolan



Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD using swine wastewater: Effect of supplementing glucose, yeast extract, and inorganic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of adding glucose, yeast extract, and inorganic salts to swine wastewater (SWW) in a batch\\u000a culture on the production of a biodegradable plastic, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). A bacterial strain, Azotobacter vinelandii UWD, was used to produce PHA without limiting the non-carbon nutrients. The addition of glucose (30 g\\/L) to the SWW medium\\u000a increased the level of

Hee Wook Ryu; Kyung Suk Cho; Philip R. Goodrich; Chang-Ho Park




Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly Phaffia rhodozyma) is a promising microbial producer of the carotenoid astaxanthin. This is a carotenoid found in the flesh of salmon. There are several studies about the use of this yeast as a compound of salmon feed. Moreover an astaxanthin source, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a protein source. In this work, continuous fermentations of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

M. Vzquez; F. Diniz; A. M. Martin



In VitroCulture of TrichogrammaSpp. on Artificial Diets Containing Yeast Extract and Ultracentrifuged Chicken Egg Yolk but Devoid of Insect Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma minutumRiley andTrichogramma brassicaeBezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were culturedin vitrofrom eggs to adults on artificial diets, which contained no insect components. The diets contained ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk, milk, Grace's insect medium, and yeast extract. The most important components were the yeast extract and ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk. Addition of the sediment of ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk to a diet containing

Zhong-Neng Xie; Zhi-Xin Wu; William C. Nettles; Guadalupe Saldaa; Donald A. Nordlund



Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate\\/yeast extract medium. Part I. multiple factor kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty pH-controlled batch cultures with Lactobacillus helveticus were carried out in whey permeate-yeast extract medium according to a composite design with three factors: pH setpoint, and yeast extract and initial whey permeate concentrations. Growth and production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Richards and Luedeking and Piret models, respectively, and analyzed statistically with response surfaces. The maximum specific

Adolf Willem Schepers; Jules Thibault; Christophe Lacroix



Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor



[The radioprotective properties of a lipocarotenoid extract of Rhodotorula glutinis yeasts].  


The dynamics of formation of lipids and carotinoids by the Rh. glutinis yeast and the influence of the culture's age on the composition of the product were studied. The composition of a lipocarotinoid complex isolated from the yeast (at a stage of its stationary growth) was determined. It was shown that this complex lipocarotinoid preparation produces a normalizing effect on the parameters of the lipid-transport system and peroxide oxidation of blood serum lipids of irradiated rats. PMID:9102128

Zalashko, M V; Koroleva, I F; Salokhina, G A; Chirkin, A A


Preparation of Fish Protein Hydrolysates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An innovative procedure for developing and building a laboratory digestion unit capable of handling and producing approximately 10 liters of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) is described. The unit consists of a pump, heat exchanger, and holding vat. Comminu...

D. L. Crawford



Simple method for the extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carotenoid pigments from red yeasts (Basidiomycota, Fungi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the extraction of carotenoid pigments from frozen wet cells of red yeasts (Basidiomycota) and their analysis by reversed-phase HPLC using a C18 column and a water\\/acetone solvent system is described. Typical red yeast carotenoids belonging to an oxidative series from the monocyclic ?-carotene to 2-hydroxytorularhodin and from the bicyclic ?-carotene to astaxanthin were separated. Pigment identity

Roland W. S. Weber; Heidrun Anke; Paolo Davoli



Extractive biocatalysis: A powerful tool in selectivity control in yeast biotransformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of absorbing resins on the yeast reduction of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds is reported. Enantioselectivity, chemoselectivity and space-time yields of the biotransformation are impressively enhanced. The distribution of substrates and products between the resin and the water phase shows that the improved selectivity has to be attributed to the control of substrate concentration.The effect of absorbing resins on the

Paola D'Arrigo; Claudio Fuganti; Giuseppe Pedrocchi Fantoni; Stefano Servi



Sub-lethal concentrations of Muscari comosum bulb extract suppress adhesion and induce detachment of sessile yeast cells.  


The formation of yeast biofilm on food industry equipment can lead to serious hygiene problems and economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. This study explored the ability of a sub-lethal concentration of the bulb extract of Muscari comosum to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans and subsequent biofilm development by this fungus. The HPLC profile of the ethanolic bulb extract showed phenolic constituents, which were found to undergo Folin-Ciocalteu reagent reduction. Prior to the adhesion tests, it was shown that up to 4000 mg l(-1) of natural extract did not adversely affect fungal growth nor did it act as a carbon energy source for C. albicans. Mathematical models predicted that 4000 mg l(-1) and 700 mg l(-1) of bulb extract would cause more than 98% reduction in fungal coverage on abiotic surfaces, without killing the planktonic cells. When added to C. albicans biofilm, the natural extract was shown to induce the dispersion of sessile cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23061484

Villa, Federica; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Cappitelli, Francesca; Giussani, Barbara; Bassoli, Angela



Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger?  

PubMed Central

A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water.

Alriksson, Bjorn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjode, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jonsson, Leif J.



Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.  

PubMed Central

A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice.

Skaar, I; Stenwig, H



Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  


To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO46H2O) and brushite (CaHPO42H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; Leduc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh



Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies on elastin hydrolysates.  


The formation of reactive species and free radicals in water soluble elastin hydrolysates have been investigated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Elastin hydrolysates were obtained by hydrolysis of elastin extracted from aorta. An investigation of the photochemical properties of elastin hydrolysates in water was carried out using nanosecond laser irradiation. The transient spectra of elastin hydrolysates solution excited at 266 nm showed two bands. One of them with maximum at 295 nm and the second one with maximum at 400 nm. The reactions of hydrated electrons and ?OH radicals with elastin have been studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of elastin with e(aq)(-) small maximum absorption in UV and visible light was observed. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of the hydroxyl radicals with elastin two bands were observed. The first one at 320 nm and the second one at 410 nm. Reaction of OH radicals with elastin hydrolysates lead to formation of Tyr phenoxyl radicals with absorption at 410 nm. The influence of the addition of sodium azide NaN3 on the formation of the transients was evaluated. PMID:23702900

Sionkowska, Alina



Kinetic considerations about the study of alcoholic fermentations in starch hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic fermentations of starch hydrolysate by two different yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (var. Vinal) and Saccharomyces oviformis (IMAP 383), have been studied in batch runs. In order to evaluate the different inhibition phenomena due to both substrate and product, a new kinetic equation is suggested. 23 references.

Attilio Converti; Patrizia Perego; Marco Del Borghi; Federico Parisi; Giuseppe Ferraiolo



Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric


Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening plant extracts for antifungal activity is increasing due to demand for new antifungal agents, but the testing methods present many challenges. Standard broth microdilution methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of available antifungal agents are available now, but these methods are optimised for single compounds instead of crude plant extracts. In this study we evaluated the standard NCCLS method as

Manjuan Liu; Veronique Seidel; David R. Katerere; Alexander I. Gray



The extraction of liquid, protein molecules and yeast cells from paper through surface acoustic wave atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper has been proposed as an inexpensive and versatile carrier for microfluidics devices with abilities well beyond simple capillary action for pregnancy tests and the like. Unlike standard microfluidics devices, extracting a fluid from the paper is a challenge and a drawback to its broader use. Here, we extract fluid from narrow paper strips using surface acoustic wave (SAW) irradiation

Aisha Qi; Leslie Yeo; James Friend; Jenny Hob



Production of defatted palm kernel cake protein hydrolysate as a valuable source of natural antioxidants.  


The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 0.1%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (73.5 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential. PMID:22942692

Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid



Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates constitute an alternative to intact proteins and elemental formulas in the development of special formulations designed to provide nutritional support to patients with different needs. The production of extensive protein hydrolysates by sequential action of endopeptidases and exoproteases coupled with the development of post-hydrolysis procedures is considered the most effective way to obtain protein hydrolysates with defined characteristics.

Alfonso Clemente



Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma



Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...


Preparation and characterization of a novel sludge conditioner by Microbial flocculant (MBF) extracted from waste yeast with nano SiO2 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial flocculant (MBF) was extracted from waste yeast and used as a sludge conditioner with nano SiO2 particles. The effects of the new composite material on sludge dewatering characteristics were investigated. The equivalent concentration of MBF was defined as the mole number of adsorbed Cu 2+ per volume solution. An equivalent concentration of 712 ?mol\\/L MBF can be extracted under

Chijun Zhou; Quan Zhou



Extraction of cell surface-associated proteins from living yeast cells.  


To extract cell surface-associated proteins from living fungal cells, reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are often used. We show here that both compounds are moderately lipophilic and may perturb the plasma membrane, thus causing the release of cytosolic proteins, especially at high extraction temperatures. To avoid artifacts, we recommend using (a) a low concentration of the reducing agent for only a short period of time, and (b) an extraction temperature of 4 degrees C to protect the integrity of the plasma membrane. Similarly, biotinylation of cell surface proteins should be carried out at low temperatures in the absence of dimethylsulphoxide. PMID:17397128

Klis, Frans M; de Jong, Marian; Brul, Stanley; de Groot, Piet W J



Efficient production of l-lactic acid from hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke with immobilized cells of Lactococcus lactis in fibrous bed bioreactors.  


Hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke was applied for the production of l-lactic acid by immobilized Lactococcus lactis cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor system. Preliminary experiments had indicated that the high quality hydrolysate, which was derived from the 40 min acid treatment at 95 C and pH 1.8, was sufficient to support the cell growth and synthesis of l-lactic acid. With the addition of 5 g/l yeast extract, the fermentative performance of free cell system was evidently improved. After the basal settlement of hydrolysate based fermentation, the batch mode and the fed-batch mode fermentation were carried out in the free cell system and the fibrous bed bioreactor system, respectively. In all cases the immobilized cells presented the superior ability to produce l-lactic acid. The comparison of batch mode and fed-batch mode also indicated that the growth-limiting feeding strategy could reduce the lag phase of fermentation process and enhance the production of l-lactic acid. The achieved maximum concentration of l-lactic acid was 142 g/l in the fed-batch mode. Subsequent repeated-batch fermentation of the fibrous bed bioreactor system had further exhibited the persistence and stability of this system for the high production of l-lactic acid in a long term. Our work suggested the great potential of the fibrous bed bioreactor system and hydrolysate of J. artichoke in the economical production of l-lactic acid at industrial scale. PMID:22975123

Shi, Zhouming; Wei, Peilian; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan



Isolation of an acid fraction from a fish protein hydrolysate with a calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like biological activity.  


The possibility of obtaining calcitonin and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunorelated molecules from partly digested proteins was investigated with fish and shrimp hydrolysates. These two peptides were quantified by both radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay; the positive extracts were partly purified. Different hydrolysates were analysed: cod head, stomach and viscera hydrolysates, a shrimp hydrolysate and two sardine hydrolysates. Although each cod extract interacted in the CGRP radioimmunoassay, none of these extracts was able to displace the CT binding to its antibody. In contrast, shrimp and sardine hydrolysates interacted with both radioimmunoassays. Radioreceptor assays performed on the same extracts demonstrated that only three extracts contained the structural determinants that allowed them to interact in the CGRP radioreceptor assay. No interaction with the calcitonin radioreceptor assay could be demonstrated. Molecular sieving of the two sardine extracts showed that the immunoreactivity was resolved into two main fractions. The higher-molecular-mass fraction interacted only in the CGRP radioreceptor assay. The results obtained suggest the presence of a biologically related CGRP molecule in peptone hydrolysates and requires further investigation into the role of these peptide fragments in the regulation of intestinal function by partly digested proteins. PMID:9889088

Fouchereau-Peron, M; Duvail, L; Michel, C; Gildberg, A; Batista, I; le Gal, Y



Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...


The influence of bark on the fermentation of Douglas-fir whitewood pre-hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) whitewood was supplemented with increasing concentrations of bark (030%) and was pretreated using SO2-catalysed steam explosion. The presence of bark in the feedstock resulted in the decreased recovery of total sugars, furfural\\u000a and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in the resultant pre-hydrolysate. No detrimental impact on monomer sugar recovery was observed.\\u000a The concentration of lipophilic extractives present in the pre-hydrolysate

J. Robinson; J. D. Keating; A. Boussaid; S. D. Mansfield; J. N. Saddler



Comparison of ACE inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of fish muscle hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

To utilise Atlantic salmon, Coho salmon, Alaska pollack, and southern blue whiting as components of neutraceutical food and to clarify the potential physiological function of those fishes, their muscles were hydrolysed with pepsin, pancreatin or thermolysin. Methanolic extracts of fish muscle and their hydrolysates were prepared for analysis of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities.

Kazuki Nakajima; Yumiko Yoshie-Stark; Mariko Ogushi



Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 810?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 2022% incubated at 45C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 4042%, 4648%, and 3840% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 410?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 4050%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness.

Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia



Evaluation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of smooth hound ( Mustelus mustelus ) muscle protein hydrolysates generated by gastrointestinal proteases: identification of the most potent active peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, smooth hound protein hydrolysates (SHPHs), obtained by treatment with various gastrointestinal proteases, were\\u000a analyzed for their angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Protein hydrolysates were obtained by treatment\\u000a with crude alkaline enzyme extract, low molecular weight (LMW) alkaline protease, trypsin-like protease and pepsin from Mustelus mustelus, and bovine trypsin. All hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activity toward ACE. Hydrolysate

Ali BougatefRafik BaltiNaima; Rafik Balti; Nama Nedjar-Arroume; Rozenn Ravallec; Estelle Yaba Adj; Nabil Souissi; Imen Lassoued; Didier Guillochon; Moncef Nasri



From shake flasks to bioreactors: survival of E. coli cells harboring pGSThPTH through auto-induction by controlling initial content of yeast extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high content of yeast extract in complex media can cause auto-induction of phage T7 RNA polymerase and the consequent expression\\u000a of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) during long-term cultivation. Our study demonstrated that the auto-induction of recombinant protein varied in different\\u000a vectors harboring heterologous genes. Trx, GST, and their fusion proteins such as GSThuman parathyroid hormone (hPTH), expressed

Lianghui Jia; Hairong Cheng; Hengwei Wang; Huairong Luo; Hua Yan



Optimizing Conditions for the Growth ofLactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose Medium by Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth ofLactobacillus caseiYIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was




Determination of Cd(II) and Cd-metallothioneins in biological extracts using bakers yeast and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a sorbent material to separate Cd(II) and Cd-metallothionein complex (Cd-MT) has been explored. Solidliquid phase extractions\\u000a were carried out in batch mode and the main parameters of the process (pH, temperature, time of incubation, amount of biomass\\u000a and analyte) were evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the yeast quantitatively retain (94 ? 5%) the Cd(II) while

Amauri A. Menegrio; Paulo S. Tonello; Priscila A. Biscaro; Ana L. Brossi-Garcia



Optimizing conditions for the growth of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose medium by using response surface methodology.  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was used at first for analysis of the experiment, had a significant lack of fit. Therefore, cubic and quartic terms were incorporated into the regression model through variable selection procedures. Effects involving incubation temperature, yeast extract, glucose, and tryptone were significant, whereas the only significant effect involving Tween 80 was the interaction effect between temperature and Tween 80. It turned out that growth of L. casei YIT 9018 was most strongly affected by the incubation temperature. Estimated optimum conditions of the factors for growth of L. casei YIT 9018 are as follows: tryptone, 3.04%; yeast extract, 0.892%; glucose, 1.58%; Tween 80, 0%; incubation temperature, 35 degrees C.

Oh, S; Rheem, S; Sim, J; Kim, S; Baek, Y



21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...



L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.  


Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE. PMID:17089436

Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei



Effect of nutrient supplementation of crude or detoxified concentrated distilled grape marc hemicellulosic hydrolysates on the xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii.  


Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3g/L, was achieved after 172hr (Q ( xylitol )=0.066g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC)=0.21g/g); meanwhile, using detoxified concentrated hydrolysates, the concentration increased up to 19.7g/L after 72hr (Q ( xylitol )=0.274g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC)=0.38g/g). On the other hand, using crude or detoxified hydrolysates, the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion was strongly affected by the addition of nutrients, suggesting that these hydrolysates present essential nutrients favouring the growth of D. hansenii. PMID:22239704

Salgado, Jos Manuel; Rodrguez, Noelia; Corts, Sandra; Domnguez, Jos Manuel



Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes.  


Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO(2), thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO(2) emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture of synthetic resins and biodegradable polymers. Much attention has been given recently to the use of microorganisms to produce succinic acid as an alternative to chemical synthesis. We have attempted to maximize succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using an experimental design methodology for optimizing the concentrations of the medium components. The first experiment consisted of a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design, and the second entailed a Central Composite Rotational Design so as to achieve optimal conditions. The optimal concentrations of nutrients predicted by the model were: NaHCO(3), 10.0 g l(-1); MgSO(4), 3.0 g l(-1); yeast extract, 2.0 g l(-1); KH(2)PO(4). 5.0 g l(-1); these were experimentally validated. Under the best conversion conditions, as determined by statistical analysis, the production of succinic acid was carried out in an instrumented bioreactor using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, yielding a concentration of 22.5 g l(-1). PMID:20882312

Borges, Elcio Ribeiro; Pereira, Nei



Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ...

D. D. Spindler K. Grohmann C. E. Wyman



Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome.  


In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of a plant-extractive compound on lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice have synergistic benefits on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. In this double-blinded study, adult subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive a plant-extractive compound or a placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Both total cholesterol (5.4 0.8 to 4.4 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.4 0.7 to 2.7 0.5 mmol/L, P < .001) were significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extractives, and the magnitudes of reduction were significantly greater than in the placebo group (-1.0 0.6 vs 0.0 0.6mmol/L, P < .001; -0.7 0.6 vs 0.0 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001). The reduction in the fasting triglycerides level was significantly greater in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (-0.5 0.8 vs -0.2 1.0 mmol/L, P = .039). There was also a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of subjects with hypertensive criteria in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (P = .040). In conclusion, the plant extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice were effective in reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plant extractives also showed potential for reducing triglyceride and normalizing blood pressure. PMID:22348456

Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Hsien-Tung; Sheu, Wayne H-H



Effects of various whey protein hydrolysates on the emulsifying and surface properties of hydrolysed lecithin.  


Oil-in-water emulsions (30 wt% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey protein hydrolysates (0-4 wt%) and hydrolysed lecithin (0.4-1.8 wt%) were prepared by means of a high pressure homogeniser. The degrees of hydrolysis used ranged from 10 to 27%. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the particle size distribution, emulsion stability, consistency and interfacial tension were investigated using a three-level factorial design according to the principle of response surface methodology. The properties of the emulsions containing both hydrolysed lecithin and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) were significantly influenced by the degree of hydrolysis of WPH, the protein content and the second-order interaction between both. Addition of WPH, with a 10-20% degree of hydrolysis, improved the stability of lecithin-stabilised emulsions and slightly decreased the average droplet size, compared to those emulsions with only protein or hydrolysed lecithin. However, when extensively hydrolysed WPH (DH=27%) was mixed with hydrolysed lecithin, rapid coalescence and oiling-off of the emulsion droplets resulted, suggesting competition between the surface active components of this WPH and the hydrolysed lecithin. High amounts of such an extensively hydrolysed WPH, together with low lecithin concentrations, were found to be especially detrimental. The different behaviour of partially and extensively hydrolysed WPH in oil-in-water emulsions containing hydrolysed lecithin, was in good agreement with their interfacial activity, as measured by the drop volume method. PMID:11377940

Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G



Bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of rape stem in a surface-aerated fermentor.  


In this study, we investigated the feasibility of producing bioethanol from the hydrolysate of rape stem. Specifically, the most ideal yeast strain was screened, and the microaeration was performed by surface aeration on a liquid medium surface. Among the yeast strains examined, Pichia stipitis CBS 7126 displayed the best performance in bioethanol production during the surface-aerated fermentor culture. Pichia stipitis CBS 7126 produced maximally 9.56 g/l of bioethanol from the initial total reducing sugars (about 28 g/l). The bioethanol yield was 0.397 (by the DNS method). Furthermore, this controlled surface aeration method holds promise for use in the bioethanol production from the xylose-containing lignocellulosic hydrolysate of biomass. PMID:21301200

Yeon, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Eun; Choi, Woon Yong; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan



Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3.  


Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48 degrees C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to mycelia depending on an altered programme of gene expression. This dimorphism is an environmentally conditioned (reversible) event and the mycelia can be induced at a cultivation temperature of 45 degrees C. Depending on the morphology of strain Ls3 (yeast phase or mycelia) the secretion behaviour as well as the spectrum of polypeptides accumulated in the culture medium changed. The activities of the accumulated extracellular enzymes glucoamylase and invertase were 2 to 3 times higher in cultures grown at 45 degrees C than in those grown at 30 degrees C. While the level of the glucoamylase protein secreted from mycelia between 45 and 70 hours did not change, biochemical activity decreased after a cultivation time of 43 hours. It was shown that this effect depended on both the catabolic repression of the glucoamylase by glucose and the thermal inactivation of this enzyme in media without or with low concentrations of starch or maltose. PMID:8572679

Wartmann, T; Krger, A; Adler, K; Duc, B M; Kunze, I; Kunze, G



Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  


In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3gL(-1) total sugars, 68.3gL(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91gg(-1) within 336h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2gL(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1gL(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2% of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96%. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming



Effects of nitrogen supplementation on yeast (Candida utilis) biomass production by using pineapple (Ananas comosus) waste extracted medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w\\/v). Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05) increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial

A. Rosma


Fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates with xylose isomerases and yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Untreated spent sulphite liquor (SSL) was fermented with Canida tropicalis, Pichia stipitis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a co-culture of P. Tannophilus and A. cerevisiae, in the presence of xylose isomer...

T. Linden



Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon



Kolloidchemische Hydrolyse der Eiweistoffe. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1.\\u000a \\u000a Im ersten Teil wird eine Methode der Untersuchung der kolloidchemischen Hydrolyse der Eiweistoffe angegeben.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2.\\u000a \\u000a Die Produkte der Wasserhydrolyse kann man aus der Lsung des Sols durch Benzol, Toluol, ther extrahieren. Dabei sind die\\u000a Wasserlsungen des Proteins frei von Salz, Suren und anderen Verbindungen, die sonst strend auf den hydrolytischen Vorgang\\u000a einwirken wrden.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3.\\u000a \\u000a Das erste erhaltene Produkt

S. J. Djatschkowsky; W. A. Liwanskaja



Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents.  


Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid



Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid



Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.  


Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p < 0.05) than basic taste thresholds suggesting that aromatics and bitter taste are both crucial to control in WPH food applications. PMID:20415487

Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne



A Four-Hour Yeast Bioassay for the Direct Measure of Estrogenic Activity in Wastewater without Sample Extraction, Concentration, or Sterilization  

PubMed Central

The assay described here represents an improved yeast bioassay that provides a rapid yet sensitive screening method for EDCs with very little hands-on time and without the need for sample preparation. Traditional receptor-mediated reporter assays in yeast were performed twelve to twenty four hours after ligand addition, used colorimetric substrates, and, in many cases, required high, non-physiological concentrations of ligand. With the advent of new chemiluminescent substrates a ligand-induced signal can be detected within thirty minutes using high picomolar to low nanomolar concentrations of estrogen. As a result of the sensitivity (EC50 for estradiol is ~ 0.7 nM) and the very short assay time (2-4 hours) environmental water samples can typically be assayed directly without sterilization, extraction, and concentration. Thus, these assays represent rapid and sensitive approaches for determining the presence of contaminants in environmental samples. As proof of principle, we directly assayed wastewater influent and effluent taken from a wastewater treatment plant in the El Paso, TX area for the presence of estrogenic activity. The data obtained in the four-hour yeast bioassay directly correlated with GC-mass spectrometry analysis of these same water samples.

Balsiger, Heather A.; de la Torre, Roberto; Lee, Wen-Yee; Cox, Marc B.



Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from grass carp muscle hydrolysates by consecutive chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp muscles were hydrolyzed with various proteases (papain, bovine pancreatin 6.0, bromelain, neutrase 1.5MG and alcalase 2.4L) to extract antioxidant peptides. The hydrolysates were assessed using methods of hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. Hydrolysate prepared with alcalase 2.4L was found to have the highest antioxidant activity. It was purified using ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods

Jiaoyan Ren; Mouming Zhao; John Shi; Jinshui Wang; Yueming Jiang; Chun Cui; Yukio Kakuda; Sophia Jun Xue



Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, ...

B. E. Watkins R. L. Kanna R. D. Chambers R. S. Upadhye C. O. Promeda



Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.



Effect of Scenedesmus Acuminatus Green Algae Extracts on the Development of Candida Lipolytic Yeast in Gas Condensate-Containing Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons durin...

B. I. Bilmes G. A. Kasymova V. I. Runov N. N. Karavayeva



Release and ecological impact of algicidal hydrolysable polyphenols in Myriophyllum spicatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous acetone extracts of shoots of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) exhibit a strong inhibitory action against various coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and to a slightly less extent against chlorophytes and diatoms. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of a hydrolysable polyphenol, tellimagrandin II, which turned out to be the main inhibitory substance. Myriophyllum spicatum contains large amounts of this compound

Elisabeth M. Gross; Holger Meyer; Gerhard Schilling



Two-Step Process Using Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis for Ethanol Production from Ulva pertusa Kjellman Hydrolysate.  


We established a two-step production process using immobilized S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis yeast to produce ethanol from seaweed (U. pertusa Kjellman) hydrolysate. The process was designed to completely consume both glucose and xylose. In particular, the yeasts were immobilized using DEAE-corncob and DEAE-cotton, respectively. The first step of the process included a continuous column reactor using immobilized S. cerevisiae, and the second step included a repeated-batch reactor using immobilized P. stipitis. It was verified that the glucose and xylose in 20 L of medium containing the U. pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate was converted completely to about 5.0 g/l ethanol through the two-step process, in which the overall ethanol yield from total reducing sugar was 0.37 and the volumetric ethanol productivity was 0.126 g/ l/h. The volumetric ethanol productivity of the two-step process was about 2.7 times greater than that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production from U. pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate. In addition, the overall ethanol yield from glucose and xylose was superior to that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production. This two-step process will not only contribute to the development of an integrated process for ethanol production from glucoseand xylose-containing biomass hydrolysates, but could also be used as an alternative method for ethanol production. PMID:23851267

Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Yi-Ok; Choi, Woo Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan



State of the Art Manufacturing of Protein Hydrolysates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of protein hydrolysates in microbiological media has been in existence for several decades and the basic manufacturing process of protein hydrolysates has remained the same. However, with increasing use of protein hydrolysates in specialized applications such as animal cell culture processes, the manufacturing of protein hydrolysates has dramatically improved and is still in its infancy to uncover the specific peptide, peptides and combination of individual amino acids that produce intended effects for that application. This will change as the protein hydrolysate manufacturers and end-users exchange information and work towards the common goal of developing the best protein hydrolysates for specific applications. This chapter will review the generic manufacturing of protein hydrolysates describing individual unit operations, problems faced by manufacturers and suggestions for obtaining consistent product and guidelines for the end-users in getting regulatory support and setting up reliable specifications. Finally the chapter concludes with future trends of protein hydrolysates.

Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Braun, Steven


Antioxidant properties and protein compositions of porcine haemoglobin hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine haemoglobin hydrolysates were prepared through hydrolysis by Alcalase followed by Flavourzyme, and their protein compositions were analyzed using Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography. The antioxidant activities, including reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, of the hydrolysates were evaluated. The results showed that the hydrolysates of haemoglobin exhibited low reducing powers, but high ferrous ion

Chi-Yue Chang; Kuei-Ching Wu; Shu-Hua Chiang



Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity.

Wang, Yu-Kai; He, Hai-Lun; Wang, Guo-Fan; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong



Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and/or cellobiose by yeast  


Provided herein are methods of using yeast cells to produce ethanol by contacting a mixture comprising xylose with a Spathaspora yeast cell under conditions suitable to allow the yeast to ferment at least a portion of the xylose to ethanol. The methods allow for efficient ethanol production from hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic material and sugar mixtures including at least xylose and glucose or xylose, glucose and cellobiose.

Jeffries, Thomas W.; Willis, Laura B.; Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai



Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn\\/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except

B. E. Watkins; R. L. Kanna; R. D. Chambers; R. S. Upadhye; C. O. Promeda



Effects of various whey protein hydrolysates on the emulsifying and surface properties of hydrolysed lecithin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-in-water emulsions (30 wt% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey protein hydrolysates (04 wt%) and hydrolysed lecithin (0.41.8 wt%) were prepared by means of a high pressure homogeniser. The degrees of hydrolysis used ranged from 10 to 27%. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the particle size distribution, emulsion stability, consistency and interfacial tension were

Inta Scherze; Gerald Muschiolik



Comparison of different extraction methods for simultaneous determination of B complex vitamins in nutritional yeast using LC/MS-TOF and stable isotope dilution assay.  


The application of LC/MS-TOF method combined with stable isotope dilution assay was studied for determination of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine in food. Nutritional yeast powder was used as a model food matrix. Acid extraction was compared with various enzymatic treatments in ammonium formate buffer to find a suitable method for the conversion of more complex vitamers into the same forms as the used isotope-labeled internal standards. The enzyme preparations ?-amylase, takadiastase, ?-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase were all able to liberate thiamine and riboflavin. The diastatic enzyme preparations ?-amylase and takadiastase also expressed proteolytic side activities resulting in the formation of small peptides which interfered with the mass spectra of thiamine and riboflavin. Liberation of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid from NAD(+) and CoA, respectively, could not be achieved with any of the studied enzyme preparations. Hydrochloric acid extraction at 121 C for 30 min was found to be destructive to pantothenic acid, but increased the liberation of pyridoxal. PMID:23150051

Hlvin, Kristel; Paalme, Toomas; Nisamedtinov, Ildar



Xylulokinase Overexpression in Two Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Also Expressing Xylose Reductase and Xylitol Dehydrogenase and Its Effect on Fermentation of Xylose and Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose to ethanol in lignocellulosic biomass would make bioethanol production economically more competitive. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an efficient ethanol producer, can utilize xylose only when expressing the heterologous genes XYL1 (xylose reductase) and XYL2 (xylitol dehydrogenase). Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase convert xylose to its isomer xylulose. The gene XKS1 encodes the xylulose-phosphorylating enzyme xylulokinase. In this study, we determined the effect of XKS1 overexpression on two different S. cerevisiae host strains, H158 and CEN.PK, also expressing XYL1 and XYL2. H158 has been previously used as a host strain for the construction of recombinant xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains. CEN.PK is a new strain specifically developed to serve as a host strain for the development of metabolic engineering strategies. Fermentation was carried out in defined and complex media containing a hexose and pentose sugar mixture or a birch wood lignocellulosic hydrolysate. XKS1 overexpression increased the ethanol yield by a factor of 2 and reduced the xylitol yield by 70 to 100% and the final acetate concentrations by 50 to 100%. However, XKS1 overexpression reduced the total xylose consumption by half for CEN.PK and to as little as one-fifth for H158. Yeast extract and peptone partly restored sugar consumption in hydrolysate medium. CEN.PK consumed more xylose but produced more xylitol than H158 and thus gave lower ethanol yields on consumed xylose. The results demonstrate that strain background and modulation of XKS1 expression are important for generating an efficient xylose-fermenting recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae.

Johansson, Bjorn; Christensson, Camilla; Hobley, Timothy; Hahn-Hagerdal, Barbel



Rapid Extraction of Genomic DNA from Medically Important Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi by High-Speed Cell Disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of DNA extraction from different fungal pathogens are often time-consuming and require the use of toxic chemicals. DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult due to cell walls or capsules that are not readily susceptible to lysis. We therefore investigated a new and rapid DNA isolation method using high-speed cell disruption (HSCD) incorporating chaotropic reagents and lysing




Improving lipid production from bagasse hydrolysate with Trichosporon fermentans by response surface methodology.  


Oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans was proved to be able to use sulphuric acid-treated sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate as substrate to grow and accumulate lipid. Activated charcoal was shown as effective as the more expensive resin Amberlite XAD-4 for removing the inhibitors from the hydrolysate. To further improve the lipid production, response surface methodology (RSM) was used and a 3-level 4-factor Box-Behnken design was adopted to evaluate the effects of C/N ratio, inoculum concentration, initial pH and fermentation time on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of T. fermentans. Under the optimum conditions (C/N ratio 165, inoculum concentration 11%, initial pH 7.6 and fermentation time 9 days), a lipid concentration of 15.8g/L, which is quite close to the predicted value of 15.6g/L, could be achieved after cultivation of T. fermentans at 25C on the pretreated bagasse hydrolysate and the corresponding lipid coefficient (lipid yield per mass of sugar, %) was 14.2. These represent a 32.8% improvement in the lipid concentration and a 21.4% increase in the lipid coefficient compared with the original values before optimization (11.9g/L and 11.7). This work further demonstrates that T. fermentans is a promising strain for lipid production and thus biodiesel preparation from abundant and inexpensive lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21458601

Huang, Chao; Wu, Hong; Li, Ri-feng; Zong, Min-hua



Solubilisation and Changes in Molecular Weight Distribution of Arabinoxylans and Protein in Wheat Flours During Bread-Making, and the Effects of Endogenous Arabinoxylan Hydrolysing Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of endogenous non-starch polysaccharide hydrolysing enzymes on flour non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was investigated. Straight dough bread-making experiments were performed with three flour samples (cvs. Skirlou, Estica and Soissons) varying in endogenous NSP hydrolysing enzyme activities and\\/or non-starch polysaccharide contents and structures. Part of the water-unextractable NSP became extractable during the mixing (7 to 12%) and baking (14 to

G. Cleemput; C. Booij; M. Hessing; H. Gruppen; J. A. Delcour



Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.  


The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.6649, P = 0.8658, P = 0.7465, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.7238), Zn (P = 0.2564), Mn (P = 0.8878), Co (P = 0.7097), or Se (P = 0.5877) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were greater at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.0407) and collection (P = 0.0054) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.0115) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0211) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0012) and CTRL (P = 0.0212). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.0095) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance. PMID:23736057

Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L



Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from protein hydrolysate of lecithin-free egg yolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein extracted from lecithin-free egg yolk, normally discarded by lecithin processing plants, was hydrolyzed with the\\u000a aid of Alcalase, a commercial enzyme. The hydrolysate was separated through a series of ultrafiltration membranes with molecular\\u000a weight cutoffs of 10, 5, and 1 kDa; and three types of permeates including 10 K (permeate from 10 kDa), 5 K (permeate from\\u000a 5

Pyo-Jam Park; Won-Kyo Jung; Kyung-Soo Nam; F. Shahidi; Se-Kwon Kim



Characteristic and antioxidant activity of retorted gelatin hydrolysates from cobia ( Rachycentron canadum) skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali-pretreated cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was extracted in a retort (121C) for 30min to obtain a retorted skin gelatin hydrolysate (RSGH). The molecular mass distributions and antioxidant activities of cobia RSGH and enzyme-treated RSGHs (ET-RSGHs) derived from bromelain, papain, pancreatin, and trypsin digestion were then characterized. The molecular mass distribution of the RSGH ranged mainly between 20,000 and 700Da and

Jing-Iong Yang; Hsin-Yi Ho; Yuh-Jwo Chu; Chau-Jen Chow



Thermophilic lactic acid production on hemicellulose hydrolysate.  


Lactic acid has many applications. It can be utilised as road-deicing agent, in the food industry or--after polymerisation--as a biodegradable plastic. The use of lignocellulose biomass will significantly increase the competitiveness of lactic acid-based polymers compared to conventional petroleum based plastics. The Institute for Agrobiotechnology in Tulln (IFA-Tulln) developed a process to apply renewable resources as cheap feedstock for production of lactic acid. The utilisation of thermophiles combined with a suitable pretreatment method enables a fermentation under non sterile conditions with detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysates. This paper presents growth toxicity tests and batch experiments with bagasse hydrolysate, which were conducted to determine the fermentability of thermophilic wild type strains. PMID:15954612

Thomasser, C; Danner, H; Neureiter, M; Saidi, B; Braun, R



Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar.

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.



[Protein hydrolysate as a dietetic resource  


OBJECTIVE: The central goal of this paper was to study the application of beef meat and poultry (turkey and chicken) hydrolysates to the preparations used in our Brazilian current feeding practices. METHODS: The various kinds of meat were hydrolyzed with fresh pineapple under similar conditions to those daily used at home. The selection of three types of preparation was dependent on whether their contents included starch or gelatin and liquid, like soup, mousse and fruit-shake. Hydrolysate were added to the preparations as part of the liquid content of their recipes. The acceptability of the preparations was checked out by employing the hedonic-scale affective test with untrained tasters. Variance analysis and the Tukes test were performed with a 5% level of significance for the results.RESULTS: The selected recipes were the following: bitterroot soup, fruit and vegetable-shakes and grape mousse, all of them containing starch or gelatin as an element to camouflage the bitter taste of the aminoacids. The preparations were well accepted: approximately 76% of the tasters reported having liked the soup at least somewhat; as to the shakes, more than 50% gave positive answers, and as to the mousse, approximately 88% reported having liked it. There were no statistically significant differences (p< 0.05) concerning the application of the three hydrolysates in all the preparations tested. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hydrolysed meat to replace liquid content of recipes is highly practicable, requiring only an adequate selection of recipes and their ingredients, that should include starch and gelatin in order to get fully satisfactory products. These preparations might serve as a basis for other ones, adapted to each diet. PMID:14685623

Silva, M E; Mazzilli, R N; Barbieri, D


Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  


Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(Lh). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jnsson, Leif J



Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: current status.  


Fuel ethanol production from plant biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great economic and environmental significance. This paper reviews the current status with respect to alcoholic fermentation of the main plant biomass-derived monosaccharides by this yeast. Wild-type S. cerevisiae strains readily ferment glucose, mannose and fructose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, while galactose is fermented via the Leloir pathway. Construction of yeast strains that efficiently convert other potentially fermentable substrates in plant biomass hydrolysates into ethanol is a major challenge in metabolic engineering. The most abundant of these compounds is xylose. Recent metabolic and evolutionary engineering studies on S. cerevisiae strains that express a fungal xylose isomerase have enabled the rapid and efficient anaerobic fermentation of this pentose. L: -Arabinose fermentation, based on the expression of a prokaryotic pathway in S. cerevisiae, has also been established, but needs further optimization before it can be considered for industrial implementation. In addition to these already investigated strategies, possible approaches for metabolic engineering of galacturonic acid and rhamnose fermentation by S. cerevisiae are discussed. An emerging and major challenge is to achieve the rapid transition from proof-of-principle experiments under 'academic' conditions (synthetic media, single substrates or simple substrate mixtures, absence of toxic inhibitors) towards efficient conversion of complex industrial substrate mixtures that contain synergistically acting inhibitors. PMID:17033882

van Maris, Antonius J A; Abbott, Derek A; Bellissimi, Eleonora; van den Brink, Joost; Kuyper, Marko; Luttik, Marijke A H; Wisselink, H Wouter; Scheffers, W Alexander; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T



p33-Independent Activation of a Truncated p92 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus in Yeast Cell-Free Extract  

PubMed Central

Plus-stranded RNA viruses replicate in membrane-bound structures containing the viral replicase complex (VRC). A key component of the VRC is the virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which should be activated and incorporated into the VRC after its translation. To study the activation of the RdRp of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small tombusvirus of plants, we used N-terminal truncated recombinant RdRp, which supported RNA synthesis in a cell-free yeast extract-based assay. The truncated RdRp required a cis-acting RNA replication element and soluble host factors, while unlike the full-length TBSV RdRp, the truncated RdRp did not need the viral p33 replication cofactor or cellular membranes for RNA synthesis. Interestingly, the truncated RdRp used 3?-terminal extension for initiation and terminated prematurely at an internal cis-acting element. However, the truncated RdRp could perform de novo initiation on a TBSV plus-strand RNA template in the presence of the p33 replication cofactor, cellular membranes, and soluble host proteins. Altogether, the data obtained with the truncated RdRp indicate that this RdRp still requires activation, but with the participation of fewer components than with the full-length RdRp, making it suitable for future studies on dissection of the RdRp activation mechanism.

Pogany, Judit



Study of the Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Concentration on Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in Yeast Extract Sucrose Medium  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species on agricultural commodities. AFB1 biosynthesis is affected by jasmonic acid and also by its methylester (MeJA), a plant growth regulator derived from linoleic acid. This study reports the effect of MeJA on the growth of A. parasiticus and AFB1 output in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium when added at three different concentrations; namely, 10?2?M, 10?4?M, and 10?6?M. AFB1 determination was performed by immunoaffinity and HPLC. MeJA at 10?4 and 10?6 M concentrations had no significant effect on mycelial growth but did affect AFB1 production after the 7th day of incubation; on the 12th day, AFB1 production was increased by 212.7% and 141.6% compared to the control samples (addition of 10?6?M and 10?4?M MeJA, resp.). Treatment of A. parasiticus cultures with 10?2?M MeJA inhibited mycelial growth and AFB1 production as well. These results suggest that the effect of MeJA on AFB1 biosynthesis by A. parasiticus depends on the MeJA concentration used.

Meimaroglou, Dido Maria; Galanopoulou, Dia; Markaki, Panagiota



Conversion of sugars present in rice hull hydrolysates into ethanol by Spathaspora arborariae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and their co-fermentations.  


The production of ethanol by the new yeast Spathaspora arborariae using rice hull hydrolysate (RHH) as substrate, either alone or in co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Cultivations were also carried out in synthetic medium to gather physiological information on these systems, especially concerning their ability to grow and produce ethanol in the presence of acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural, which are toxic compounds usually present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. S. arborariae was able to metabolize xilose and glucose present in the hydrolysate, with ethanol yields (Y(P/S)(et)) of 0.45. In co-cultures, ethanol yields peaked to 0.77 and 0.62 in the synthetic medium and in RHH, respectively. When the toxic compounds were added to the synthetic medium, their presence produced negative effects on biomass formation and ethanol productivity. This work shows good prospects for the use of the new yeast S. arborariae alone and in co-cultures with S. cerevisiae for ethanol production. PMID:21220201

da Cunha-Pereira, Fernanda; Hickert, Lilian Raquel; Sehnem, Nicole Teixeira; de Souza-Cruz, Priscila Brasil; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Ayub, Marco Antnio Zchia



Freeze or spray-dried gluten hydrolysates. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two gluten hydrolysates differing only in the drying process were studied: LS2 was freeze-dried and PS2 was spray-dried. The effect of emulsification procedure (turbo-mixer, valve-homogeniser) was determined as a function of the composition of the aqueous phase (hydrolysate dispersions, soluble fractions). With turbo-mixer, all emulsions presented a monomodal droplet size distribution but emulsions formed with hydrolysate dispersions were unstable whereas

E Linars; C Larr; Y Popineau



Production and characterization of an extensive rapeseed protein hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapeseed protein isolate has been used as starting material for the generation of an extensive protein hydrolysate. Protein\\u000a hydrolysis was produced by using sequentially an endopeptidase (Alcalase) and an exopeptidase (Flavourzyme). The final hydrolysate\\u000a has a 60% degree of hydrolysis and was completely soluble between pH values 2.5 and 7. Molecular weight profile of the protein\\u000a hydrolysate was characterized by

Javier Vioque; Raul Snchez-Vioque; Alfonso Clemente; Justo Pedroche; Juan Bautista; Francisco Millan



Combined effects of pH, yeast extract, carbohydrates and di-ammonium hydrogen citrate on the biomass production and acidifying ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain, isolated from table olives, in a batch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four variables-five levels Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to model the individual and interactive effects\\u000a of carbohydrates (lactose or maltose), yeast extract, di-ammonium hydrogen citrate and pH on the biomass production (Abs600nm), viable and cultivable cell number and acidifying ability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from table olives Bella di Cerignola. pH values were modeled

A. Bevilacqua; M. R. Corbo; M. Mastromatteo; M. Sinigaglia



Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina



A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and -glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...


SolidPhase Microextraction Method for the Determination of Volatile Compounds in Hydrolysates of Alaska Pollock Frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds in Alaska pollock frame (APF) and Alaska pollock frame hydrolysates (APFH) were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS for identifying and comparing their flavor characteristics. The optimized SPME extraction conditions were 75 ?m CAR\\/PDMS fiber, adsorption time of 40 min, and extraction temperature of 65C. Compared to APF, APFH have more aromas detected and identified. Numerous volatile compounds

Hu Hou; Xue Zhao; Bafang Li; Pinglin Li; Zhaohui Zhang; Xiaomin Shao; Weijian Pang; Xin Qu



Dry yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

Ranveig Thattai (None;)



Bioethanol production from ipomoea carnea biomass using a potential hybrid yeast strain.  


The paper deals with the exploitation of Ipomoea carnea as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Dilute acid pretreatment under optimum conditions (3%H2SO4, 120C for 45min) produced 17.68gL(-1) sugars along with 1.02gL(-1) phenolics and 1.13gL(-1) furans. A combination of overliming and activated charcoal adsorption facilitated the removal of 91.9% furans and 94.7% phenolics from acid hydrolysate. The pretreated biomass was further treated with a mixture of sodium sulphite and sodium chlorite and, a maximum lignin removal of 81.6% was achieved. The enzymatic saccharification of delignified biomass resulted in 79.4% saccharification with a corresponding sugar yield of 753.21mgg(-1). Equal volume of enzymatic hydrolysate and acid hydrolysate were mixed and used for fermentation with a hybrid yeast strain RPRT90. Fermentation of mixed detoxified hydrolysate at 30C for 28h produced ethanol with a yield of 0.461gg(-1). A comparable ethanol yield (0.414gg(-1)) was achieved using a mixture of enzymatic hydrolysate and undetoxified acid hydrolysate. Thus, I. carnea biomass has been demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production, and the use of hybrid yeast may pave the way to produce bioethanol from this biomass. PMID:23892623

Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, Krishna



Vaginal Yeast Infections  


... HIV/AIDS Sexually transmitted infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet What is a vaginal yeast ... on vaginal yeast infections What is a vaginal yeast infection? A vaginal yeast infection is irritation of ...


Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41??0.02g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185C and 6bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2??0.1, 0.4 and 0.5g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39??0.02g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200C and 6bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7??1.1g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38??0.02g/g after 82h of fermentation.



21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source from which the protein was derived. (a...hydrolyzed soy protein, and autolyzed yeast extract are examples of acceptable names...casein is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas hydrolyzed milk protein is not an...



21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source from which the protein was derived. (a...hydrolyzed soy protein, and autolyzed yeast extract are examples of acceptable names...casein is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas hydrolyzed milk protein is not an...



Production of Single-Cell Protein from Ram Horn Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida utilis NRRL Y-900 was grown on horn hydrolysate for single-cell protein production. First, ram horns obtained from slaughterhouse in Erzurum were hydrolyzed by physical and chemical methods and crude horn hydrolysate (CHH) was obtained. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars and amino acids of CHH were determined and it was seen that it has sufficient


Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

Eva Palmqvist; Brbel Hahn-Hgerdal



Study on the Aggregation of Transglutaminase on Soybean Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH) hydrolyzed by papain as substrates, the effects of transglutaminase on soybean protein hydrolysates were studied using the single factors of temperature, time, the ratio of emzyme to protein and pH value. The molecular weight data indicated that transglutaminase could be used as catalyst to aggregate SPH. The solution of the concentration of the enzyme for

Yang Chunhua; Shi Yanguo; Liu Ying; Fan Tingting; Zhang Yifang; Hu Chunlin



Protein quality of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was used as the starting material in the production of chickpea protein hydrolysates (CPHs). To obtain a highly extensive hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis higher than 50%, a sequential utilisation of endoprotease (Alcalase) and exoprotease (Flavourzyme) was necessary. Molecular weight patterns of CPHs were determined by gel filtration chromatography. As a result of the enzymatic

Alfonso Clemente; Javier Vioque; Ral Snchez-Vioque; Justo Pedroche; Juan Bautista; Francisco Milln



Biphasic biomethanation of wood-hydrolysate effluent.  


The dissolving pulp industry, spread throughout the world, is the principal source of wood-hydrolysate effluent rich in hemicelluloses. This effluent is the major source of pollution in the industry. COD and BOD5 values of the effluent range from 60,000 to 103,000 and 42,000 to 78,000 mg/l respectively. Biomethanation of this effluent is the best possible treatment option for reducing the COD load and recovering the bioenergy embedded in the effluent. This paper deals with the study on the biphasic biomethanation of the wood-hydrolysate in upflow acidogenic reactor coupled with anaerobic filter methanogenic reactor. The two reactors were operated at organic loading rates of 69.6 and 30.1 g COD/l/d respectively. The overall COD, hemicelluloses and lignin reductions, and methane generation were observed to be 88%, 92%, 82% and 6.5 l/l reactor volume/d respectively. The relative size of the biphasic, anaerobic filter (mono-phasic) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (mono-phasic) reactors is found to be 1:1.6:2.03 respectively. PMID:10595449

Chakrabarti, S K; Roychoudhury, P K; Bajpai, P K


Evaluation of cell recycling in continuous fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates of spruce with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on-line monitoring of glucose and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum growth rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581, adapted to fermentation of spent sulphite liquor (SSL), was 7 times higher in SSL of hardwood than the maximum\\u000a growth rate of bakers' yeast. ATCC 96581 was studied in the continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate without and with\\u000a cell recycling. Ethanol productivity by ATCC 96581 in continuous fermentation of an enzymatic

E. Palmqvist; M. Galbe; B. Hahn-Hgerdal



Simultaneous Cellulase Production, Saccharification and Detoxification Using Dilute Acid Hydrolysate of S. spontaneum with Trichoderma reesei NCIM 992 and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials has several limitations. One aspect is the high production cost of cellulases\\u000a used for saccharification of substrate and inhibition of fermenting yeast due to inhibitors released in acid hydrolysis. In\\u000a the present work we have made an attempt to achieve simultaneous cellulases production, saccharification and detoxification\\u000a using dilute acid hydrolysate of Saccharum spontaneum with and

Lanka Sateesh; Adivikatla Vimala Rodhe; Shaik Naseeruddin; Kothagauni Srilekha Yadav; Yenumulagerard Prasad; Linga Venkateswar Rao


Characterization of an unexpected bioemulsifier from spent yeast obtained from Thai traditional liquor distillation.  


Crude biopolymer was extracted from spent yeast, lyophilized and fractionated on Sephadex G-100 to yield two fractions coded as fraction I and II. Fraction I was composed of both carbohydrates and proteins, showing emulsifying activity whereas fraction II consisted of only proteins and possessed no activity. Hence composition and chemical characterization of the purified fraction I (bioemulsifier) was analyzed using various analytical techniques. It was found that the sample contained 96% of carbohydrates consisting mainly of glucose with minor quantities of mannose, and 4% of protein built from 17 amino acids with the highest content of serine followed by alanine. The results also indicated that the sample was protein-bound glucan with the average molecular weight of 1.9310(5) Da. The functional groups and primary structure of the sample were revealed by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The data demonstrate that the sample comprises a mixture of (1?4)-?- and (1?3)-?-D-glucans bound with protein. Enzymatic hydrolyses using ?-amylase and endo 1,3-?-D-glucanase confirmed the presence of both glucans. Therefore, this bioemulsifier was identified as glucan-protein complex which is different from usual mannoprotein emulsifier derived from yeasts. PMID:20619288

Dikit, Paweena; Methacanon, Pawadee; Visessanguan, Wonnop; H-kittikun, Aran; Maneerat, Suppasil



Counting Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)|

Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana



Yeast Infections  


Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...


BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract. January 2001. ... M153 Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract (TSAYE). ... More results from


Yeast production from virgin grape marc  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative utilization of virgin grape marc (VGM) to produce SCP from S. cerevisiae is reported. A simple extraction method of fresh grape marc produces a sugar-rich solution; through fed-batch fermentation, a high-value yeast biomass instead of a low-value product like ethanol can be produced.Productivity and quality of yeast are similar to these obtainable from molasses. The convenience of yeast

R. B. Lo Curto; M. M. Tripodo



21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...source from which the protein was derived. (a) Hydrolyzed wheat gluten, hydrolyzed soy protein, and autolyzed yeast extract are examples of acceptable names. Hydrolyzed casein is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas...



Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  


newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...


Yeast Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural biomass hydrolysate is detoxified by culturing in the presence of the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria (teleomorph) or its Lecythophora (anamorph) state. This organism is capable of significantly depleting the toxicant levels of furans, particularly furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A...


Origins of the Poor Filtration Characteristics of Wheat Starch Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(3):289-293 The effects of wheat starch components on the f iltration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates were investigated with a model-based approach. The filtration rate was not affected by the removal of the pen- tosans or by altering the conformation of the protein. On the other hand, the filtration rate increased when a hydrolysate was defatted with chloro-

Ariette M. Matser; Peter A. M. Steeneken



Collagen hydrolysate inhibits zymosan-induced inflammation.  


During the past years, evidence accumulated showing that glycine comprises anti-inflammatory activities. These effects occur, at least in part, via the activation of glycine-gated chloride channels (GlyR). Glycine is one of the major structural units of collagen, making up about 30% of the amino acids. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of collagen hydrolysate (CH) using the zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation mouse model. After oral intake of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg CH the plasma levels of glycine increased in a concentration-dependent manner. CH was able to counteract zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation locally (ear swelling) as well as systemically (IL-6 production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cells). The LPS-stimulated IL-6 production in whole blood correlated positively with the ear swelling response. This correlation was abolished by strychnine (a glycine receptor antagonist), indicating the involvement of GlyR. Collectively, these data show that CH is able to modulate inflammatory responses both locally as well as systemically. This effect might be constituted by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production via GlyR. PMID:23788175

Hartog, Anita; Cozijnsen, Miranda; de Vrij, Gerrit; Garssen, Johan



Single-cell protein production from Jerusalem artichoke extract by a recently isolated marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After crude protein of the marine yeast strains maintained in this laboratory was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we\\u000a found that the G7a strain which was identified to be a strain of Cryptococcus aureus according to the routine identification and molecular methods contained high level of protein and could grow on a wide range\\u000a of carbon sources. The optimal

Lingmei Gao; Zhenming Chi; Jun Sheng; Xiumei Ni; Lin Wang



Production of ethanol from soybean hull hydrolysate by osmotolerant Candida guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075.  


In this research, we studied the use of soybean hull hydrolysate (SHH) as a substrate for ethanol and xylitol production using an osmotolerant strain of Candida guilliermondii. The best acid hydrolysis of soybean hull achieved a recovery of 85 and 62% of xylose and mannose, respectively. Among detoxification treatments, activated charcoal 10% (w/v) showed the best results. Kinetic parameters obtained from the cultivation on four-fold concentrated SHH have shown that the osmotic pressure of this medium is higher than that supported by most osmophilic yeasts, revealing the osmotolerant characteristic of C. guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075. When cultivations were carried out on two times concentrated SHH, we obtained high yields of ethanol production, showing the prospect of SHH as a candidate for this biofuel production. Although xylose was present in high concentrations, no xylitol was produced, probably due to the presence of furfural acting as external electron acceptor or some varying cofactor preference of xylose reductase in this yeast strain. PMID:17706417

Schirmer-Michel, Angela Cristina; Flres, Simone Hickmann; Hertz, Plinho Francisco; Matos, Gilvane Souza; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zchia



Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations  

PubMed Central

Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate.



Repeated-batch fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol using a hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain metabolically engineered for tolerance to acetic and formic acids.  


A major challenge associated with the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived hydrolysates is improved ethanol production in the presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as acetic and formic acids. Enhancement of transaldolase (TAL) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activities through metabolic engineering successfully conferred resistance to weak acids in a recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Moreover, hybridization of the metabolically engineered yeast strain improved ethanol production from xylose in the presence of both 30 mM acetate and 20mM formate. Batch fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of glucose, fructose and xylose as carbon sources, as well as the fermentation inhibitors, acetate and formate, was performed for five cycles without any loss of fermentation capacity. Long-term stability of ethanol production in the fermentation phase was not only attributed to the coexpression of TAL and FDH genes, but also the hybridization of haploid strains. PMID:21704512

Sanda, Tomoya; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko



Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).  


Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%. PMID:21909671

Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek



Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays  

PubMed Central

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (untreated preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (treated preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil.

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry



Assessment of extracts from red yeast rice for herb-drug interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays.  


Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions ("untreated" preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed ("treated" preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry



Effect of water content on the glass transition, caking and stickiness of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates play an important function in many special dietary foods, e.g. for infants, those with genetic disorders, athletes and geriatrics. Because of hydrolysis these materials are more hygroscopic than the initial intact protein. In this reset the moisture sorption isotherms and the glass transition profile as a function of moisture content for fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), whey protein hydrolysates

F. M. Netto; S. A. Desobry; T. P. Labuza



Inclusion of size fractionated fish hydrolysate in high plant protein diets for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish hydrolysate was evaluated as feed ingredient in high plant protein diets in an 89days feed experiment with Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish hydrolysate was size fractionated by ultra- and nano-filtration and the various fractions were tested specifically as feed ingredients to trace any effect observed with the hydrolysate. All diets contained 68% of total protein as plant protein,

Anders Aksnes; Britt Hope; istein Hstmark; Sissel Albrektsen



Evaluation of sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate for biotechnological production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

PubMed Central

A preliminary study on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii in sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed. Hydrolysate had high xylose content and inhibitors concentrations did not exceed the commonly found values in other hemicellulosic hydrolysates. The highest xylitol yield (0.44 g/g) and productivity (0.19 g/Lh) were verified after 72 hours.

Sene, L.; Arruda, P.V.; Oliveira, S.M.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.



Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen*  

PubMed Central

To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang



Hydrolysed wheat based oral rehydration solution for acute diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised three cell study was carried out in 78 children with acute diarrhoea to evaluate the relative efficacy of oral rehydration solution (ORS) made from partially hydrolysed wheat grain, cooked rice powder, or glucose. Twenty six patients with comparable age, body weight, duration of diarrhoea, and degree of dehydration were studied in each of the three groups. Initial rehydration

A N Alam; S A Sarker; A M Molla; M M Rahaman; W B Greenough



Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid

M. J. Lpez; N. N. Nichols; B. S. Dien; J. Moreno; R. J. Bothast



Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials a wide range of compounds which are inhibitory to microorganisms are formed or released. Based on their origin the inhibitors are usually divided in three major groups: weak acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. These compounds limit efficient utilisation of the hydrolysates for ethanol production by fermentation. If the inhibitors are identified and the mechanisms

Eva Palmqvist; Brbel Hahn-Hgerdal



Glucose absorption from starch hydrolysates in the human jejunum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal absorption and mucosal hydrolysis of a partial and a complete alpha-amylase hydrolysate of corn starch, simulating the normal intermediary and end products of luminal starch digestion, was studied using an in vivo steady state jejunal perfusion technique in normal human subjects. Alpha-amylase was excluded from the test segment by proximal balloon occlusion. Products of hydrolysis during intestinal perfusion

B J Jones; B E Brown; J S Loran; D Edgerton; J F Kennedy; J A Stead; D B Silk



Study on the membrane filtration of starch hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to compare potato and potato-tapioca hydrolysate quality obtained by membrane filtration with the application of tubular ceramic membranes. The substrate for membrane filtration was maltodextrins obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato and a mixture of potato and tapioca starches. Colour, turbidity, iodine value, qualitative and quantitative distribution of carbohydrate (HPLC), amount of reducing groups

A Grze?kowiak-Przywecka



Novel antioxidant Peptide derived from the ultrafiltrate of ovomucin hydrolysate.  


The techno-functional properties of ovomucin as a gel-forming agent and its biological properties are well-known. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity in ovomucin hydrolysate using radical scavenging assays. Electrophoresis showed that ovomucin isolated from whole egg was well separated. Ovomucin hydrolysis was carried out using microbial protease according to different incubation times. These ovomucin hydrolysates exhibited 85% antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay after a 2 h incubation with protease and retained 90% activity until 24 h. At an incubation time of 4 h, the activity of ovomucin hydrolysates reached approximately 90%, corresponding to 115 ?M gallic acid equivalent, regardless of the proteases used. The partially purified fraction of the hydrolysate by ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was collected and then analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two peptides, LDEPDPL and NIQTDDFRT, in this fraction were identified. The antioxidant activities of these two synthesized peptides were measured to be 51.8 and 24.7% by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. PMID:23834012

Chang, Oun Ki; Ha, Go Eun; Han, Gi-Sung; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Ham, Jun-Sang




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydrox...


Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic

Tilak W. Nagodawithana; Lynn Nelles; Nayan B. Trivedi



Intestinal protective effect of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesA partially hydrolysed, dried, product of pacific whiting fish is marketed as a health food supplement supporting intestinal health. Scientific data supporting these claims are severely limited. We, therefore, examined if it influenced intestinal injury caused by the NSAID, indomethacin.

Tania Marchbank; George Elia; Raymond J. Playford



Characterization of casein hydrolysates derived from enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Casein is the main proteinaceous component of milk and has made us interest due to its wide applications in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries as well as to its importance as an investigation material for elucidating essential questions regarding the protein chemistry. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important method commonly used in the modification of protein structure in order to enhance the functional properties of proteins. The relationship between enzymatic hydrolysis and structure change of casein need to make more study. Results During hydrolysis, degree of hydrolysis in the casein hydrolysates increased rapidly in the initial 20minutes, reached a plateau after 45minutes, and then kept relative constant for the rest of the hydrolysis. The relative percentage of the released peptides with molecular weight of over 50 kD significantly decreased with hydrolyzation, while those with MW of 3050 kD and below 20 kD increased significantly. The contents of a-helix and ?-turn in the hydrolysates increased compared to the original casein. Moreover, the molecular flexibilities of the casein hydrolysates, estimated by the ratio of ?-helix to ?-structure, were lower than that of original casein protein. Conclusions The significant changes in molecular weight distribution and structure characteristics of casein hydrolysates were found compared to the control sample. This change should be the basis of enhancement of functional properties.



Cultivation of Rodent Typhoid Bacteria on Fish Hydrolysates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Media prepared from fish hydrolysates may be used for the cultivation of mother cultures of rodent typhoid bacteria with a content of 90-120 mg % amino nitrogen and 0.4-0.5% sodium chloride in the medium. Upon addition of sodium and potassium salts of pho...

L. V. Malushko



Properties of protein concentrates and hydrolysates from Amaranthus and Buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein concentrates and pepsin hydrolysates were made after isoelectric precipitation of the proteinaceous liquor from wet-milling of grain of five Amaranthus and one buckwheat genotype. The Amaranthus protein concentrates exhibited better solubility, foaming, and emulsification than two commercial soy protein controls. Many protein properties depend on solubility, and Amaranthus protein concentrates were more soluble than soy protein isolate. The buckwheat

Feliciano P. Bejosano; Harold Corke



Review of methods for the analysis of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates have been used for nutritional or technological purposes. Various methods are used for the quality control of these preparations. This paper reviews those used for the determination of the hydrolysis degree, the characterization according to the peptide size, the evaluation of the molecular weight distribution, and the estimation of the amino acid and peptide contents. The potential and

M. P. C. Silvestre



Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

Exploratorium, The



A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.



Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.  


The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 degrees C). After the mutant was grown in the yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over 61% of the total protein could be released from the cells treated at 37 degrees C. The mutant cells grown in the yacon extract still contained high level of essential amino acids and other nutrients. This means that the yacon extract could be used as the medium for growth of the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant which contained high content of crude protein. PMID:19727833

Zhao, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Tong; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Hong



The Influence of Exogenous Nutrients on the Abundance of Yeasts on the Phylloplane of Turfgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted to assess the effect of foliar applications of various nutrient solutions on the phylloplane\\u000a yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In the first three experiments, increasing concentrations of sucrose (216%), yeast extract (0.52.5%), and sucrose\\u000a plus yeast extract (2.518.5% total) were applied and the yeast colony forming units (cfu) enumerated 14h later by dilution

Shannon Nix-Stohr; Leon L. Burpee; James W. Buck



Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides.  


Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC(50) value of 0.41?mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.24?mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.28?mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.48?mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 4.21?mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 6.38?mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20?kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC(50) values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits. PMID:22927875

Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid



HPLC preparation of fish waste hydrolysate fractions. Effect on guinea pig ileum and ACE activity.  


The effect of RP-HPLC-purified fractions of fish waste hydrolysates issued from three fish industries was tested on guinea pig ileum in order to examine the presence of opioid molecules. The evaluation of anti-hypertensive activities of whole hydrolysates and fractions were also tested, monitoring the ability of the fraction to inhibit the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme involved in hypertension regulation. Sardine autolysate and cod head hydrolysate powder (50 microg) were able to inhibit near 30% of ACE activity, whereas 50 microg of shrimp hydrolysate allows the inhibition of 57% of ACE activity. HPLC fractionation of cod head hydrolysate and sardine autolysate was necessary to evidence biological activity, whereas HPLC separation of shrimp hydrolysate exhibited low biological activity fractions. Further studies are necessary to characterise bioactive molecules from cod head alcalase hydrolysate and from sardine autolysate. PMID:11934078

Bordenave, Stephanie; Fruitier, Ingrid; Ballandier, Isabelle; Sannier, Frederic; Gildberg, Asbjorn; Batista, Irineu; Piot, Jean-Marie



Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...


Cryptococcus taeanensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from a salt farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus taeanensis, a new anamorphic yeast species originating from a salt farm on the Taean peninsula in Korea, is described. Strain 3-12T grew by budding, contained ubiquinone Q-10 and xylose in cell hydrolysates, utilized D-glucuronate and did not ferment D-glucose. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large-subunit rRNA D1\\/D2 domain and ITS region sequences placed C. taeanensis near Auriculibuller

Kee-Sun Shin; Yong-Ha Park; Dong-Jin Park; Chang-Jin Kim



Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu



High-performance liquid chromatographic quantitation of desmosine plus isodesmosine in elastin and whole tissue hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Quantitation of desmosine and isodesmosine, the major crosslinks in elastin, has been of interest because of their uniqueness and use as markers of that protein. Accurate measurement of these crosslinks may allow determination of elastin degradation in vivo and elastin content in tissues, obviating lengthy extraction procedures. We have developed a method of quantitating desmosine plus isodesmosine in hydrolysates of tissue and insoluble elastin using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and absorbance detection that is rapid (21-35 min) and sensitive (accurate linearity from 100 pmol to 5 nmol). This method has been used to quantitate desmosines in elastin from bovine nuchal ligament and lung and in whole aorta from hamsters. The ability to completely separate (/sup 3/H)lysine from desmosine plus isodesmosine allows the method to be used to study incorporation of lysine into crosslinks in elastin.

Soskel, N.T.



Identification of crucial yeast inhibitors in bio-ethanol and improvement of fermentation at high pH and high total solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounds inhibitory to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation are generated from neutral steam exploded corn stover in the process of producing bio-ethanol. In this study, weak acids were identified as main yeast inhibitors, while phenols and aldehyde contribute to the inhibition to a lower degree. Main weak acids in hydrolysates are acetic acid and formic acid, for which critical levels for

Hongzhi Huang; Xinyan Guo; Dongmin Li; Mengmeng Liu; Jiafang Wu; Haiyu Ren



Isolation and identification of two novel umami and umami-enhancing peptides from peanut hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS.  


Peanut hydrolysate produced by crude protease extract from Aspergillus oryzae HN 3.042 was found to elicit intense umami and umami-enhancing effect. Taste profiles, amino acid and organic acid composition of peanut hydrolysate and its separation fractions by ultrafiltration were evaluated. The results revealed that peanut hydrolysate was mainly low molecular weight compounds. Fractions of 1-3 kDa and below 1 kDa prominently contributed to the umami taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peanut hydrolysate. The two fractions were further purified, using gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), in combination with sensory evaluation, to obtain a umami peptide and umami-enhancing peptide. The active peptides were identified as Ser-Ser-Arg-Asn-Glu-Gln-Ser-Arg (SSRNEQSR, 963.9 Da) and Glu-Gly-Ser-Glu-Ala-Pro-Asp-Gly-Ser-Ser-Arg (EGSEAPDGSSR, 1091.1 Da), by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, respectively. PMID:22868117

Su, Guowan; Cui, Chun; Zheng, Lin; Yang, Bao; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Mouming



Enhanced operational parameters for amino acid production using hydantoin-hydrolysing enzymes of Pseudomonas putida strain RUKM3s immobilised in Eupergit C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydantoin-hydrolysing enzymes in a sonicated crude extract of Pseudomonas putida strain RUKM3s were stabilised by covalent coupling to the well-known support material, Eupergit C. The activities of the enzymes in the immobilised and non-immobilised state were evaluated on the basis of the yield of their respective products from the substrates hydantoin and N-carbamylglycine in batch reactions, and the immobilisation

B. T. Bulawayo; R. A. Dorrington; S. G. Burton



Hydrolyses of calcium phosphates-allografts composite in physiological solutions.  


Hydrolysis of calcium phosphates cement- allografts composite in calf serum and that in saline were examined in comparison with those of the calcium phosphates cement in both the solutions. The calcium phosphates cement consists of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), tetracalcium phosphate (TetCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and hydroxyapatite (HAP), which is clinically used as Biopex. In the hydrolyses of Biopex-allografts composite in both the solutions, the calcium phosphates cement was transformed into HAP. On the other hand, in the hydrolyses of Biopex, HAP was formed after 1 day and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was gradually formed after 7 days. In the presence of allografts, plate-like crystals were deposited and in the absence of allografts, needle-like crystals were deposited in both the solutions. By the addition of allografts, the hydrolysis process of the calcium phosphates cement was significantly changed. PMID:16617417

Nomoto, Takuya; Haraguchi, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Shunro; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi



Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana


Determination of Sugars in Starch Hydrolysates by IR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar syrups are industrially obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and from aqueous mixtures of glucose, maltose (Dp2), maltotriose (Dp3), and other higher sugars (Dpn). In this work, new methods based on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for analyzing starch hydrolysates were developed. Calibration models for the parameters of interest (viz. dextrose equivalent, dry matter, and individual sugars) were

M. Blanco; R. Gonzlez Ba



The distribution of sequences in partially hydrolysed polyvinylic alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block copolymer structure of partially hydrolysed polyvinyl alcohol was investigated by DSC: This structure was revealed by the dependence of the melting point of crystalline phase against the composition of vinyl alcohol-vinyl acetate copolymers (VOH-VAc) synthesised by different methods. Using the Flory equation, the sequential probabilities pVOH and pVAc representing quantitative values of the sequences distribution along the chain

Iulia Pocsan; Sever Serban; Gheorghe Hubca; Mihai Dimonie; Horia Iovu



Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery\\u000a of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability\\u000a of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic

Tilak W. Nagodawithana; Lynn Nelles; Nayan B. Trivedi


Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support intestinal health. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity.Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair.Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [3H] thymidine incorporation

A J Fitzgerald; P S Rai; T Marchbank; G W Taylor; S Ghosh; B W Ritz; R J Playford



Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  


An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji



Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol fermentation from cellulosic hydrolysate were investigated. After corncob was pretreated by 1% H2SO4 at 108C for 3h, the cellulosic residue was hydrolyzed by cellulase from Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 and the hydrolysis yield was 67.5%. Poor cellobiase activity in T. reesei cellulase restricted the conversion of cellobiose to glucose, and the accumulation of cellobiose caused

Ming Chen; Liming Xia; Peijian Xue



Decomposition of hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents using photoactivated periodate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of periodate and photoactivated periodate oxidation of the hydrolysates of chemical warfare agents (HCWAs), thiodiglycol (TDG), 3,3-dithiopropanol (TDP), and 1,4-thioxane (TX), were investigated at pH 3, pH 7, and pH 10 under dark (in the absence of light) and monochromatic UV light irradiation. Dark reactions occurred by oxygen addition to sulfur atoms in HCWAs at pH

Xueming Tang; Linda K. Weavers



Kinetic studies of cellodextrins hydrolyses by exocellulase from trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the hydrolyses of cellotriose and of cellotetraose by cellobiohydrolase were studied using a convenient integral technique. Reaction mechanisms and mathematical models were postulated to describe the reactions. The end-products of the reaction were found to be inhibitory toward hydrolysis in a competitive mode. Hydrolysis of cellotraose produces cellobiose and hydrolysis of cellotriose produces cellobiose and glucose. Both sugars inhibit the enzyme with cellobiose being a stronger inhibitor.

Teh-An Hsu, Cheng-Shung Gong; Tsao, G.T.



Enhancement of Spirulina biomass productivity by a protein hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a hydrolyzed protein preparation on the growth and biomass yield of the blue-gree algaSpirulina platensis was studied. At the optimum dosage, the hydrolysate enhancedSpirulina productivity by almost 40% when compared to untreated cultures. This increased productivity correlated with an increase in\\u000a the level of nitrogen assimilating enzymes, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase.

Gurbaksh Singh; R. M. Kothari; Rajesh K. Sharma; V. Ramamurthy



Mechanism of formation of chloropropanols present in protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloropropanols are formed in protein hydrolysates by the reaction of hydrochloric acid with residual lipids associated with\\u000a the proteinaceous materials used in their production. The products formed from glycerol, triolein, 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and soya meal have been analyzed by thin-layer and gas chromatography. The yields and isomer\\u000a ratios of the chloropropandiols and dichloropropanols formed are interpreted in terms of reaction mechanisms

P. D. Collier; D. D. O. Cromie; A. P. Davies



Hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate cross-linked with dialdehyde starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate (H) cross-linked with dialdehyde starch (DAS) by dipping or casting into biodegradable\\u000a materials for various applications, is complicated by their marked tendency to aging. One-hour action by temperatures at 6090C\\u000a reduces sorbed water content in hydrogels by approx. 12%; dependence of the extent of this reduction on temperature (within\\u000a the mentioned range) was not detected.

F. Langmaier; M. Mldek; P. Mokrej



Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.  


The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of pectinolytic activity was found in mangaba frozen pulp communities. Around 30% of all isolates produced pectinases. The ability to split arbutin was observed in all communities ranging from 8% in yeasts from pitanga frozen pulps to 40.6% in acerola ripe fruit communities. Among 432 species tested, 125 were active for beta-glucosidase production, and Kloeckera apis, P. antarctica, C. sorbosivorans, and C. spandovensis-like were the most active species. PMID:12353886

Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A



Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.  


Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1?g/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. PMID:24176374

Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E



Pelagic fish hydrolysates as peptones for bacterial culture media.  


For several years in the Quebec fisheries' industry, landings of pelagic fish have been calculated at over 4000 tons. These under-exploited species, rich in lipids and proteins, could be used in valuable new products. In the present study, hydrolysates of mackerel and herring were produced and utilized as sources of peptones in the formulation of new bacterial culture media. The molecular weight distribution analysis showed that molecules present in the hydrolysates were lower than 1300 Da for herring, and lower than 930 Da for mackerel. The formulated media were compared with reference media using 6 bacterial strains (3 lactic acid (LAB) and 3 non-lactic). The absorbance (OD) and carbohydrate measurements revealed that the formulated media possessed similar yields in comparison with the reference media. Finally, the inhibition of Listeria innocua by LAB bacteriocins was evaluated. Results obtained for Pediococcus acidilactici demonstrated high activities for each medium studied. Thus, the medium containing herring peptones generated the highest bacteriocin titre (32768 AU/mL), followed by both the medium containing mackerel peptones and the MRS7 medium (16384 AU/mL). Each medium containing the fish hydrolysates efficiently supported the growth of the bacterial strains. Pelagic fish peptones are promising as a novel bacterial culture media. PMID:19940932

Beaulieu, Lucie; Desbiens, Michel; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Thibault, Sharon



Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  


... infection is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys don't get vaginal yeast infections, ...


Preparation and performance of immobilized yeast cells in columns containing no inert carrier. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizosaccharomyes pombe was cultivated in a medium of glucose (10 g\\/l), malt extract (3 g\\/l), yeast extract (3 g\\/l), and bactopeptone (5 g\\/l) to form flocs. More than 95% of the cell population were flocculated. Variation in glucose concentration (from 10 to 11 g\\/l) did not affect flocculation. Yeast extract helped induce flocculation. Application of the immobilized yeast for the

H. Y. Hsiao; L. C. Chiang; C. M. Yang; L. F. Chen; G. T. Tsao



Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of oleaginous yeast, which is helpful for optimization of biomass hydrolysis processes, detoxified pretreatment of hydrolysates and lipid production using lignocellulosic materials.



Yeast Infection during Pregnancy  


... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ...


Yeast Infection (Vaginal)  


... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection (vaginal) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing ...


Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.


Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao


Lager brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lager brewing yeast is a group of closely related strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus\\/S. carlsbergensis used for lager beer production all over the world, making it one of the most important industrial yeasts. The pure cultivation\\u000a of yeast was established in the early 1880s with immediate practical success for lager brewing yeast. However, almost a century\\u000a would elapse before its genetics

Yukiko Kodama; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jrgen Hansen


Intracerebroventricular Administration of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Reduces Body Weight without Affecting Food Intake in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause body weight loss but the mechanism of\\u000a action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion\\u000a of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and body weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n?=?24) received i.c.v. injections of soy hydrolysate I (SH I) or

Nerissa Vaughn; Anthony Rizzo; Dolores Doane; J. Lee Beverly; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia



Antioxidant activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates in a linoleic acid oxidation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates in a linoleic acid system were investigated. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates were prepared by enzymic hydrolysis of fat-free egg-yolk protein, which led to the main peak of the molecular mass distribution of lower than 1000. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates showed strong antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid oxidation system as compared with the egg-yolk protein

Senji Sakanaka; Yumi Tachibana; Noriyuki Ishihara; Lekh Raj Juneja



Ethanol production from corn cob hydrolysates by Escherichia coli KO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn cob hydrolysates, with xylose as the dominant sugar, were fermented to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. When inoculum was grown on LB medium containing glucose, fermentation of the hydrolysate was completed in 163 h and\\u000a ethanol yield was 0.50 g ethanol\\/g sugar. When inoculum was grown on xylose, ethanol yield dropped, but fermentation was faster\\u000a (113 h). Hydrolysate

K G de Carvalho Lima; C M Takahashi; F Alterthum



Compositions, functional properties and antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from round scad ( Decapterus maruadsi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition, functional properties and antioxidative activity of a protein hydrolysate prepared from defatted round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) mince, using Flavourzyme, with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 60%, were determined. The protein hydrolysate had a high protein content (48.0%) and a high ash content (24.56%). It was brownish yellow in colour (L?=58.00, a?=8.38, b?=28.32). The protein hydrolysate contained a high

Yaowapa Thiansilakul; Soottawat Benjakul; Fereidoon Shahidi



Antioxidant activity and water-holding capacity of canola protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola protein hydrolysates were prepared using commercial enzymes, namely Alcalase, an endo-peptidase and Flavourzyme with both endo- and exo-peptidase activities. The hydrolysates so prepared were effective as antioxidants in model systems, mainly by scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and also influenced by the type of enzyme employed in the process. The hydrolysate

Nichole Cumby; Ying Zhong; Marian Naczk; Fereidoon Shahidi



Antioxidant activity of peptide fractions from whey protein hydrolysates as measured by electron spin resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey protein isolate (WPI) was hydrolysed for 0.58h using Alcalase, and the 5-h hydrolysate, identified to possess the strongest reducing ability, was subjected to column fractionation and antioxidant activity assays. Sephadex G-10 gel filtration chromatography of the 5-h hydrolysate yielded four fractions (I, II, III and IV) that were composed of peptides of >40k, 2.840k, 0.12.8k, and <0.1k, respectively. Fraction

Xinyan Peng; Youling L. Xiong; Baohua Kong



[Yeasts contaminating salmon roe].  


Quantitative and species compositions of yeast contaminating eggs, fry and fingerlings of Salmo gairdneri Rich under artificial breeding have been studied. Prevalence of species of genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus and Debaryomyces is noted. Yeast isolated from perished eggs and sick fry do not possess pathogenic properties. Certain strains of yeast make stimulating effect on the studied microorganisms. PMID:8983527

Nagornaia, S S; Ignatova, E A; Isaeva, N M; Davydov, O N; Podgorski?, V S


Improved ethanol production by a xylose-fermenting recombinant yeast strain constructed through a modified genome shuffling method  

PubMed Central

Background Xylose is the second most abundant carbohydrate in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate. The fermentation of xylose is essential for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses to fuels and chemicals. However the wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are unable to utilize xylose. Many efforts have been made to construct recombinant yeast strains to enhance xylose fermentation over the past few decades. Xylose fermentation remains challenging due to the complexity of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate. In this study, a modified genome shuffling method was developed to improve xylose fermentation by S. cerevisiae. Recombinant yeast strains were constructed by recursive DNA shuffling with the recombination of entire genome of P. stipitis with that of S. cerevisiae. Results After two rounds of genome shuffling and screening, one potential recombinant yeast strain ScF2 was obtained. It was able to utilize high concentration of xylose (100?g/L to 250?g/L xylose) and produced ethanol. The recombinant yeast ScF2 produced ethanol more rapidly than the naturally occurring xylose-fermenting yeast, P. stipitis, with improved ethanol titre and much more enhanced xylose tolerance. Conclusion The modified genome shuffling method developed in this study was more effective and easier to operate than the traditional protoplast-fusion-based method. Recombinant yeast strain ScF2 obtained in this study was a promising candidate for industrial cellulosic ethanol production. In order to further enhance its xylose fermentation performance, ScF2 needs to be additionally improved by metabolic engineering and directed evolution.



Comparison of ten media for the enumeration of yeasts in dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten selective mycological media were evaluated for their suitability to enumerate yeasts in six different dairy products. Although variability was observed in counts obtained for individual dairy products, no significant overall differences (p > 0.05) were observed among the 10 selective plating media. Antibiotic-supplemented media such as oxytetracycline glucose yeast agar (OGY), yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGC), rose bengal

J. J. Welthagen; B. C. Viljoen



Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the protein only model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions.

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.



Genetic Engineering of Yeasts for Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol. Progress Report, April 1-October 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report summarizes research on expression of xylose isomerase protein in S. cerevisiae, aggregation of xylose isomerase in yeast extracts, solubilization of yeast-made xylose isomerase, and disulfide bond content compared to the E. coli enzym...



Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures\\u000a using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9gL?1 glucose (initial sugar 62.0gL?1) was used to produce 20.1gL?1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28gL?1h?1 and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2gL?1 total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Michael A. Cotta



Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains.

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha



Dekkera \\/ Brettanomyces yeasts for ethanol production from renewable sources under oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol requires microorganisms able to utilise a broad range of\\u000a carbon sources and generate ethanol at high yield and productivity. D.bruxellensis has recently been reported to contaminate commercial ethanol processes, where it competes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4, 26]. In this work Brettanomyces\\/Dekkera yeasts were studied to explore their potential to produce ethanol from renewable

Silvia Galafassi; Annamaria Merico; Francesca Pizza; Linda Hellborg; Francesco Molinari; Jure Pikur; Concetta Compagno


Improved Bioethanol Production Using Activated Carbon-treated Acid Hydrolysate from Corn Hull in Pachysolen tannophilus  

PubMed Central

To optimally convert corn hull, a byproduct from corn processing, into bioethanol using Pachysolen tannophlius, we investigated the optimal conditions for hydrolysis and removal of toxic substances in the hydrolysate via activated carbon treatment as well as the effects of this detoxification process on the kinetic parameters of bioethanol production. Maximum monosaccharide concentrations were obtained in hydrolysates in which 20 g of corn hull was hydrolyzed in 4% (v/v) H2SO4. Activated carbon treatment removed 92.3% of phenolic compounds from the hydrolysate. When untreated hydrolysate was used, the monosaccharides were not completely consumed, even at 480 h of culture. When activated carbon-treated hydrolysate was used, the monosaccharides were mostly consumed at 192 h of culture. In particular, when activated carbon-treated hydrolysate was used, bioethanol productivity (P) and specific bioethanol production rate (Qp) were 2.4 times and 3.4 times greater, respectively, compared to untreated hydrolysate. This was due to sustained bioethanol production during the period of xylose/arabinose utilization, which occurred only when activated carbon-treated hydrolysate was used.

Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Kim, Seungseop; Lee, Hyeon-Yong




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of thirteen fish substrates (pollock by-products, fish protein hydrolysates, and fish meals) was conducted, as was an experiment to determine palatability of two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate and salmon meal wi...


Anti-oxidative and anti-aging activities of collagen hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen is a family of fibrous proteins present in skin, bone, tendon, teeth, cartilage of multicellular organisms. Collagen and its hydrolysate were prepared from squid skin hydrolyzed with proteases. The collagen hydrolysate obtained could remarkably extend the lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. The maximum lifespan fruit flies increased from 60 days (control groups), to 80 to 84 days (treated

Chengchu Liu; Dexiang Peng; Jingya Yang; Yingsen Li; Jiale Li



Effect of chickpea protein hydrolysates on cell proliferation and in vitro bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive peptides in foods may have health-promoting properties, including effects on cell proliferation. The goal of this study was to determine whether physiological digestion of chickpea protein using pepsin and pancreatin could release this type of peptides. The THP-1 and Caco-2 cell lines were used as in vitro models to determine the effects of the hydrolysates on cell proliferation. Hydrolysates

Julio Girn-Calle; Manuel Alaiz; Javier Vioque



[Hepatoprotective properties of balm Herbamarin and hydrolysates from marine invertebrates in toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication].  


Protective properties of a syrup balm "Herbamarin" and food hydrolysates of scallop, octopus and crab were investigated using experimental toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication. Preventive administration of the balm and hydrolysates to animals subjected to an intoxications by 40% alcohol and CCl4 normalized clinical-diagnostic parameters of liver and blood plasma of experimental animals. PMID:15945353

Burtseva, T I; Semenova, N V; Popov, A M; Li, I A; Veselova, O B; Kozlovskaia, E P


Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties of milk protein-derived dipeptides and hydrolysates.  


Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. Trp-Val inhibited DPP-IV, however, inhibition was not observed with the reverse peptide Val-Trp. The most potent hydrolysate inhibitors were generated from casein (CasH2) and lactoferrin (LFH1). Two Trp containing dipeptides, Trp-Val and Val-Trp, and three lactoferrin hydrolysates scavenged DPPH. The dipeptides had higher SO EC(50) values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). Higher molecular mass fractions of the milk protein hydrolysates were associated with the SO scavenging activity. Trp-Val and one lactoferrin hydrolysate (LFH1) were multifunctional displaying both DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant (SO and DPPH scavenging) activities. These compounds may have potential as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes by virtue of their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to extend the half-life of incretin molecules. PMID:23219487

Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J



Enzymatic hydrolysis of recovered protein from frozen small croaker and functional properties of its hydrolysates.  


Fish protein isolate were recovered from frozen small croaker using pH shift. The partial enzymatic hydrolysates were fractionated as soluble and insoluble parts. They were dried using the drum dryer and their functional properties were examined. The total nitrogen content of the enzymatic hydrolysates ranged from 12.9% to 13.7%. The degree of hydrolysis of precipitates was 18.2% and 12.2% for croaker hydrolysates treated with Protamex 1.5 MG (Bacilllus protease complex) and Flavourzyme 500 MG (endoproteases and exoproteases, Aspergillus oryzae), respectively. The TCA supernatant, after centrifugation of hydrolysates, contained numerous peptides ranging from 100 to 4000 daltons. The solubility of the supernatants was higher than that of the precipitates at 0% to 3% NaCl and pH 2 to 10. The precipitate of Flavourzyme- and Protamex-treated hydrolysates showed a high emulsion activity index value compared to egg white and bovine plasma protein. In addition, the highest emulsion stability was observed for Protamex-treated precipitate hydrolysates. Emulsion stability of Protamex-treated precipitate hydrolysates was comparable to those of protein additives (egg white, bovine plasma protein, and soy protein concentrate). Water and fat binding capacity of precipitates were higher than those of supernatant. The results indicate that precipitate hydrolysate from undersized croaker can be used in processed muscle foods as a functional and nutritional ingredient. PMID:19200081

Choi, Yeung Joon; Hur, Sungik; Choi, Byeong-Dae; Konno, Kunihiko; Park, Jae W


First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot



Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.  


Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

Lpez, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J



Antioxidant activity of some protein hydrolysates and their fractions with different isoelectric points.  


Antioxidant activities of commercially available enzymatic hydrolysates of milk and plant proteins were examined. Among them, soy protein and wheat gluten hydrolysates showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and antioxidation activity against linoleic acid oxidation in emulsion systems. Peptide fractions with higher antioxidant activities than crude enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten and soy protein were prepared without toxic solvents and reagents. Peptides in these plant protein hydrolysates were fractionated on the basis of the amphoteric nature of sample peptides by preparative isoelectric focusing without adding chemically synthesized carrier ampholytes, which is termed autofocusing. The acidic fractions from both protein hydrolysates showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than the basic fractions, while the basic fractions strongly suppressed 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation of linoleic acid in an emulsion system. These acidic and basic peptide fractions would be useful to examine the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activities of peptides in food. PMID:18788748

Park, Eun Young; Morimae, Megumi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji



Continuous ethanol production from concentrated wood hydrolysates in an internal membrane-filtration bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

Continuous culture for the production of ethanol from wood hydrolysate was carried out in an internal membrane-filtration bioreactor. The hydrolysate medium was sterilized at a relatively low temperature of 60 C with the intention of reducing the formation of inhibitory compounds during the sterilization. The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity obtained in this study were 76.9 g/L and 16.9 g/L-h, respectively, which were much higher than those obtained in batch cultures using hydrolysate media sterilized at 60 C. The productivity was also found to be much higher than that obtained in a continuous cell retention culture using a wood hydrolysate sterilized at 121 C. These results show that the internal membrane-filtration bioreactor in combination with low-temperature sterilization could be very effective for ethanol production from wood hydrolysate.

Lee, W.G.; Park, B.G.; Chang, Y.K.; Chang, H.N.; Lee, J.S.; Park, S.C.



Transformation of Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink



Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, in this lesson students work in small groups to design experiments that will determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program


Antioxidative Activities and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Commercial Kamaboko Type Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysates were prepared from commercially available kamaboko type samples using three gastrointestinal proteases and protein proteases. The yields of these hydrolysates were about 1031% and these protein contents ranged from 62 to 533 g\\/mg per sample powder on their wet weight basis. The hydrolysates showed higher antioxidative activities and scavenging activities against active oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical

T. Nagai; N. Suzuki; T. Nagashima



Biohydrogen production from wheat straw hydrolysate by dark fermentation using extreme thermophilic mixed culture.  


Hydrolysate was tested as substrate for hydrogen production by extreme thermophilic mixed culture (70 degrees C) in both batch and continuously fed reactors. Hydrogen was produced at hydrolysate concentrations up to 25% (v/v), while no hydrogen was produced at hydrolysate concentration of 30% (v/v), indicating that hydrolysate at high concentrations was inhibiting the hydrogen fermentation process. In addition, the lag phase for hydrogen production was strongly influenced by the hydrolysate concentration, and was prolonged from approximately 11 h at the hydrolysate concentrations below 20% (v/v) to 38 h at the hydrolysate concentration of 25% (v/v). The maximum hydrogen yield as determined in batch assays was 318.4 +/- 5.2 mL-H(2)/g-sugars (14.2 +/- 0.2 mmol-H(2)/g-sugars) at the hydrolysate concentration of 5% (v/v). Continuously fed, and the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), operating at 3 day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and fed with 20% (v/v) hydrolysate could successfully produce hydrogen. The hydrogen yield and production rate were 178.0 +/- 10.1 mL-H(2)/g-sugars (7.9 +/- 0.4 mmol H(2)/g-sugars) and 184.0 +/- 10.7 mL-H(2)/day L(reactor) (8.2 +/- 0.5 mmol-H(2)/day L(reactor)), respectively, corresponding to 12% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from sugars. Additionally, it was found that toxic compounds, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), contained in the hydrolysate were effectively degraded in the CSTR, and their concentrations were reduced from 50 and 28 mg/L, respectively, to undetectable concentrations in the effluent. Phylogenetic analysis of the mixed culture revealed that members involved hydrogen producers in both batch and CSTR reactors were phylogenetically related to the Caldanaerobacter subteraneus, Thermoanaerobacter subteraneus, and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. PMID:19998285

Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Kotay, Meher; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini



Selection of Yarrowia lipolytica strains with high protein content from yeasts isolated from different marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 78 Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish, and marine algae were obtained. After the crude protein of the yeasts was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that seven strains of the marine yeasts grown in soy bean cake hydrolysate with 20 g L-1 of glucose for 48 h at 28C contained more than 41.0 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight and the cell dry weight was more than 4.4 g per L of the culture. Among them, strain SWJ-1b contained the highest crude protein. The results of Biolog identification and molecular methods further confirmed that they indeed belonged to Y. lipolytica.

Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Xianghong



RNA Isolation from Yeast Using Silica Matrices  

PubMed Central

RNA isolation from yeast is complicated by the need to initially break the cell wall. While this can be accomplished by glass bead disruption or enzyme treatment, these approaches result in DNA contamination and/or the need for incubation periods. We have developed a protocol for the isolation of RNA samples from yeast that minimizes degradation by RNases and incorporates two purification steps: acid phenol extraction and binding to a silica matrix. The procedure requires no precipitation steps, facilitating automation, and can be completed in less than 90 min. The RNA quality is ideal for microarray analysis.

Mutiu, A. Irina; Brandl, Christopher J.



Efficacy of plant extracts rich in secondary constituents to modify rumen fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant extracts with different secondary constituents were simultaneously evaluated in an eight fermenter rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) for their effects on ruminal fermentation pattern. Specifically, a Yucca schidigera extract containing the saponin compound sarsaponin was supplied at three concentrations (1, 20 and 100mg sarsaponin\\/kg dry matter (DM)) and was compared to a Castanea sativa wood extract containing hydrolysable tannins

B. J. ?liwi?ski; Carla R. Soliva; Andrea Machmller; M. Kreuzer



Effect of Disruption Methods on the Dead-End Microfiltration Behavior of Yeast Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

High voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) were compared for extracting intracellular compounds from yeasts. The efficiency of cell disruption was evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity, UV-spectroscopy, etc. It was shown that the HPH permits better extraction than HVED. The filtrations of yeast suspension were studied in a dead-end stirred cell. The filtration of untreated, HVED

Dan Liu; Raphalle Savoire; Eugne Vorobiev; Jean-Louis Lanoisell



Nucleic Acid Amplification in Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmid DNA from single yeast colonies was efficiently amplified using rolling circle amplification (RCA). The amplified DNA was directly used for restriction digestion, DNA sequencing, and yeast transformation. The RCA of plasmid DNA from single yeast co...

W. Farmerie W. Y. Song X. Ding



Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.  


The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPAR?, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace



Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism.

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset



Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

PubMed Central

Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support intestinal health. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity. Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [3H] thymidine incorporation into epithelial rat intestinal RIE-1 and human colonic HT29 cells. Effects on restitution (cell migration) were analysed using wounded HT29 monolayers and its ability to influence gastric injury analysed using a rat indomethacin restraint model. Partial characterisation of bioactive agents was performed using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Results: Both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased by about threefold when added at 1 mg/ml (p<0.01). Gastric injury was reduced by 59% when gavaged at 25 mg/ml (p<0.05), results similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 12.5 ?g/ml. The vast majority of biological activity was soluble in ethanol, with glutamine in its single, di-, and tripeptide forms probably accounting for approximately 40% of the total bioactivity seen. Fatty acid constituents may also have contributed to cell migratory activity. Conclusions: Fish protein hydrolysate possesses biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies appear justified.

Fitzgerald, A J; Rai, P S; Marchbank, T; Taylor, G W; Ghosh, S; Ritz, B W; Playford, R J



Collagen metabolism of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage as modulated by bovine collagen hydrolysates.  


Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha, Peptan B 5000, Peptan B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE(2), MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n?=?5-12). The significance was set to p?0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan B 5000 elevated NO and PGE(2) levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA. PMID:23342047

Schadow, Saskia; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Lochnit, Gnter; Kordelle, Jens; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jrgen



Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)



Development of a practical and cost-effective medium for bioethanol production from the seaweed hydrolysate in surface-aerated fermentor by repeated-batch operation.  


To develop a practical and cost-effective medium for bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum, we investigated the feasibility and performance of bioethanol production in CSL (cornsteep liquor)-containing medium, where yeast Pichia stipitis was used and the repeated batch was carried out in a surface-aerated fermentor. The optimal medium replacement time during the repeated operation was determined to be 36 h, and the surface aeration rates were 30 and 100 ml/min. Under these conditions, the repeatedbatch operation was successfully carried out for 6 runs (216 h), in which the maximum bioethanol concentrations reached about 11-12 g/l at each batch operation. These results demonstrated that bioethanol production could be carried out repeatedly and steadily for 216 h. In these experiments, the total cumulative bioethanol production was 57.9 g and 58.0 g when the surface aeration rates were 30 ml/min and 100 ml/min, respectively. In addition, the bioethanol yields were 0.43 (about 84% of theoretical value) and 0.44 (about 86% of theoretical value) when the surface aeration rates were 30 ml/min and 100 ml/min, respectively. CSL was successfully used as a medium ingredient for the bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum, indicating that this medium may be practical and cost-effective for bioethanol production. PMID:22297226

Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ga-Young; Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan



Effect of agitation rate on ethanol production from sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis.  


Concentrated dilute acid hydrolysate was obtained from hot water extracts of Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and was fermented to ethanol by Pichia stipitis in a 1.3-L-benchtop bioreactor. The conditions under which the highest ethanol yield was achieved were when the air flow rate was set to 100 cm(3) and the agitation rate was set to 150 rpm resulting in an overall mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) of 0.108 min(-1). A maximum ethanol concentration of 29.7 g/L was achieved after 120 h of fermentation; however, after 90 h of fermentation, the ethanol concentration was only slightly lower at 29.1 g/L with a yield of 0.39 g ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Using the same air flow rate and adjusting the agitation rate resulted in lower ethanol yields of 0.25 g/g at 50 rpm and 0.30 g/g at 300 rpm. The time it takes to reach the maximum ethanol concentration was also affected by the agitation rate. The ethanol concentration continued to increase even after 130 h of fermentation when the agitation rate was set at 50 rpm, whereas the maximum ethanol concentration was reached after only 68.5 h at 300 rpm. PMID:21603950

Shupe, Alan M; Liu, Shijie



Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall hydrolysate induces ROS and fungistatic VOCs in rice cell cultures.  


Plants react to microbial attack with a number of defense mechanisms, including the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These responses are triggered by elicitors derived from either the cell surface of pathogens or the incomplete hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. Here we show the response of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv Gigante Vercelli) cell cultures following treatment with cell wall hydrolysates prepared from the rice blast Magnaporthe oryzae. Elicitation prompted the production of several plant VOCs, which were analyzed by stir bar sorptive extraction from both the liquid and head-space phase (SBSE and HSSE, respectively) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. VOCs included alkanes, alkenes and long-chain alcohols as well as cinnamyl alcohol, myristicin, a sesquiterpene alcohol (caryolan-1-ol), 1-butanamide and 2-pentylfuran. The major released compounds, 1-octanol and 1-decanol, were found to induce ROS production in both elicited and non-elicited rice cells and showed fungistatic activity against the pathogen M. oryzae. The possible role of induced VOCs and ROS production in the plant-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:21831477

Forlani, Giuseppe; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bossi, Simone; Bertea, Cinzia M; Varese, Cristina; Maffei, Massimo E



Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results

Z. Duvnjak; N. Kosaric; S. Kliza; D. Hayes



Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts.  


Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fregilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Result indicate that this row material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. PMID:18546207

Duvnjak, Z; Kosaric, N; Kliza, S; Hayes, D



Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.  


Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang



Genetic Improvement of Baker's Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts have been used for many thousands of years to produce leavened bread. Nowadays the production of baker's yeast biomass represents a highly competitive multi-billion dollar global industry. The environmental conditions that prevail during manufacture and application of baker's yeasts, coupled with the sheer variety of bread making processes and recipes used around the world, place considerable demands on yeasts.

Paul V. Attfield; Philip J. L. Bell



Active oxygen scavenging activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates and their effects on lipid oxidation in beef and tuna homogenates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates were prepared by the enzymic hydrolysis of fat-free egg-yolk protein. The active oxygen scavenging activity, of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates, was investigated using several methods. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates suppressed discoloration of ?-carotene, strongly as compared with the control in ?-carotene bleaching method. Superoxide-scavenging activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates was measured using the xanthinexanthine oxidase system. Egg-yolk protein hydrolysates

Senji Sakanaka; Yumi Tachibana



TRP channels in yeast.  


Microbes have made numerous contributions to the study of biology and medicine. Those contributions also include many original discovery's in the study of ion channels often thought as the province of neuroscientists or cardiophysiologists. Yeast have long been used as a model organism and TRP channel genes and their transmembrane products touted as the "vanguards of the sensory system" can be identified in the genomes of many yeasts. This article aims to review the study of these TRP channels in yeast their discovery, electrophysiological properties and physiological function. PMID:21290303

Kaleta, Marta; Palmer, Christopher



Production and characterization of a soy protein-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory hydrolysate.  


We have produced a soy protein-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory hydrolysate and characterized its activity, physicochemical, and biochemical properties. The final yield of the hydrolysate was 8.47% (protein basis) with an IC50 value for ACE inhibitory activity of 0.048 mg of protein/mL. ACE inhibitory activity remained stable after a 2-hour incubation with gastric enzymes in vitro. These hydrolysates were shown to be competitive inhibitors as evaluated by the Lineweaver-Burk plots. These ACE inhibitory hydrolysates from soy proteins have potential as biofunctional food components, which have an economic advantage over single purified peptides for the treatment of hypertension and may be incorporated into foods with functional benefits. PMID:16176139

Cha, Myeonghwa; Park, Jyung Rewng



Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.  


Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. PMID:23567135

Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J



Catalytic Properties of Phosphopyruvate Carboxylase from Bakers' Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHOSPHOPYRUVATE (P-EP) carboxylase (systematic name: ATP: oxalacetate carboxy-lyase) (transphosphorylating) is the enzyme responsible for carbon dioxide fixation and oxalacetic acid (OA) synthesis in bakers' yeast1. The enzyme can be extracted soluble from acetone-dried yeast and purified with the procedure summarized in Table 1. P-EP carboxylation was measured at 30 with a spectro-photometrie method. The reaction mixture was made of 0.7

J. J. B. Cannata; A. O. M. Stoppani



Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysate against mastitis pathogens and its effect on superoxide production of bovine neutrophils.  


Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysates (LFH) on microorganisms isolated from bovine mastitis, and superoxide (O(2)(-)) production of bovine neutrophils were evaluated. Antibacterial effects of LFH were measured in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, yeast-like fungi and Prototheca zopfii isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis. To compare susceptibilities against LFH, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by a micro-plate assay method. Most organisms were sensitive to LFH. Prototheca zopfii was highly sensitive to LFH; the growth of the microorganism was inhibited completely even at 1 mug/ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were resistant to LFH. The production of O(2)(-) by bovine neutrophils was used to evaluate the effect of LFH administration on functional activity. Increase in O(2)(-) production by bovine neutrophils occurred upon addition of LFH to neutrophils. These results demonstrate that LFH possesses antibacterial activity against pathogens that cause mastitis and activates neutrophil superoxide production. PMID:17456148

Kawai, K; Shimazaki, K; Higuchi, H; Nagahata, H



Antioxidant properties of whey protein hydrolysates as measured by three methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Protamex) were used for the preparation of whey protein hydrolysates.\\u000a The aim of this research was to find out whether these hydrolysates can be used as a source of whey derived antioxidants.\\u000a Hydrolyzed samples, including their unhydrolyzed protein solutions were tested by the ABTS (2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic\\u000a acid) decolorization assay, by the total radical-trapping potential

Adriena Drykov; Anne Pihlanto; Pertti Marnila; Ladislav ?urda; Hannu J. T. Korhonen



Tobacco biomass hydrolysate enhances coenzyme Q10 production using photosynthetic Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidative dietary supplement, was produced using a photosynthetic bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum ATCC 25852 by submerged fermentation supplemented with tobacco biomass hydrolysate (TBH) in comparison with media supplemented with hydrolysates prepared with alfalfa (ABH) or spinach (SBH). Growth medium supplemented with 20% (v\\/v) TBH was found favorable with regard to cell density and CoQ10 concentration. The

Yuting Tian; Tianli Yue; Yahong Yuan; Pavan K. Soma; Patrick D. Williams; Peter A. Machado; Hong Fu; Robert J. Kratochvil; Cheng-i Wei; Y. Martin Lo



Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber ( Paracaudina chinens var. ) gelatin hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate\\u000a was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa)\\u000a was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for

Mingyong Zeng; Feng Xiao; Yuanhui Zhao; Zunying Liu; Bafang Li; Shiyuan Dong



Effects of Chinese wolfberry ( Lycium chinense P. Mill.) leaf hydrolysates on the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth stimulating effects of LYCH leaf hydrolysates on Pediococcus acidilactici IMT101 cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with 20% (v\\/v) H1+H2, the mixture of hydrolysates prepared by a traditional tea-making process. Cells grown on MRS containing H1+H2 showed a shortened lag phase while yielding a cell concentration (Xs) significantly higher than other conditions investigated entering stationary phase. The

Yi-Chun Yeh; Tae-Shik Hahm; Cristina M. Sabliov; Y. Martin Lo



Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad



Human insulinotropic response to oral ingestion of native and hydrolysed whey protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysate, independent of carbohydrate, is\\u000a not known. This study examined the effect of protein hydrolysis on the insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein.\\u000a Sixteen healthy males ingested a 500 mL solution containing either 45 g of whey protein (WPI) or whey protein hydrolysate\\u000a (WPH). The estimated

O. Power; A. Hallihan; P. Jakeman



Concentration and purification of blue whiting peptide hydrolysates by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the performances of the membrane processes during the treatment of blue whiting peptide hydrolysates.Ultrafiltration with high molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) can be used for the separation between peptides and non-hydrolyzed proteins. A membrane of MWCO 20kDa was tested on hydrolysates containing 11.4g of peptides per liter of solution. Steady fluxes were satisfactory (100l\\/h\\/m2 at 12bars

Laurent Vandanjon; Ragnar Johannsson; Maryse Derouiniot; Patrick Bourseau; Pascal Jaouen



Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195C for 1012min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen

Prasad Kaparaju; Mara Serrano; Irini Angelidaki



Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus ) collagen hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional\\u000a properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion\\u000a activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates

Zunying Liu; Yicheng Su; Mingyong Zeng



Obtaining of Brassica carinata protein hydrolysates enriched in bioactive peptides using immobilized digestive proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica carinata protein hydrolysates were obtained by sequential hydrolysis with immobilized trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase A on glioxyl-agarose supports. The final protein hydrolysate with a 36% degree of hydrolysis was made up of peptides smaller than 15kDa. Three peptide fractions were obtained after gel filtration chromatography and antioxidative, hypocholesterolemic, and inhibitory of angiotensin converting enzyme activities were assayed in comparison

J. Pedroche; M. M. Yust; H. Lqari; C. Megias; J. Girn-Calle; M. Alaiz; J. Vioque; F. Milln



Foaming and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate and hydrolysates in skin and hair care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing market for formulating proteins into a wide variety of products including laundry detergents, bath products,\\u000a shampoos, and skin cleansers. Soy protein isolate (SPI), soy protein hydrolysate A (SPHA) from papainmodified SPI, and hydrolysate\\u000a B from papain- and proteasemodified SPI were used in blends with three major detergents, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium\\u000a laureth sulfate (SLS), and

Wu Wu; N. S. Hettiarachchy



Fractionation of whey protein hydrolysates using charged UF\\/NF membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to separate peptides from a tryptic hydrolysates of whey proteins with charged UF\\/NF membranes has been investigated. A total hydrolysate (TH) was prepared by tryptic hydrolysis of a commercial whey protein isolate followed by UF-treatment using a 10kDa MWCO in order to remove the enzyme and non-hydrolyzed material from the reaction mixture. Firstly, five different membrane materials were

Y. Pouliot; M. C. Wijers; S. F. Gauthier; L. Nadeau



Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and biochemical properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein were studied. The molecular weight of the main peaks of the hydrolysates by both Alcalase and Flavourzyme was lower than 5000Da. The hydrolysates treated by Alcalase for ?1.5h (hydrolysis time) showed that the relative proportion of <1000Da fraction was more than 60%. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis

Shiyuan Dong; Mingyong Zeng; Dongfeng Wang; Zunying Liu; Yuanhui Zhao; Huicheng Yang



Amino Acid Profiling of Protein Hydrolysates Using Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatography procedure is described for separating the amino acids in protein hydrolysates. The proteins are hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid and an aliquot of the hydrolysate is derivatized with dansyl chloride reagent. The derivatization procedure takes only 2 minutes using a reaction temperature of 100C. The dansylated amino acids are chromatographed using a reversed-phase C8 column and a multi-step,

G. J. Schmidt; D. C. Olson; Walter Slavin



Functional properties of soy protein hydrolysate produced from a continuous membrane reactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of soy protein hydrolysates were produced by hydrolysis of isolated soy protein (ISP) with a combination of Alcalase and Flavourzyme in a continuous membrane system with 3000 and 30,000 daltons molecular-weight-cut-off (MWCO) membranes, respectively. Both hydrolysates were completely soluble over a pH range of 29. Their water-binding capacity increased 1.83.4 times at a water activity of 0.60.95 as

Wen-Dee Chiang; Chieh-Jen Shih; Yan-Hwa Chu



Production of whey protein hydrolysates with reduced allergenicity in a stable membrane reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a process for the stable production of low allergenicity hydrolysates is presented. Whey protein was hydrolysed at 50C and pH 8.5 using a bacterial protease in a continuous stirred tank membrane reactor including a polyethersulfone plate and frame ultrafiltration module with a molecular weight cut-off of 3kDa. The reactor was maintained in operation for 16h. Conversion reached

Antonio Guadix; Fernando Camacho; Emilia M. Guadix



Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.  


In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study demonstrates that Pichia stipitis is able to grow and ferment sugars to ethanol in detoxified hazelnut hydrolysate derived from delignified biomass. PMID:20599381

Arslan, Ye?im; Eken-Sarao?lu, Nurdan



Yeast infections (image)  


Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.


Mutant yeast on drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing drug-treated and mutant yeast cells with the new tools of genomics enables the identification of drug targets and should improve the odds of developing useful therapeutics (pages 12931301).

David J. Lockhart



[Aspects of yeast biodiversity].  


Yeast biodiversity represents a dynamic scientific domain characterized by permanent emerging theories and accumulation of new data. Identification of genome structure for a number of yeast species and elucidation of regulatory pathways for species-specific metabolic networks, lead to development of numerous applications of yeasts in industry, biotechnology, therapeutics and bioremediation. The studies of the scientific community were long time focused on Saccharomyces cerevisae due mainly to its use in food production. Therefore, the species belonging to Saccharomyces genus became reference points for genomics and biodiversity studies. During last decades there is a growing interest for yeast species able to produce biomass by assimilating or degrading various compounds such as methanol, hydrocarbons, wood hydrolisates and other residues or by-products from different industries. PMID:23745219

Csutak, Ortansa; Vassu, Tatiana


Biotransformation of vegetable and fruit processing wastes into yeast biomass enriched with selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extracts of cabbage, watermelon, a mixture of residual biomass of green salads and tropical fruits were used for yeast cultivation. These extracts contained from 1420 to 8900 mg\\/l of dissolved organic matter, and from 600 to 1800 mg\\/l of nitrogen. pH of the extracts was in the range from 4.1 to 6.4. Biomass concentration of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEE

Olena Stabnikova; Jing-Yuan Wang; Hong Bo Ding; Joo-HwaTay



Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe.  


Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe, hydrolysed by Alcalase 2.4 L (RPH) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) at various concentrations were examined. As DH increased, the reduction of DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and reducing power were noticeable (p<0.05). The increases in metal chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were attained with increasing DH (p<0.05). However, chelating activity gradually decreased at DH above 30%. All activities except superoxide anion radical scavenging activity increased as the concentration of hydrolysate increased (p<0.05). Hydrolysis using Alcalase could increase protein solubility to above 80% over a wide pH range (2-10). The highest emulsion ability index (EAI) and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were observed at low DH (5%) (p<0.05). Concentrations of hydrolysates determined interfacial properties differently, depending on DH. The molecular weight distribution of RPH with 5%DH (RPH5) was determined using Sephadex G-75 column. Two major peaks with the molecular weight of 57.8 and 5.5kDa were obtained. Fraction with MW of 5.5 had the strongest metal chelating activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results reveal that protein hydrolysates from defatted skipjack roe could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:22980906

Intarasirisawat, Rossawan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Wu, Jianping



Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Ber; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen



Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of green chemistry. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand


Effects of Nitrogen Composition on Fermentation Performance of Brewer's Yeast and the Absorption of Peptides with Different Molecular Weights.  


Four kinds of worts with different nitrogen compositions were used to examine their effects on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast. The absorption pattern of peptides with different molecular weights (Mw) in yeast cells during wort fermentation was also investigated. Results showed that both the nitrogen composition and level had significant impacts on the yeast biomass accumulation, ethanol production, and free amino nitrogen and sugars consumption rates. Worts supplemented with wheat gluten hydrolysates increased 11.5% of the biomass, 5.9% of fermentability, and 0.6% of ethanol content and decreased 25.6% of residual sugar content during wort fermentation. Moreover, yeast cells assimilated peptides with various Mw differently during fermentation. Peptides with Mw below 1 kDa decreased quickly, and the rate of assimilation was more than 50% at the end of fermentation, while those with Mw above 10 kDa almost could not be assimilated by yeast. All these results further indicated that the level and composition of wort nitrogen had significant impacts on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer's yeast, and peptides with Mw below 1 kDa were one of preferred nitrogen sources for brewer's yeast. PMID:23955296

Mo, Fen; Zhao, Haifeng; Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Mouming



Antihyperlipidemic and antitumor effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate.  


This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate (CAH) on antihyperlipidemic and antitumor functions. The antihyperlipidemic results showed that CAH exhibited a dose dependent ability to decrease the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Additionally, the appearance of the hyperlipidemic livers was ameliorated significantly. The antitumor results showed that CAH administration significantly increased the tumor inhibition rate and decreased tumor volume. CAH was also able to increase the spleen index and promote spleen lymphocyte proliferation. In addition, CAH treatment led to a remarkable rise in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while dramatically decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Most importantly, we found that the physical conditions, such as appetite, activity, and coat luster of the mice in the CAH test group were better than those in the tumor control (TC) and positive control (PC) groups. These results taken together indicate that CAH warrants being further investigated and developed as an adjunctive element for hepatic lipid control, as well as antitumor and hypolipidemic therapies. PMID:22972402

Xue, Zhaohui; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijun; Yu, Wancong; Wang, Hua; Kou, Xiaohong



Glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment is affected by the starch content in rice straw.  


Lignocellulosic biomass, such as rice straw, is often utilized as a bioresource after being hydrolyzed using dilute acid and separated into liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue. However, the biomass component that determines the distribution between liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue has not yet been clarified. In this study, the glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate and weight of acid-insoluble residue of 13 rice cultivars were analyzed. Starch content was positively correlated with glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate, and negatively correlated with acid-insoluble residue weight. These results indicate that the glucose in the liquid hydrolysate is mainly liberated from starch rather than cellulose in the rice straw. These observations suggest that starch content is a good indicator of the glucose distribution between the liquid hydrolysate and insoluble residue. PMID:24140898

Teramura, Hiroshi; Oshima, Tomoko; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Kengo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kondo, Akihiko



Antioxidant and Free Radical-Scavenging Activities of Goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) Muscle Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Enzymatic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from goby muscle by treatment with various bacterial alkaline proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A1, Bacillus pumilus A26, and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Alcalase were investigated. All hydrolysates showed different degrees of hydrolysis. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

Rim Nasri; Ali Bougatef; Hayet Ben Khaled; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Maha Karra Chabouni; Pascal Dhulster; Moncef Nasri



Ethanol Production from Sunflower Seed Hull Hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis under Uncontrolled pH Conditions in a Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from sunflower seed hull hydrolysate was evaluated using Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 in this study. The hydrolysate was prepared with 0.7 M H2SO4 and a solid\\/liquid ratio of 1\\/5 (w\\/v) at 90?C. Fermentation of detoxified hydrolysate was carried out in a batch bioreactor system under uncontrolled pH operation at initial pH of 6 at 30 ?C. The influence



Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined,

J. N. Nigam; R. S. Ireland; A. Margaritis; M. A. Lachance



Glucagon and insulin responses after ingestion of different amounts of intact and hydrolysed proteins.  


Ingestion of dietary protein is known to induce both insulin and glucagon secretion. These responses may be affected by the dose and the form (intact or hydrolysed) in which protein is ingested. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of intact protein and protein hydrolysate of a vegetable (soya) and animal (whey) protein on insulin and glucagon responses and to study the effect of increasing protein loads for both intact protein and protein hydrolysate in man. The study employed a repeated-measures design with Latin-square randomisation and single-blind trials. Twelve healthy non-obese males ingested three doses (0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg body weight) of intact soya protein (SPI) and soya protein hydrolysate (SPH). Another group of twelve healthy male subjects ingested three doses (0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg body weight) of intact whey protein (WPI) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Blood was sampled before (t = 0) and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after protein ingestion for insulin, glucagon and glucose determination. SPI induced a higher total area under the curve for insulin and glucagon than SPH while no difference between WPI and WPH was found. Insulin and glucagon responses increased with increasing protein load for SPI, SPH, WPI and WPH, but the effect was more pronounced for glucagon. A higher dose of protein or its hydrolysate will result in a lower insulin:glucagon ratio, an important parameter for the control of postprandial substrate metabolism. In conclusion, insulin and glucagon responses were protein and hydrolysate specific. PMID:18167171

Claessens, Mandy; Saris, Wim H M; van Baak, Marleen A



Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  


Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P



Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of protein hydrolysates from zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  


The present study investigates the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of protein hydrolysates obtained from zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) muscles treated with three different crude alkaline protease extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AIDR). Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that zebra blenny protein hydrolysates (ZBPHs) were valuable sources of essential amino acids and rich in leucine, which is one of the active ingredients for blood glucose control by inducing insulin release in both rats and humans. Treatment of AIDR with ZBPHs revealed a significant inhibition of ?-amylase activity in serum and the intestine, as well as a reduction of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic rats. Further, ZBPHs also decreased significantly the triglyceride (TG), total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels in the serum and liver of diabetic rats, while they increased the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) level, which helped to maintain the homeostasis of blood lipids. Furthermore, ZBPHs exhibited potent protective effects against heart attack markers by reversing myocardial enzyme serum back to normal levels. ZBPHs may also exert significant protective effects on liver function, evidenced by a marked decrease in the level of serum bilirubin as well as in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). These beneficial effects of ZBPHs were confirmed by histological findings in the hepatic and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Indeed, they avoid lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes and protect the pancreatic ?-cells from degeneration. Overall, the findings of the current study indicate that ZBPHs significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in AIDR. PMID:24104463

Ktari, Naourez; Mnafgui, Kais; Nasri, Rim; Hamden, Khaled; Bkhairia, Intidhar; Ben Hadj, Ada; Boudaouara, Tahia; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Nasri, Moncef



Comparison of the absorption of two protein hydrolysates and their effects on water and electrolyte movements in the human jejunum.  

PubMed Central

Because of the generally more rapid amino acid absorption and lower osmotic pressure of small peptides compared with free amino acids, it has been suggested that 'elemental' diets should contain both small peptides and free amino acids as the nitrogen source. While studying protein hydrolysates intended for use in such diets we observed surprising differences in the absorption of amino acids, water, and Na+ during jejunal perfusion of partial enzymic hydrolysates of two proteins (lactalbumin and fish) which contained high and approximately equal amounts of their constituent amino acids in the form of small peptides. Total alpha amino nitrogen (alpha NH2N) absorption from the lactalbumin hydrolysate was greater, and individual amino acid absorption more even, than from equinitrogenous solutions of the fish protein hydrolysate, or from mixture of free amino acids simulating either hydrolysate. Net water and Na+ absorption occurred during perfusion of the lactalbumin hydrolysate, whereas net water and Na+ secretion occurred during perfusion of the fish protein hydrolysate. These differences were significant (P < 0.05 or less). As the differences between the hydrolysates are so marked, we conclude that it is unwise to assume that all protein hydrolysates are equally suitable for use in patients.

Fairclough, P D; Hegarty, J E; Silk, D B; Clark, M L



Comparison of the absorption of two protein hydrolysates and their effects on water and electrolyte movements in the human jejunum.  


Because of the generally more rapid amino acid absorption and lower osmotic pressure of small peptides compared with free amino acids, it has been suggested that 'elemental' diets should contain both small peptides and free amino acids as the nitrogen source. While studying protein hydrolysates intended for use in such diets we observed surprising differences in the absorption of amino acids, water, and Na+ during jejunal perfusion of partial enzymic hydrolysates of two proteins (lactalbumin and fish) which contained high and approximately equal amounts of their constituent amino acids in the form of small peptides. Total alpha amino nitrogen (alpha NH2N) absorption from the lactalbumin hydrolysate was greater, and individual amino acid absorption more even, than from equinitrogenous solutions of the fish protein hydrolysate, or from mixture of free amino acids simulating either hydrolysate. Net water and Na+ absorption occurred during perfusion of the lactalbumin hydrolysate, whereas net water and Na+ secretion occurred during perfusion of the fish protein hydrolysate. These differences were significant (P < 0.05 or less). As the differences between the hydrolysates are so marked, we conclude that it is unwise to assume that all protein hydrolysates are equally suitable for use in patients. PMID:7192244

Fairclough, P D; Hegarty, J E; Silk, D B; Clark, M L



Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.


Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.



Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed.

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L



Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii.  


In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L(-1) glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L(-1)) was used to produce 20.1 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L(-1) total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of 86 g L(-1) wheat straw) was used, the culture produced 25.0 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.60 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.42, respectively. These results are superior to the control experiment and productivity was improved by 214%. When WSH was supplemented with 35 g L(-1) glucose, a reactor productivity was improved to 0.63 g L(-1 )h(-1) with a yield of 0.42. In this case, ABE concentration in the broth was 28.2 g L(-1). When WSH was supplemented with 60 g L(-1) glucose, the resultant medium containing 128.3 g L(-1) sugars was successfully fermented (due to product removal) to produce 47.6 g L(-1) ABE, and the culture utilized all the sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose). These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii P260 has excellent capacity to convert biomass derived sugars to solvents and can produce over 28 g L(-1) (in one case 41.7 g L(-1) from glucose) ABE from WSH. Medium containing 250 g L(-1) glucose resulted in no growth and no ABE production. Mixtures containing WSH + 140 g L(-1) glucose (total sugar approximately 200 g L(-1)) showed poor growth and poor ABE production. PMID:17609986

Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A




PubMed Central

Inversion of sucrose by bakers' yeast follows the same course as inversion catalyzed by yeast invertase. Rate of inversion increases exponentially with temperature; the temperature characteristic in the Arrhenius equation is 10,700 below 1317C., and 8,300 above that temperature. Temperature inactivation occurs above 40C. The effects of temperature upon rate of inversion were the same using Fleischmann's yeast cake, the same yeast killed with toluene, and a pure strain (G. M. No. 21062) of bakers' yeast. The last differed from the other two only in the fact that its critical temperature was 13C. as compared with 17C. for the others. The catalytic inversion is associated with enzyme activity inside the cell, not in the medium, and is independent of any vital processes inside the cell such as respiration and fermentation. Since invertase activity is the same inside the cell as it is after extraction, it appears possible to relate the temperature characteristics for physiological processes to the catalytic chemical systems which determine their rate. At least two enzymes are capable of inverting sucrose in the yeast cell. The familiar yeast invertase ( = 10,700) is active below 1317C. while a second enzyme (M = 8,300) plays the dominant role above that temperature.

Sizer, Irwin W.



Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  


Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva E Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro



Treatment with lignin residue: a novel method for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates.  


Acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose to hydrolysates intended for production of fuel ethanol results in the formation of byproducts in addition to fermentable sugars. Some of the byproducts, such as phenolic compounds and furan aldehydes, are inhibitory to the fermenting microorganism. Detoxification of the hydrolysates may be necessary for production of ethanol at a satisfactory rate and yield. The lignin residue obtained after hydrolysis is a material with hydrophobic properties that is produced in large amounts as a byproduct within an ethanol production process based on lignocellulosic raw materials. We have explored the possibility of using this lignin residue for detoxification of spruce dilute-acid hydrolysates prior to fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three dilute-acid hydrolysates of spruce were treated with lignin residue, which in all cases resulted in improved fermentability in terms of productivity and yield of ethanol. The effect was improved by washing the lignin before treatment, by using larger amounts of lignin in the treatment, and by performing the treatment at low temperature. Treatment with the lignin residue removed up to 53% of the phenolic compounds and up to 68% of the furan aldehydes in a spruce dilute-acid hydrolysate. A larger fraction of furfural was removed compared to the less hydrophobic 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. PMID:12018282

Bjrklund, Linda; Larsson, Simona; Jnsson, Leif J; Reimann, Ers; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof



Toxic effects of dietary hydrolysed lipids: an in vivo study on fish larvae.  


We have previously described that fish larvae absorb a larger fraction of dietary monoacylglycerol than TAG. To investigate how dietary hydrolysed lipids affect a vertebrate at early life stages over time, we fed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae six diets with different degrees of hydrolysed lipids for 30 d. The different diets had no effect on growth, but there was a positive correlation between the level of hydrolysed lipids in the diets and mortality. Important genes in lipid metabolism, such as PPAR, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), were regulated by the different diets. Genes involved in the oxidative stress response did not respond to the increased lipid hydrolysation in the diets. However, enterocyte damage was observed in animals fed diets with 2.7 % NEFA (diet 3) or more. It is thus possible that mortality was due to infections and/or osmotic stress due to the exposure of the subepithelial tissue. In contrast to earlier experiments showing a positive effect of dietary hydrolysed lipids, we have demonstrated a toxic effect of dietary NEFA on Atlantic cod larvae. Toxicity is not acute but needs time to accumulate. PMID:22813630

Sle, ystein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Olsvik, Pl A; Hjelle, Jan I; Harboe, Torstein; Hamre, Kristin



Defatted Jatropha curcas flour and protein isolate as materials for protein hydrolysates with biological activity.  


Jatropha curcas L. protein hydrolysates were produced by treatment of a non-toxic genotype with Alcalase as well as the digestive enzymes pepsin and pancreatin. The J. curcas protein hydrolysate produced with the pepsin-pancreatin system from protein isolate had the highest TEAC value and was shown to undergo single-electron transfer reactions in the ABTS(+) reduction assay, demonstrating its antioxidant capacity. Testing of antimicrobial activity in the J. curcas protein hydrolysates against seven bacterial pathogens showed no growth inhibitory effect in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. More ACE-I inhibitory active peptides were produced in the Alcalase hydrolysates obtained from J. curcas protein isolate. The protein hydrolysate obtained with Alcalase from defatted J. curcas flour as well as from the protein isolate showed the highest inhibitory effect of ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma. It is expected that the information collated will facilitate new applications of proteins present in Jatropha plant. PMID:23265458

Marrufo-Estrada, Duly M; Segura-Campos, Maira R; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A; Betancur-Ancona, David A



Application of taste sensing system for characterisation of enzymatic hydrolysates from shrimp processing by-products.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an instrumental taste-sensing system to distinguish between shrimp processing by-products hydrolysates produced using different proteases and hydrolysis conditions, and the possible association of taste sensor outputs with human gustatory assessment, salt content, and bioactivity. Principal component analysis of taste sensor output data categorised samples according to the proteases used for hydrolysis. High umami sensor outputs were characteristic of bromelain- and Flavourzyme-produced hydrolysates, compared to low saltiness and high bitterness outputs of Alcalase-produced hydrolysates, and high saltiness and low umami outputs of Protamex-produced hydrolysates. Extensively hydrolysed samples showed higher sourness outputs. Saltiness sensor outputs were correlated with conductivity and sodium content, while umami sensor responses were related to gustatory sweetness, bitterness and umami, as well as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Further research should explore the dose dependence and sensitivity of each taste sensor to specific amino acids and peptides. PMID:24128587

Cheung, Imelda W Y; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y



Almond protein hydrolysate fraction modulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in activated macrophages.  


Simulated gastrointestinal treatment of almond proteins with pepsin and pancreatic proteases resulting in 16.6% degree of hydrolysis or 1.33 milliequivalent leucine per g protein yielded a hydrolysate that modulated excessive nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. After fractionation, a resulting fraction of molecular size > 5 kDa retained the nitric oxide modulatory effect observed initially in the crude hydrolysate. The high molecular size fraction was found to modulate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the activated cells. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the hydrolysate fraction decreased the expression levels of inflammatory enzyme indicators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the activated cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment of the activated cells with the hydrolysate fraction resulted in the inhibition of relative gene expressions of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, iNOS and COX-2. These results indicate a potential application of almond protein hydrolysates against inflammatory conditions, and will contribute to delineating the possible contributions of proteins to health benefits attributed to almond consumption. PMID:23575976

Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Je, Jae-Young; Cho, Young-Sook; Yada, Rickey Y



Methods for yeast characterization from industrial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work compared the efficiency of four methods for the identification of industrial yeast strains and the establishment of a pattern for yeast characterization to be used during industrial fermentation processes, allowing the detection of yeast contaminants. Five strains of yeast currently used in the Brazilian fuel alcohol industry (about 99% of the yeast used for this purpose), and yeast

Luiz H Gomes; Keila M. R Duarte; Juan L Argueso; Sergio Echeverrigaray; Flavio C. A Tavares



L-arabinose fermenting yeast  


An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)



Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.



Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast.  


Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3' tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose, the activity of the "wheat gene" driven by the GAL10 promoter is low and ACCase becomes limiting for growth, a condition expected to enhance transgenic yeast sensitivity to wheat ACCase-specific inhibitors. An aryloxyphenoxypropionate and two cyclohexanediones do not inhibit growth of haploid yeast strains containing the yeast ACC1 gene, but one cyclohexanedione inhibits growth of the gene-replacement strains at concentrations below 0.2 mM. In vitro, the activity of wheat cytosolic ACCase produced by the gene-replacement yeast strain is inhibited by haloxyfop and cethoxydim at concentrations above 0.02 mM. The activity of yeast ACCase is less affected. The wheat plastid ACCase in wheat germ extract is inhibited by all three herbicides at concentrations below 0.02 mM. Yeast gene-replacement strains will provide a convenient system for the study of plant ACCases. PMID:11038571

Joachimiak, M; Tevzadze, G; Podkowinski, J; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P



Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast  

PubMed Central

Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3? tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose, the activity of the wheat gene driven by the GAL10 promoter is low and ACCase becomes limiting for growth, a condition expected to enhance transgenic yeast sensitivity to wheat ACCase-specific inhibitors. An aryloxyphenoxypropionate and two cyclohexanediones do not inhibit growth of haploid yeast strains containing the yeast ACC1 gene, but one cyclohexanedione inhibits growth of the gene-replacement strains at concentrations below 0.2 mM. In vitro, the activity of wheat cytosolic ACCase produced by the gene-replacement yeast strain is inhibited by haloxyfop and cethoxydim at concentrations above 0.02 mM. The activity of yeast ACCase is less affected. The wheat plastid ACCase in wheat germ extract is inhibited by all three herbicides at concentrations below 0.02 mM. Yeast gene-replacement strains will provide a convenient system for the study of plant ACCases.

Joachimiak, M.; Tevzadze, G.; Podkowinski, J.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.



Conversion of pentoses by yeasts  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.



Yeasts from the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts were isolated from twelve established sites in the North Sea from 1964 to 1966. A percentage frequency of 99% with populations varying from 3000 viable cells\\/L was observed. This mycota was characterized by considerable spatial and temporal fluctuation, with the dominant yeast present being the ascosporogenous species, Debaryomyces hansenii. This taxon, as well as other common North Sea yeasts,

S. P. Meyers; D. G. Ahearn; W. Gunkel; F. J. Roth



Novel endophytic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3 I: production of xylitol and ethanol.  


An endophytic yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3, that was isolated from stems of hybrid poplar was found to be capable of production of xylitol from xylose, of ethanol from glucose, galactose, and mannose, and of arabitol from arabinose. The utilization of 30 g/L of each of the five sugars during fermentation by PTD3 was studied in liquid batch cultures. Glucose-acclimated PTD3 produced enhanced yields of xylitol (67% of theoretical yield) from xylose and of ethanol (84, 86, and 94% of theoretical yield, respectively) from glucose, galactose, and mannose. Additionally, this yeast was capable of metabolizing high concentrations of mixed sugars (150 g/L), with high yields of xylitol (61% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (83% of theoretical yield). A 1:1 glucose:xylose ratio with 30 g/L of each during double sugar fermentation did not affect PTD3's ability to produce high yields of xylitol (65% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (92% of theoretical yield). Surprisingly, the highest yields of xylitol (76% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (100% of theoretical yield) were observed during fermentation of sugars present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate obtained after steam pretreatment of a mixture of hybrid poplar and Douglas fir. PTD3 demonstrated an exceptional ability to ferment the hydrolysate, overcome hexose repression of xylose utilization with a short lag period of 10 h, and tolerate sugar degradation products. In direct comparison, PTD3 had higher xylitol yields from the mixed sugar hydrolysate compared with the widely studied and used xylitol producer Candida guilliermondii. PMID:22399239

Bura, Renata; Vajzovic, Azra; Doty, Sharon L



Antimicrobial activity of extractives of Solidago microglossa.  


The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from Solidago microglossa roots, essential oil from its aerial part and some isolated compounds was investigated. The oil exhibited concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria and yeasts. PMID:16843619

Morel, A F; Dias, G O; Porto, C; Simionatto, E; Stuker, C Z; Dalcol, I I



Evaluation of YeastIdent and Uni-Yeast-Tek yeast identification systems.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the new API YeastIdent system and the Flow Laboratories Uni-Yeast-Tek identification kit with an expanded data base was evaluated in comparison to the API 20C yeast identification system by three laboratories. A total of 489 test isolates were used, biased toward yeasts commonly encountered in clinical specimens. Isolates not in a system's data base were not counted in the evaluation of that system. For isolates in their data base, YeastIdent was 55% accurate and Uni-Yeast-Tek was 40% accurate. By the manufacturer's criteria of reliable identification without additional tests, both systems failed to identify many common and uncommon species. The limited number of substrates and difficulties in assessing results obtained with 11 of the API YeastIdent substrates and apparent errors in the expanded Uni-Yeast-Tek data base appeared to be major factors limiting the accuracy of these systems.

Salkin, I F; Land, G A; Hurd, N J; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R



Intracellular trehalase of a hybrid yeast  

PubMed Central

1. The trehalase found in an extract prepared from a yeast strain that cannot ferment trehalose was studied and characterized. The enzyme is highly specific for trehalose with Km 10210?2m, and an optimum pH of 69. 2. It is inhibited by glucose and by trehalose 6-phosphate, and does not facilitate any significant transglucosylations. 3. pK values 77 and 58 were detected for the groups associated with binding of the non-ionized substrate to the enzyme. 4. The trehalase was found to be highly labile and was inhibited by thiol-binding reagents. 5. The possible role of this enzyme in the trehalose-dissimilation patterns in the yeast cell was evaluated.

Avigad, G.; Ziv, Ofra; Neufeld, Edna



Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Ccile Neuvglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Vronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valrie Barbe; Stphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisram; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Ccile Fairhead; Hlne Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Hlose Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wsolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bndicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agns Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet



Biosynthesis of yeast mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethidium bromide selectively inhibits growth of the petite negative yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis on a non-fermentable carbon source. In short term experiments, when growth in ethidium is continued for about 11 generations, this inhibition is accompanied by a loss of cyanide sensitive respiration and particulate cytochromes, an initial phase of microcolony production, and an inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis. The loss

A. A. Luha; P. A. Whittaker; R. C. Hammond



Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan



Microbial production of 2,3 butanediol from seaweed hydrolysate using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.  


A variety of biofuel and biorefinery products have been produced from engineered Escherichia coli till date. Most of these products had been derived from simple sugars in its pure form, rather than deriving it from alternative, renewable and carbon neutral sources, such as marine alga biomass. Engineering E. coli to use algal hydrolysate can make these an attractive carbon source for the industrial production of value added fuels and chemicals. This work reports the engineering of E. coli by a combination of gene deletion and synthetic pathway incorporation, for the efficient utilization of algal hydrolysate to produce BA (2,3 butanediol+acetoin) under microaerobic condition. Engineered strain produced ~19 g/L of total BA from algal hydrolysate in defined M9 salt media at a yield of 0.43 g/g. PMID:23567699

Mazumdar, Suman; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu



Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum.  


Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates (RPH) from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum were investigated. R. esculentum was hydrolysed sequentially with pepsin and papain, and then the hydrolysate was ultrafiltered with a 2000 Da cut-off membrane. It was found that RPH contained high levels of Gly, Glu, Pro, Asp and Ala, having potential ACE inhibitory activity in vitro with an IC(50) of 1.28 mg/ml. It was also found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in spontaneously hypertensive rats after single and chronic oral administration of RPH, indicating that RPH had an antihypertensive effect. In addition, oral administration of RPH decreased total serum cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with high-fat diet. These results indicate that RPH may prove to be a promising functional food for the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. PMID:23442666

Liu, Xin; Zhang, Miansong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Changheng



Immunomodulatory and hypoallergenic properties of milk protein hydrolysates in ICR mice.  


Approximately 2.5% of young children are allergic to cow milk. In this study, milk protein hydrolysates made from full-cream milk via enzymatic hydrolysis played a positive role in regulating the immune system of ICR mice. Milk protein hydrolysates enhanced immunity in mice by stimulating host immunity, probably by increasing the weight of certain immune system organs, improving the level of hemolysin in serum, and enhancing the phagocytosis of macrophages. Milk protein hydrolysates have the capability to reduce type I hypersensitivity by decreasing IgE levels, IL-4 in serum, and the release of histamine and bicarbonate in peritoneal mast cells, as well as enhancing transforming growth factor-? levels in the serum of ovalbumin-sensitized mice. PMID:23746583

Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Liu, J; Cao, X Y; Zeng, X Q



Mathematical modeling of hydrolysate diffusion and utilization in cellulolytic biofilms of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The morphological and structural properties of microbial biofilms are influenced by internal substrate diffusion and utilization processes. In the case of microbial hydrolysis of plant cell walls, only thin and uniform biofilm structures are typically formed by cellulolytic microorganisms. In this study, we develop a hydrolysate diffusion and utilization model system to examine factors influencing cellulolytic biofilm formation. Model simulations using Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis as a representative organism, reveal that the growth of the cellulolytic biofilm is limited by hydrolysate utilization but not diffusion. As a consequence, the cellulolytic biofilm has a uniform growth rate, and there is a hydrolysate surplus that diffuses through the cellulolytic biofilm into the bulk solution where it is consumed by planktonic cells. Predictions based on the model were tested in a cellulose fermentation study and the results are consistent with the model and previously reported experimental data. The factors determining the rate-limiting step of biofilm growth are also analyzed.

Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Lochner, Adriane [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL



Identification and nuclear localization of yeast pre-messenger RNA processing components: RNA2 and RNA3 proteins  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive mutations in the RNA2 through RNA11 genes of yeast prevent the processing of nuclear pre-mRNAs. We have raised antisera that detect the RNA2 and RNA3 proteins in immunoblots of extracts of yeast containing high copy number RNA2 and RNA3 plasmids. Subcellular fractionation of yeast cells that overproduce the RNA2 and RNA3 proteins has revealed that these proteins are enriched in nuclear fractions. Indirect immunofluorescence results have indicated that these proteins are localized in yeast nuclei. These localization results are consistent with the fact that these genes have a role in processing yeast pre-mRNA.



L-arabinose fermenting yeast  


An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric



Effect and mechanism of action of aphidicolin on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases.  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic aphidicolin inhibited in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis catalyzed by crude yeast extracts and by partially purified yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases. The mechanism of action of aphidicolin on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I was noncompetitive with deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, and deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate and was of the mixed type with deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate. The relative ratio of enzyme to the template-initiator complex was important for detecting the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic. The inhibition of in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by aphidicolin was reversible, and the effect on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase might have been partially mediated by some supplementary factor(s).

Plevani, P; Badaracco, G; Ginelli, E; Sora, S



Binding kinetics of magnetic nanoparticles on latex beads and yeast cells studied by magnetorelaxometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion exchange mediated binding of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to modified latex spheres and yeast cells was quantified using magnetorelaxometry. By fitting subsequently recorded relaxation curves, the kinetics of the binding reactions was extracted. The signal of MNP with weak ion exchanger groups bound to latex and yeast cells scales linearly with the concentration of latex beads or yeast cells whereas that of MNP with strong ion exchanger groups is proportional to the square root of concentration. The binding of the latter leads to a much stronger aggregation of yeast cells than the former MNP.

Eberbeck, Dietmar; Bergemann, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz



Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPIHD) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial,

Jonathan D. Buckley; Rebecca L. Thomson; Alison M. Coates; Peter R. C. Howe; Mark O. DeNichilo; Michelle K. Rowney



Gallic acid and hydrolysable tannins are formed in birch leaves from an intermediate compound of the shikimate pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallic acid is the starting material for hydrolysable tannin synthesis, but the mechanism of its formation in higher plants has not been known. To elucidate the pathway of gallic acid synthesis in the leaves of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), we studied the effects of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]-glycine) on the levels of individual hydrolysable tannins. Glyphosate is known to block

Vladimir Ossipov; Juha-Pekka Salminen; Svetlana Ossipova; Erkki Haukioja; Kalevi Pihlaja



Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla ( Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time,

N. Bhaskar; T. Benila; C. Radha; R. G. Lalitha



Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau



Enhanced mobility of organic thin film transistors by water absorption of collagen hydrolysate gate dielectric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collagen hydrolysate is a nature protein, which works well as the gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The pentacene OTFTs exhibit a field-effect mobility (?FE) value of 0.8 cm2V-1s-1 and an on/off ratio of 105 in vacuum. The drain current is greatly enhanced and the ?FE value increases to ca. 15.5 cm2V-1s-1 when OTFTs are exposed to air. The enhancement of ?FE is attributed to the interaction of water and OH-groups in collagen hydrolysate in air ambient.

Hsieh, Chao-Ying; Hwang, Jenn-Chang; Chang, Ting-Hao; Li, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Shih-Han; Mao, Lung-Kai; Tsai, Li-Shiuan; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Hsu, Shawn S. H.



Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep and UltraPep series), Sheffield\\u000a Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements\\u000a while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined\\u000a processing. At the heart of the

Andr Siemensma; James Babcock; Chris Wilcox; Hans Huttinga



Optimization of Novel Extracellular Polysaccharide Production by an Enterobacter sp, on Wood Hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

An environmental isolate identified as Enterobacter cloacae has been found to produce a highly viscous, anionic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a weak mineral acid hydrolysate of hardwood. Production of this EPS has been optimized on the hydrolysate (initial pH, 6.3; NH4Cl amendment, 0.1%) so that crude yields approaching 9.83 g/liter were obtained. Although this EPS is polydisperse, its molecular mass as determined by gel exclusion chromatography centers at approximately 1,700 kDa. Solutions of this EPS have been examined rheologically under a variety of conditions and compare favorably with both xanthan and alginate.

Meade, Maura J.; Tanenbaum, S. W.; Nakas, J. P.



Optimization of Novel Extracellular Polysaccharide Production by an Enterobacter sp, on Wood Hydrolysates.  


An environmental isolate identified as Enterobacter cloacae has been found to produce a highly viscous, anionic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a weak mineral acid hydrolysate of hardwood. Production of this EPS has been optimized on the hydrolysate (initial pH, 6.3; NH(4)Cl amendment, 0.1%) so that crude yields approaching 9.83 g/liter were obtained. Although this EPS is polydisperse, its molecular mass as determined by gel exclusion chromatography centers at approximately 1,700 kDa. Solutions of this EPS have been examined rheologically under a variety of conditions and compare favorably with both xanthan and alginate. PMID:16349242

Meade, M J; Tanenbaum, S W; Nakas, J P



Insulin Activity: Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon and Brewers Yeast as Influenced by Albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamon and Brewers yeast extracts have been shown to potentiate the action of insulin in isolated adipocytes. In this study, isolated rat epididymal adipocytes were used to evaluate the influence of bovine serum albumin on insulin activity as affected by cinnamon and Brewers yeast extracts. Albumin at 0.01-0.1 % decreased the insulin stimulatory effects of cinnamon from 11.8-to 5.3-fold and

Lincoln F. Berrio; Marilyn M. Polansky; Richard A. Anderson



Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim



Effects of soy protein hydrolysates on maize starch retrogradation studied by IR spectra and ESI-MS analysis.  


Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The purpose of this study is to find out whether certain soy protein polypeptide in hydrolysates will retard maize starch retrogradation. The results show that all soy protein hydrolysates retard maize starch retrogradation to a certain extent. The IR spectra of hydrolysates and the blends of hydrolysates and maize starch show that the polypeptides might act with reducing end of maize starch during retrogradation. The results of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI-MS] show that the polypeptide (m/z 863) is present in all three hydrolysates remarkedly retarding maize starch retrogradation and its relative abundence is also the highest. So the polypeptide containing seven amino acids probably is the key component to significantly inhibit maize starch retrogradation. PMID:23567290

Lian, Xijun; Zhu, Wei; Wen, Yan; Li, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoshuang



Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  


Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon



Moulds, yeasts and aerobic plate counts in ginseng supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty six ginseng supplement samples including Siberian ginseng root, Chinese ginseng herb and root, and American ginseng root and extract were purchased from retail in the Washington, DC area and from Penn Herb Co. (Philadelphia, PA) and tested for mould and yeast (MY) contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). Results indicated that 100% of the Siberian ginseng

V. H. Tournas; Eugenia Katsoudas; E. J. Miracco



Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their

Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric



Alcohol production from Jerusalem artichoke using yeasts with inulinase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obtaining of a fermentable extract from Jerusalem artichoke is simple. Yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol with good profitability. This method makes it possible to obtain 25 to 65 hl ethanol\\/ha with by-products usable as feed. (Refs. 19).

J. P. Guiraud; J. Daurelles; P. Galzy



Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts  

SciTech Connect

Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results indicate that this raw material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. (Refs. 15).

Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Kliza, S.; Hayes, D.



Glyoxalase system in yeasts: structure, function, and physiology.  


The glyoxalase system consists of glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal (CH(3)COCHO), a metabolite derived from glycolysis, with glutathione to S-D-lactoylglutathione, while glyoxalase II hydrolyses this glutathione thiolester to D-lactic acid and glutathione. Since methylglyoxal is toxic due to its high reactivity, the glyoxalase system is crucial to warrant the efficient metabolic flux of this reactive aldehyde. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the sole gene (GLO1) encoding the structural gene for glyoxalase I. Meanwhile, this yeast has two isoforms of glyoxalase II encoded by GLO2 and GLO4. The expression of GLO1 is regulated by Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors under highly osmotic stress conditions. The physiological significance of GLO1 expression in response to osmotic stress is to combat the increase in the levels of methylglyoxal in cells during the production of glycerol as a compatible osmolyte. Deficiency in GLO1 in S. cerevisiae causes pleiotropic phenotypes in terms of stress response, because the steady state level of methylglyoxal increases in glo1? cells thereby constitutively activating Yap1 transcription factor. Yap1 is crucial for oxidative stress response, although methylglyoxal per se does not enhance the intracellular oxidation level in yeast, but it directly modifies cysteine residues of Yap1 that are critical for the nucleocytoplasmic localization of this b-ZIP transcription factor. Consequently, glyoxalase I can be defined as a negative regulator of Yap1 through modulating the intracellular methylglyoxal level. PMID:21310260

Inoue, Yoshiharu; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Wataru



Yeasts associated with the infrabuccal pocket and colonies of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus.  


After scanning electron microscopy indicated that the infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants (Camponotus vicinus) contained numerous yeast-like cells, yeast associations were examined in six colonies of carpenter ants from two locations in Benton County in western Oregon. Samples from the infrabuccal-pocket contents and worker ant exoskeletons, interior galleries of each colony, and detritus and soil around the colonies were plated on yeast-extract/ malt-extract agar augmented with 1 M hydrochloric acid and incubated at 25 C. Yeasts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and physiological attributes with the BIOLOG() microbial identification system. Yeast populations from carpenter ant nest material and material surrounding the nest differed from those obtained from the infrabuccal pocket. Debaryomyces polymorphus was isolated more often from the infrabuccal pocket than from other material. This species has also been isolated from other ant species, but its role in colony nutrition is unknown. PMID:21148849

Mankowski, M E; Morrell, J J


Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts. I. Chemosystematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix

Jrn Smedsgaard; Jens Christian Frisvad



Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant



Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.



''Is Yeast Alive?''  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore the characteristics of living organisms to determine whether yeast meets the criteria of a living thing. This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological Societys 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit

Ms. Katrenia Hosea-Flanigan (Frank Cody High School)



Chemical transformation of yeast.  


Transformation of chemically competent yeast cells is a method for introducing exogenous DNA into living cells. Typically, the DNA is either a plasmid carrying an autonomous replication sequence that allows for propagation or a linear piece of DNA to be integrated into the genome. The DNA usually also carries a marker that allows for selection of successfully transformed cells by plating on the appropriate selective media. PMID:24011057

Bergkessel, Megan; Guthrie, Christine



Glutathione Production in Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit


Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from honeybee-collected pollen using plant enzymes.  


Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8?mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05?U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03?U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2?U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20-28%), total phenolics (15.3-27.2??g/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7-242.8??g/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42-46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

Marinova, Margarita D; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P



Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program has set goals of making ethanol cost competitive by 2012 and replacing 30% of 2004 transportation supply with biofuels by 2030. Both goals require improvements in conversions of cellulosic biomass to sugars as well as improvements in fermentation rates and yields. Current best pretreatment processes are reasonably efficient at making the cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin matrix amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, but they release a number of toxic compounds into the hydrolysate which inhibit the growth and ethanol productivity of fermentation organisms. Conditioning methods designed to reduce the toxicity of hydrolysates are effective, but add to process costs and tend to reduce sugar yields, thus adding significantly to the final cost of production. Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production will likely require enhanced understanding of the source and mode of action of hydrolysate toxic compounds, the means by which some organisms resist the actions of these compounds, and the methodology and mechanisms for conditioning hydrolysate to reduce toxicity. This review will provide an update on the state of knowledge in these areas and can provide insights useful for the crafting of hypotheses for improvements in pretreatment, conditioning, and fermentation organisms.

Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M.



Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole,

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball



Processing poultry feathers into keratin hydrolysate through alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis.  


Poultry feathers make up for as much as 8.5% of chicken weight and represent a considerable amount of almost pure keratin waste which is not being adequately utilized at the present time. The present study dealt with the processing of poultry feathers through a two-stage alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis. In the first stage, feathers were mixed with a 0.1 or 0.3% KOH water solution in a 1 : 50 ratio and were incubated at 70C for 24 h. After adjusting pH to 9, the effects examined in the second processing stage on the amount of degraded feathers were those of proteolytic enzyme additions (1-5%), time (4-8 h) and temperature (50-70C). Processing feathers in 0.3% KOH and hydrolysing for 8 h in the second stage at 70C with a 5% dose of enzyme (relative to dry feathers weight) produced approx. 91% degradation. Keratin hydrolysate is distinct for its high nitrogen content and reasonable inorganic solids level. Two-stage technology of alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysing of poultry feathers in an environment of 0.3% KOH achieves high efficiency under quite mild reaction conditions (temperature not exceeding 70C with pH in a mildly alkaline region), and is feasible from an economic viewpoint. Keratin hydrolysate can find particular application in packaging technology (films, foils and encapsulates). PMID:20483878

Mokrejs, Pavel; Svoboda, Petr; Hrncirik, Josef; Janacova, Dagmar; Vasek, Vladimir



Effect of partially hydrolysed lipids on inhibition of oxidation of marine lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of partially hydrolysed glyceride compounds (monoglycerides, MG; diglycerides, DG) on the protective effect of a natural antioxidant (citric acid) in a commercial marine oil (cod liver oil) was investigated during heat treatment. The development of lipid oxidation was analysed by fluorescence and browning detections. An inhibitory effect of the antioxidant action was observed at 50 C for all

Santiago P. Aubourg



Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.  


The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan



Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The

Susanne Tirok; Inta Scherze; Gerald Muschiolik



Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolysates and Peptide Fractions of Nemipterus japonicus and Exocoetus volitans Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed muscle protein of Nemipterus japonicus and Exocoetus volitans. The trypsin protein hydrolysates of both fish showed maximum free radical scavenging potential and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Furthermore, it was purified by chromatographic methods followed by the lipid peroxidation inhibition; free radical scavenging assay was performed before and after

Shabeena Yousuf Naqash; R. A. Nazeer



Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with singlefactor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...


Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759 using a detoxified sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  


Sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing 71.9g/l of xylose was used as an inexpensive feedstock to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759. Several inhibitory compounds present in wood hydrolysate were analyzed for effects on cell growth and PHA production with strong inhibition observed at concentrations of 1g/l furfural, 2g/l vanillin, 7g/l levulinic acid, and 1M acetic acid. Gradual catabolism of lower concentrations of these inhibitors was observed in this study. To increase the fermentability of wood hydrolysate, several detoxification methods were tested. Overliming combined with low-temperature sterilization resulted in the highest removal of total inhibitory phenolics (65%). A fed-batch fermentation exhibited maximum PHA production after 96h (8.72g PHA/L broth and 51.4% of dry cell weight). Compositional analysis by NMR and physical-chemical characterization showed that PHA produced from wood hydrolysate was composed of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with a molecular mass (M (N)) of 450.8kDa, a melting temperature (T (m)) of 174.4C, a glass transition temperature (T (g)) of 7.31C, and a decomposition temperature (T (decomp)) of 268.6C. PMID:21953365

Pan, Wenyang; Perrotta, Joseph A; Stipanovic, Arthur J; Nomura, Christopher T; Nakas, James P



Growth of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium: A White-Rot Fungus, on Peat Hydrolysate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fungi may be useful for low-cost, low-energy-requiring processing of fossil fuels. We investigated the suitability of peat hydrolysate as a growth medium for a fungus that may be able to produce chemicals from fossil fuels, either as secondary metabolitie...

M. D. Dahlberg R. P. Noceti



The recovery of protein hydrolysate during enzymatic isolation of chitin from shrimp Crangon crangon processing discards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell waste from shrimp Crangon crangon processing is a good source of chitin and proteins, contained on a dry basis of the offals in amounts 17.8% and 40.6%, respectively. The digestion of the shells with proteolytic enzymes allow to recovery of the chitin and nutritionally valuable protein hydrolysate. These products were prepared from the shells preliminarily demineralized with 10% HCl

Jzef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Abdul Quawi Al-Khateeb



Water Sorption and Glass Transition Temperature of Spray-Dried Mussel Meat Protein Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water sorption behavior at 25C and glass transition temperature (Tg) of mussel meat protein hydrolysate powder without and with maltodextrin 10 DE or gum arabic at 15 and 30% (w\\/w) were studied in this work. The sorption isotherms were determined by the gravimetric method, and the glass transition temperature was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after powder conditioning

Vanessa M. Silva; Louise E. Kurozawa; Kil J. Park; Mriam D. Hubinger



Diversity and Physiological Characterization of D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts Isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest  

PubMed Central

Background This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L) culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g) and productivities (0.62 g/Lh to 0.75 g/Lh). Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g), with concentrations up to 25.2 g/L. The new Spathaspora species produced ethanol and/or xylitol in different concentrations as the main fermentation products. In sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic fermentation assays, S. stipitis UFMG-XMD-15.2 generated the highest ethanol yield (0.34 g/g) and productivity (0.2 g/Lh), while the new species Spathaspora sp. 1 UFMG-XMD-16.2 and Spathaspora sp. 2 UFMG-XMD-23.2 were very good xylitol producers. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the promise of using new D-xylose-fermenting yeast strains from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest for ethanol or xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.

Cadete, Raquel M.; Melo, Monaliza A.; Dussan, Kelly J.; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Silva, Silvio S.; Zilli, Jerri E.; Vital, Marcos J. S.; Gomes, Fatima C. O.; Lachance, Marc-Andre; Rosa, Carlos A.



Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.  


In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation. PMID:23665192

Cuero, Raul; McKay, David S



Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.  


The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysates. This approach offers a sustainable technology for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes and highlights the potential of these wastes as substrates for the generation of second-generation biofuels. PMID:19371919

Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E



Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta.  


Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations. PMID:19778596

Loh, Daphne Sue Yen; Er, Hui Meng; Chen, Yu Sui



Design and Construction of Two Yeast Shuttle Vectors Containing Human Procollagen Genes Expression Cassette for Expression in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body. Their main function is to provide structural and mechanical support for the tissues, but they are also involved in a number of other biological functions including cell attachment, migration and differentiation. Collagens and gelatins are widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Every year, more than 50,000 tons of collagen and gelatin are used in medical applications. These materials may have some viral and prion impurity and/or stimulate allergic response in human body. Therefore, scientists have produced human collagen in recombinant systems. In this study we have constructed two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast. Total RNA was extracted from human skin fibroblast cell line, and cDNA synthesis was done by oligo dt. Then gene fragments were amplified from the cDNA with the necessary changes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally they were cloned in yeast vector pPICZ?A containing regulatory sequences for expressing and secreting the polypeptide product. Two yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression cassettes were created. Final constructs were confirmed by enzymatic digestion, PCR of desired fragment and sequencing. The yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 can be transferred into the yeast in the later stages to determine the scale of expression.

Abdemami, Baharak; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Shahreza, Hossein Khanahmad; Ghavami, Mehdi



Design and construction of two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast.  


Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body. Their main function is to provide structural and mechanical support for the tissues, but they are also involved in a number of other biological functions including cell attachment, migration and differentiation. Collagens and gelatins are widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Every year, more than 50,000 tons of collagen and gelatin are used in medical applications. These materials may have some viral and prion impurity and/or stimulate allergic response in human body. Therefore, scientists have produced human collagen in recombinant systems. In this study we have constructed two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast. Total RNA was extracted from human skin fibroblast cell line, and cDNA synthesis was done by oligo dt. Then gene fragments were amplified from the cDNA with the necessary changes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally they were cloned in yeast vector pPICZ?A containing regulatory sequences for expressing and secreting the polypeptide product. Two yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression cassettes were created. Final constructs were confirmed by enzymatic digestion, PCR of desired fragment and sequencing. The yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 can be transferred into the yeast in the later stages to determine the scale of expression. PMID:23407617

Abdemami, Baharak; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Shahreza, Hossein Khanahmad; Ghavami, Mehdi



Conservation of yeasts by dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented material concerns the theoretical basis for obtaining high-quality active dry biopreparations. It deals with the present understanding of anabiosis, contains data on yeast resistance against dehydration and the limits for preserving the viability of microorganisms in anabiosis. The process of water transport in yeast biomass during dehydration is discussed.\\u000a The changes and transformations in yeast cells occuring after

Martin Beker; Alexander Rapoport


Yeast interactions and wine flavour.  


Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation. PMID:12892919

Fleet, Graham H



Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.  


Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C



Isolation and identification of yeast strains capable of producing single cell protein from whey in co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, twenty-five whey samples collected from dairy industries in the city of Isfahan. The samples were cultured on malt extract broth (MEB) and yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA) media. Eleven yeast strains (designated M1 to M11) were iso- lated from the culture. The strains were identified by their morphological and physiological properties. Beta- galactosidase activity in the

Hassan Moeini; Sadeq Vallian; Iraj Nahvi



Production, Characterization, and Properties of Sophorolipids from the Yeast Candida bombicola using a Low-cost Fermentative Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Candida bombicola produces biosurfactant with properties akin to those of sophorolipid (SL) group of compounds. In the present work, the yeast\\u000a was shown to produce 63.7g l?1 SL when grown on a cheap fermentative medium containing sugarcane molasses, yeast extract, urea, and soybean oil. The partially\\u000a purified SL was characterized and confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H

Achlesh Daverey; Kannan Pakshirajan



Production of food yeast from starchy substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen yeast strains were selected for the production of food yeast from starchy substrates. From comparison with the amylolytic yeasts, a strain of Schwanniomyces castellii was selected and its characteristics are described.

A. Touzi; J. P. Prebois; G. Moulin; F. Deschamps; P. Galzy



21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...



21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and Drugs...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces...



21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the...



21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...



21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...



21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. (2) Phaffia...



One-step separation and purification of hydrolysable tannins from Geranium wilfordii Maxim by adsorption chromatography on cross-linked 12% agarose gel.  


The hydrolysable tannins corilagin and geraniin, the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Geranium wilfordii Maxim, have been separated and purified from crude extracts in one step by adsorption chromatography on cross-linked 12% agarose gel (Superose 12 10/300 GL). The separation was achieved by gradient elution using mobile phase A composed of 5% ethanol and 5% acetic acid and mobile phase B composed of 30% ethanol and 30% acetic acid. The gradients were composed as follows: 0-240?mL, 0-25% B; 240-480?mL, 25-40% B; after 480?mL, 100% B. The purities of the collected corilagin and geraniin were 92.4 and 87.2%, and the corresponding yields were 88.0 and 76.8%, respectively. PMID:21442751

Liu, Dan; Ma, Yan; Wang, Ye; Su, Zhiguo; Gu, Ming; Janson, Jan-Christer



Isolation and characterization of a processive DNA helicase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that translocates in a 5'-to-3' direction.  

PubMed Central

We report here the isolation and characterization of a novel DNA helicase from extracts of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The enzyme, called DNA helicase II, also contains an intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Both the helicase and ATPase activities co-purified with a 63 kDa polypeptide on an SDS/polyacrylamide gel. The protein has a sedimentation coefficient of 4.8 S and a Stokes radius of 36 A (3.6 nm); from these data the native molecular mass was calculated to be 65 kDa. The enzyme translocates in a 5'-to-3' direction with respect to the substrate strand to which it is bound. Unwinding reactions carried out in the presence of increasing enzyme showed a sigmoidal curve, suggesting either co-operative interactions between monomers or multimerization of DNA helicase II in the presence of single-stranded DNA and/or ATP. This enzyme favoured adenosine nucleotides (ATP and dATP) as its energy source, but utilized to limited extents GTP, CTP, dGTP and dCTP. Non-hydrolysable ATP analogues did not support helicase activity. Kinetic analyses showed that the unwinding reaction was rapid, being complete after 50-100 s of incubation. Addition of unlabelled substrates to the helicase reaction after preincubation of the enzyme with substrate did not significantly diminish unwinding. The ATPase activity of DNA helicase II increased proportionally with increasing lengths of single-stranded DNA cofactor. In the presence of circular DNA, ATP hydrolysis continued to increase up to the longest time tested (3 h), whereas it ceased to increase after 5-10 min in the presence of shorter oligonucleotides. The initial rate of ATP hydrolysis during the first 5 min of incubation time was not affected by DNA species used. These data indicate that the enzyme does not dissociate from the single-stranded DNA once it is bound and is therefore highly processive.

Lee, C; Seo, Y S



Anaerobic treatment of natural tannin extracts in UASB reactors.  


Tannin extracts are substances commonly used in leather production processes. Since most of the steps of tannery manufacturing processes are carried out in aqueous environments, the presence of these compounds in the wastewaters is important. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of the anaerobic degradation of three natural tannin extracts in three Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors, which were fed with increasing concentrations of two condensed (quebracho and wattle) and one hydrolysable tannin extract (chestnut). Concentrations of applied extracts were 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mg/l, and 5 g/l of glucose was used as cosubstrate. Reactors were operated during 210 days and their performance was evaluated from the values of total and soluble COD, total and intermediate alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, pH and UV absorption at 280 nm. COD removal efficiencies higher than 85% were achieved in all cases. However, tannin extract removal efficiencies (based on UV-280 nm absorption measurements) were significantly lower, around 20% for condensed extracts and 60% for the hydrolysable one, when the reactors operated with the highest tannin extract concentration. The operation of the reactors was stable, commonly with alkalinity ratios below 0.30. Mass balances carried out indicate that most of the COD removal efficiencies are due to the removal of the readily biodegradable organic matter (glucose), whereas the tannin extracts are hardly anaerobically biodegradable, especially condensed extracts (wattle and quebracho). PMID:14640213

Lpez-Fluza, J; Omil, F; Mndez, R



Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in

S. Russo; G. Poli; R. B. Siman-Tov



A numericlature of the Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numericlature, based on a descriptive numerical code has been compiled for the yeasts. A total of 429 yeast species are represented by 388 unique four-, six- or seven-digit numbers and of these 364 correspond to single species. It is suggested that the coding method is a valid alternative to binomial nomenclature based on a conventional hierarchical classification. It can

A. J. Griffiths



Growth of Solar Radiated Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This researcher plans to determine if solar radiation affects the growth of yeast. The irradiated yeast was obtained from a sample exposed in space during a Space Shuttle flight of September 9-20, 1994. Further, the control groups were held at: (1) Goddar...

T. Kraft



The intronome of budding yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomycescerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We

Ccile Neuvglise; Christian Marck; Claude Gaillardin



Apoptotic death of ageing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast has been a valuable model to study replicative and chronological ageing processes. Replicative ageing is defined by the number of daughter cells a mother can give birth to and hence reflects the ageing situation in proliferating cells, whereas chronological ageing is widely accepted as a model for postmitotic tissue ageing. Since both ageing forms end in yeast programmed death

Patrick Rockenfeller; Frank Madeo



Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins.  


Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The individual and interactive effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) or hydrolysate (WPH) (3.7 and 4.9% w/w), unmodified deoiled or hydrolysed lecithin (0.48 or 0.7% w/w) and carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) 18.5 or glucose syrup with DE 34 (11% w/w) on the properties of formula emulsions with 4% v/w sunflower oil, were investigated using a full factorial design. The emulsions were characterised by particle size distribution, coalescence stability, creaming rate, and also surface protein and lecithin concentration. WPI-containing emulsions proved to be stable against coalescence and showed only little creaming after 1 and 7 days standing. There was a significant increase in the mean droplet size and a significant deterioration of coalescence and creaming stability when WPH instead of WPI was used as the protein source, due to the lower number of large peptides and lower surface activity of the WPH. Increasing the WPH concentration led to an increase in oil droplet size and further deterioration of the stability of the emulsions. The starch hydrolysate and lecithin also significantly influenced the emulsion properties. Their influence was less strong when the emulsion contained WPI. Under the conditions used WPH-based emulsions were more stable, in terms of creaming and coalescence, when a low level of protein was used in conjunction with hydrolysed lecithin and glucose syrup. Oil droplets in emulsions containing unmodified lecithin in either the continuous or disperse phase and WPH in the continuous phase were very sensitive to coalescence. The addition of starch hydrolysates (DE 18.5) induced intensive flocculation and phase separation in these emulsions. PMID:11377944

Tirok, S; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G



Effect of Cytoskeleton Inhibitors on Conidiogenesis and Capsule in the Long Neck Yeast Fellomyces Examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this basic study was to investigate by scanning electron microscopy the effects of cytoskeleton inhibitors on conidiogenesis and capsule in the yeast Fellomyces fuzhouensis CBS 8243, related to Cryptococcus neoformans. Methods: Cells were treated by methyl benzimidazole-2-ylcarbamate (BCM) and latrunculin A (LAT) in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: During

Marie Kopeck; Ladislav Ilkovics; Vladimra Ramkov; Masashi Yamaguchi




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast and fungal strains were isolated from pistachio and almond orchards as single colonies. Yeast cells and fungal mycelia were harvested from cultures medium by centrifugation and DNA were extracted for PCR reaction. A pair of universal primers, NL1 and NL4 were used to generate the fragment of ...


Studies of ribosomes of yeast species: Susceptibility to inhibitors of protein synthesis in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of cells from various species of Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces was tested against different types of protein synthesis inhibitors. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for each yeast species and the sensitivity of their ribosomes in cell-free extracts was tested. Two aminoglycosides, paromomycin and hygromycin B were assayed for capacity to stimulate translation errors with ribosomes of yeast species showing

Arlette Adoutte-Panvier; Julian E. Davies



Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.  


An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum. PMID:11185735

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J



The Budding Yeast Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure.

Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.



Stress signaling in yeast.  


In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae three positive transcriptional control elements are activated by stress conditions: heat shock elements (HSEs), stress response elements (STREs) and AP-1 responsive elements (AREs). HSEs bind heat shock transcription factor (HSF), which is activated by stress conditions causing accumulation of abnormal proteins. STREs mediate transcriptional activation by multiple stress conditions. They are controlled by high osmolarity via the HOG signal pathway, which comprises a MAP kinase module and a two-component system homologous to prokaryotic signal transducers. AREs bind the transcription factor Yap1p. The three types of control elements seem to have overlapping, but distinct functions. Some stress proteins encoded by HSE-regulated genes are necessary for growth