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1

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2013-07-01

2

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2012-07-01

4

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2014-07-01

5

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2011-07-01

6

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01

7

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

8

Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.  

PubMed

Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

2015-01-01

9

Succinic Acid Production by Actinobacillus succinogenes Using Spent Brewer's Yeast Hydrolysate as a Nitrogen Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a cost-effective fermentation medium, spent brewer's yeast hydrolysate was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic\\u000a acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 in glucose-containing media. Autolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis were used to hydrolyze the spent brewer's yeast cells\\u000a to release the nutrients. The results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis was a more effective method due to the higher succinic

Min Jiang; Kequan Chen; Zhongmin Liu; Ping Wei; Hanjie Ying; Honam Chang

2010-01-01

10

Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium  

DOEpatents

This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

2000-01-01

11

Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial\\u000a growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement\\u000a means is economically impractical, and overcoming the inhibitory effects of lignocellulose hydrolysate poses a significant\\u000a technical challenge for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production. Development of tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains has\\u000a demonstrated the

Z. Lewis Liu

2011-01-01

12

Rapid and reliable protein extraction from yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods currently used for protein extraction from yeast are either laborious or insufficiently reliable. Here I report a method for protein extraction for electrophoretic analysis that is both easy and reliable. In this method, yeast cells are subjected to mild alkali treatment and then boiled in a standard electrophoresis loading buffer. The method was tested for different strains of

Vitaly V. Kushnirov

2000-01-01

13

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.  

PubMed

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. PMID:22528299

Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maša; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

2012-07-01

14

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

15

Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein Hydrolysates from Roasted Peanut Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of the roasting process on the extraction yield and oil quality, peanut seeds were roasted at different\\u000a temperatures (130–220 °C) for 20 min prior to the aqueous extraction of both oil and protein hydrolysates with Alcalase 2.4 L.\\u000a Roasting temperatures did not significantly affect the yields of free oil, whereas the temperature of 220 °C led to a reduced\\u000a recovery

Shao Bing Zhang; Qi Yu Lu; Hongshun Yang; Yu Li; Shuai Wang

2011-01-01

16

Evaluation of yeast strains for production of fuel ethanol from biomass hydrolysates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Robust industrial yeast strains are needed for profitable production of fuel ethanol from mixed biomass waste. USDA, ARS, NCAUR, RPT has been evaluating ethanol-producing yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, engineered GMAX Saccharomyces cerevisiae, irradiated Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pi...

17

Preparation of yeast whole cell splicing extract.  

PubMed

Pre-mRNA splicing, the removal of introns from pre-messenger RNA, is an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression. In humans, it has been estimated that 60 % of noninfectious diseases are caused by errors in splicing, making the study of pre-mRNA splicing a high priority from a health perspective. Pre-mRNA splicing is also complicated: the molecular machine that catalyzes the reaction, the spliceosome, is composed of five small nuclear RNAs, and over 100 proteins, making splicing one of the most complex processes in the cell.An important tool for studying pre-mRNA splicing is the in vitro splicing assay. With an in vitro assay, it is possible to test the function of each splicing component by removing the endogenous version and replacing it (or reconstituting it) with a modified one. This assay relies on the ability to produce an extract-either whole cell or nuclear-that contains all of the activities required to convert pre-mRNA to mRNA. To date, splicing extracts have only been produced from human and S. cerevisiae (yeast) cells. We describe a method to produce whole cell extracts from yeast that support splicing with efficiencies up to 90 %. These extracts have been used to reconstitute snRNAs, screen small molecule libraries for splicing inhibitors, and purify a variety of splicing complexes. PMID:24549660

Dunn, Elizabeth A; Rader, Stephen D

2014-01-01

18

Liquid-liquid extraction of fermentation inhibiting compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Several compounds that are formed or released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass inhibit the fermentation of the hydrolysate. The use of a liquid extractive agent is suggested as a method for removal of these fermentation inhibitors. The method can be applied before or during the fermentation. For a series of alkanes and alcohols, partition coefficients were measured at low concentrations of the inhibiting compounds furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde, acetic acid, as well as for ethanol as the fermentation product. Carbon dioxide production was measured during fermentation in the presence of each organic solvent to indicate its biocompatibility. The feasibility of extractive fermentation of hydrolysate was investigated by ethanolic glucose fermentation in synthetic medium containing several concentrations of furfural and vanillin and in the presence of decanol, oleyl alcohol and oleic acid. Volumetric ethanol productivity with 6 g/L vanillin in the medium increased twofold with 30% volume oleyl alcohol. Decanol showed interesting extractive properties for most fermentation inhibiting compounds, but it is not suitable for in situ application due to its poor biocompatibility. PMID:19062184

Zautsen, R R M; Maugeri-Filho, F; Vaz-Rossell, C E; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M; de Bont, J A M

2009-04-01

19

Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in

Solange I. Mussatto

2012-01-01

20

Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (Cervus elaphus) as influenced by molecular weight and enzymes.  

PubMed

The crude protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (AEVA) were prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGI, pepsin-pancreatin) using pancreatin-pepsin, alcalase and neutrase. The resulting hydrolysates were separated by sequential ultrafiltration into four fractions. The antioxidant activities of peptide fractions were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating assays. Results showed that the hydrolysate prepared by SGI had a low degree of hydrolysis, which was significantly improved with altered proteases, such as pancreatin-pepsin and alcalase. Antioxidant activities of peptide fractions varied with molecular weight (MW) and the enzyme used. Generally, low-MW peptide fractions had higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, and high-MW peptide fractions were more effective in DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. PMID:22224289

Zhao, Lei; Luo, Yang-Chao; Wang, Cheng-Tao; Ji, Bao-Ping

2011-11-01

21

Bioconversion of water-hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate to motor fuel ethanol by xylose–fermenting yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate has been utilized as a substrate for ethanol production using Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Hydrolysate fermentability was considerable improved by boiling, and overliming up to pH 10.0 with solid Ca(OH)2 in combination with sodium sulfite. The percent total sugar utilized and ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) for the untreated hydrolysate were 20.15±0.17% and 0.19±0.003gpgs?1, respectively, compared

J. N. Nigam

2002-01-01

22

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

23

Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

2014-01-01

24

Separation and determination of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers and their hydrolysates in the flaxseed extract by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Flaxseed contains the largest amount of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) oligomers and is the richest dietary source of SDG. SDG oligomers in the flaxseed extract are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The hydrolysates of SDG oligomers are complicated because of the production of esters in an alcohol-containing medium. In this study, a new gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to be suitable for the separation and determination of: (1) SDG oligomers extracted from the defatted flaxseed powder by a 70% aqueous methanol solution; (2) SDG oligomers and their alkaline hydrolysates, including SDG, p-coumaric acid glucoside and its methyl ester, ferulic acid glucoside and its methyl ester in an alkaline hydrolytic solution; and (3) the succedent acid hydrolysates, including secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG), SECO, anhydrosecoisolariciresinol (anhydro-SECO), p-coumaric acid and its methyl ester, ferulic acid and its methyl ester, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) and its degradation product in an acid hydrolytic solution. The content of SDG oligomers in a defatted flaxseed powder was found to be 38.5 mg/g on a dry matter basis, corresponding to a SDG content of 15.4 mg/g, which was determined after alkaline hydrolysis. Furthermore, this study presented a major reaction pathway for the hydrolysis of SDG oligomers. PMID:18272161

Li, Xin; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Xu, Shi-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Xin

2008-03-28

25

Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.  

PubMed

This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-10-01

26

The presence of trehalose-containing oligosaccharides in yeast extract.  

PubMed

It was suggested that several trehalose-containing oligosaccharides are present in yeast extract. Among these oligosaccarides a trisaccharides was isolated and identified as beta-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1<==>1)-alpha-D-Glcp. PMID:7763997

Iwahara, S; Takegawa, K; Kawaguchi, K; Okamoto, G

1993-07-01

27

Optimized Protein Extraction for Quantitative Proteomics of Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe absolute quantification of intracellular protein levels is technically demanding, but has recently become more prominent because novel approaches like systems biology and metabolic control analysis require knowledge of these parameters. Current protocols for the extraction of proteins from yeast cells are likely to introduce artifacts into quantification procedures because of incomplete or selective extraction.Principal FindingsWe have developed a novel

Tobias von der Haar; Thomas Preiss

2007-01-01

28

Hydroalcoholic extract of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and its hydrolysate inhibit melanogenesis in B16F0 cells by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of an aqueous alcohol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) and its hydrolysate on melanin synthesis and the mechanisms mediating the activity. The ratio of tyrosol to salidroside was 2.3 in hydroalcoholic extract, and 51.0 in hydrolysate. We found that R. rosea extract and its hydrolysate inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in mouse melanoma cells (B16F0 cells). R. rosea extract also inhibited gene and protein expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and inhibited c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, suppressed the activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?), and inhibited the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). R. rosea hydrolysate inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB, the activation of AKT and GSK3?, and the expression of MITF and tyrosinase. Our results suggest that R. rosea extract is a novel tyrosinase inhibitor and that it exerts its effects by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway in B16F0. Further in vivo studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of R. rosea extract as a skin whitening agent. PMID:24380755

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chien, Yin-Chih; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wan-Chen; Pan, Yu-Yun; Su, Yu-Han; Wen, Kuo-Ching

2014-03-01

29

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

30

A rapid and simple method for extracting yeast mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for the extraction of yeast mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is described. In comparison with previous methods, it simplifies several steps, does not require either the isolation of mitochondria or phenol treatment and is less time consuming. This protocol gives a high yield of pure mtDNA (50–120 µg from a 100-ml culture), which can be directly used in various

Ali Gargouri; M. Curie

1989-01-01

31

A new yeast producing beta-glucosidase and tolerant to lignocellulose hydrolysate inhibitors for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion requires cellulose degradation in order to be utilized for growth and fermentation by common ethanologenic yeast. Cellulose is commonly enzymatically degraded into cellobiose by cellulase and subsequently cellobiose broken down into glucose by beta-glucos...

32

Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48° C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze

1995-01-01

33

Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic hydrolysate from Chrysanthemum waste degradation.  

PubMed

Ethanol production derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of a hydrolysate from floriculture waste degradation was studied. The hydrolysate was produced from Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) waste degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus and characterized to determine the presence of compounds that may inhibit fermentation. The products of hydrolysis confirmed by HPLC were cellobiose, glucose, xylose and mannose. The hydrolysate was fermented by S. cerevisiae, and concentrations of biomass, ethanol, and glucose were determined as a function of time. Results were compared to YGC modified medium (yeast extract, glucose and chloramphenicol) fermentation. Ethanol yield was 0.45 g g(-1), 88 % of the maximal theoretical value. Crysanthemum waste hydrolysate was suitable for ethanol production, containing glucose and mannose with adequate nutrients for S. cerevisiae fermentation and low fermentation inhibitor levels. PMID:23117675

Quevedo-Hidalgo, Balkys; Monsalve-Marín, Felipe; Narváez-Rincón, Paulo César; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario Enrique

2013-03-01

34

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

1996-01-01

35

Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

2014-01-01

36

Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

37

Synergy of licorice extract and pea protein hydrolysate for oxidative stability of soybean oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

Previously developed radical-scavenging pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs) prepared with Flavourzyme (Fla-PPH) and Protamex (Pro-PPH) were used as cosurfactants with Tween 20 to produce soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, and the suppression of lipid oxidation was investigated. Both PPHs significantly retarded oxidation (P < 0.05) of the emulsions when stored at 37 °C for 14 days. Electron microscopy revealed an interfacial peptidyl membrane around oil droplets, which afforded steric restrictions to oxidation initiators. When licorice extract (LE) was also used in emulsion preparation, a remarkable synergistic oxidation inhibition was observed with both PPHs. LE adsorbed onto oil droplets either directly or through associating with PPH to produce a thick and compact interfacial membrane enabling the defense against oxygen species. Liquiritin apioside, neolicuroside, glabrene, and 18?-glycyrrhetic acid were the predominant phenolic derivatives partitioning at the interface and most likely the major contributors to the notable synergistic antioxidant activity when coupled with PPHs. PMID:25058384

Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Lirong

2014-08-13

38

New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.  

PubMed

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2014-01-01

39

New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract  

PubMed Central

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2014-01-01

40

Evaluation of a rapid DNA extraction method to detect yeast cells by PCR in orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts are the main causes of spoilage in pasteurized orange juice. Whereas detection by plate counting techniques is too slow to allow appropriate intervention measures, PCR reaction offers a rapid alternative, but it can be inhibited by components of food samples. We developed a DNA extraction method directly from orange juice for rapid yeast detection by PCR amplification of the

Maria Ros-Chumillas; Marcos Egea-Cortines; Antonio Lopez-Gomez; Julia Weiss

2007-01-01

41

Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.  

PubMed

An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. PMID:21820955

Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

2011-11-01

42

Effect of yeast extract on Escherichia coli growth and acetic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed batch cultures were performed to investigate the effect of yeast extract concentration on the kinetics of growth and acetic acid production of recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 in a synthetic medium. Three runs were performed with 40g\\/l total glucose concentration. The yeast extract\\/glucose ratio (YE\\/G; w\\/w), was 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 in the feed. These decreasing YE\\/G values did not

D. C. Suárez; C. W. Liria; B. V. Kilikian

1998-01-01

43

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

2014-04-01

44

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

2011-04-01

45

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

2012-04-01

46

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

2013-04-01

47

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

2010-04-01

48

Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber  

PubMed Central

Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed deposits of organic matter in the junction of the cuticles that probably collaborates to the sealing of the cuticles, increasing the brightness and softness. Conclusions These results show that the enzymatic method to produce keratin peptides for hair care products is an attractive and eco- friendly method with a great potential in the cosmetic industry. PMID:23414102

2013-01-01

49

The isolation of an unidentified factor from yeast extract for the formate-pyruvate exchange reaction in streptococcus faecalis  

E-print Network

%21 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 60 15 Ethanol precipitation of yeast extract 16 Distributinn of aotivity of a barium praoipitcticn of yeaot extract o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 17 Activity of a crystalline substance obtained by a... GPF~ isolation prooess . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Distribution of activity in fractions obtained from yeast extract by treating &th barium, iced and sliver salts ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lg ~ualitative color test...

Chen, Chi-sin

1962-01-01

50

Extraction of genomic DNA from yeasts for PCR-based applications.  

PubMed

We have developed a quick and low-cost genomic DNA extraction protocol from yeast cells for PCR-based applications. This method does not require any enzymes, hazardous chemicals, or extreme temperatures, and is especially powerful for simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples. DNA can be efficiently extracted from different yeast species (Kluyveromyces lactis, Hansenula polymorpha, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans, Pichia pastoris, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The protocol involves lysis of yeast colonies or cells from liquid culture in a lithium acetate (LiOAc)-SDS solution and subsequent precipitation of DNA with ethanol. Approximately 100 nanograms of total genomic DNA can be extracted from 1 × 10(7) cells. DNA extracted by this method is suitable for a variety of PCR-based applications (including colony PCR, real-time qPCR, and DNA sequencing) for amplification of DNA fragments of ? 3500 bp. PMID:21548894

Lõoke, Marko; Kristjuhan, Kersti; Kristjuhan, Arnold

2011-05-01

51

Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata

S. Weckesser; K. Engel; B. Simon-Haarhaus; A. Wittmer; K. Pelz; C. M. Schempp

2007-01-01

52

Screening of carob bean yeasts. Chemical composition of Schizosaccharomyces versatilis grown on aqueous carob extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An improved extraction procedure for soluble sugars and tannins from carob bean is described. The yeast flora of the carob is rich, withSaccharomyces predominant; an isolate ofSchizosaccharomyces versatilis cultured in the aqueous extract utilizes tannins as well as sugars to give a high biomass and protein yield of good quality.

S. G. Marakis; A. D. Karagouni

1985-01-01

53

Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.  

PubMed

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

2007-08-01

54

Effect of CO? supply conditions on lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues.  

PubMed

The hydrolysates from lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) were used as a source of nutrients for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production under various CO(2) supply conditions, including different CO(2) concentrations and aeration rates. Both parameters had a significant effect on lipid production. A CO(2) concentration of 5% was found to be most suitable for microalgal growth. Microalga grew best at a CO(2) aeration rate of 0.5 vvm. At this rate, biomass concentration and lipid productivity were at a maximum of 3.83 g L(-1) and 157 mg L(-1)d(-1), respectively, but decreased at lower or higher aeration rates. The present results showed that LMBRs utilization was effective in microalgal lipid production under suitable CO(2) supply conditions. PMID:23073086

Zheng, Hongli; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Fengwei; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

2012-12-01

55

Bioabatement to remove inhibitors from biomass-derived sugar hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize furans and grow in dilute-acid hydrolysate of corn stover. NRRL30616 was the best strain for removal of inhibitors from hydrolysate, and abatement of hydrolysate by inoculation with the strain allowed subsequent yeast fermentation of cellulose to ethanol. PMID:15917615

Nichols, Nancy N; Dien, Bruce S; Guisado, Gema M; López, Maria J

2005-01-01

56

Chromatin Assembly in a Yeast Whole-Cell Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

1997-08-01

57

Treatment of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysates with advanced oxidative processes: a new and promising detoxification method to improve the bioconversion process  

PubMed Central

Background The use of lignocellulosic constituents in biotechnological processes requires a selective separation of the main fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). During diluted acid hydrolysis for hemicellulose extraction, several toxic compounds are formed by the degradation of sugars and lignin, which have ability to inhibit microbial metabolism. Thus, the use of a detoxification step represents an important aspect to be considered for the improvement of fermentation processes from hydrolysates. In this paper, we evaluated the application of Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) for the detoxification of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the goal of improving ethanol bioproduction by Pichia stipitis yeast. Aiming to reduce the toxicity of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, different treatment conditions were analyzed. The treatments were carried out according to a Taguchi L16 orthogonal array to evaluate the influence of Fe+2, H2O2, UV, O3 and pH on the concentration of aromatic compounds and the fermentative process. Results The results showed that the AOPs were able to remove aromatic compounds (furan and phenolic compounds derived from lignin) without affecting the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Ozonation in alkaline medium (pH 8) in the presence of H2O2 (treatment A3) or UV radiation (treatment A5) were the most effective for hydrolysate detoxification and had a positive effect on increasing the yeast fermentability of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate. Under these conditions, the higher removal of total phenols (above 40%), low molecular weight phenolic compounds (above 95%) and furans (above 52%) were observed. In addition, the ethanol volumetric productivity by P. stipitis was increased in approximately twice in relation the untreated hydrolysate. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AOPs are a promising methods to reduce toxicity and improve the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:23414668

2013-01-01

58

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

59

An automatic turbidimetric method to screen yeast extracts as fermentation nutrient ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extracts (YEs) are frequently used as fermentation nutrient ingredients. However, lots from the same manufacturing process gave biomass and growth rate (?) levels that could vary by almost 50%. Establishing growth curves with shake flasks, or in fermenters under external pH control, is tedious and labour-demanding. An automated turbidimetry (AT) system (Bioscreen™) was thus used with the aim of

Jean Potvin; Evelyne Fonchy; John Conway; Claude P. Champagne

1997-01-01

60

GASTROINTESTINAL MATURATION IS ACCELERATED IN TURKEY POULTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE YEAST EXTRACT (ALPHAMUNE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...

61

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

62

A simple and sensitive method to extract bacterial, yeast and fungal DNA from blood culture material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the various commercially available kits and ‘in-house’ methods to extract DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and fungal agents in commonly employed blood culture material. The main methods investigated were as follows; Qiagen QIAmp Blood kit, Roche high PCR template preparation kit, Puregene DNA extraction kit, boiling, glass beads\\/sonication and wash\\/alkali\\/heat lysis. The results indicated that

Beverley C. Millar; Xu Jiru; John E. Moore; John A. P. Earle

2000-01-01

63

Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)

1991-12-31

64

Improving glutathione extraction from crude yeast extracts by optimizing aqueous two-phase system composition and operation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEG-Dextran and PEG-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have been applied to separate glutathione (GSH) from crude yeast\\u000a extracts. Single-factor experiments were carried out to determine the important factors influencing the partition coefficient\\u000a and extraction yield. The effect of PEG molecular weight, phase-forming components, PEG and Dextran concentration, pH value,\\u000a and temperature on the GSH partitioning behavior in ATPS was investigated.

Xiangting Wu; Linmei Tang; Yinming Du; Zhinan Xu

2010-01-01

65

Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization  

PubMed Central

Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76–89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

Fernandes, Joana P.; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

2015-01-01

66

Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization.  

PubMed

Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76-89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

Fernandes, Joana P; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

2015-01-01

67

Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20?35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration. PMID:25138600

Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

2014-10-01

68

Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

Silva, S Q; Silva, D C; Lanna, M C S; Baeta, B E L; Aquino, S F

2014-01-01

69

Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract  

PubMed Central

The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

Silva, S.Q.; Silva, D.C.; Lanna, M.C.S.; Baeta, B.E.L.; Aquino, S.F.

2014-01-01

70

Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min

1997-01-01

71

Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.  

PubMed

In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

2014-10-01

72

Efficient production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol from cellulosic hydrolysate using Paenibacillus polymyxa ICGEB2008.  

PubMed

We report here the production of pure (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) isomer by the non-pathogenic Paenibacillus polymyxa ICGEB2008 using lignocellulosic hydrolysate as substrate. Experimental design based on Plackett-Burman resulted in identification of Mn and K as most crucial salt elements along with the yeast extract for 2,3-BDO production. Further experiments using Box-Behnken design indicated that both KCl and yeast extract together had major impact on 2,3-BDO production. Optimized medium resulted in 2,3-BDO production with 2.3-fold higher maximum volumetric productivity (2.01 g/L/h) and similar yield (0.33 g/g sugar) as compared to rich yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium in the bioreactor studies. Considering that the balance substrate was channeled towards ethanol, carbon recovery was close to theoretical yield between the two solvents, i.e., 2,3-BDO and ethanol. Biomass hydrolysate and corn-steep liquor was used further to produce 2,3-BDO without impacting its yield. In addition, 2,3-BDO was also produced via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, signifying robustness of the strain. PMID:25424694

Adlakha, Nidhi; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2015-01-01

73

High-throughput method for the analysis of ethylenethiourea with direct injection of hydrolysed urine using online on-column extraction liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ethylenethiourea (ETU) is of major toxicological concern, since in experimental animal studies, ETU has shown a large spectrum of adverse effects. High occupational exposure can be found among agricultural workers or during manufacturing of ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). For the general public, sources of environmental exposure may be residues of ETU in commercial products, food and beverages. For the determination of ETU in human urine we present a high-throughput online on-column extraction liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method using direct injection of hydrolysed urine samples. This method is simple, user- and environmentally friendly and all sample preparation is performed in 96-well plates. A labelled ETU internal standard was used for quantification. The method showed a good sensitivity with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5ng ETU/mL urine and the calibration curve was linear in the range 0.25-200ng ETU/mL urine. The within-run, between-run and between-batch precision was between 6% and 13%. Alkaline hydrolysis considerably increased the levels of ETU indicating a potential conjugate. The method was applied in an experimental dermal exposure study in humans, with sample concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 5.0ng ETU/mL urine. The excretion in urine was 10% of the applied dose. The elimination profile seemed to differ between the two individuals. The results show an estimated half-life of ETU between 34 and 72h. Although the experiment is limited to two individuals, the data provide valuable and new information regarding the toxicokinetics of ETU after dermal exposure. PMID:23896430

Ekman, Eva; Maxe, Margaretha; Littorin, Margareta; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

2013-09-01

74

Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

Rezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

2014-11-14

75

A Yeast Metabolite Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing call for the absolute quantification of time-resolved metabolite data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as metabolites being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt concentrations often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, metabolite yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised metabolite leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate metabolites to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously. PMID:22952947

Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

2012-01-01

76

Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

1980-01-01

77

Purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin citreoviridin has been associated with the 'yellow rice' disease, which caused cardiac beriberi in Japan. In Brazil, the consumption of contaminated rice was suspected to be involved in a recent beriberi outbreak. In this work, citreoviridin was produced by Penicillium citreonigrum, cultivated in 500 ml yeast extract sucrose (YES) liquid medium for 8 days at 25ºC, and the toxin extracted with chloroform from the liquid medium and the mycelium. A total of 15.3 g of crude extract was obtained from 48 culture flasks, with an estimated citreoviridin contend of 5.54 g, 74.3% being present in the mycelia. Semi-preparative HPLC of the crude extract yielded 27.1% citreoviridin. The HPLC-purified citreoviridin fraction was fully characterised by UV/VIS, FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, LC-MS/MS and LC-MSD TOF, and purity confirmed by gravimetric analysis. Isocitreoviridin was also produced by P. citreonigrum, accounting for about 10% of the citreoviridin present in the crude extract, most transformed into citreoviridin after 10 months under freezing conditions protected from light. Citreoviridin was shown to be stable under the same conditions, although it can suffer isomerisation after a longer storage period. Isomerisation is a potential source of variability in toxicological studies and purity of the material should be checked before study initiation. PMID:25190053

da Rocha, Mariana Wagner; Resck, Inês Sabioni; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

2015-04-01

78

Whole Cell Extract Prep of Gal-Induced Yeast Cells Inoculate 3 X 5 ml YEP + 2% raffinose with single yeast colony harboring EE-MOT1-  

E-print Network

minus Leucine, 1 liter 1.2 g Yeast Nitrogen Base (without amino acids and ammonium sulfate) 5.0 g ammonium sulfate 1.0 g amino acid drop out mix (e.g. minus W, U, L) Add 950 ml water, adjust pH to 7 liter) Benoit's Extraction Buffer 200 mM TRIS, pH 8.0 3.6 g TRIS 400 mM ammonium sulfate 7.6 g ammonium

Auble, David

79

Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions. Results Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition. Conclusions Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain. PMID:24885359

2014-01-01

80

A yeast estrogen screen without extraction provides fast, reliable measures of estrogenic activity.  

PubMed

Yeast estrogen screen (YES) has been used since 1996 as a bioassay to quantify activity in wastewater. Here we present a modification of YES to measure estrogenic activity in water. This modification, called yeast estrogen screen no extraction (YESne), is faster and easier than the common method. The modified method can detect 17?-estradiol equivalent concentrations down to 1.1 ng/L. The median effective concentration value (EC50) is 1.2E-10. It detected average influent concentrations of 16.4 and 17.5 ng/L of 17?-estradiol equivalent at four Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania, USA, wastewater treatment plants on September 18 and October 23, 2008, respectively, and average effluent concentrations of 5.1 and 8.1 ng/L of 17?-estradiol equivalent at the same plants on the two dates, respectively. Reduction in 17?-estradiol equivalent activity for the four wastewater treatment plants averaged 67.8 and 52.3%, respectively, for the September 18 and October 23 samples. The YESne is a simple, quick method for quantifying estrogenic activity that has been used successfully in nonmajor undergraduate classes and could be adapted by wastewater treatment plant laboratory technicians to measure influent and effluent estrogenicity on a regular basis. This practice will greatly increase our knowledge base of estrogenicity in wastewater before and after treatment. PMID:21755530

Colosi, Joseph C; Kney, Arthur D

2011-10-01

81

Development of a D-xylose fermenting and inhibitor tolerant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high performance in lignocellulose hydrolysates using metabolic and evolutionary engineering  

PubMed Central

Background The production of bioethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysates requires a robust, D-xylose-fermenting and inhibitor-tolerant microorganism as catalyst. The purpose of the present work was to develop such a strain from a prime industrial yeast strain, Ethanol Red, used for bioethanol production. Results An expression cassette containing 13 genes including Clostridium phytofermentans XylA, encoding D-xylose isomerase (XI), and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway was inserted in two copies in the genome of Ethanol Red. Subsequent EMS mutagenesis, genome shuffling and selection in D-xylose-enriched lignocellulose hydrolysate, followed by multiple rounds of evolutionary engineering in complex medium with D-xylose, gradually established efficient D-xylose fermentation. The best-performing strain, GS1.11-26, showed a maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate of 1.1 g/g DW/h in synthetic medium, with complete attenuation of 35 g/L D-xylose in about 17 h. In separate hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates of Arundo donax (giant reed), spruce and a wheat straw/hay mixture, the maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate was 0.36, 0.23 and 1.1 g/g DW inoculum/h, and the final ethanol titer was 4.2, 3.9 and 5.8% (v/v), respectively. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Arundo hydrolysate, GS1.11-26 produced 32% more ethanol than the parent strain Ethanol Red, due to efficient D-xylose utilization. The high D-xylose fermentation capacity was stable after extended growth in glucose. Cell extracts of strain GS1.11-26 displayed 17-fold higher XI activity compared to the parent strain, but overexpression of XI alone was not enough to establish D-xylose fermentation. The high D-xylose consumption rate was due to synergistic interaction between the high XI activity and one or more mutations in the genome. The GS1.11-26 had a partial respiratory defect causing a reduced aerobic growth rate. Conclusions An industrial yeast strain for bioethanol production with lignocellulose hydrolysates has been developed in the genetic background of a strain widely used for commercial bioethanol production. The strain uses glucose and D-xylose with high consumption rates and partial cofermentation in various lignocellulose hydrolysates with very high ethanol yield. The GS1.11-26 strain shows highly promising potential for further development of an all-round robust yeast strain for efficient fermentation of various lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:23800147

2013-01-01

82

Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

2014-12-01

83

Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway inhibitors from an organic extract of Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Streptomyces sp. H7667 led to the isolation of three new imides, 3-[(5E)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-hydroxy-5-octenyl]glutarimide (1), 2-amino-N-2'-(phenylacetyl)propanimide (5), and 2-amino-N-(2'-(cyclohex-2''-enyl)acetyl)acetimide (6), and one new isoflavonoid glycoside, 6-O-methyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyldaidzein (7), along with four known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by HRESIMS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. PMID:19711989

Cheenpracha, Sarot; Zhang, Hui; Mar, Annie M N; Foss, Adam P; Foo, Sek Hin; Lai, Ngit Shin; Jee, Jap Meng; Seow, Heng Fong; Ho, Coy Choke; Chang, Leng Chee

2009-08-01

84

Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B  

SciTech Connect

Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

1992-02-01

85

Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

86

Influences of yeast extract on specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone during fed-batch fermentation of E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most cases of E. coli high cell density fermentation process, maximizing cell concentration helps in increasing the volumetric productivity of recombinant proteins usually at the cost of lower specific cellular protein yield. In this report, we describe a process for maintaining the specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone (oGH) from E. coli by optimal feeding of yeast extract

A. K. Panda; R. H. Khan; S. Mishra; K. B. C. Appa Rao; S. M. Totey

2000-01-01

87

SUMO expression shortens the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth caused by complex interactive effects of major mixed fermentation inhibitors found in hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The complex inhibitory effects of inhibitors present in lignocellulose hydrolysate suppress the ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the interactive inhibitory effects play important roles in the actual hydrolysate, few studies have investigated glycolaldehyde, the key inhibitor of hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Given this challenge, we investigated the interactive effects of mixed fermentation inhibitors, including glycolaldehyde. First, we confirmed that glycolaldehyde was the most potent inhibitor in the hydrolysate and exerted interactive inhibitory effects in combination with major inhibitors. Next, through genome-wide analysis and megavariate data modeling, we identified SUMOylation as a novel potential mechanism to overcome the combinational inhibitory effects of fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, overall SUMOylation was increased and Pgk1, which produces an ATP molecule in glycolysis by substrate-level phosphorylation, was SUMOylated and degraded in response to glycolaldehyde. Augmenting the SUMO-dependent ubiquitin system in the ADH1-expressing strain significantly shortened the lag phase of growth, released cells from G2/M arrest, and improved energy status and glucose uptake in the inhibitor-containing medium. In summary, our study was the first to establish SUMOylation as a novel platform for regulating the lag phase caused by complex fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25359478

Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kadowaki, Masafumi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Horie, Kenta; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

88

In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

2014-01-01

89

Interactions levures-tanins. II. Etude en milieu tannant de quelques levures hydrolysant l'acide tannique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and hydrolytic action on tannins of 6 strains of yeasts (isolated from tanning liquors and xylophagous insects) are studied in culture media containing various concentrations of tannic acid. The influence of medium acidity is also considered. According to the strains, growth is more or less restrained and hydrolytic activity is variable. Except for gallotannins, hydrolysable tannins are not hydrolysed.

F. H. Jacob; Marie-Claire Pignal

1975-01-01

90

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ingredient and shall include the identity of the food source from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed...

2010-04-01

91

Fermentative production of L(+)-lactic acid using hydrolyzed acorn starch, persimmon juice and wheat bran hydrolysate as nutrients.  

PubMed

The use of hydrolyzed acorn starch as a novel carbon source for L(+)-lactic acid production was proposed. The effects of carbon-nitrogen ratio and growth factor on the fermentations were studied by single factor experiments. A lower carbon-nitrogen ratio could enhance L(+)-lactic acid production, and the expensive yeast extract could be replaced by the cheap persimmon juice providing growth factor for L(+)-lactic acid production when wheat bran hydrolysate was used as the nitrogen source. The dosages of wheat bran hydrolysate and persimmon juice in the medium were statistically optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The yield of L(+)-lactic acid reached 45.78g/100g dry acorn with a final concentration of 57.61+/-1.37g/l and a productivity of 1.60+/-0.12g/lh when the batch fermentation was carried out in a 5l bioreactor under the optimal conditions of wheat bran hydrolysate 24.55g/l and persimmon juice 12.30g/l. Comparative batch fermentations using different raw materials such as acorn, cassava, corn and glucose showed that both the yield and the productivity of L(+)-lactic acid production were the highest when the hydrolyzed acorn starch was used as the carbon source. Therefore, the acorn could be used as a new substitute of grain raw material in L(+)-lactic acid production. PMID:20116239

Lu, Zhengdong; He, Feng; Shi, Yue; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

2010-05-01

92

Investigations on hydrolytic activities from Stachybotrys microspora and their use as an alternative in yeast DNA extraction.  

PubMed

Stachybotrys microspora is a filamentous fungus characterized by the secretion of multiple hydrolytic activities (cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic enzymes). The production of these biocatalysts was studied under submerged culture using glucose, cellulose, and wheat bran as carbon sources. Endoglucanases, pectinases, xylanases, ?-glucanases, chitinases, and proteases were induced on cellulose-based medium and repressed on glucose in both strains with higher amounts produced by the mutant. ?-glucosidases were roughly equally produced by both strains under glucose and cellulose conditions. The yield of chitinases, ?-glucanases, and proteases produced by Stachybotrys strains was as much higher than the commercialized lysing enzyme called "zymolyase," currently used in yeast DNA extraction. In this context, we showed that S. microspora hydrolases can be successfully applied in the extraction of yeast DNA. PMID:24241970

Abdeljalil, Salma; Ben Hmad, Ines; Saibi, Walid; Amouri, Bahia; Maalej, Wiem; Kaaniche, Marwa; Koubaa, Aida; Gargouri, Ali

2014-02-01

93

Sophorolipid production from biomass hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Although extensive research has been conducted on producing sophorolipids using Candida (Starmerella) bombicola from pure sugars and various oil sources, production of this biosurfactant has not been evaluated when cells are cultivated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, we report for the first time that C. bombicola is capable of producing sophorolipids on hydrolysates derived from sweet sorghum bagasse and corn fiber. Without oil supplementation, a sophorolipid concentration of 3.6 and 1.0 g/L was detected from cultures with bagasse and corn fiber hydrolysates, respectively. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, the yield of sophorolipids from these two hydrolysates in the same order was 84.6 and 15.6 g/L. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and nonsugar compounds in the hydrolysates, and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of sophorolipids than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. PMID:25475889

Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Liang, Yanna

2015-02-01

94

[Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].  

PubMed

Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress. PMID:25272834

Huang, Lei; Xiao, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guang; Mo, Ge; Lin, Shu-Fang; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lan-Ping

2014-06-01

95

Fermentation of orange peel hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. Effects of nutritional supplements.  

PubMed

Orange peel, an abundant byproduct of the citrus processing industry, is converted to a mixture of glucose, galacturonic acid, fructose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose by hydrolysis with mixed pectinase and cellulase enzymes. All these sugars can be fermented to ethanol or ethanol and acetic acid by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KO11. The fermentation efficiency is improved by the addition of yeast extract, tryptone, mixed amino acids, corn steep liquor, or by proteolytic digestion of endogenous proteins. Batch fermentations of supplemented peel hydrolysate containing 111 g/L of initial total sugars produced 35-38 g/L of ethanol in 48-72 h and a 75-85% yield. PMID:8669905

Grohmann, K; Cameron, R G; Buslig, B S

1996-01-01

96

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2014-04-01

97

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2011-04-01

98

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2013-04-01

99

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2012-04-01

100

Parametric Studies on Batch Alcohol Fermentation Using Saccharomyces Yeast Extracted from Toddy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain from toddy and the study of important process parameters which will facilitate the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using the developed strain. Evaluation of the yeast strain was performed in a batch fermenter of 1 L capacity under varying pH, temperature, sugar concen- tration, inoculum time and

K. Pramanik

101

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

102

Estrogenicity of solid phase-extracted water samples from two municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and river Rhine water using the yeast estrogen screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the yeast estrogen screen (YES) was used to estimate the estrogenic potential of solid phase-extracted water samples from the effluents of two municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs 1 + 2) and from four lanes (left to right) of the river Rhine at Worms, Germany, i.e. downstream the STPs. Estrogenic activities of extracted water samples were expressed

S. Pawlowski; T. A. Ternes; M. Bonerz; A. C. Rastall; L. Erdinger; T. Braunbeck

2004-01-01

103

Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger?  

PubMed Central

A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

2009-01-01

104

Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity. PMID:25672324

Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2015-04-01

105

Overcoming the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid extracts in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.  

PubMed

For nearly two decades, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) has been used as a valuable tool for determining the total estrogenic potency of various environmental samples, including influent and effluent streams at municipal wastewater plants. However, applying the YES assay to wastewater sludges and stabilized biosolids has been problematic. This is due to co-extracted compounds from the solids either proving toxic to the yeast or masking the presence of estrogenic substances. The present research describes the development and validation of sample preparation steps that mitigate the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid samples in the YES assay, while allowing for reliable dose-dependent expression of estrogenic activity. A copper work-up for sulfur removal and chromatographic cleanup with silica and alumina were required in addition to solid-phase extraction to adequately remove interfering compounds. Sample stabilization methods such as autoclaving, lyophilization and formaldehyde treatment were found to be detrimental to the assay. Hence, heat-drying is recommended to prevent cytotoxicity and the degradation of estrogenic substances. PMID:22277884

Citulski, Joel; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

2012-04-01

106

Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of extracts of ten African Ficus species (Moraceae) used traditionally to treat diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Some Ficus species have been used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The antidiabetic potential of certain species has been confirmed in vivo but the mechanism of activity remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the activity and to investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic activity of ten selected Ficus species through inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, and the possible relationship between these activities, the total polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methods Dried acetone leaf extracts were reconstituted with appropriate solvents and used to determine total polyphenolic content antioxidant activity, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results The crude acetone extract of F. lutea had the highest polyphenolic content (56.85?±?1.82 mg GAE/g of dry material) and the strongest antioxidant activity with a TEAC value of 4.80?±?0.90. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extracts of the Ficus species may not be ascribed to total polyphenolic content alone. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of F. lutea (64.3?±?3.6%) had the best ?-glucosidase (sucrase) inhibitory activity. The EC50 of F. lutea (290?±?111 ?g/ml) was not significantly different from that of F. sycomorus (217?±?69 ?g/ml). The ?-amylase inhibitory activity of F. lutea (95.4?±?1.2%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was the highest among the Ficus species screened. The EC50 for F. lutea (9.42?±?2.01 ? g/ml), though the highest, was not significantly different (p?extract of F. lutea is a partially non-competitive inhibitor of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Based on correlation coefficients polyphenolics may be responsible for ?-glucosidase activity but probably not for ?-amylase activity. Conclusion Antidiabetic activity potential via inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase was discovered in Ficus lutea which has not been previously reported. The acetone extract of the leaves was high in total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity, and was a potent inhibitor of ?-amylase activity. Research is underway to isolate the active compound(s) responsible for the antidiabetic activity and to confirm the in vitro antidiabetic activity and to investigate in vitro toxicity. PMID:23641947

2013-01-01

107

Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4 °C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; LeDuc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh

2013-11-01

108

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori

2014-01-01

109

Kinetic considerations about the study of alcoholic fermentations in starch hydrolysate  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic fermentations of starch hydrolysate by two different yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (var. Vinal) and Saccharomyces oviformis (IMAP 383), have been studied in batch runs. In order to evaluate the different inhibition phenomena due to both substrate and product, a new kinetic equation is suggested. 23 references.

Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Del Borghi, M.; Parisi, F.; Ferraiolo, G.

1986-05-01

110

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

111

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

1984-01-01

112

Detoxification of rice straw and olive tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolysates employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to metabolize a variety of aromatic compounds found in rice straw (RSHH) and olive tree pruning (OTHH) hemicellulosic hydrolysates, obtained by acid hydrolysis at different sugar and toxic compound concentrations. Initially, the hydrolysates were inoculated with S. cerevisiae (10 g L(-1)) and incubated at 30 °C under agitation at 200 rpm for 6 h. The results showed that this yeast was able to utilize phenolic and furan compounds in both hemicellulose hydrolysates. Next, the treated hydrolysates were inoculated with Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to evaluate the effect of biotransformation of aromatic compounds on ethanol production, and better fermentation results were obtained in this case compared to untreated ones. The untreated hemicellulose hydrolysates were not able to be fermented when they were incubated with Pichia stipitis. However, in RSHH treated hydrolysates, ethanol (Y(P/S)) and biomass (Y(X/S)) yields and volumetric ethanol productivity (Q(P)) were 0.17 g g(-1), 0.15 g g(-1) and 0.09 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The OTHH-treated hydrolysates showed less favorable results compared to RSHH, but the fermentation process was favored with regard to untreated hydrolysate. These results showed that the fermentation by P. stipitis in untreated hydrolysates was strongly inhibited by toxic compounds present in the media and that treatment with S. cerevisiae promoted a significant reduction in their toxicities. PMID:23992561

Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Puentes, Juan Gabriel; Mateo, Soledad; Sánchez, Sebastian; Moya, Alberto J; Roberto, Inês Conceição

2013-10-01

113

Efficient production of l-lactic acid from hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke with immobilized cells of Lactococcus lactis in fibrous bed bioreactors.  

PubMed

Hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke was applied for the production of l-lactic acid by immobilized Lactococcus lactis cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor system. Preliminary experiments had indicated that the high quality hydrolysate, which was derived from the 40 min acid treatment at 95 °C and pH 1.8, was sufficient to support the cell growth and synthesis of l-lactic acid. With the addition of 5 g/l yeast extract, the fermentative performance of free cell system was evidently improved. After the basal settlement of hydrolysate based fermentation, the batch mode and the fed-batch mode fermentation were carried out in the free cell system and the fibrous bed bioreactor system, respectively. In all cases the immobilized cells presented the superior ability to produce l-lactic acid. The comparison of batch mode and fed-batch mode also indicated that the growth-limiting feeding strategy could reduce the lag phase of fermentation process and enhance the production of l-lactic acid. The achieved maximum concentration of l-lactic acid was 142 g/l in the fed-batch mode. Subsequent repeated-batch fermentation of the fibrous bed bioreactor system had further exhibited the persistence and stability of this system for the high production of l-lactic acid in a long term. Our work suggested the great potential of the fibrous bed bioreactor system and hydrolysate of J. artichoke in the economical production of l-lactic acid at industrial scale. PMID:22975123

Shi, Zhouming; Wei, Peilian; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

2012-10-10

114

The effect of a yeast extract feed additive on turkeys challenged with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes and subjected to transport stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE) was added to the diet of turkeys which were exposed to E. coli and L. monocytogenes Scott A at 16 wks of age using coarse spray and feed inclusion. Positive c...

115

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS CHALLENGED WITH COLD STRESS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI TO ALPHAMUNE™, A DIETARY YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two battery trials were conducted using a yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™, to protect turkey poults from production losses due to cold stress and E. coli infection. Trial 1 used commercially hatched day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-wk-old hens in their 2nd wk of lay and Trial 2...

116

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

117

Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

118

Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates constitute an alternative to intact proteins and elemental formulas in the development of special formulations designed to provide nutritional support to patients with different needs. The production of extensive protein hydrolysates by sequential action of endopeptidases and exoproteases coupled with the development of post-hydrolysis procedures is considered the most effective way to obtain protein hydrolysates with defined characteristics.

Alfonso Clemente

2000-01-01

119

Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that pH was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used for Saccharomyces fermentations. PMID:24739806

2014-01-01

120

Biotechnological strategies to overcome inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates for ethanol production: review.  

PubMed

One of the major challenges faced in commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol is the inhibitory compounds generated during the thermo-chemical pre-treatment step of biomass. These inhibitory compounds are toxic to fermenting micro-organisms. The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during thermo-chemical pre-treatment step such as acid and steam explosion. This review describes the application and/or effect of biological detoxification (removal of inhibitors before fermentation) or use of bioreduction capability of fermenting yeasts on the fermentability of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of yeast fermentation by the inhibitor compounds in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by treatment with enzymes such as the lignolytic enzymes, for example, laccase and micro-organisms such as Trichoderma reesei, Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, Trametes versicolor, Pseudomonas putida Fu1, Candida guilliermondii, and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus. Microbial and enzymatic detoxifications of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are mild and more specific in their action. The efficiency of enzymatic process is quite comparable to other physical and chemical methods. Adaptation of the fermentation yeasts to the lignocellulosic hydrolysate prior to fermentation is suggested as an alternative approach to detoxification. Increases in fermentation rate and ethanol yield by adapted micro-organisms to acid pre-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates have been reported in some studies. Another approach to alleviate the inhibition problem is to use genetic engineering to introduce increased tolerance by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, by overexpressing genes encoding enzymes for resistance against specific inhibitors and altering co-factor balance. Cloning of the laccase gene followed by heterologous expression in yeasts was shown to provide higher enzyme yields and permit production of laccases with desired properties for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates. A combination of more inhibitor-tolerant yeast strains with efficient feed strategies such as fed-batch will likely improve lignocellulose-to-ethanol process robustness. PMID:20513164

Parawira, W; Tekere, M

2011-03-01

121

A new ?-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

PubMed

This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native ?-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous ?-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing. PMID:22133603

Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

2012-01-01

122

Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

2011-01-01

123

System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate  

DOEpatents

A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

2013-12-17

124

Benefits and Limitations of Protein Hydrolysates as Components of Serum-Free Media for Animal Cell Culture Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased understanding of influential factors for the cultivation of animal cells, combined with heightened regulatory concern over potential transmission of adventitious contaminants associated with serum and other animal-derived components, has elevated interest in using protein hydrolysates as serum replacements or nutrient supplements. This paper reviews the chemistry and biology of various hydrolysates derived from animal, plant and microbial sources. It provides specific examples of a beneficial selection of plant and yeast hydrolysates as ingredients of serum-free nutrient formulations for bioproduction applications of cultured mammalian and insect cells. Strategies for customizing and optimizing nutrients for specialized applications and general benefits and limitations of protein hydrolysates for biopharmaceutical production are also discussed.

Lobo-Alfonso, Juliet; Price, Paul; Jayme, David

125

Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop  

PubMed Central

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

126

Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.  

PubMed

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

127

Comparison of a novel MPN method against the yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the Quanti-Disc™ most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc™ test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely

David P. Sartory; Haoyi Gu; Chun-Ming Chen

2008-01-01

128

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512)  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

1991-01-16

129

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii  

DOEpatents

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

1992-01-01

130

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii  

DOEpatents

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

1992-03-31

131

Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3.  

PubMed

Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48 degrees C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to mycelia depending on an altered programme of gene expression. This dimorphism is an environmentally conditioned (reversible) event and the mycelia can be induced at a cultivation temperature of 45 degrees C. Depending on the morphology of strain Ls3 (yeast phase or mycelia) the secretion behaviour as well as the spectrum of polypeptides accumulated in the culture medium changed. The activities of the accumulated extracellular enzymes glucoamylase and invertase were 2 to 3 times higher in cultures grown at 45 degrees C than in those grown at 30 degrees C. While the level of the glucoamylase protein secreted from mycelia between 45 and 70 hours did not change, biochemical activity decreased after a cultivation time of 43 hours. It was shown that this effect depended on both the catabolic repression of the glucoamylase by glucose and the thermal inactivation of this enzyme in media without or with low concentrations of starch or maltose. PMID:8572679

Wartmann, T; Krüger, A; Adler, K; Duc, B M; Kunze, I; Kunze, G

1995-10-01

132

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2010-04-01

133

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2013-04-01

134

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2012-04-01

135

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2014-04-01

136

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2011-04-01

137

MÉTODOS DE PURIFICACIÓN DE HIDROLIZADOS DE BAGAZO DE CA?A DE AZÚCAR PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE XILITOL PURIFICATION METHODS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYSATES FOR XYLITOL OBTAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three treatments methods for sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate were tested in order to minimize its toxicity for the biological production of xylitol; using ionic exchange resins (TH1 and TH2) and activated charcoal (TH3). The treated hydrolysates were fermented in shaker flasks by the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The statistical analysis showed that TH1 and TH2 were the best treatments.

M. Viñals Verde; I. Maciel de Mancilha; J. Batista de Almeida e Silva; A. I. Nápoles Solenzar

2006-01-01

138

Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  

PubMed

In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-11-01

139

Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste  

PubMed Central

This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

2014-01-01

140

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

141

The receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 associate in pollen and when expressed in yeast, but dissociate in the presence of style extract  

PubMed Central

After pollen grains germinate on the stigma, pollen tubes traverse the extracellular matrix of the style on their way to the ovules. We previously characterized two pollen-specific, receptor-like kinases, LePRK1 and LePRK2, from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Their structure and immunolocalization pattern and the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2 suggested that these kinases might interact with signaling molecules in the style extracellular matrix. Here, we show that LePRK1 and LePRK2 can be coimmunoprecipitated from pollen or when expressed together in yeast. In yeast, their association requires LePRK2 kinase activity. In pollen, LePRK1 and LePRK2 are found in an ?400-kDa protein complex that persists on pollen germination, but this complex is disrupted when pollen is germinated in vitro in the presence of style extract. In yeast, the addition of style extract also disrupts the interaction between LePRK1 and LePRK2. Fractionation of the style extract reveals that the disruption activity is enriched in the 3- to 10-kDa fraction. A component(s) in this fraction also is responsible for the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2. The style component(s) that dephosphorylates LePRK2 is likely to be a heat-stable peptide that is present in exudate from the style. The generally accepted model of receptor kinase signaling involves binding of a ligand to extracellular domains of receptor kinases and subsequent activation of the signaling pathway by receptor autophosphorylation. In contrast to this typical scenario, we propose that a putative style ligand transduces the signal in pollen tubes by triggering the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2, followed by dissociation of the LePRK complex. PMID:12748390

Wengier, Diego; Valsecchi, Isabel; Cabanas, María Laura; Tang, Wei-hua; McCormick, Sheila; Muschietti, Jorge

2003-01-01

142

The yeast aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Methodology for their complete or partial purification and comparison of their relative activities under various extraction conditions.  

PubMed

Several fractionation steps are described which can be applied to the partial purification of the 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from commercial baker's yeast. Comparative experiments performed in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors revealed that some enzymes prepared in the presence of the inhibitor exhibit much higher specific activities than the proteins extracted in the absence of the inhibitor. The methodology reported can be used for the simultaneous preparation of several pure aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. As examples, the large scale purification of phenylalanyl-and valyl-tRNA synthetases are described. PMID:329894

Kern, D; Dietrich, A; Fasiolo, F; Renaud, M; Giegé, R; Ebel, J P

1977-01-01

143

Characterisation of the substrate specificity of the nitrile hydrolyzing system of the acidotolerant black yeast Exophiala oligosperma R1  

PubMed Central

The `black yeast' Exophiala oligosperma R1 can utilise various organic nitriles under acidic conditions as nitrogen sources. The induction of a phenylacetonitrile converting activity was optimised by growing the strain in the presence of different nitriles and /or complex or inorganic nitrogen sources. The highest nitrile hydrolysing activity was observed with cells grown with 2-cyanopyridine and NaNO3. The cells metabolised the inducer and grew with 2-cyanopyridine as sole source of nitrogen. Cell extracts converted various (substituted) benzonitriles and phenylacetonitriles. They usually converted the isomers carrying a substituent in the meta-position with higher relative activities than the corresponding para- or ortho-substituted isomers. Aliphatic substrates such as acrylonitrile and 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile were also hydrolysed. The highest specific activity was detected with 4-cyanopyridine. Most nitriles were almost exclusively converted to the corresponding acids and no or only low amounts of the corresponding amides were formed. The cells hydrolysed amides only with extremely low activities. It was therefore concluded that the cells harboured a nitrilase activity. The specific activities of whole cells and cell extracts were compared for different nitriles and evidence obtained for limitation in the substrate-uptake by whole cells. The conversion of 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile to 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid at pH 4 demonstrated the unique ability of cells of E. oligosperma R1 to hydrolyse aliphatic ?-hydroxynitriles under acidic conditions. The organism could grow with phenylacetonitrile as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. The degradation of phenylacetonitrile presumably proceeds via phenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homogentisate), maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate. PMID:19287539

Rustler, S.; Chmura, A.; Sheldon, R.A.; Stolz, A.

2008-01-01

144

Characterisation of the substrate specificity of the nitrile hydrolyzing system of the acidotolerant black yeast Exophiala oligosperma R1.  

PubMed

The ;black yeast' Exophiala oligosperma R1 can utilise various organic nitriles under acidic conditions as nitrogen sources. The induction of a phenylacetonitrile converting activity was optimised by growing the strain in the presence of different nitriles and /or complex or inorganic nitrogen sources. The highest nitrile hydrolysing activity was observed with cells grown with 2-cyanopyridine and NaNO(3). The cells metabolised the inducer and grew with 2-cyanopyridine as sole source of nitrogen. Cell extracts converted various (substituted) benzonitriles and phenylacetonitriles. They usually converted the isomers carrying a substituent in the meta-position with higher relative activities than the corresponding para- or ortho-substituted isomers. Aliphatic substrates such as acrylonitrile and 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile were also hydrolysed. The highest specific activity was detected with 4-cyanopyridine. Most nitriles were almost exclusively converted to the corresponding acids and no or only low amounts of the corresponding amides were formed. The cells hydrolysed amides only with extremely low activities. It was therefore concluded that the cells harboured a nitrilase activity. The specific activities of whole cells and cell extracts were compared for different nitriles and evidence obtained for limitation in the substrate-uptake by whole cells. The conversion of 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile to 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid at pH 4 demonstrated the unique ability of cells of E. oligosperma R1 to hydrolyse aliphatic alpha-hydroxynitriles under acidic conditions. The organism could grow with phenylacetonitrile as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. The degradation of phenylacetonitrile presumably proceeds via phenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homogentisate), maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate. PMID:19287539

Rustler, S; Chmura, A; Sheldon, R A; Stolz, A

2008-01-01

145

Chiral speciation and determination of selenomethionine enantiomers in selenized yeast by ligand-exchange micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

A new phenylalanine derivative (L-N-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-phenylalanine, L-HP-Phe) was synthesized and its chelate with Cu(II) (Cu(II)-(L-HP-Phe)(2)) was used as the chiral selector for the ligand-exchange (LE) chiral separation of D,L-selenomethionine (SeMet) in selenized yeast samples by micelle electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). In order to improve the sensitivity of MEKC-UV, two-step preconcentration strategy was employed, off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and on-line large volume sample stacking (LVSS). D,L-SeMet was first retained on the Cu(II) loaded mesoporous TiO(2), then eluted by 0.1 mL of 5 mol L(-1) ammonia, and finally introduced for MEKC-UV analysis by LVSS injection after evaporation of NH(3). With the enrichment factors of 1400 and 1378, the LODs of 0.44 and 0.60 ng mL(-1) for L-SeMet and D-SeMet was obtained, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of D,L-SeMet in a certified reference material of SELM-1 and a commercial nutrition yeast, and the results showed that most of SeMet in the SELM-1 selenized yeast was l isomer and the recovery for L and D isomers in the spiked commercial nutrition yeast was 96.3% and 103%, respectively. This method is featured with low running cost, high sensitivity and selectivity, and exhibits application potential in chiral analysis of seleno amino acids in real world samples. PMID:23141622

Duan, Jiankun; He, Man; Hu, Bin

2012-12-14

146

Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics.

Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

2015-01-01

147

Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

148

Biofunctional properties of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

2015-03-01

149

Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

1996-10-01

150

Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

2014-10-01

151

Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation  

PubMed Central

Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

2008-01-01

152

Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.  

PubMed

Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

Rucklidge, Julia J

2013-01-01

153

Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. CONCLUSIONS This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25371280

Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

2015-01-01

154

Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: Evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.  

PubMed

Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9g/L and 18.7g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26LCH4/gCOD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

2015-04-01

155

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) muscle.  

PubMed

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidative activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from muscle of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) were investigated. Sardinelle protein hydrolysates (SPH) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus pumilus A1 (SPHA1), Bacillus mojavensis A21 (SPHA21) and crude enzyme extract from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) viscera (SPHEE). The protein hydrolysates SPHA1, SPHA21 and SPHEE contained high protein content 79.1%, 78.25% and 74.37%, respectively. The protein hydrolysates had an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by their concentrations. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, reducing power assay, chelating activity, ?-carotene bleaching and DNA nicking assay. All protein hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. SPHA21 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (89% at 6 mg/ml) and higher ability to prevent bleaching of ?-carotene than SPHA1 and SPHEE (p?

Ben Khaled, Hayet; Ktari, Naourez; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Moncef

2014-04-01

156

A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.  

PubMed

The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different ?-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced ?-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 ?g L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

2014-04-01

157

Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production  

PubMed Central

Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 244-251] PMID:23710634

Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

2013-01-01

158

Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn\\/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except

B. E. Watkins; R. L. Kanna; R. D. Chambers; R. S. Upadhye; C. O. Promeda

1996-01-01

159

[Experimental study of the effect of raw materials of the neem tree and neem extracts on dermatophytes, yeasts and molds].  

PubMed

In traditional Indian medicine, various parts of the neem tree have been used for centuries, especially with skin diseases. These products are often applied in human mycoses. We tested some dried neem materials, neem oils as well as simple neem preparations and extracts with regard to their effect on 14 of the most common pathogenic fungi. Neither the dried neem materials nor the medical preparations and oils had any effect on fungal growth; most of them were even contaminated with molds. Some of the extracts, however, showed antimycotic properties, which decreased with rising solvent polarity. Petrolether leaf extract proved most effective. One of the possible explanations might be the fact that it contains quercetin, a flavonoid. PMID:3407264

Khan, M; Schneider, B; Wassilew, S W; Splanemann, V

1988-06-15

160

Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8?h), and reaction temperatures (60–120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6?h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28?g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03?g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01?g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75?g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S.; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2012-01-01

161

Immunostimulant activity of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from green microalga Chlorella vulgaris on undernourished mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of oral administration of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from green microalga Chlorella vulgaris (Cv-PH) on the recovery of both innate and specific immune responses of undernourished Balb\\/c mice after a 3-day fasting period. Cv-PH was prepared by hydrolysis of ethanol-extracted cell biomass with pancreatin (20AU\\/g) at pH 7.5 and 45°C for 4h. The treatment with

Humberto J. Morris; Olimpia Carrillo; Angel Almarales; Rosa C. Bermúdez; Yamila Lebeque; Roberto Fontaine; Gabriel Llauradó; Yaixa Beltrán

2007-01-01

162

Protective effects of flavonoids and extract from Vellozia kolbekii Alves against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in yeast.  

PubMed

Two flavonoids 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-6-prenylflavonol (1) and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-8-methyl-6-prenylflavonol (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of sheaths of Vellozia kolbekii Alves (Velloziaceae). This is the first time that compound 2 has been described. The crude extract and flavonoids were found to be active as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers and were able to the increase tolerance of the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2). The protective effect was correlated with a reduction in the oxidation of proteins and lipids. In addition, flavonoids isolated from Velloziaceae showed an inhibitory effect on mutations in p53, which is mutated and nonfunctional in more than 50% of cases of human cancer. PMID:21915628

da Silva, Carmelita Gomes; Carvalho, Camilla Dayane F; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Castro, Frederico A V; Alves, Ruy José Válka; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo; de Rezende, Cláudia Moraes

2012-04-01

163

Spoilage yeasts.  

PubMed

Yeasts are best known for their beneficial contributions to society, and the literature abounds with discussions of their role in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, bread, and other products. Yeasts also cause spoilage, but, with a few exceptions, this unwanted activity often goes unrecognized and underestimated as a major problem in the food and beverage industries. In some cases, there is only a fine line between what is perceived as either a spoilage or beneficial activity. This review examines the occurrence and growth of yeasts in foods and beverages with respect to their spoilage activities, the biochemistry of this spoilage, and technologies for the enumeration and identification of spoilage yeasts. PMID:1733519

Fleet, G

1992-01-01

164

Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  

PubMed

Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2013-05-01

165

Comparison of the sequestering properties of yeast cell wall extract and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in three in vitro models accounting for the animal physiological bioavailability of zearalenone.  

PubMed

The sequestration/inactivation of the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) by two adsorbents--yeast cell wall extract (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS)--was studied in three laboratory models: (1) an in vitro model was adapted from referenced methods to test for the sequestrant sorption capabilities under buffer conditions at two pH values using liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector for toxin quantification; (2) a second in vitro model was used to evaluate the sequestrant sorption stability according to pH variations and using ³H-labelled ZEA at low toxin concentration; and (3) an original, ex vivo Ussing chamber model was developed to further understand the transfer of ZEA through intestinal tissue and the impact of each sequestrant on the mycotoxin bioavailability of ³H-labelled ZEA. YCW was a more efficient ZEA adsorbent than HSCAS in all three models, except under very acidic conditions (pH 2.5 or 3.0). The Ussing chamber model offered a novel, ex vivo, alternative method for understanding the effect of sequestrant on the bioavailability of ZEA. The results showed that compared with HSCAS, YCW was more efficient in sequestering ZEA and that it reduced the accumulation of ZEA in the intestinal tissue by 40% (p < 0.001). PMID:23844575

Yiannikouris, A; Kettunen, H; Apajalahti, J; Pennala, E; Moran, C A

2013-01-01

166

Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6 % and an average bias of 1.4 %. PMID:25673246

Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

2015-04-01

167

Squid gelatin hydrolysates with antihypertensive, anticancer and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelatin obtained from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) inner and outer tunics was hydrolyzed by seven commercial proteases (Protamex, Trypsin, Neutrase, Savinase, NS37005, Esperase and Alcalase) to produce bioactive hydrolysates. The Alcalase hydrolysate was the most potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (IC50=0.34mg\\/mL) while the Esperase hydrolysate showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.10mg\\/mL

A. Alemán; E. Pérez-Santín; S. Bordenave-Juchereau; I. Arnaudin; M. C. Gómez-Guillén; P. Montero

2011-01-01

168

Bioethanol production from Ipomoea carnea biomass using a potential hybrid yeast strain.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the exploitation of Ipomoea carnea as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Dilute acid pretreatment under optimum conditions (3%H2SO4, 120 °C for 45 min) produced 17.68 g L(-1) sugars along with 1.02 g L(-1) phenolics and 1.13 g L(-1) furans. A combination of overliming and activated charcoal adsorption facilitated the removal of 91.9% furans and 94.7% phenolics from acid hydrolysate. The pretreated biomass was further treated with a mixture of sodium sulphite and sodium chlorite and, a maximum lignin removal of 81.6% was achieved. The enzymatic saccharification of delignified biomass resulted in 79.4% saccharification with a corresponding sugar yield of 753.21 mg g(-1). Equal volume of enzymatic hydrolysate and acid hydrolysate were mixed and used for fermentation with a hybrid yeast strain RPRT90. Fermentation of mixed detoxified hydrolysate at 30 °C for 28 h produced ethanol with a yield of 0.461 g g(-1). A comparable ethanol yield (0.414 g g(-1)) was achieved using a mixture of enzymatic hydrolysate and undetoxified acid hydrolysate. Thus, I. carnea biomass has been demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production, and the use of hybrid yeast may pave the way to produce bioethanol from this biomass. PMID:23892623

Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, Krishna

2013-10-01

169

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

170

Dry yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

Ranveig Thattai (None; )

2005-09-27

171

Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2013-04-01

172

Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

2013-01-01

173

Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

2013-01-01

174

A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

175

Overexpression of multisubunit replication factors in yeast.  

PubMed

Facile genetic and biochemical manipulation coupled with rapid cell growth and low cost of growth media has established the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a versatile workhorse. This article describes the use of yeast expression systems for the overproduction of complex multipolypeptide replication factors. The regulated overexpression of these factors in yeast provides for a readily accessible and inexpensive source of these factors in large quantities. The methodology is illustrated with the five-subunit replication factor C. Whole-cell extracts are prepared by blending yeast cells with glass beads or frozen yeast with dry ice. Procedures are described that maximize the yield of these factors while minimizing proteolytic degradation. PMID:10454996

Burgers, P M

1999-07-01

176

Growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor by using lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate as the carbon source.  

PubMed

The conversion of abundant lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to valuable compounds has become a very attractive idea recently. This study successfully used LCB (rice straw) hydrolysate as a carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor. The lipid content of 34.3 ± 0.6% was obtained in an airlift batch with 60 g reducing sugars/L of LCB hydrolysate at a 2 vvm aeration rate. While using LCB hydrolysate as the carbon source, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids of the microbial lipids. Using LCB hydrolysate in the airlift bioreactor at 2 vvm achieved the highest cell mass growth as compared to the agitation tank. Despite the low lipid content of the batch using LCB hydrolysate, this low cost feedstock has the potential of being adopted for the production of ?-carotene instead of lipid accumulation in the airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of R. glutinis. PMID:25454603

Yen, Hong-Wei; Chang, Jung-Tzu

2015-05-01

177

A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence. PMID:22567033

Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

2012-01-01

178

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

2013-01-01

179

Protein quality of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was used as the starting material in the production of chickpea protein hydrolysates (CPHs). To obtain a highly extensive hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis higher than 50%, a sequential utilisation of endoprotease (Alcalase) and exoprotease (Flavourzyme) was necessary. Molecular weight patterns of CPHs were determined by gel filtration chromatography. As a result of the enzymatic

Alfonso Clemente; Javier Vioque; Raúl Sánchez-Vioque; Justo Pedroche; Juan Bautista; Francisco Millán

1999-01-01

180

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

181

Study on the Aggregation of Transglutaminase on Soybean Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH) hydrolyzed by papain as substrates, the effects of transglutaminase on soybean protein hydrolysates were studied using the single factors of temperature, time, the ratio of emzyme to protein and pH value. The molecular weight data indicated that transglutaminase could be used as catalyst to aggregate SPH. The solution of the concentration of the enzyme for

Yang Chunhua; Shi Yanguo; Liu Ying; Fan Tingting; Zhang Yifang; Hu Chunlin

2010-01-01

182

Secretagogues and Growth Factors in Fish and Crustacean Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The search for new molecules in fish protein hydrolysates is of great interest in animal feeding as it is in aquaculture,\\u000a fertilizer, cosmetic, and pharmacologic domains. Different sources of hydrolysates such as shrimp waste (Pandalus borealis), cod (Gadus morhua) head, and head and viscera of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), obtained after hydrolysis or autolysis, were tested on fibroblast cell cultures

Isabelle Cancre; Rozenn Ravallec; Alain Van Wormhoudt; Even Stenberg; Asbjoern Gildberg; Yves Le Gal

1999-01-01

183

Lagomorph and rodent responses to two protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of rodents and lagomorphs were used in bioassays to determine the effectiveness of protein hydrolysates (specifically hydrolyzed casein and gelatin) as herbivore repellents. Mixed sex groups of captive rabbits, pocket gophers, voles, and mountain beavers were offered hydrolyzed casein or gelatin test diets in single-choice tests following a training period with a hydrolysate-free diet. The effectiveness of either

Julia A. Figueroa; Bruce A. Kimball; Kelly R. Perry

2008-01-01

184

Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals. PMID:17428066

Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

2007-05-16

185

Antioxidant activity and anti-exercise-fatigue effect of highly denatured soybean meal hydrolysate prepared using neutrase.  

PubMed

Highly denatured soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction obtained through high-temperature desolventization. High-temperature treatment can result in soybean protein denaturation. Compare with ordinary soybean meal, the protein structure of highly denatured soybean meal has changed. Highly denatured soybean meal was pretreated with thermal treatment or ultrasonication, and then hydrolyzed with neutrase. The ultrasonicated hydrolysate exhibited better antioxidant activity than the thermally treated hydrolysate. The ultrasonication increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity by 8.31 % and reduction capacity by 10.19 %. The highly denatured soybean meal hydrolysate ultrasonicated at 400 W exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was 56.22 % and reduction capacity was 0.717. The ultrasonicated hydrolysate at 400 W was fractionated using ultrafiltration into three fractions: I (>10 kDa), II (5 kDa to 10 kDa), and III (<5 kDa). The in vitro antioxidant activity and others in vivo anti-exercise-fatigue effect of the three fractions (I, II, and III) were determined. Fraction III exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and reduction capacity, improved the hemoglobin and hepatic glycogen content and reduced blood urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid. Fraction III improved the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and reduced the malonaldehyde (MDA) content in mouse livers. Therefore, the highly denatured soybean meal hydrolysate has an anti-oxidative effect and it significantly alleviates exercise-fatigue in mice. Amino acids of hydrolysate were determined. Results showed that the antioxidant activity and anti-exercise-fatigue effect were related to the amino acid compositions. PMID:25829578

Xu, Jing; Zhao, Qingshan; Qu, Yanyan; Ye, Fei

2015-04-01

186

Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.  

PubMed

The ferrous (Fe(2+)) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe(2+) chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 ?M EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 ?M EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe(2+). Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (P < 0.05) improved in dispersions of hydrolysate fraction solutions (10 g protein L(-1)). Total iron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions. PMID:25716093

O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

2015-03-18

187

Method to produce succinic acid from raw hydrolysates  

DOEpatents

A method for producing succinic acid from industrial-grade hydrolysates is provided, comprising supplying an organism that contains mutations for the genes ptsG, pflB, and ldhA, allowing said organism to accumulate biomass, and allowing said organism to metabolize the hydrolysate. Also provided is a bacteria mutant characterized in that it produces succinic acid from substrate contained in industrial-grade hydrolysate in a ratio of between 0.6:1 and 1.3:1 succinic acid to substrate.

Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia Y.; Nghiem, Nhuan Phu

2004-06-01

188

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

189

Effect of lignocellulosic degradation compounds from steam explosion pretreatment on ethanol fermentation by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtrate from steam-pretreated poplar was analyzed to identify degradation compounds. The effect of selected compounds\\u000a on growth and ethanolic fermentation of the thermotolerant yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875 was tested. Several fermentations on glucose medium, containing individual inhibitory compounds found in the hydrolysate,\\u000a were carried out. The degree of inhibition on yeast strain growth and ethanolic fermentation was

Jose Miguel Oliva; Felicia Sáez; Ignacio Ballesteros; Alberto González; Maria José Negro; Paloma Manzanares; Mercedes Ballesteros

2003-01-01

190

Identification of short peptide sequences in complex milk protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Numerous low molecular mass bioactive peptides (BAPs) can be generated during the hydrolysis of bovine milk proteins. Low molecular mass BAP sequences are less likely to be broken down by digestive enzymes and are thus more likely to be active in vivo. However, the identification of short peptides remains a challenge during mass spectrometry (MS) analysis due to issues with the transfer and over-fragmentation of low molecular mass ions. A method is described herein using time-of-flight ESI-MS/MS to effectively fragment and identify short peptides. This includes (a) short synthetic peptides, (b) short peptides within a defined hydrolysate sample, i.e. a prolyl endoproteinase hydrolysate of ?-casein and (c) short peptides within a complex hydrolysate, i.e. a Corolase PP digest of sodium caseinate. The methodology may find widespread utilisation in the efficient identification of low molecular mass peptide sequences in food protein hydrolysates. PMID:25872436

O'Keeffe, Martina B; FitzGerald, Richard J

2015-10-01

191

CULTURE CONTAINING BIOMASS ACID HYDROLYSATE AND CONIOCHAETA LIGNIARIA FUNGUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural biomass hydrolysate is detoxified by culturing in the presence of the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria (teleomorph) or its Lecythophora (anamorph) state. This organism is capable of significantly depleting the toxicant levels of furans, particularly furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A...

192

Utilisation of Chlorella vulgaris cell biomass for the production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins in green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 are described. Different proteases can be used for production of hydrolysates from ethanol extracted algae. The influence of reaction parameters on hydrolysis of extracted biomass with pancreatin was considered, and the composition of hydrolysates (Cv-PH) was investigated in relation to the starting materials. Significant changes in the degree of hydrolysis were observed only during the first 2h and it remained constant throughout the process. An enzyme-substrate ratio of 30-45 units/g algae, an algae concentration of 10-15% and pH values of 7.5-8.0 could be recommended. Differences in the chromatographic patterns of Cv-PH and a hot-extract from Chlorella biomass were observed. Adequate amounts of essential amino acids (44.7%) in relation to the reference pattern of FAO for human nutrition were found, except for sulfur amino acids. Cv-PH could be considered as a potential ingredient in the food industry. PMID:18359627

Morris, Humberto J; Almarales, Angel; Carrillo, Olimpia; Bermúdez, Rosa C

2008-11-01

193

Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We extended our previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccharification decreased 2-3-fold. We also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate. PMID:8010764

Grohmann, K; Baldwin, E A; Buslig, B S

1994-01-01

194

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

2014-01-01

195

Harnessing genetic diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose in hydrolysates of alkaline hydrogen peroxide-pretreated biomass.  

PubMed

The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na(+), acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

Sato, Trey K; Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S; Williams, Daniel L; Wohlbach, Dana J; Bice, Benjamin D; Ong, Irene M; Breuer, Rebecca J; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P; Hodge, David B

2014-01-01

196

Detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates with ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulose hydrolysates contain fermentation inhibitors causing decreased ethanol production. The inhibitors include phenolic\\u000a compounds, furan aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds prior\\u000a to fermentation is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. The performance and detoxification mechanism of\\u000a three different resins were examined: an anion exchanger, a cation exchanger, and a resin

Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Anders Reimann; Simona Larsson; Leif J. Jönsson

2001-01-01

197

Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

2014-04-01

198

Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover  

PubMed Central

The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

2014-01-01

199

Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions  

PubMed Central

Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and ?-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified ?-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNF? and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas ?-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified ?-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that ?-glucan fractions or pure ?-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID:22848391

Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

2012-01-01

200

Purification and Identification of Genistein in Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ginkgo biloba leaf extract was hydrolyzed under acidic conditions and neutralized with 5% aqueous NaOH. The hydrolysate was extracted using a mixture of ethyl acetate and tetrahydrofuran (7:3, v\\/v) and was concentrated by the vacuum evaporation of organic solvent. Genistein was isolated from the hydrolysate using silica gel column chromatography with a gradient elution of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate

Fengqin WANG; Kezhi JIANG; Zuguang LI

2007-01-01

201

Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

202

Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

2014-09-01

203

Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).  

PubMed

Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%. PMID:21909671

Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

2012-01-01

204

Pentose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

66 different yeast strains were screened for glucose, xylose and xylulose fermentation in shake flask cultures. None of the tested yeasts was able to grow or produce significant amounts of ethanol on xylose anaerobically. The best ethanol yields from xylulose were obtained with a wine yeast, two distillery yeasts, and a strain of Saccharomyces uvarum. The best conversion of xylulose

M.-L. Suihko; M. Dra?i?

1983-01-01

205

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

The Exploratorium

2012-03-10

206

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

2013-07-08

207

Effect of cooking temperature on the crystallinity of acid hydrolysed-oil palm cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we studied the effect of acid hydrolysis temperature on the crystallinity of cellulose produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB). The hydrolysis temperature was studied from 120 to 140 °C at a fixed time and sulfuric acid, H2SO4 concentration which were 1 h and 1% (v/v) respectively. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was carried out to measure the crystallinity of cellulose produced at varying hydrolysis temperatures. During hydrolysis, the amorphous region of ?-cellulose was removed and the crystalline region was obtained. Percentage of crystallinity (CrI) for acid hydrolysed cellulose at 120, 130 and 140 °C were 54.21, 50.59 and 50.55 % respectively. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that acid hydrolysis defibrilised to microfibrils in ?-cellulose. The extraction process to produce ?-cellulose has also been successfully carried out as the impurities at the outer surface, lignin and hemicellulose were removed. These findings were supported by the disappearance of peaks at 1732, 1512 and 1243 cm-1 on Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of ?-cellulose. Similar peaks were identified in both the commercial microcrystalline cellulose (C-MCC) and acid hydrolysed cellulose (H-EFB), indicating the effectiveness of heat-catalysed acid hydrolysis.

Kuthi, Fatin Afifah Binti Ahmad; Badri, Khairiah Haji

2014-09-01

208

Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (?-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown. PMID:25408464

Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa

2015-02-01

209

Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen*  

PubMed Central

To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 °C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

2009-01-01

210

Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen.  

PubMed

To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 degrees C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

2009-08-01

211

Non-conventional yeasts.  

PubMed

In the beginning there was yeast, and it raised bread, brewed beer, and made wine. After many not days but centuries and even millenia later, it was named Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After more years and centuries there was another yeast, and it was named Schizosaccharomyces pombe; now there were two stars in the yeast heaven. In only a few more years there were other yeasts, and then more, and more, and more. The era of the non-conventional yeasts had begun. PMID:11878307

Spencer, J F T; Ragout de Spencer, A L; Laluce, C

2002-02-01

212

A new pullulan-producing yeast and medium optimization for its exopolysaccharide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast strain Y68 producing high level of pullulan was isolated from the phyton collected in Toulouse, France. This strain\\u000a was identified to be Rhodotorula bacarum by BIOLOG analysis. This is the first report that pullulan was produced by Rhodotorula bacarum. The optimal medium (g L?1) for pullulan production by this strain was 80 glucose, 20 soybean cake hydrolysate, 5 K2HPO4,

Zhao Shuangzhi; Chi Zhenming

2003-01-01

213

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials a wide range of compounds which are inhibitory to microorganisms are formed or released. Based on their origin the inhibitors are usually divided in three major groups: weak acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. These compounds limit efficient utilisation of the hydrolysates for ethanol production by fermentation. If the inhibitors are identified and the mechanisms

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

214

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

215

Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

216

Detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates with ion-exchange resins.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose hydrolysates contain fermentation inhibitors causing decreased ethanol production. The inhibitors include phenolic compounds, furan aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds prior to fermentation is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. The performance and detoxification mechanism of three different resins were examined: an anion exchanger, a cation exchanger, and a resin without charged groups (XAD-8). A dilute acid hydrolysate of spruce was treated with the resins at pH 5.5 and 10.0 prior to ethanolic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to the experiments with hydrolysate, the effect of the resins on selected model compounds, three phenolics (vanillin, guaiacol, and coniferyl aldehyde) and two furan aldehydes (furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural), was determined. The cation exchanger increased ethanol production, but to a lesser extent than XAD-8, which in turn was less effective than the anion exchanger. Treatment at pH 10.0 was more effective than at pH 5.5. At pH 10.0, the anion exchanger efficiently removed both anionic and uncharged inhibitors, the latter by hydrophobic interactions. The importance of hydrophobic interactions was further indicated by a substantial decrease in the concentration of model compounds, such as guaiacol and furfural, after treatment with XAD-8. PMID:11963864

Nilvebrant, N O; Reimann, A; Larsson, S; Jönsson, L J

2001-01-01

217

Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid

M. J. López; N. N. Nichols; B. S. Dien; J. Moreno; R. J. Bothast

2004-01-01

218

Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

Patterson, W. J.

1983-01-01

219

Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

2015-01-01

220

Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides  

PubMed Central

Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41?mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24?mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28?mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48?mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21?mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38?mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20?kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits. PMID:22927875

Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

221

Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince. PMID:25794753

Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

2015-08-15

222

A complete industrial system for economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial fermentation system using lignocellulosic hydrolysate, waste yeast hydrolysate, and mixed alkali to achieve high-yield, economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes was developed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate and waste yeast hydrolysate were used efficiently as carbon sources and nitrogen source instead of the expensive glucose and yeast extract. Moreover, as a novel method for regulating pH mixed alkalis (Mg(OH)2 and

Jian Li; Xiao-Yu Zheng; Xiao-Jiang Fang; Shu-Wen Liu; Ke-Quan Chen; Min Jiang; Ping Wei; Ping-Kai Ouyang

2011-01-01

223

Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Torulaspora delbrueckii showed better osmo- and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae isolates had the highest ethanol yield in fermentation experiments mimicking high gravity fermentations (25 % glucose) and artificial lignocellulose hydrolysates (with a myriad of inhibitors). Interestingly, among two tested S. cerevisiae strains, a wild strain isolated from an oak tree performed better than Ethanol Red, a S. cerevisiae strain which is currently commonly used in industrial bioethanol fermentations. Additionally, a W. anomalus strain isolated from sugar beet thick juice was found to have a comparable ethanol yield, but needed longer fermentation time. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts yielded lower ethanol amounts. PMID:25413210

Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Willems, Kris A; Lievens, Bart

2015-01-01

224

Bioethanol production from hydrolysates of inulin and the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke by Saccharomyces sp. W0.  

PubMed

It has been confirmed that Saccharomyces sp. W0 can produce high concentration of ethanol. However, this yeast strain cannot secrete inulinase. Therefore, in this study, inulin was hydrolyzed into reducing sugar by the recombinant inulinase produced by Pichia pastoris X-33/pPICZaA-INU1. It was found that 38.2U of the recombinant inulinase per gram of inulin was suitable for the inulin hydrolysis and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0 and the fermentation period was 120 h. At the end of the fermentation, over 14.6 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was produced, the ethanol productivity was over 0.384 g of ethanol/g of inulin and over 98.8% of total sugar was utilized. When the Saccharomyces sp. W0 was grown in the mixture of 4.0% hydrolysate of soybean meal and 20.0% of the hydrolysate of inulin for 120 h, over 14.9 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was over 0.393 g of ethanol/g of inulin and 98.9% of total sugar was used by the yeast strain. When Saccharomyces sp. W0 carrying the same inulinase gene was grown in the medium containing 50 g of the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke per 100ml for 144 h, over 12.1+/-0.35%ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was 0.319+/-0.9 g of ethanol/g of sugar and 3.7% (w/v) of total sugar and 0.5% (w/v) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented media. PMID:20598527

Zhang, T; Chi, Z; Zhao, C H; Chi, Z M; Gong, F

2010-11-01

225

Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuels production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement means is economically impractical and overcoming the i...

226

Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

2010-03-01

227

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

228

Efficient production of sophorolipids by Starmerella bombicola using a corncob hydrolysate medium.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs) are amphiphilic compounds produced from a variety of saccharides and vegetable oils by the yeast Starmerella bombicola and related strains, and they have commercial uses as detergents. In the present study, SL production was investigated using a corncob hydrolysate (CCH) medium derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks as a source of hydrophilic carbon substrates. Excess sulfuric acid concentrations during pretreatment of the corncobs increased the furfural concentrations and turned the CCH dark brown. The optimal sulfuric acid concentration was 1% (w/v), and the treated CCH, containing 45 g/l glucose, allowed the production of 33.7 g/l of SLs following 4 days of cultivation. Additional autoclaving (121°C, 20 min) inhibited SL production and cell growth by 36% and 40%, respectively. Ammonium nitrate (0.1 g-N/l) restored SL production to the autoclaved CCH. Finally, a cost-effective SL production of 49.2 g/l, with a volumetric productivity of 12.3 g/l/day, was achieved using CCH medium during batch cultivation in a jar fermentor. PMID:25240400

Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuka; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

2015-03-01

229

Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.  

PubMed

Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

Lachance, M A

1995-08-01

230

Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of oleaginous yeast, which is helpful for optimization of biomass hydrolysis processes, detoxified pretreatment of hydrolysates and lipid production using lignocellulosic materials. PMID:22260291

2012-01-01

231

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

232

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

233

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

234

Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

235

Kinetic studies of cellodextrins hydrolyses by exocellulase from trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the hydrolyses of cellotriose and of cellotetraose by cellobiohydrolase were studied using a convenient integral technique. Reaction mechanisms and mathematical models were postulated to describe the reactions. The end-products of the reaction were found to be inhibitory toward hydrolysis in a competitive mode. Hydrolysis of cellotraose produces cellobiose and hydrolysis of cellotriose produces cellobiose and glucose. Both sugars inhibit the enzyme with cellobiose being a stronger inhibitor.

Teh-An Hsu, Cheng-Shung Gong; Tsao, G.T.

1980-11-01

236

Bioabatement to Remove Inhibitors from Biomass-Derived Sugar Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated\\u000a into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for\\u000a detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize

Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Gema M. Guisado; Maria J. López

237

Bioabatement to remove inhibitors from biomass-derived sugar hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabatement is a potential method to remove inhibitory compounds from lignocellulose hydrolysates that could be incorporated\\u000a into a scheme for fermentation of ethanol from cellulose. Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Ascomycete that metabolizes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, is a unique strain that may be useful for\\u000a detoxifying biomass sugars. NRRL30616 and 23 related fungal strains were screened for the ability to metabolize

Nancy N. Nichols; Bruce S. Dien; Gema M. Guisado; Maria J. López

2005-01-01

238

Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji

2012-06-01

239

Complete amino acid analysis of proteins from a single hydrolysate.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure which affords the precise amino acid composition of a protein or a peptide from a single hydrolysate is described. This method utilizes 4 N methanesulfonic acid containing 0.2% 3-(2-aminoethyl)indole, rather then 6N HCl as a catalyst for hydrolysis. The hydrolysis is carried out in vacuo (20 mu) at 115 degrees for 22 to 72 hours. Half-cystine is determined as S-sulfocysteine by treating the hydrolysate with dithiothreitol followed by an excess of tetrathionate. The values of all amino acids, including tryptophan and half-cystine, were close to the expected theoretical values for the proteins examined. The method has the advantage that the neutralized hydrolysate can be applied directly to an ion exchange column. Further, the method is capable of distinguishing between free sulfhydryl groups as S-carbosymethylcysteine and disulfides as S-sulfocysteine. A limitation of the procedure is that tryptophan remains sensitive to the presence of carbohydrate in the sample. PMID:178649

Simpson, R J; Neuberger, M R; Liu, T Y

1976-04-10

240

Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1?g/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. PMID:24176374

Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

2014-03-01

241

Safety evaluation of fish protein hydrolysate supplementation in malnourished children.  

PubMed

Amizate® is a proprietary protein hydrolysate preparation derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using endogenous hydrolytic enzymes; it contains mostly free amino acids and short peptides, as well as small amounts of micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals). In this study, the safety of supplementation with fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was examined in 438 malnourished children in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. The children were between the ages of six to eight and met the Gomez classification for mild or moderate malnutrition. They were randomized to receive one of three interventions for four months, including a chocolate drink (control), or Amizate® (3 or 6g/day) in a chocolate drink. Administration of Amizate® was well-tolerated, with no adverse events reported. Growth (i.e., body weight gain, changes in height, and body mass index) was not negatively impacted by administration of Amizate®, and routine biochemical analysis of blood and urine samples did not reveal any abnormalities that were attributable to the intervention. Findings from this study demonstrate that daily consumption of 3 or 6g of fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was safe and suitable for supplementing the diets of malnourished children. PMID:24569051

Nesse, Knut Olav; Nagalakshmi, A P; Marimuthu, P; Singh, Mamta; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Ho, Manki; Simon, Ryan R

2014-06-01

242

The Use of Protein Hydrolysates for Weed Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn gluten meal, the protein fraction of corn (Zea mays L.) grain, is commercially used as a natural weed control agent and nitrogen source in horticultural crops and in the turf and ornamental markets. Corn gluten hydrolysate, a water soluble form of gluten meal, has also been proposed for the same purpose, although it could be sprayed on the soil rather than applied in the granular form. Five depeptides, glutaminyl-glutamine (Gln-Gln), glycinyl-alanine (Gly-Ala), alanyl-­glutamine (Ala-Glu), alanyl-asparagine (Ala-Asp), and alaninyl-alanine (Ala-Ala) and a pentapeptide leucine-serine-proline-alanine-glutamine (Leu-Ser-Pro-Ala-Gln) were identified as the active components of the hydrolysate. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ala-Ala acted on some metabolic process rather than directly on the mitotic apparatus. Similar to the chloracetamides and sulfonyl-urea hebicides, Ala-Ala inhibits cell division rather than disrupting of cell division processes. Cellular ultrastructure changes caused by exposure to Ala-Ala implicate Ala-Ala as having membrane-disrupting characteristics similar to several synthetic herbicides. The potential use of the hydrolysate and the peptides as weed controls is discussed.

Christians, Nick; Liu, Dianna; Unruh, Jay Bryan

243

The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.  

PubMed

Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

2006-11-01

244

Electrochemical detoxification of phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for Clostridium fermentation.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass is being preferred as a feedstock in the biorefinery, but lignocellulosic hydrolysate usually contains inhibitors against microbial fermentation. Among these inhibitors, phenolics are highly toxic to butyric acid-producing and butanol-producing Clostridium even at a low concentration. Herein, we developed an electrochemical polymerization method to detoxify phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for efficient Clostridium fermentation. After the electrochemical detoxification for 10h, 78%, 77%, 82%, and 94% of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and syringaldehyde were removed, respectively. Furthermore, 71% of total phenolics in rice straw hydrolysate were removed without any sugar-loss. Whereas the cell growth and metabolite production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii were completely inhibited in un-detoxified hydrolysate, those in detoxifying rice straw hydrolysate were recovered to 70-100% of the control cultures. The electrochemical detoxification method described herein provides an efficient strategy for producing butanol and butyric acid through Clostridium fermentation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:25863199

Lee, Kyung Min; Min, Kyoungseon; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Um, Youngsoon

2015-07-01

245

Application of rotary microfiltration in debittering process of spent brewer’s yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the production of yeast extract from spent brewer’s yeast using rotary microfiltration as a means to combine debittering and cell debris separation into a single step, without using a toxic alkali wash. The pH of yeast homogenate was found to affect protein yield and bitterness of the product. Rotary filtration of yeast homogenate at various pHs resulted

Artiwan Shotipruk; Pranee Kittianong; Manop Suphantharika; Chirakarn Muangnapoh

2005-01-01

246

Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.  

PubMed

Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths. PMID:9105918

Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

1997-04-01

247

Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

2013-01-01

248

Protein hydrolysates from meriga ( Cirrhinus mrigala) egg and evaluation of their functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates from underutilised meriga (Cirrhinus mrigala) fish egg were prepared by using commercial Alcalase and papain enzymes. The degree of hydrolysis was 62% for Alcalase and 17.1% for papain, after 90min digestion at 50–55 and 60–65°C, respectively. The protein content of Alcalase-produced hydrolysate was higher (85%) than that of papain hydrolysate (70%) (p<0.05). Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein

M. Chalamaiah; G. Narsing Rao; D. G. Rao; T. Jyothirmayi

2010-01-01

249

Influence of Carrier Agents on the Physicochemical Properties of Mussel Protein Hydrolysate Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of carrier agents, maltodextrin 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and gum arabic, on the physicochemical properties of mussel meat protein hydrolysate powder produced by spray drying. Hydrolysate was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Protamex (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) and was carried out at 51°C, 4.5 g enzyme\\/100 g protein, and pH 6.85. The hydrolysate,

V. M. Silva; L. E. Kurozawa; K. J. Park; M. D. Hubinger

2012-01-01

250

Detoxification of wood hydrolysates with laccase and peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of wood hydrolysates to desirable products, such as fuel ethanol, is made difficult by the presence of inhibitory\\u000a compounds in the hydrolysates. Here we present a novel method to increase the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates:\\u000a enzymatic detoxification. Besides the detoxification effect, treatment with purified enzymes provides a new way to identify\\u000a inhibitors by assaying the effect of enzymatic attack

L. J. Jönsson; E. Palmqvist; N.-O. Nilvebrant; B. Hahn-Hägerdal

1998-01-01

251

Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain  

PubMed Central

Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell defense mechanisms. Conclusion These results suggest the mechanisms of tolerance for the Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum are based on increased cellular efficiency caused apparently by downregulation of non-critical genes and increasing the expression of genes in energy production and conversion rather than tolerance to specific hydrolysate components. The wild type, conversely, responds to hydrolysate media by down-regulating growth genes and up-regulating stress response genes. PMID:25128475

2014-01-01

252

Industrial robust yeast isolates with great potential for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

The search of robust microorganisms is essential to design sustainable processes of second generation bioethanol. Yeast strains isolated from industrial environments are generally recognised to present an increased stress tolerance but no specific information is available on their tolerance towards inhibitors that come from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. In this work, a strategy for the selection of different yeasts using hydrothermal hydrolysate from Eucalyptus globulus wood, containing different concentrations of inhibitors, was developed. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four Kluyveromyces marxianus strains isolated from industrial environments and four laboratory background strains were evaluated. Interestingly, a correlation between final ethanol titer and percentage of furfural detoxification was observed. The results presented here highlight industrial distillery environments as a remarkable source of efficient yeast strains for lignocellulosic fermentation processes. Selected strains were able to resourcefully degrade furfural and HMF inhibitors, producing 0.8g ethanol/Lh corresponding to 94% of the theoretical yield. PMID:24704884

Pereira, Francisco B; Romaní, Aloia; Ruiz, Héctor A; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

2014-06-01

253

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

254

[Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

2010-03-01

255

Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

256

Characterization and Bioactivity of Hydrolysates produced from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Justification: Interest in protein hydrolysates is increasing because of their improved functionality and health benefits, particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, compared to their parent proteins. Large-scale production of hydrolysates is expensive, and one way to minimize co...

257

Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Hemp Protein Hydrolysates Obtained with Neutrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hemp protein hydrolysates with various yields of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides (Ysp) and surface hydrophobicity (Ho) were obtained by Neutrase ® hydrolysis from hemp protein isolate (HPI). The peptide profiles, amino acid composition and antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power and Fe2+ chelating ability) of the hydrolysates, obtained at 60-240 min, were evaluated. Higher DPPH radical scaveng-

Xian-Sheng Wang; Chuan-He Tang; Ling Chen; Xiao-Quan Yang

258

FUNCTIONAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF RED SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA) ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to develop and characterize hydrolysate powders made from red (sockeye) salmon heads. The effects of different proteolytic enzymes and different reaction durations (25, 50, 75 min) on functional and nutritional properties of red (sockeye) salmon head hydrolysates were...

259

The use of spray drying technology to reduce bitter taste of casein hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of protein hydrolysates in food systems is frequently hindered due to their bitterness and hygroscopicity. Spray drying technology could be an alternative for reducing these problems. The aim of this work was to reduce or to mask the casein hydrolysate bitter taste using spray drying and mixtures of gelatin and soy protein isolate (SPI) as carriers. Six formulations

C. S. Favaro-Trindade; A. S. Santana; E. S. Monterrey-Quintero; M. A. Trindade; F. M. Netto

2010-01-01

260

FISH MEALS, FISH COMPONENTS, AND FISH PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES AS POTENTIAL INGREDIENTS IN PET FOODS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of thirteen fish substrates (pollock by-products, fish protein hydrolysates, and fish meals) was conducted, as was an experiment to determine palatability of two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate and salmon meal wi...

261

Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment to determine the chemi- cal composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets.

J. F. Folador; L. K. Karr-Lilienthal; C. M. Parsons; L. L. Bauer; P. L. Utterback; C. S. Schasteen; P. J. Bechtel; G. C. Fahey Jr

2010-01-01

262

Development of a simple and sensitive fluorimetric method for isolation of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria  

E-print Network

-hydrolysing bacteria R.L. Harcourt*, I. Horne, T.D. Sutherland, B.D. Hammock1 , R.J. Russell and J.G. Oakeshott . Incorporation of coumaphos into agar plates allowed the rapid detection of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria when tool to screen for bacteria possessing phosphotriesterase activity. INTRODUCTION Organophosphorus (OP

Hammock, Bruce D.

263

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

264

Efficient production of pullulan using rice hull hydrolysate by adaptive laboratory evolution of Aureobasidium pullulans.  

PubMed

Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 using rice hull hydrolysate as the carbon source was conducted. The acetic acid in the hydrolysate was demonstrated to exert a negative effect on pullulan biosynthesis. Instead of employing expensive methods to remove acetic acid from the hydrolysate, a mutant A. pullulans ARH-1 was isolated following 20 cycles of adaptive laboratory evolution of the parental strain on medium containing acetic acid. The maximum pullulan production achieved by the adapted mutant at 48 h using the hydrolysate of untreated rice hull was 22.2 g L(-1), while that obtained by the parental strain at 60 h was 15.6 g L(-1). The assay of key enzymes associated with pullulan biosynthesis revealed that acetic acid inhibited enzyme activity rather than suppressing enzyme synthesis. These results demonstrated that adaptive evolution highly improved the efficiency of pullulan production by A. pullulans using the hydrolysate of untreated rice hull. PMID:24835913

Wang, Dahui; Ju, Xiaomin; Zhou, Donghai; Wei, Gongyuan

2014-07-01

265

Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm-1 region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan.

Pielesz, Anna

2014-01-01

266

Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

López, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J

2004-03-01

267

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Furfural as a product from thermic wood hydrolysis processes may be inhibitory to growth and fermentation of yeast cells. In order to determine the influence on the aerobic growth of the yeastPichiastipitis, expermiments were conducted in stirred reactors with the addition of furfural.

B. Weigert; C. Klein; M. Rizzi; C. Lauterbach; H. Dellweg

1988-01-01

268

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

269

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

270

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

1986-03-01

271

Organic fraction of municipal solid waste as a suitable feedstock for the production of lipid by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus aerius.  

PubMed

The detoxified pre-hydrolysate and enzymatic hydrolysate of OFMSW were used as substrates for lipid production by Cryptococcus aerius. Factorial experimental designs were employed for the optimization of dilute acid pre-hydrolysis, detoxification by over-liming, enzymatic hydrolysis, and lipid production. OFMSW pre-hydrolysis with 3% H2SO4 for 45min was found to be the optimal treatment, resulted in total sugar concentration of 65.5g/L (32.8% yield, based on grams of total reducing sugar per gram of OFMSW). The optimal detoxification conditions of the pre-hydrolysate by over-liming was incubation at 30°C and pH 11 for 24h, resulted in the reduction of total nitrogen, total phenolic compounds, and furans by 51.3%, 45.1%, and 100%, respectively. The residual solid was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, and the highest sugar concentration of 30.5g/L was obtained. At optimal conditions, the yeast cultivation on the detoxified pre-hydrolysate and enzymatic hydrolysate resulted in the lipid production of 3.9g/L (12.8% yield, based on g lipid per g consumed sugar) and 4.3g/L (17.1% yield, based on g lipid per g consumed sugar), respectively. The elemental analysis showed the presence of heavy metals including iron (925mg/l), zinc (59mg/l), lead (4.7mg/l), and nickel (3.5mg/l) in the pre-hydrolysate, which were significantly reduced by the over-liming detoxification. PMID:25595390

Ghanavati, Hossein; Nahvi, Iraj; Karimi, Keikhosro

2015-04-01

272

Chemical composition of the yeast ascospore wall. The second outer layer consists of chitosan.  

PubMed

In a preceding paper (Briza, P., Winkler, G., Kalchhauser, H., and Breitenbach, M. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 4288-4294), we reported the presence of dityrosine in the outer layers of yeast ascospore walls. Both outer layers seen in electron micrographs of yeast ascospore walls are sporulation-specific. Here we show that the second of these two outer layers consists of chitosan. In intact spores, it is shielded from staining with primulin by the outermost layer. However, in purified spore walls, the second layer is brightly stained by primulin, and hydrolysates of such preparations contain about 10% glucosamine relative to spore wall dry weight. The spore wall material staining with primulin is resistant to chitinase, but readily degraded by treatment with HNO2. Acetylation prior to HNO2 treatment completely prevents its degradation. A partial acid hydrolysate of spore walls contains predominantly soluble poly-beta-(1,4)-glucosamine as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. By these criteria, the glucosamine polymer of yeast ascospore walls is chitosan. As spore walls treated with alkali lack the inner layers but contain chitosan and as chitosan is not exposed at the surface of the spore, we conclude that it is localized in the second outer layer of the spore wall. PMID:3042773

Briza, P; Ellinger, A; Winkler, G; Breitenbach, M

1988-08-15

273

Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1996-12-31

274

Metabolic engineering for improved fermentation of pentoses by yeasts.  

PubMed

The fermentation of xylose is essential for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to fuels and chemicals, but wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not metabolize xylose, so researchers have engineered xylose metabolism in this yeast. Glucose transporters mediate xylose uptake, but no transporter specific for xylose has yet been identified. Over-expressing genes for aldose (xylose) reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and moderate levels of xylulokinase enable xylose assimilation and fermentation, but a balanced supply of NAD(P) and NAD(P)H must be maintained to avoid xylitol production. Reducing production of NADPH by blocking the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle can reduce xylitol formation, but this occurs at the expense of xylose assimilation. Respiration is critical for growth on xylose by both native xylose-fermenting yeasts and recombinant S, cerevisiae. Anaerobic growth by recombinant mutants has been reported. Reducing the respiration capacity of xylose-metabolizing yeasts increases ethanol production. Recently, two routes for arabinose metabolism have been engineered in S. cerevisiae and adapted strains of Pichia stipitis have been shown to ferment hydrolysates with ethanol yields of 0.45 g g(-1) sugar consumed, so commercialization seems feasible for some applications. PMID:14595523

Jeffries, T W; Jin, Y-S

2004-02-01

275

Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced resistance to phenolic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates by heterologous expression of laccase.  

PubMed

To improve production of fuel ethanol from renewable raw materials, laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor was expressed under control of the PGK1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase its resistance to phenolic inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. It was found that the laccase activity could be enhanced twofold by simultaneous overexpression of the homologous t-SNARE Sso2p. The factors affecting the level of active laccase obtained, besides the cultivation temperature, included pH and aeration. Laccase-expressing and Sso2p-overexpressing S. cerevisiae was cultivated in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde to examine resistance to lignocellulose-derived phenolic fermentation inhibitors. The laccase-producing transformant had the ability to convert coniferyl aldehyde at a faster rate than a control transformant not expressing laccase, which enabled faster growth and ethanol formation. The laccase-producing transformant was also able to ferment a dilute acid spruce hydrolysate at a faster rate than the control transformant. A decrease in the content of low-molecular-mass aromatic compounds, accompanied by an increase in the content of high-molecular-mass compounds, was observed during fermentation with the laccase-expressing strain, illustrating that laccase was active even at the very low levels of oxygen supplied. Our results demonstrate the importance of phenolic compounds as fermentation inhibitors and the advantage of using laccase-expressing yeast strains for producing ethanol from lignocellulose. PMID:11229906

Larsson, S; Cassland, P; Jönsson, L J

2001-03-01

276

Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

2013-11-01

277

Pilot-scale ethanol production from rice straw hydrolysates using xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

Ethanol was produced at pilot scale from rice straw hydrolysates using a Pichia stipitis strain previously adapted to NaOH-neutralized hydrolysates. The highest ethanol yield was 0.44 ± 0.02 g(p)/g(s) at an aeration rate of 0.05 vvm using overliming-detoxified hydrolysates. The yield with hydrolysates conditioned by ammonia and NaOH was 0.39 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.01 g(p)/g(s), respectively, were achieved at the same aeration rate. The actual ethanol yield from hydrolysate fermentation with ammonia neutralization was similar to that with overliming hydrolysate after taking into account the xylose loss resulting from these conditioning processes. Moreover, the ethanol yield from ammonia-neutralized hydrolysates could be further enhanced by increasing the initial cell density by two-fold or reducing the combined concentration of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural to 0.6g/L by reducing the severity of operational conditions in pretreatment. This study demonstrated the potential for commercial ethanol production from rice straw via xylose fermentation. PMID:22537402

Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song; Huang, Shir-Ly

2012-07-01

278

Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

2012-01-01

279

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

280

[Functional properties and possible uses of a hydrolysate of pepitona (Arca zebra) in the preparation of foods].  

PubMed

The present study revealed that the drum-drying and spray-drying procedures used on the pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate, as well as the storage time, exert a deteriorative significant effect on the functional properties of both hydrolysates. The greatest and more significant losses of the majority of such properties occur during the first two months of storage period. Thus, in the case of foaming capacity, losses ranging from 17% to 34% were detected in the drum-dried hydrolysate, and of 38% to 49% in the hydrolysate dehydrated using a spray drier, during the first two months of storage. The emulsifying capacity was also altered in 14% of the hydrolysate dehydrated in a drum drier, and in 25% of the hydrolysate dehydrated using a spray drier. Sensory evaluation tests demonstrated the potential of both hydrolysates for use as supplements of conventional foods such as cookies and extruded products. PMID:3842930

Arbej, J; Luna, G

1985-12-01

281

In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 ?g/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24772406

Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

2014-01-01

282

Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

2001-01-01

283

Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) on mice skin photoaging induced by UV irradiation.  

PubMed

Collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) and hydrolyzed to prepare collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The protective effects of JC and JCH against UV-induced damages to mice skin were evaluated and compared in this article. JC and JCH could alleviate the UV-induced abnormal changes of antioxidative indicators, including the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondiaidehyde (MDA). JC and JCH could protect skin lipid and collagen from the UV radiation damages. Furthermore, the changes of total ceramide and glycosaminoglycan in skin were recovered significantly by JC and JCH. The action mechanisms mainly involved the antioxidative properties and the repairing to endogenous collagen synthesis of JC and JCH in vivo. JCH with the lower molecular weight showed much higher effects than JC. The results indicated that JCH was a novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:19723203

Zhuang, Yongliang; Hou, Hu; Zhao, Xue; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

2009-08-01

284

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

285

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

286

Engineering Corynebacterium crenatum to produce higher alcohols for biofuel using hydrolysates of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) as feedstock.  

PubMed

Early trials have demonstrated great potential for the use of duckweed (family Lemnaceae) as the next generation of energy plants for the production of biofuels. Achieving this technological advance demands research to develop novel bioengineering microorganisms that can ferment duckweed feedstock to produce higher alcohols. In this study, we used relevant genes to transfer five metabolic pathways of isoleucine, leucine and valine from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae into the bioengineered microorganism Corynebacterium crenatum. Experimental results showed that the bioengineered strain was able to produce 1026.61 mg/L of 2-methyl-1-butanol by fermenting glucose, compared to 981.79 mg/L from the acid hydrolysates of duckweed. The highest isobutanol yields achieved were 1264.63 mg/L from glucose and 1154.83 mg/L from duckweed, and the corresponding highest yields of 3-methyl-1-butanol were 748.35 and 684.79 mg/L. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of using bioengineered C. crenatum as a platform to construct a bacterial strain that is capable of producing higher alcohols. We have also shown the promise of using duckweed as the basis for developing higher alcohols, illustrating that this group of plants represents an ideal fermentation substrate that can be considered the next generation of alternative energy feedstocks. PMID:25776968

Su, Haifeng; Jiang, Juan; Lu, Qiuli; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Tian; Zhao, Hai; Wang, Maolin

2015-12-01

287

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

PubMed

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-02-01

288

Forces in yeast flocculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

289

Anticancer camptothecin-N-poly(lactic acid) nanoconjugates with facile hydrolysable linker  

E-print Network

Anticancer camptothecin-N-poly(lactic acid) nanoconjugates with facile hydrolysable linker Qian Yin­17 Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the extensively used polymeric materials in the formulation of NPs

Cheng, Jianjun

290

Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11.  

PubMed

Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up to 30.5% mannitol and 6.98% glucose in the hydrolysate solids. Ethanogenic recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 was able to utilize both mannitol and glucose and produced 0.4g ethanol per g of carbohydrate when cultured in L. japonica hydrolysate supplemented with Luria-Bertani medium and hydrolytic enzymes. The strategy of acid hydrolysis followed by simultaneous enzyme treatment and inoculation with E. coli KO11 could be a viable strategy to produce ethanol from marine alga biomass. PMID:21640583

Kim, Nag-Jong; Li, Hui; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Lee, Pyung Cheon

2011-08-01

291

Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

292

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins.  

E-print Network

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins. TAH hastannins in the growth medium. We have established ba- sic will be sequenced and examined for regu- latory motifs that control tannin respon- siveness. In both cases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Radical scavenging and amino acid profiling of wedge clam, Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Body, foot and viscera of Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) were hydrolyzed using commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin and papain) and tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power assays. In comparison between all the hydrolysates, papain viscera (28.513?±?0.165 & 0.186?±?0.008) and foot (33.567?±?0.132 & 0.166?±?0.013) hydrolysates showed highest DPPH and reducing power ability respectively. The active hydrolysates were purified with DEAE- cellulose followed by Sephadex G-25 columns connected to FPLC. Further, the isolated active fractions were loaded onto HPLC for their amino acid profiling and found with the presence of potential amino acids viz., histidine, cysteine, alanine etc. These results suggest that the isolated antioxidant peptide from viscera and foot hydrolysate of D. cuneatus can be used in treating human diseases where free radicals and oxidative damage are involved. PMID:25477664

Nazeer, R A; Saranya, M A V; Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf

2014-12-01

294

Fractionation of whey protein hydrolysates using charged UF\\/NF membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to separate peptides from a tryptic hydrolysates of whey proteins with charged UF\\/NF membranes has been investigated. A total hydrolysate (TH) was prepared by tryptic hydrolysis of a commercial whey protein isolate followed by UF-treatment using a 10kDa MWCO in order to remove the enzyme and non-hydrolyzed material from the reaction mixture. Firstly, five different membrane materials were

Y. Pouliot; M. C. Wijers; S. F. Gauthier; L. Nadeau

1999-01-01

295

Effects of Chinese wolfberry ( Lycium chinense P. Mill.) leaf hydrolysates on the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth stimulating effects of LYCH leaf hydrolysates on Pediococcus acidilactici IMT101 cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with 20% (v\\/v) H1+H2, the mixture of hydrolysates prepared by a traditional tea-making process. Cells grown on MRS containing H1+H2 showed a shortened lag phase while yielding a cell concentration (Xs) significantly higher than other conditions investigated entering stationary phase. The

Yi-Chun Yeh; Tae-Shik Hahm; Cristina M. Sabliov; Y. Martin Lo

2008-01-01

296

Fermentation of pretreated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates, pretreated by either over-liming or electrodialysis and, supplemented with nutrient\\u000a materials, were fermented to ethanol using Pachysolen tannophilus DW06. Compared with detoxification by over-liming, detoxification by electrodialysis decreased the loss of sugar and increased\\u000a the acetic acid removal, leading to better fermentability. A batch culture with electrodialytically pretreated hydrolysate\\u000a as substrate was developed giving 21 g ethanol l?1

Ke-Ke Cheng; Jing-Ping Ge; Jian-An Zhang; Hong-Zhi Ling; Yu-Jie Zhou; Ming-De Yang; Jing-Ming Xu

2007-01-01

297

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for ethanol production by acid recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the reducing sugar concentration in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and recover the acid, the acid hydrolysis was carried out in an acid recycle process and detoxification of hydrolysate was performed by electrodialysis. Two cycles of acidic treatments increased the reducing sugar concentration from 28 to 63.5gl?1 and sulphuric acid consumption decreased to 0.056gg?1 bagasse.

Ke-Ke Cheng; Bai-Yan Cai; Jian-An Zhang; Hong-Zhi Ling; Yu-Jie Zhou; Jing-Ping Ge; Jing-Ming Xu

2008-01-01

298

Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

299

Obtaining of Brassica carinata protein hydrolysates enriched in bioactive peptides using immobilized digestive proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica carinata protein hydrolysates were obtained by sequential hydrolysis with immobilized trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase A on glioxyl-agarose supports. The final protein hydrolysate with a 36% degree of hydrolysis was made up of peptides smaller than 15kDa. Three peptide fractions were obtained after gel filtration chromatography and antioxidative, hypocholesterolemic, and inhibitory of angiotensin converting enzyme activities were assayed in comparison

J. Pedroche; M. M. Yust; H. Lqari; C. Megias; J. Girón-Calle; M. Alaiz; J. Vioque; F. Millán

2007-01-01

300

Production and properties of casein hydrolysate microencapsulated by spray drying with soybean protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to encapsulate casein hydrolysate by spray drying with soybean protein isolate (SPI) as wall material to attenuate the bitter taste of that product. Two treatments were prepared: both with 12g\\/100g solids and containing either two proportions of SPI: hydrolysate (70:30 and 80:20), called M1 and M2, respectively. The samples were evaluated for morphological characteristics

Sara E. Molina Ortiz; Adriana Mauri; Ednelí S. Monterrey-Quintero; Marco A. Trindade; Aline S. Santana; Carmen S. Favaro-Trindade

2009-01-01

301

Plasmid-mediated, carbapenem-hydrolysing ?-lactamase, KPC2, in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae obtained from patients at a Maryland medical centre exhibited reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and were found to produce the novel, class A, plasmid-mediated, carbapenem-hydrolysing enzyme, KPC-2. This enzyme has 99% identity with the plasmid-mediated, carbapenem-hydrolysing enzyme KPC-1, reported previously in a North Carolina K. pneumoniae isolate. The KPC-2-producing isolates were either susceptible or inter- mediate

Ellen Smith Moland; Nancy D. Hanson; Vicki L. Herrera; Jennifer A. Black; Thomas J. Lockhart; Ashfaque Hossain; Judith A. Johnson; Richard V. Goering; Kenneth S. Thomson

2003-01-01

302

Efficacy of ?s1-casein hydrolysate on stress-related symptoms in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the effects of ?s1-casein hydrolysate on females with stress-related symptoms.Design:Double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.Setting:The ?s1-casein hydrolysate was manufactured by INGREDIA (Arras, France) and the placebo was manufactured by DIETAROMA (Bourg, France). Study was designed and performed at PROCLAIM (Rennes, France), and the statistical analyses were performed by D Desor (Nancy, France).Subjects:A total of 63 female volunteers suffering from

J H Kim; D Desor; Y T Kim; W J Yoon; K S Kim; J S Jun; K H Pyun; I Shim

2007-01-01

303

Influence des tanins hydrolysables de chtaignier sur le mtabolisme azot des ovins et des caprins  

E-print Network

Influence des tanins hydrolysables de châtaignier sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et des caprins Les tanins ont la propriété de se complexer aux protéines. Ceci peut conduire à l'insolubilisation de effets de l'ingestion de tanins sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et caprins. Des tanins hydrolysables

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Development of succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid is one of the most important platform chemicals since it has great potential in industrial applications. In\\u000a this study, corncob hydrolysate was used for succinic acid production. After diluted acid treatment, xylose was released from\\u000a hemicellulose as the predominant monosaccharide in the hydrolysate, whereas glucose was released very little and most was\\u000a retained as cellulose in the raw

Jie Yu; Zhimin Li; Qin Ye; Yong Yang; Shulin Chen

2010-01-01

305

Optimization of debittering of soybean antioxidant hydrolysates with ?-cyclodextrins using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant hydrolysates from soybean have the potential as the new antioxidants, but the bitterness limites their application.\\u000a A study on the debittering of the soybean antioxidant hydrolysates with ?-cyclodextrins and the effects of the debittering\\u000a conditions on the reducing power of the peptides was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM). The coefficient of\\u000a determination, R\\u000a 2 values for bitterness and

Lixia Hou; Jinshui Wang; Duo Zhang

306

Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure  

PubMed Central

In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

2014-01-01

307

Succinic acid production from corn cob hydrolysates by genetically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the xylose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In the present work, we constructed a xylose metabolic pathway in C. glutamicum by heterologous expression of the xylA and xylB genes coming from Escherichia coli. Dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs containing xylose and glucose were used as a substrate for succinic acid production by recombinant C. glutamicum NC-2. The results indicated that the available activated charcoal pretreatment in dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs could be able to overcome the inhibitory effect in succinic acid production. Succinic acid was shown to be efficiently produced from corn cob hydrolysates (55 g l(-1) xylose and 4 g l(-1) glucose) under oxygen deprivation with addition of sodium carbonate. Succinic acid concentration reached 40.8 g l(-1) with a yield of 0.69 g g(-1) total sugars within 48 h. It was the first report of succinic acid production from corn cob hydrolysates by metabolically engineered C. glutamicum. This study suggested that dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs may be an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by C. glutamicum. PMID:24078255

Wang, Chen; Zhang, Hengli; Cai, Heng; Zhou, Zhihui; Chen, Yilu; Chen, Yali; Ouyang, Pingkai

2014-01-01

308

In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) stronger bile acid binding capacity than all others hydrolysates tested and all crystalline bile acids tested were highly bound by cholestyramine, a positive control well known as a cholesterol-reducing agent. The bile acid binding capacity of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was almost preserved after gastrointestinal proteases digestion. The molecular weight of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was determined and most of the peptides were found between 500–180 Da. The results showed that Flavourzyme hydrolysate may be used as a potential cholesterol-reducing agent. PMID:21541043

Kongo-Dia-Moukala, Jauricque Ursulla; Zhang, Hui; Irakoze, Pierre Claver

2011-01-01

309

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-06-01

310

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

311

Glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment is affected by the starch content in rice straw.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as rice straw, is often utilized as a bioresource after being hydrolyzed using dilute acid and separated into liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue. However, the biomass component that determines the distribution between liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue has not yet been clarified. In this study, the glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate and weight of acid-insoluble residue of 13 rice cultivars were analyzed. Starch content was positively correlated with glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate, and negatively correlated with acid-insoluble residue weight. These results indicate that the glucose in the liquid hydrolysate is mainly liberated from starch rather than cellulose in the rice straw. These observations suggest that starch content is a good indicator of the glucose distribution between the liquid hydrolysate and insoluble residue. PMID:24140898

Teramura, Hiroshi; Oshima, Tomoko; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Kengo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kondo, Akihiko

2013-12-01

312

Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

2009-03-01

313

Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.  

PubMed

An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control, and similar amounts of the SMB and control diets. The intake ratios for each were 0.73 and 0.52, respectively. Salmon protein hydrolysate was especially palatable to dogs. These data suggest that chemical composition and nutritional quality of fish substrates differ greatly and are affected by the specific part of the fish used to prepare fish meals and fish protein hydrolysates. PMID:16971577

Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

2006-10-01

314

Chicken collagen hydrolysate protects rats from hypertension and cardiovascular damage.  

PubMed

We previously reported that chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) has strong angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we investigated the chronic therapy effects of CCH on blood pressure and vascular relaxation in a cardiovascular damage model of Wistar-Kyoto rats induced by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Following co-treatment with CCH for 4 weeks, the increment of systolic blood pressure was suppressed significantly. At 8 weeks, the vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta increased significantly, and cardiovascular damage was ameliorated. The concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in blood was reduced significantly by long-term administration of CCH, whereas the nitric oxide concentration was increased significantly at 1 hour post-treatment. The results suggest that beneficial effects of CCH result from antihypertensive function, but also from inhibition of cardiovascular damage to the endothelial cells via its ACE inhibitory activity and regulation of nitric oxide and ICAM-1, which suggests that CCH may be useful as a medicinal food for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:20170381

Zhang, Youzuo; Kouguchi, Tomomi; Shimizu, Muneshige; Ohmori, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki

2010-04-01

315

Antihyperlipidemic and antitumor effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chickpea albumin hydrolysate (CAH) on antihyperlipidemic and antitumor functions. The antihyperlipidemic results showed that CAH exhibited a dose dependent ability to decrease the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Additionally, the appearance of the hyperlipidemic livers was ameliorated significantly. The antitumor results showed that CAH administration significantly increased the tumor inhibition rate and decreased tumor volume. CAH was also able to increase the spleen index and promote spleen lymphocyte proliferation. In addition, CAH treatment led to a remarkable rise in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while dramatically decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Most importantly, we found that the physical conditions, such as appetite, activity, and coat luster of the mice in the CAH test group were better than those in the tumor control (TC) and positive control (PC) groups. These results taken together indicate that CAH warrants being further investigated and developed as an adjunctive element for hepatic lipid control, as well as antitumor and hypolipidemic therapies. PMID:22972402

Xue, Zhaohui; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijun; Yu, Wancong; Wang, Hua; Kou, Xiaohong

2012-12-01

316

Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9860241

Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

1998-11-01

317

Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

318

The effect of different protein hydrolysate\\/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To study the effect of four protein hydrolysates from vegetable (pea, gluten, rice and soy) and two protein hydrolysates from animal origin (whey and egg) on glucagon and insulin responses.Subjects\\/Methods:Eight healthy normal-weight male subjects participated in this study. The study employed a repeated-measures design with Latin square randomization and single-blind trials. Protein hydrolysates used in this study (pea, rice, soy,

M Claessens; W Calame; A D Siemensma; M A van Baak; W H M Saris

2009-01-01

319

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

320

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

321

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

322

Cryopreservation of yeast cultures.  

PubMed

A method is described that allows a wide range of yeast species to be stored in liquid nitrogen while maintaining a high level of viability. Yeast cultures are sealed in commercially available polypropylene straws after having been mixed with a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. Once placed in a secondary cryotube the temperature of the sealed straws is reduced slowly to -30 degrees C in a methanol bath over a period of up to 3 h. The straws are then transferred directly to the liquid nitrogen and placed in a racking system for long-term storage. PMID:18080465

Bond, Chris

2007-01-01

323

Genetics of Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

324

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

325

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

326

[Preparation and nutritional characteristics of a hydrolysate from pepitona (Arca zebra)].  

PubMed

Two soluble products resulting from the hydrolysis of pepitona (Arca zebra) were prepared as flour. Papain at its optimum hydrolysis conditions, previously established, was the enzyme used (40 degrees C for two hours at a pH of 7 in the proportion of 0.3% weight/enzyme/100 g meat). The hydrolysate obtained was then subjected to two different dehydration techniques: drum drying at 121 degrees C and 18 seconds retention, and spray drying at 101 degrees C and 40 psi pressure. The products were then stored for a five-month period at a temperature of 25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C, time during which chemical determinations were performed in both hydrolysates. Findings showed that the time of storage does exert a significant effect of deterioration on the products. The greater and more significant quality losses occur during the first two months. The dehydration techniques used also affect significantly the soluble nitrogen content, and non-protein nitrogen and soluble solids content, as well as color of pepitona hydrolysates. Spray-drying dehydration technique does not have a significant deteriorating effect. Biological studies undertaken demonstrated that the quality of both hydrolysates is satisfactory from the nutritional and amino acid composition points of view. A protein efficiency ratio (PER) of 2.27 and 2.29 was determined for the hydrolysate dehydrated by drum drier and for the dehydrated by spray drier, respectively. With regard to amino acid composition, both had satisfactory levels of essential amino acids, with a lysine content of 6.9 g/100 g protein for the hydrolysate dehydrated by drum drying, and 8.6 g/100 g protein for the other hydrolysate dehydrated by spray drying. PMID:3842922

Arbej, J; Luna, G

1985-12-01

327

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro  

PubMed Central

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized > 90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

328

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2014-09-23

329

Housefly larvae hydrolysate: orthogonal optimization of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and functional properties  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidant, one of the most important food additives, is widely used in food industry. At present, antioxidant is mostly produced by chemical synthesis, which would accumulate to be pathogenic. Therefore, a great interest has been developed to identify and use natural antioxidants. It was showed that there are a lot of antioxidative peptides in protein hydrolysates, possessing strong capacity of inhibiting peroxidation of macro-biomolecular and scavenging free redicals in vivo. Enzymatic hydrolysis used for preparation of antioxidative peptides is a new hot-spot in the field of natural antioxidants. It reacts under mild conditions, with accurate site-specific degradation, good repeatability and few damages to biological activity of protein. Substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis are usually plants and aqua-animals. Insects are also gaining attention because of their rich protein and resource. Antioxidative peptides are potential to be exploited as new natural antioxidant and functional food. There is a huge potential market in medical and cosmetic field as well. Result Protein hydrolysate with antioxidant activity was prepared from housefly larvae, by a two-step hydrolysis. Through orthogonal optimization of the hydrolysis conditions, the degree of hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 60%. Fractionated hydrolysate at 25?mg/mL, 2.5?mg/mL and 1?mg/mL exhibited approximately 50%, 60% and 50% of scavenging capacity on superoxide radicals, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Hydrolysate did not exhibit substantial ion chelation. Using a linoneic peroxidation system, the inhibition activity of hydrolysate at 20?mg/mL was close to that of 20??g/mL tertiary butylhydroquinone, suggesting a potential application of hydrolysate in the oil industry as an efficient antioxidant. The lyophilized hydrolysate presented almost 100% solubility at pH 3-pH 9, and maintained nearly 100% activity at pH 5-pH 8 at 0°C- 4°C and room temperature during the first 6?months of storage. Essential amino acids in the hydrolysate accounted for 43% of the total amino acids. Conclusions The results suggesting that hydrolysate could be added to food oils as an efficient antioxidant. It might be useful for food additives, diet nutrients and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:23683361

2013-01-01

330

Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that have been made so far to elucidate the mechanisms for the often dramatic benefits that hydrolysates can impart on cell culture processes. Given the variety of roles that hydrolysates likely play in each cell type, close collaboration between protein hydrolysate manufacturers and biopharmaceutical developers will continue to be critical to expanding the industry's knowledge and retaining hydrolysates as a tool for enhancing media formulations.

Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

331

Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

2004-01-01

332

Chemical genomics in yeast  

PubMed Central

Many drugs have unknown, controversial or multiple mechanisms of action. Four recent 'chemical genomic' studies, using genome-scale collections of yeast gene deletions that were either arrayed or barcoded, have presented complementary approaches to identifying gene-drug and pathway-drug interactions. PMID:15345040

Brenner, Charles

2004-01-01

333

Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture  

PubMed Central

The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

2008-01-01

334

Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture.  

PubMed

The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

2008-07-01

335

Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

2011-01-01

336

Enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds: a collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study was undertaken to compare the performance of Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar (DG18) with three other media widely used in food mycology, for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds. Oxytetracycline Glucose Yeast extract agar, (OGY), Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and Malt extract Yeast extract 50% Glucose agar (MY50G) were evaluated. Three reference samples (A, B, C) were prepared using skimmed milk powder inoculated with mixed lyophilized cultures of selected xerophilic yeasts and moulds, at levels around 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Yeast species used were Candida glucosophila, C. versatilis, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Z. rouxii, together with Eurotium spp. and some other moulds. Collaborators were asked to examine each sample twice, by dilution plating on the four media. Colonies were counted after 3, 5 and 7 days incubation at 25 degrees C. Fourteen participants from seven laboratories in six countries collaborated in this study. The ability of collaborators to detect and count yeasts after 5 and 7 days on DG18, DRBC and OGY varied depending on the sample. Few participants were able to count yeasts even after 7 days on MY50G. The overall results demonstrated that DG18 incubated 5 days at 25 degrees C was superior to the other three media tested for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds. PMID:8796421

Braendlin, N

1996-04-01

337

Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant

2005-01-01

338

Process development of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars using gentically engineered yeasts  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal feedstock for the large scale manufacture of fuel ethanol. Glucose and xylose represent the two major fermentable sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and efficient fermentation of both these sugars is essential for the economical production of fuel ethanol. In our laboratory, a genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) has been developed which can ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously to ethanol. This recombinant yeast has a very high ethanol tolerance (13.6% w/v) which allows high ethanol concentrations to accumulate in the fermentation medium, thus reducing downstream processing mu significantly. For large scale application of this genetically engineered cell culture, the fermentation kinetics have been investigated. We have studied the effects of substrate and product inhibition for both the host post 1400 and the engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) during fermentation of glucose, xylose and mixtures of glucose and xylose. Plasmid instability is an important factor influencing cell culture scale up. This aspect w investigated in selective, non-selective and partially selective fermentation media and the results will be reported in this paper. Based on these kinetic studies, a model has been developed which can simulate the fermentation of glucose and xylose to ethanol using the genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33), in both batch and continuous cultures.

Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Ho, N.W.Y. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

339

Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging. II. Analysis of desorbed polyphenol compounds from yeast lees.  

PubMed

In the first part of this work, the analysis of the polyphenolic compounds remaining in the wine after different contact times with yeast lees during simulation of red wine aging was undertaken. To achieve a more precise view of the wine polyphenols adsorbed on lees during red wine aging and to establish a clear balance between adsorbed and remnant polyphenol compounds, the specific analysis of the chemical composition of the adsorbed polyphenolic compounds (condensed tannins and anthocyanins) after their partial desorbtion from yeast lees by denaturation treatments was realized in the second part of the study. The total recovery of polyphenol compounds from yeast lees was not complete, since a rather important part of the initial wine colored polyphenols, especially those with a dominant blue color component, remained strongly adsorbed on yeast lees, as monitored by color tristimulus and reflectance spectra measurements. All anthocyanins were recovered at a rather high percentage (about 62%), and it was demonstrated that they were not adsorbed in relation with their sole polarity. Very few monomeric phenolic compounds were extracted from yeast lees. With the use of drastic denaturing treatments, the total recovery of condensed tannins reached 83%. Such tannins extracted from yeast lees exhibited very high polymeric size and a rather high percentage of galloylated residues by comparison with initial wine tannins, indicating that nonpolar tannins were preferentially desorbed from yeast lees by the extraction treatments. PMID:16719509

Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

2006-05-31

340

Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

2005-01-01

341

Hydrothermal decomposition of yeast cells for production of proteins and amino acids.  

PubMed

This study examines hydrothermal decomposition of Baker's yeast cells, used as a model for spent Brewer's yeast waste, into protein and amino acids. The reaction was carried out in a closed batch reactor at various temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. The reaction products were separated into water-soluble and solid residue. The results demonstrated that the amount of yeast residue decreased with increasing hydrolysis temperature. After 20 min reaction in water at 250 degrees C, 78% of yeast was decomposed. The highest amount of protein produced was also obtained at this condition and was found to be 0.16 mg/mg dry yeast. The highest amount of amino acids (0.063 mg/mg dry yeast) was found at the lowest temperature tested after 15 min. The hydrolysis product obtained at 200 degrees C was tested as a nutrient source for yeast growth. The growth of yeast cells in the culture medium containing 2 w/v% of this product was comparable to that of the cells grown in the medium containing commercial yeast extract at the same concentration. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using subcritical water to potentially decompose proteinaceous waste such as spent Brewer's yeast while recovering more useful products. PMID:16849032

Lamoolphak, Wiwat; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Suphantharika, Manop; Muangnapoh, Chirakarn; Prommuag, Chattip; Shotipruk, Artiwan

2006-10-11

342

Composition of the cell walls of several yeast species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell walls, representing 26%–32% of the cell dry weight, were prepared from several strains of the yeasts Kloeckera apiculata, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii,Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extraction of the walls with potassium hydroxide at 4?°C, followed by saturation of the alkali-soluble extract with ammonium\\u000a sulphate gave fractions of mannoprotein, alkali-soluble glucan and alkali-insoluble glucan. Chitin was associated with the

T. H. Nguyen; G. H. Fleet; P. L. Rogers

1998-01-01

343

Mathematical modeling of hydrolysate diffusion and utilization in cellulolytic biofilms of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The morphological and structural properties of microbial biofilms are influenced by internal substrate diffusion and utilization processes. In the case of microbial hydrolysis of plant cell walls, only thin and uniform biofilm structures are typically formed by cellulolytic microorganisms. In this study, we develop a hydrolysate diffusion and utilization model system to examine factors influencing cellulolytic biofilm formation. Model simulations using Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis as a representative organism, reveal that the growth of the cellulolytic biofilm is limited by hydrolysate utilization but not diffusion. As a consequence, the cellulolytic biofilm has a uniform growth rate, and there is a hydrolysate surplus that diffuses through the cellulolytic biofilm into the bulk solution where it is consumed by planktonic cells. Predictions based on the model were tested in a cellulose fermentation study and the results are consistent with the model and previously reported experimental data. The factors determining the rate-limiting step of biofilm growth are also analyzed.

Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Lochner, Adriane [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01

344

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates (RPH) from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum were investigated. R. esculentum was hydrolysed sequentially with pepsin and papain, and then the hydrolysate was ultrafiltered with a 2000 Da cut-off membrane. It was found that RPH contained high levels of Gly, Glu, Pro, Asp and Ala, having potential ACE inhibitory activity in vitro with an IC(50) of 1.28 mg/ml. It was also found that systolic blood pressure was reduced markedly in spontaneously hypertensive rats after single and chronic oral administration of RPH, indicating that RPH had an antihypertensive effect. In addition, oral administration of RPH decreased total serum cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with high-fat diet. These results indicate that RPH may prove to be a promising functional food for the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. PMID:23442666

Liu, Xin; Zhang, Miansong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Changheng

2012-10-15

345

Modeling of the separation of inhibitory components from pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by nanofiltration membranes.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to remove inhibitors and concentrate sugars in hydrolysates obtained from dilute acid-treated rice straw. The Donnan steric pore flow model (DSPM) was applied for membrane characterization and it captured the membrane transport adequately. The polyamide and polyethylene sulfate nanofiltration membranes of 150 Da molecular weight cut-off showed a separation factor of 3 for acetic acid over glucose and xylose and 7 over cellobiose for a simulated mixture at the optimum pH of 3. A separation factor of 3 was also found for the inhibitors hydroxymethyl furfural, ferulic and vanilic acids over sugars. The concentration of rice straw acid hydrolysate by a volume concentration ratio of 4 increased the concentrations of xylose, glucose, arabinose, cellobiose and inhibitor by 100%, 104%, 93%, 151% and 3%, respectively which indicates the membrane can be used for separating the inhibitors from acid-pretreated rice straw hydrolysate while simultaneously concentrating sugars. PMID:22494575

Maiti, Soumen K; Lukka Thuyavan, Y; Singh, Satyendra; Oberoi, Harinder S; Agarwal, Gopal P

2012-06-01

346

Acid-generated soy protein hydrolysates and their interfacial behavior on model surfaces.  

PubMed

The present work attempts to provide data to warrant the consideration of soy proteins (SP) as potentially useful biomolecules for practical chemical and surface applications. Despite their sundry properties, SP use has been limited by their high molecular weight. In response to this limitation, we analyze acid hydrolysates of soy proteins (0.1 N HCl, 70 °C) for surface modification. Techniques typical in protein (SDS-PAGE) as well as colloidal (charge demand and electrophoretic mobility) analyses were used to follow the effects of molecular changes that occur upon hydrolysis. Adsorption experiments on hydrophobic (polypropylene) and mineral (aluminum oxide) surfaces were subsequently carried out to further interrogate the surface activity resultant from soy hydrolysis. It was found that during adsorption the hydrolysates tended to form less surface aggregates and adsorbed at faster rates compared with unmodified SP. Overall, the benefits derived from the application of SP hydrolysates are highlighted. PMID:25314296

Arboleda, Julio C; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A

2014-11-10

347

Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37{degrees}C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid.

Grohmann, K.; Cameron, R.G. [Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States); Buslig, B.S. [Florida Department of Citrus, Winter Haven, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

348

Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.  

PubMed

The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37 degrees C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid. PMID:7668848

Grohmann, K; Cameron, R G; Buslig, B S

1995-01-01

349

Production of extensive chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates with reduced antigenic activity.  

PubMed

Chickpea protein isolate was used as starting material for the production of hypoallergenic protein hydrolysates. Western blotting of the protein isolate showed that IgE in sensitized patient sera strongly bound to the basic polypeptidic chains and recognized the acidic ones of 11S globulin. During the hydrolysis process by the individual and/or sequential action of endo- and exoproteases, a high reduction of antigenic activity was observed. Results suggest that the presence of intact or partially hydrolyzed basic polypeptide chains of 11S globulin are responsible for the formation of IgE complexes in protein hydrolysates obtained by exoprotease treatment; however, the digestion of these polypeptide chains by individual action of endoprotease caused a high loss of antigenic activity. The most effective reduction of antigenicity, >90%, was observed in extensive hydrolyzed chickpea proteins obtained by sequential treatment with endo- and exopeptidases. This chickpea protein hydrolysate could be useful for the elaboration of specialized hypoallergenic food products. PMID:10552721

Clemente, A; Vioque, J; Sanchez-Vioque, R; Pedroche, J; Millán, F

1999-09-01

350

Characterization of the endogenous enzymatic hydrolyses of Petroselinum crispum glycosides: determined by chromatography upon their sugar and flavonoid products.  

PubMed

The behavior of the flavonoid diglycosides, relevant constituents of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) fruit (PFr) and leaf (PLe) samples was characterized upon their enzymatic hydrolyses applying complementary liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) and gas chromatography mass selective (GC-MS) detections. Analyses were performed in quantitative manner, from the same extracts as a function of hydrolysis times. Both in fruit and leaf tissue extracts, in intact and in enzyme hydrolyzed ones, apigenin, chrysoeriol, their glycosides, sugars, sugar alcohols, carboxylic acids and phytosterols, in total 17 constituents were identified and quantified. Based primarily on the selective mass fragmentation properties of the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, we confirmed several novelties to the field. (i) It was shown for the first time that in parsley tissues different types of glycosidase enzyme are active. In PFr samples, both the stepwise and disaccharide specific endogenous mechanisms were certified, quantifying simultaneously the continuous release of apigenin, chrysoeriol, 2-O-apiosyl-apiose, apiose and glucose. (ii) 2-O-Apiosyl-glucose was demonstrated as disaccharide due to its formation under derivatization conditions from parsley glycosides. (iii) Both in PFr and in PLe samples even the invertase enzyme activity was attainable: sucrose decomposition in both tissues was going on with the same intensity. Three different types of enzymatic glycosidase processes were followed with their specific hydrolysis products by means of HPLC-UV and GC-MS, simultaneously. PMID:23623367

Boldizsár, Imre; Füzfai, Zsófia; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2013-06-01

351

Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract.  

PubMed

Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of rhizome of N. nucifera was studied on normal body temperature and yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Yeast suspension (10 ml/kg, s.c.) increased rectal temperature after 19 hr of administration. The extract, in doses of 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg (po) produced significant dose dependent lowering of normal body temperature and yeast provoked elevation of body temperature in rats. The effect produced was comparable with the standard antipyretic drug, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, i.p.). PMID:8781041

Mukherjee, P K; Das, J; Saha, K; Giri, S N; Pal, M; Saha, B P

1996-03-01

352

Free amino acids and peptides as related to antioxidant properties in protein hydrolysates of mackerel ( Scomber austriasicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackerel (Scomber austriasicus) hydrolysates were prepared by an autolytic process and accelerated hydrolysis with a commercial enzyme, Protease N. Changes in the levels and compositions of free amino acids and small peptides during hydrolysis were investigated to find out their relationships with antioxidant activities. Increased levels of free amino acids, anserine, carnosine and other peptides of the hydrolysates obtained with

Hui-Chun Wu; Hua-Ming Chen; Chyuan-Yuan Shiau

2003-01-01

353

Peptide–peptide and protein–peptide interactions in mixtures of whey protein isolate and whey protein isolate hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of aggregation in whey protein isolate (WPI) hydrolysates induced by Bacillus licheniformis protease was quantified as a function of degree of hydrolysis (DH), temperature and ionic strength. The capacity of the hydrolysates to aggregate added intact protein was also studied. The amount of aggregated material and the size of the aggregated peptides were measured by nitrogen content and

Nathalie Creusot; Harry Gruppen; Gerrit A. van Koningsveld; Cornelis G. de Kruif; Alphons G. J. Voragen

2006-01-01

354

Antioxidant Potential of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Protein Hydrolysates and Carnosine in Food and Biological Systems.  

PubMed

Date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. Date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a pH range of 2-12. The hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.3%, w/w). Incorporation of hydrolysates (200 ppm) in fish model systems resulted in the highest inhibition (30%) of oxidation in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 9%). In addition, hydrolysates and carnosine inhibited ?-carotene oxidation by 75%. The hydrolysates (0.1 mg/mL) inhibited LDL cholesterol oxidation by 60%, whereas carnosine inhibited oxidation by 80% after 12 h of incubation. Additionally, hydrolysates and carnosine effectively inhibited hydroxyl (6 mg/mL) and peroxyl (0.1 mg/mL) radical-induced DNA scission. Therefore, date seed protein hydrolysates could be used as a potential functional food ingredient for health promotion. PMID:25553507

Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2015-01-28

355

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

356

Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield\\u000a Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements\\u000a while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined\\u000a processing. At the heart of the

André Siemensma; James Babcock; Chris Wilcox; Hans Huttinga

2010-01-01

357

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either\\u000a alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast\\u000a species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans,\\u000a glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

Inge N. A. Bogaert; Sofie L. Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

358

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

Inge N. A. van Bogaert; Sofie L. de Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

2009-01-01

359

Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.  

PubMed

Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

2015-06-01

360

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeastPichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity via ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. At physiological pH values the thermodynamic equilibrium constant was determined to be 0.575x1010 (l·mol-1). Product inhibiton studies are reported which clearly show that the kinetic mechanism of the xylose reductase is ordered-bi-bi with isomerisation of a stable enzyme form.

Manfred Rizzi; Petra Erlemann; Ngoc-Anh Bui-Thanh; Hanswerner Dellweg

1988-01-01

361

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

362

Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.  

PubMed

This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

2015-03-15

363

Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.  

PubMed

In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation. PMID:23665192

Cuero, Raul; McKay, David S

2013-07-10

364

Glutathione Production in Yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

365

Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates - A Study in Brown Norway Rats.  

PubMed

Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant. PMID:25619117

Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

2015-05-01

366

Phytochemical screening of Nepeta cataria extracts and their in vitro inhibitory effects on free radicals and carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes.  

PubMed

This research was performed to investigate in vitro the biological activities of successive as well as 70% ethanol extracts of Nepeta cataria on some biochemical parameters including oxidative markers and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme activities (?-amylase, ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase). Powdered N. cataria and its successive extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Tests for tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides and flavonoids were positive in ethanolic extract, but those for steroids and terpenoids were positive in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Also, different extracts were chromatographically investigated. The results obtained demonstrated that different successive extracts of N. cataria exhibited an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. It is observed that 70% ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed, respectively, the most potent inhibitory activities, while ethyl acetate and ethanol successive extracts appeared with moderate or low reducing activities. PMID:22103287

Naguib, Abdel Moneam Mohamed; Ebrahim, Mohamed Elsayed; Aly, Hanan Farouk; Metawaa, Hemaia Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahlam Hosni; Mahmoud, Ebtissam A; Ebrahim, Faten Mohamed

2012-01-01

367

Characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.  

PubMed

Two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. The results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. Protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. Overall, the kiwifruit protease extract was found to be more effective at hydrolysing myofibrillar and collagen proteins than the asparagus protease extract. The two protease extracts appeared to target meat myofibrillar and collagen proteins differently, suggesting the potential of a synergistic effect of these proteases in improving the tenderness of specific cuts of meat, based on their intrinsic protein composition. PMID:23122154

Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan; Hopkins, David L

2013-01-15

368

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

2011-04-01

369

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

2012-04-01

370

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

2014-04-01

371

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

2010-04-01

372

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

2013-04-01

373

The recovery of protein hydrolysate during enzymatic isolation of chitin from shrimp Crangon crangon processing discards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell waste from shrimp Crangon crangon processing is a good source of chitin and proteins, contained on a dry basis of the offals in amounts 17.8% and 40.6%, respectively. The digestion of the shells with proteolytic enzymes allow to recovery of the chitin and nutritionally valuable protein hydrolysate. These products were prepared from the shells preliminarily demineralized with 10% HCl

Józef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Abdul Quawi Al-Khateeb

2000-01-01

374

Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola  

PubMed Central

Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, ?- and ?-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

2014-01-01

375

Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program has set goals of making ethanol cost competitive by 2012 and replacing 30% of 2004 transportation supply with biofuels by 2030. Both goals require improvements in conversions of cellulosic biomass to sugars as well as improvements in fermentation rates and yields. Current best pretreatment processes are reasonably efficient at making the cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin matrix amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, but they release a number of toxic compounds into the hydrolysate which inhibit the growth and ethanol productivity of fermentation organisms. Conditioning methods designed to reduce the toxicity of hydrolysates are effective, but add to process costs and tend to reduce sugar yields, thus adding significantly to the final cost of production. Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production will likely require enhanced understanding of the source and mode of action of hydrolysate toxic compounds, the means by which some organisms resist the actions of these compounds, and the methodology and mechanisms for conditioning hydrolysate to reduce toxicity. This review will provide an update on the state of knowledge in these areas and can provide insights useful for the crafting of hypotheses for improvements in pretreatment, conditioning, and fermentation organisms.

Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M.

2009-01-01

376

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole,

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball

2009-01-01

377

In vitro antioxidant properties of chicken skin enzymatic protein hydrolysates and membrane fractions.  

PubMed

Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10kDa) and analysed for antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (p<0.05) lower scavenging activity against DPPH radicals when compared to reduced glutathione. The chicken breast skin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29-40% to 86-89%, respectively with increasing proteolytic enzyme concentration. In contrast, the antioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:24360464

Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E; Aliani, Michel

2014-05-01

378

Fractionation of protein hydrolysates of fish and chicken using membrane ultrafiltration: investigation of antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

In this work, chicken and fish peptides were obtained using the proteolytic enzymes ?-Chymotrypsin and Flavourzyme. The muscle was hydrolyzed for 4 h, and the resulting peptides were evaluated. Hydrolysates were produced from Argentine croaker (Umbrina canosai) with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 25.9 and 27.6% and from chicken (Gallus domesticus) with DH of 17.8 and 20.6% for Flavourzyme and ?-Chymotrypsin, respectively. Membrane ultrafiltration was used to separate fish and chicken hydrolysates from Flavourzyme and ?-Chymotrypsin based on molecular weight cutoff of >1,000, <1,000 and >500, and <500 Da, to produce fractions (F1,000, F1,000-500, and F500) with antioxidant activity. Fish hydrolysates produced with Flavourzyme (FHF) and ?-Chymotrypsin showed 60.8 and 50.9% of peptides with a molecular weight of <3 kDa in its composition, respectively. To chicken hydrolysates produced with Flavourzyme and ?-Chymotrypsin (CHC) was observed 83 and 92.4% of peptides with a molecular weight of <3 kDa. The fraction that showed, in general, higher antioxidant potential was F1,000 from FHF. When added 40 mg/mL of FHF and CHC, 93 and 80% of lipid oxidation in ground beef homogenates was inhibited, respectively. The composition of amino acids indicated higher amino acids hydrophobic content and amino acids containing sulfuric residues for FHF, which showed antioxidant potential. PMID:24449375

Centenaro, Graciela Salete; Salas-Mellado, Myriam; Pires, Carla; Batista, Irineu; Nunes, Maria L; Prentice, Carlos

2014-03-01

379

Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded ?-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

380

Acid hydrolysates of acorn polysaccharides as substrates for Candida utilis growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acorn starchy endosperm was saccharified by dilute HCZ, H2SO4 and H3PO4, and the hydrolysates were used as substrates forC. utilis growth. The effects of acid on both stages were investigated and optimized. Biomass yields up to 27.3% on acorn or 83% of theoretical value are reported.

D. Kekos; E. G. Koukios

1985-01-01

381

Kinetics of xylose in hydrolysate using dilute sulphuric acid as catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the technology of manufacturing fuel alcohol from biomass as feedstock, hydrolysis using dilute acid as catalyst is one way to produce fermentable saccharide. In this process, the yield of xylose is always low because of the degrading during the acid environment. In this paper, the degrading kinetics of xylose in the hydrolysate was investigated under the conventional process conditions

Wei Qi; Suping Zhang; Qingli Xu; Zhenxing Zhu; Yongjie Yan Zhengwei Ren; Yongjie Yan

2009-01-01

382

Characterization of collagen from haddock skin and wound healing properties of its hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Collagen, one of the most abundant structural proteins found in vertebrates, has been extensively used for biomedical applications. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) skins and to investigate the biological function of ASC hydrolysates in wound healing. Amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE and FTIR suggested that the ASC is most likely type I collagen with well-maintained helical structures. Both the denaturation and shrinkage temperatures of ASC isolated from haddock skins were lower than those of mammalian collagens. The average molecular weights of hydrolysates decreased with the increase in HCl concentration as well as hydrolysis times. ASC and hydrolysates with more molecules (53.8?kDa) decreased the bleeding and clotting times and promoted order 2 vessel formation effectively. All the experimental groups, including the ASC group and its hydrolysate groups, could accelerate epithelialization and shorten the wound healing time of mice. The ASC from haddock skin could therefore serve as an alternative collagen for skin wound healing. PMID:25730323

Dang, Qi Feng; Liu, Han; Yan, Jing Quan; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Liu, Ya; Li, Jing; Li, Jing Jing

2015-01-01

383

Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOEpatents

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

2013-07-02

384

Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOEpatents

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

2013-10-29

385

Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8?mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05?U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03?U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2?U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%), total phenolics (15.3–27.2??g/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7–242.8??g/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

Marinova, Margarita D.; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P.

2010-01-01

386

Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments suggest that supplementation of yeast extract-YCW to broiler chicken diets increased animal performance by favouring intestinal mucosal development. PMID:20680875

Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

2010-06-01

387

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management. PMID:19122811

Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

388

Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta.  

PubMed

Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations. PMID:19778596

Loh, Daphne Sue Yen; Er, Hui Meng; Chen, Yu Sui

2009-12-10

389

Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308).2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4

R. Morales-López; E. Auclair; F. Van Immerseel; R. Ducatelle; F. García; J. Brufau

2010-01-01

390

Complex Physiology and Compound Stress Responses during Fermentation of Alkali-Pretreated Corn Stover Hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli Ethanologen  

PubMed Central

The physiology of ethanologenic Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkali-pretreated plant hydrolysates is complex and not well studied. To gain insight into how E. coli responds to such hydrolysates, we studied an E. coli K-12 ethanologen fermenting a hydrolysate prepared from corn stover pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion. Despite the high sugar content (?6% glucose, 3% xylose) and relatively low toxicity of this hydrolysate, E. coli ceased growth long before glucose was depleted. Nevertheless, the cells remained metabolically active and continued conversion of glucose to ethanol until all glucose was consumed. Gene expression profiling revealed complex and changing patterns of metabolic physiology and cellular stress responses during an exponential growth phase, a transition phase, and the glycolytically active stationary phase. During the exponential and transition phases, high cell maintenance and stress response costs were mitigated, in part, by free amino acids available in the hydrolysate. However, after the majority of amino acids were depleted, the cells entered stationary phase, and ATP derived from glucose fermentation was consumed entirely by the demands of cell maintenance in the hydrolysate. Comparative gene expression profiling and metabolic modeling of the ethanologen suggested that the high energetic cost of mitigating osmotic, lignotoxin, and ethanol stress collectively limits growth, sugar utilization rates, and ethanol yields in alkali-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22389370

Schwalbach, Michael S.; Tremaine, Mary; Marner, Wesley D.; Zhang, Yaoping; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L.; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Ellinger, James; Dale, Bruce; Kiley, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

391

Casein hydrolysate as a rapid and/or enteric dissolving additive for oral drugs.  

PubMed

Two types of casein hydrolysates, casein A (mean peptide length 3.3) and casein B (mean peptide length 17.4) were prepared by the enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, and their effects on in vitro dissolution rates and oral bioavailability of drugs were evaluated. The in vitro dissolution behavior of the kneaded mixture of three drugs (diclofenac acid, diazepam, and prednisolone) with caseins A and B were significantly improved compared to the drugs alone, even at 1:1 weight ratio of drug and casein hydrolysate, even though casein A and casein B did not interact with drug molecules in the kneaded mixture. Only diclofenac, an acidic drug, showed an increased dissolution rate with added casein hydrolysates, and a more rapid dissolution with casein A than with casein B was observed. When the dissolution of prednisolone from kneaded mixture was compared at pH 1.2 and 6.8, the dissolution rate of prednisolone from the casein A kneaded mixture was considerably higher than that of prednisolone powder at both pHs, and the rate from the casein B kneaded mixture was higher only at pH 6.8. The plasma concentration-time profile showed that prednisolone was completely and rapidly absorbed from the casein A kneaded mixture as well as the prednisolone solution. In addition, prednisolone in the kneaded mixture with casein B was more difficult to absorb up to 1 hr after administration in comparison to prednisolone powder. The slow and lowered absorption of prednisolone by casein B might be explained by conversion of casein B to a shorter soluble peptide in the gastrointestinal tract and by the slow dissolution of prednisolone at acidic conditions. The toxicological tests revealed that casein hydrolysate is a safe drug carrier. Consequently, casein hydrolysates might be safely used to control the dissolution rate and bioavailability of a variety of drugs, depending on the peptide length of the casein fragments. PMID:9653760

Imai, T; Nishiyama, T; Shameem, M; Otagiri, M

1998-05-01

392

Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the ? and ? 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (< 3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, and > 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

2011-03-01

393

BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS  

PubMed Central

Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ?-carotene, neurosporene, ?-zeacarotene, ?-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

1964-01-01

394

Production of Food Grade Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2006-01-01

395

Yeasts from ips sexdentatus (scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts from the digestive tract of Ips sexdentatus were isolated. Four strains, representing the different identified yeast species, were chosen. Their enzymatic activity on oligosaccharides, heterosides and polysaccharides was measured. Moreover, we showed that they excrete some B group vitamins which are necessary for the insect, unable to synthesize them.

Marie-Claire Pignal; C. Chararas; Michèle Bourgeay-Causse

1988-01-01

396

New and emerging yeast pathogens.  

PubMed Central

The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

Hazen, K C

1995-01-01

397

Optimization of Maillard reaction with ribose for enhancing anti-allergy effect of fish protein hydrolysates using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Halibut is served on sushi and as sliced raw fish fillets. We investigated the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction (MR) with ribose using response surface methodology to reduce the allergenicity of its protein. A 3-factored and 5-leveled central composite design was used, where the independent variables were substrate (ribose) concentration (X1, %), reaction time (X2, min), and pH (X3), while the dependent variables were browning index (Y1, absorbance at 420nm), DPPH scavenging (Y2, EC50 mg/mL), FRAP (Y3, mM FeSO4/mg extract) and ?-hexosaminidase release (Y4, %). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: X1, 28.36%; X2, 38.09min; X3, 8.26. Maillard reaction products of fish protein hydrolysate (MFPH) reduced the amount of nitric oxide synthesis compared to the untreated FPH, and had a significant anti-allergy effect on ?-hexosaminidase and histamine release, compared with that of the FPH control. We concluded that MFPH, which had better antioxidant and anti-allergy activities than untreated FPH, can be used as an improved dietary source. PMID:25624251

Yang, Sung-Yong; Kim, Se-Wook; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Kwang-Won

2015-06-01

398

Modelling the Yeast Interactome  

PubMed Central

The topology behind biological interaction networks has been studied for over a decade. Yet, there is no definite agreement on the theoretical models which best describe protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Such models are critical to quantifying the significance of any empirical observation regarding those networks. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast PPI networks in order to gain insights into their topology and its dependency on interaction-screening technology. We find that: (1) interaction-detection technology has little effect on the topology of PPI networks; (2) topology of these interaction networks differs in organisms with different cellular complexity (human and yeast); (3) clear topological difference is present between PPI networks, their functional sub-modules, and their inter-functional “linkers”; (4) high confidence PPI networks have more “geometrical” topology compared to predicted, incomplete, or noisy PPI networks; and (5) inter-functional “linker” proteins serve as mediators in signal transduction, transport, regulation and organisational cellular processes. PMID:24589662

Janji?, Vuk; Sharan, Roded; Pržulj, Nataša

2014-01-01

399

A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.  

PubMed

The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

2014-08-30

400

Re-assessment of YAP1 and MCR1 contributions to inhibitor tolerance in robust engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Development of robust yeast strains that can efficiently ferment lignocellulose-based feedstocks is one of the requirements for achieving economically feasible bioethanol production processes. With this goal, several genes have been identified as promising candidates to confer improved tolerance to S. cerevisiae. In most of the cases, however, the evaluation of the genetic modification was performed only in laboratory strains, that is, in strains that are known to be quite sensitive to various types of stresses. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing genes encoding the transcription factor (YAP1) and the mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (MCR1), either alone or in combination, in an already robust and xylose-consuming industrial strain of S. cerevisiae and evaluated the effect during the fermentation of undiluted and undetoxified spruce hydrolysate. Overexpression of either gene resulted in faster hexose catabolism, but no cumulative effect was observed with the simultaneous overexpression. The improved phenotype of MCR1 overexpression appeared to be related, at least in part, to a faster furaldehyde reduction capacity, indicating that this reductase may have a wider substrate range than previously reported. Unexpectedly a decreased xylose fermentation rate was also observed in YAP1 overexpressing strains and possible reasons behind this phenotype are discussed. PMID:25147754

2014-01-01

401

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

402

Lager Yeast Comes of Age  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

2014-01-01

403

Lager yeast comes of age.  

PubMed

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

Wendland, Jürgen

2014-10-01

404

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

405

Phytochemical screening of Nepeta cataria extracts and their in vitro inhibitory effects on free radicals and carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was performed to investigate in vitro the biological activities of successive as well as 70% ethanol extracts of Nepeta cataria on some biochemical parameters including oxidative markers and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme activities (?-amylase, ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase). Powdered N. cataria and its successive extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Tests for tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides and flavonoids were positive in ethanolic

Abdel Moneam Mohamed Naguib; Mohamed Elsayed Ebrahim; Hanan Farouk Aly; Hemaia Mohamed Metawaa; Ahlam Hosni Mahmoud; Ebtissam A. Mahmoud; Faten Mohamed Ebrahim

2011-01-01

406

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

407

Thermolabile xylanase of the Antarctic yeast Cryptococcus adeliae : production and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanase production by the Antarctic psychrophilic yeast Cryptococcus adeliae was increased 4.3 fold by optimizing the culture medium composition using statistical designs. The optimized medium containing\\u000a 24.2 g l?1 xylan and 10.2 g l?1 yeast extract and having an initial pH of 7.5 yielded xylanase activity at 400 nkat (nanokatal) ml?1 after 168-h shake culture at 4?C. In addition, very

Joseph Gomes; Isidore Gomes; Walter Steiner

2000-01-01

408

Production of malic and succinic acids by sugar-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii V19 was grown in YPG medium (yeast extract, 0.5%, peptone, 1.0%, glucose, 10%). Fermented broth was purified through a series of ion-exchange columns and ODS column and the purified sample was TMS-esterified. Malic and succinic acids were identified with GC-MS analysis. The yeast was cultivated under various cultural conditions and quantitative determination of the organic acids was carried

Ok Taing; Kazuya Taing

2007-01-01

409

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces a Yeast Substance that Exhibits Estrogenic Activity in Mammalian Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partially purified lipid extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a substance that displaces tritiated estradiol from rat uterine cytosol estrogen receptors. The yeast product induces estrogenic bioresponses in mammalian systems as measured by induction of progesterone receptors in cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and by a uterotrophic response and progesterone receptor induction after administration to ovariectomized mice. The findings raise the possibility that bakers' yeast may be a source of environmental estrogens.

Feldman, David; Stathis, Peter A.; Hirst, Margaret A.; Price Stover, E.; Do, Yung S.; Kurz, Walter

1984-06-01

410

Performance of mycological media in enumerating desiccated food spoilage yeasts: an interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18) was originally formulated to enumerate nonfastidious xerophilic moulds in foods containing rapidly growing Eurotium species. Some laboratories are now using DG18 as a general purpose medium for enumerating yeasts and moulds, although its performance in recovering yeasts from dry foods has not been evaluated. An interlaboratory study compared DG18 with dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC), plate count agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (PCAC), tryptone glucose yeast extract chloramphenicol agar (TGYC), acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), and orange serum agar (OSA) for their suitability to enumerate 14 species of lyophilized yeasts. The coefficient of variation for among-laboratories repeatability within yeast was 1.39% and reproducibility of counts among laboratories was 7.1%. The order of performance of media for recovering yeasts was TGYC > PCAC = OSA > APDA > DRBC > DG 18. A second study was done to determine the combined effects of storage time and temperature on viability of yeasts and suitability of media for recovery. Higher viability was retained at -18 degrees C than at 5 degrees C or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks, although the difference in mean counts of yeasts stored at -18 degrees C and 25 degrees C was only 0.78 log10 cfu/ml of rehydrated suspension. TGYC was equal to PCAC and superior to the other four media in recovering yeasts stored at -18 degrees C, 5 degrees C, or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks. Results from both the interlaboratory study and the storage study support the use of TGYC for enumerating desiccated yeasts. DG18 is not recommended as a general purpose medium for recovering yeasts from a desiccated condition. PMID:11759766

Beuchat, L R; Frandberg, E; Deak, T; Alzamora, S M; Chen, J; Guerrero, A S; López-Malo, A; Ohlsson, I; Olsen, M; Peinado, J M; Schnurer, J; de Siloniz, M I; Tornai-Lehoczki, J

2001-10-22

411

A new pullulan-producing yeast and medium optimization for its exopolysaccharide production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast strain Y68 producing high level of pullulan was isolated from the phyton collected in Toulouse, France. This strain was identified to be Rhodotorula bacarum by BIOLOG analysis. This is the first report that pullulan was produced by Rhodotorula bacarum. The optimal medium (g L-1) for pullulan production by this strain was 80 glucose, 20 soybean cake hydrolysate, 5 K2HPO4, 1 NaCl, 0.2 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.6 (NH4)2SO4, pH 7.0. Under this condition, 54 gL-1 pullulan was produced within 60 h at 30°C. Pullulan is a better starting material for producing marine prodrugs.

Shuangzhi, Zhao; Zhenming, Chi

2003-04-01

412

Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

1999-04-05

413

Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Gluten Hydrolysates with an Increasing Degree of Hydrolysis: Role of Soluble and Insoluble Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(4):414-420 Gluten solubility was improved by enzymatic proteolysis at moderate acidic pH level. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of gluten hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) in the range of 0-5% showed that both hydrophilic and hydrophobic soluble peptides were released. Emulsifying and foaming properties of hydrolysate dispersions at 3.75 mg\\/mL decreased with the increasing DH at all pH

E. Linarès; C. Larré; M. Lemeste; Y. Popineau

2000-01-01

414

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

2008-01-01

415

Influence of dicamba and casein hydrolysate on somatic embryo number and culture quality in cell suspensions of Dactylis glomerata (Gramineae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various concentrations and combinations of dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) and casein hydrolysate on growth, mucilage accumulation, somatic embryo and root development in suspension cultures of Dactylis glomerata L. (orchardgrass) were examined. Fresh weight of culture tissue was increased with 20 µM but not with 80 or 160 µM dicamba in treatments with 1–4 g\\/l casein hydrolysate. Different casein

D. J. Gray; B. V. Conger

1985-01-01

416

Improvement of pea ( Pisum sativum) seed vigour response by fish protein hydrolysates in combination with acetyl salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) were used for stimulation of vigour of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Pea seeds were pre-hydrated in water which contained 50 ?M of ASA, 2 ml l?1 of FPH (standardized mackerel hydrolysates) and 2 ml l?1 of a combination of ASA and FPH (ASA\\/FPH) for 24 h and followed by germination in

Nuri Andarwulan; Kalidas Shetty

1999-01-01

417

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate and sugar mixtures to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli KO11, carrying the ethanol pathway genes pdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) and adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) from Zymomonas mobilis integrated into its chromosome, has the ability to metabolize pentoses and hexoses to ethanol, both in synthetic medium and\\u000a in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In the fermentation of sugar mixtures simulating hemicellulose hydrolysate sugar composition\\u000a (10.0 g of glucose\\/l and 40.0 g of xylose\\/l)

Caroline Maki Takahashi; Katia Gianni de Carvalho Lima; Débora Fumie Takahashi; Flávio Alterthum

2000-01-01

418

Bioflocculants from hydrolysates of corn stover using isolated strain Ochrobactium ciceri W2.  

PubMed

This study isolated a total of seven pure cultures from activated sludge that could produce bioflocculants from 1.7% v/v H2SO4 treated hydrolysates of corn stover. The most effective strain amongst the seven isolates was identified as Ochrobactrum ciceri W2. The W2 cells produced biopolymers in logarithm growth phase, peaking at 3.8 g l(-1)in productivity on 16 h. The yielded bioflocculant was primarily consisting of polysaccharides and proteins, and maintained its flocculating activity to 0.5% w/w kaolin suspensions over pH 1-10 (at 30°C) and 30-100°C (at pH 7). This study also revealed that the strain W2 could utilize biopolymers from hydrolysate of corn stover without addition of excess phosphate salts, which could largely reduce production costs of bioflocculants. PMID:23232033

Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi

2013-10-01

419

Biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. In this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with Cellulomonas uda E3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees C), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees C), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. This temperature-shift strategy was shown to markedly increase the reducing sugar (especially, monosaccharide and disaccharide) concentration in the hydrolysate while hydrolyzing pure (carboxymethyl-cellulose, xylan, avicel and cellobiose) and natural (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse and Napier-grass) cellulosic materials. The cellulosic hydrolysates from CMC and xylan were successfully converted to H(2) via dark fermentation with Clostridium butyricum CGS5, attaining a maximum hydrogen yield of 4.79 mmol H(2)/g reducing sugar. PMID:19604692

Lo, Yung-Chung; Su, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Chang, Jo-Shu

2009-12-01

420

Effect of organic acids found in cottonseed hull hydrolysate on the xylitol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.  

PubMed

Five organic acids (acetic, ferulic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, formic and levulinic acids) typically associated in the hemicellulose hydrolysate were selected to study their effects on the xylitol fermentation. The effects of individual and combined additions were independently evaluated on the following parameters: inhibitory concentration; initial cell concentration; pH value; and membrane integrity. The results showed that the toxicities of organic acids were related to their hydrophobility and significantly affected by the fermentative pH value. In addition, it was revealed that the paired combinations of organic acids did not impose synergetic inhibition. Moreover, it was found that the fermentation inhibition could be alleviated with the simple manipulations by increasing the initial cell concentration, raising the initial pH value and minimizing furfural levels by evaporation during the concentration of hydrolysates. The proposed strategies for minimizing the negative effects could be adopted to improve the xylitol fermentation in the industrial applications. PMID:23138642

Wang, Le; Wu, Dapeng; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

2013-08-01

421

Pyrochars from bioenergy residue as novel bio-adsorbents for lignocellulosic hydrolysate detoxification.  

PubMed

The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. PMID:25863902

Monlau, F; Sambusiti, C; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Solhy, A; Barakat, A

2015-07-01

422

Succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the carbon source.  

PubMed

Efficient biosynthesis of succinate from a renewable biomass resource by engineered Escherichia coli is reported in this paper. Fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by engineered E. coli BA204, a pflB, ldhA, and ppc deletion strain overexpressing the ATP-forming phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Bacillus subtilis 168, produced a final succinate concentration of 15.85 g L(-1) with a high yield of 0.89 g L(-1) total sugar under anaerobic conditions. During dual-phase fermentations, initial aerobic growth facilitated subsequent anaerobic succinate production, with a final succinate concentration of 18.88 g L(-1) and a yield of 0.96 g g(-1) total sugar after 24 h of anaerobic fermentation. The high succinate yield from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate demonstrated a great potential application of renewable biomass as a feedstock for the economical production of succinate using metabolically engineered E. coli. PMID:23010211

Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Cao, Weijia; Wu, Mingke; Chen, Kequan; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Pingkai

2013-05-01

423

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and

Kristin L. Field; Alexander A. Bachmanov; Julie A. Mennella; Gary K. Beauchamp; Bruce A. Kimball; Daniel Tomé

2009-01-01

424

Inhibition of growth of Zymomonas mobilis by model compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Background During the pretreatment of biomass feedstocks and subsequent conditioning prior to saccharification, many toxic compounds are produced or introduced which inhibit microbial growth and in many cases, production of ethanol. An understanding of the toxic effects of compounds found in hydrolysate is critical to improving sugar utilization and ethanol yields in the fermentation process. In this study, we established a useful tool for surveying hydrolysate toxicity by measuring growth rates in the presence of toxic compounds, and examined the effects of selected model inhibitors of aldehydes, organic and inorganic acids (along with various cations), and alcohols on growth of Zymomonas mobilis 8b (a ZM4 derivative) using glucose or xylose as the carbon source. Results Toxicity strongly correlated to hydrophobicity in Z. mobilis, which has been observed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for aldehydes and with some exceptions, organic acids. We observed Z. mobilis 8b to be more tolerant to organic acids than previously reported, although the carbon source and growth conditions play a role in tolerance. Growth in xylose was profoundly inhibited by monocarboxylic organic acids compared to growth in glucose, whereas dicarboxylic acids demonstrated little or no effects on growth rate in either substrate. Furthermore, cations can be ranked in order of their toxicity, Ca++ >?>?Na+?>?NH4+?>?K+. HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), furfural and acetate, which were observed to contribute to inhibition of Z. mobilis growth in dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate, do not interact in a synergistic manner in combination. We provide further evidence that Z. mobilis 8b is capable of converting the aldehydes furfural, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and to some extent syringaldehyde to their alcohol forms (furfuryl, vanillyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl and syringyl alcohol) during fermentation. Conclusions Several key findings in this report provide a mechanism for predicting toxic contributions of inhibitory components of hydrolysate and provide guidance for potential process development, along with potential future strain improvement and tolerance strategies. PMID:23837621

2013-01-01

425

Optimisation of amino sugar quantification by HPLC in soil and plant hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino sugars are increasingly used as indicators for the accumulation of microbial residues in soil and plant material. A\\u000a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was improved for the simultaneous determination of muramic acid,\\u000a mannosamine, glucosamine and galactosamine in soil and plant hydrolysates via ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) pre-column derivatisation\\u000a and fluorescence detection. The retention time was reduced, and the separation of muramic

Caroline Indorf; Jens Dyckmans; Khalid S. Khan; Rainer Georg Joergensen

2011-01-01

426

Relation between lipase structures and their catalytic ability to hydrolyse triglycerides and phospholipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipases with different structures were investigated for their catalytic ability to hydrolyse sunflower oil, soybean lecithin and their mixtures in heptane at 60°C in a biphasic mixture heptane-buffer pH 7.0. Besides, the substrate adsorption mechanism was studied theoretically with the Chem 3D 5.0 Ultra program and the MM2 (Cambridge Soft) method by using trilinolein and phosphatidylcholine as system models of

Cecilia Gutiérrez-Ayesta; Amalia A. Carelli; María L. Ferreira

2007-01-01

427

A peptide from corn gluten hydrolysate that is inhibitory toward angiotensin I converting enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide (F4) that inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated from corn gluten hydrolysate prepared with Pescalase, a serine protease from Bacillus licheniformis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of F4 was Pro-Ser-Gly-Gln-Tyr-Tyr, having the IC50 value of 0.1 mM. The peptide (F4), at 30 mg kg-1 body weight of rat, antagonized the rat's pressor response to angiotensin I.

H. J. Suh; J. H. Whang; H. Lee

1999-01-01

428

Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimise the Antioxidant Activity of a Saithe ( Pollachius virens ) Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to produce, by an enzymatic hydrolysis process at a pilot scale, a saithe (Pollachius virens) hydrolysate with a high antioxidant activity. Design of experiment methodology, based on laboratory-scale experiments, was\\u000a used to obtain a behavioral reduced model that allows one to determine the optimal operating conditions maximizing the antioxidant\\u000a activity. Two specifications were studied:

A. Chabeaud; P. Dutournié; F. Guérard; L. Vandanjon; P. Bourseau

2009-01-01

429

Microencapsulation of casein hydrolysate by complex coacervation with SPI\\/pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to encapsulate casein hydrolysate by complex coacervation with soybean protein isolate (SPI)\\/pectin. Three treatments were studied with wall material to core ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The samples were evaluated for morphological characteristics, moisture, hygroscopicity, solubility, hydrophobicity, surface tension, encapsulation efficiency and bitter taste with a trained sensory panel using a paired comparison

Debora V. Mendanha; Sara E. Molina Ortiz; Carmen S. Favaro-Trindade; Adriana Mauri; Ednelí S. Monterrey-Quintero; Marcelo Thomazini

2009-01-01

430

In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis.  

PubMed

Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) insulin secretion from BRIN BD11 ?-cells compared to the positive control (16.7 mM glucose and 10 mM Ala). The whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P < 0.05). Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey protein significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) its antioxidant activity compared to intact whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P < 0.05) following SGID. Intact whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P < 0.05). This data confirm that whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential. PMID:25666373

Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

2015-03-11

431

Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolysable tannins, chebumeinin A (1) and chebumeinin B (2), together with eight known related compounds (3-10), were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The new compounds were structurally determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known compounds characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with literature values. All isolates were evaluated by an HCV protease inhibition assay, and some compounds were found to be potently active. PMID:25261266

Ajala, Olusegun S; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

2014-12-01

432

Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.  

PubMed

Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

2014-09-01

433

Optimization of the Preparation of Fish Protein Anti-Obesity Hydrolysates Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not significant, and the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis by alkaline protease were initial pH 11, temperature 39 °C, enzyme dosage 122 U/mL and 10 h of hydrolysis time. Under these conditions, the porcine pancreas lipase and the ?-amylase inhibitory rate could reach 53.04% ± 1.32% and 20.03 ± 0.89%, while predicted value were 54.63% ± 1.75%, 21.22% ± 0.70%, respectively. In addition, Lineweaver-Burk plots showed noncompetitive inhibition. The Ki value calculated was 84.13 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that fish water-soluble protein could be used for obtaining anti-obesity hydrolysates. PMID:23377020

Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yanping; Peng, Chen; Wang, Jinju

2013-01-01

434

Detoxification of biomass hydrolysates with nucleophilic amino acids enhances alcoholic fermentation.  

PubMed

Carbonyl compounds generated in biomass pretreatment hinder the biochemical conversion of biomass hydrolysates to biofuels. A novel approach of detoxifying hydrolysates with amino acids for ethanol production was developed. Among the 20 amino acids assessed for their detoxification efficiency and nucleophilicity, cysteine was the most effective one. It increased both ethanol productivity and final yield of biomass hydrolysates from 0.18 (untreated) to 1.77g/L/h and from 0.02 to 0.42g/g, respectively. Detoxification efficiency was followed by histidine and it increased the final yield to 0.42g/g, then by lysine, tryptophan and asparagine. It was observed all five effective amino acids contained reactive side-chain functional groups, which played important roles in the amino acid detoxification reaction. The study further showed cysteine and glycine detoxifications were temperature and pH dependent. The mechanistic study using mass spectrometry revealed thiazolidine carboxylic acid, a Schiff base, was formed by condensation of aldehyde and cysteine. PMID:25812813

Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Carvin, Jamarius; Wu, Yonnie

2015-06-01

435

Influence of aeration on bioethanol production from ozonized wheat straw hydrolysates using Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The influence of aeration on ethanol production by Pichia stipitis was studied in wheat straw hydrolysates subjected to ozone pretreatment for the first time. In a first stage, different aeration rates ranging from 0.03 to 0.50 L air/min, which corresponds to a volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient from 1.1 to 9.6 h(-1), were applied to model glucose/xylose substrates. The most promising value was found to be 3.3 h(-1) (0.1 L air/min) leading to better xylose utilization, an ethanol yield of 0.40 g ethanol/g sugars and complete depletion of sugars at 72 h. In a second stage, the effect of aeration was analyzed in ozonized wheat straw hydrolysates. Sugars were completely depleted at 96 h and ethanol yield reached a value of 0.41 g ethanol/g sugars. The addition of controlled oxygen (K(L)a=3.8 h(-1)) enhances the efficiency of the process causing an increase of 29.1% in ethanol production and a considerable reduction of 42.9% in fermentation time as compared to non-aerated hydrolysates. PMID:23422301

Bellido, Carolina; González-Benito, Gerardo; Coca, Mónica; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

2013-04-01

436

Sequential hydrolysis of waste newspaper and bioethanol production from the hydrolysate.  

PubMed

A practical process was developed for production of a high quality hydrolysate of waste newspaper that ensured its complete fermentability to bioethanol. After pretreatment with 0.1N NaOH for 12h and sequential acid and enzyme hydrolysis, 10.1g/L of glucose (50.5%), 1.38 g/L of mannose (6.9%) and 0.28 g/L of galactose (1.4%), a total of 11.76 g/L of fermentable sugars was obtained, which accounts for 88.7% of saccharification efficiency. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BCRC20271 showed excellent co-fermentability of glucose, mannose and galactose in hydrolysate of waste newspaper. After cultivation of the hydrolysate at 24°C in static culture for 48 h, the final ethanol concentration of 5.72 g/L (96% conversion efficiency) was produced. Overall, 1000 kg of waste newspaper will produce 286 kg (362 L) of ethanol by the process developed, which reveals that waste newspaper has higher potential than many other lignocellulosic and seaweed feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:24980028

Wu, Fang-Chen; Huang, Shu-Sing; Shih, Ing-Lung

2014-09-01

437

Rapid determination of furfural in biomass hydrolysate by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for rapid determination of furfural in the biomass hydrolysate. The data show that a near-complete mass transfer of furfural in the sample from biomass hydrolysate to the vapor phase (headspace) was achieved within 3 min at 105°C when a very small (<40 ?L) sample was added to a 20 mL headspace sample vial. The acid-catalyzed furfural decomposition under these conditions was negligible. The furfural in the vapor phase was then determined by HS-GC using a flame ionization detector. The results showed that the method has an excellent measurement precision (RSD<0.5%) and accuracy (recovery=100.2±1.7%) for furfural quantification in carbohydrate hydrolysate samples. The method requires no sample pretreatment, so it is simple, rapid and accurate, and suitable for applications in lignocellulosic biomass conversion to fuel ethanol or other high value-added products. PMID:20970806

Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

2010-11-26

438

Optimization of the preparation of fish protein anti-obesity hydrolysates using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not significant, and the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis by alkaline protease were initial pH 11, temperature 39 °C, enzyme dosage 122 U/mL and 10 h of hydrolysis time. Under these conditions, the porcine pancreas lipase and the ?-amylase inhibitory rate could reach 53.04% ± 1.32% and 20.03 ± 0.89%, while predicted value were 54.63% ± 1.75%, 21.22% ± 0.70%, respectively. In addition, Lineweaver-Burk plots showed noncompetitive inhibition. The K(i) value calculated was 84.13 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that fish water-soluble protein could be used for obtaining anti-obesity hydrolysates. PMID:23377020

Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yanping; Peng, Chen; Wang, Jinju

2013-01-01

439

Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. METHODS Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time (90-180 min), and enzyme/substrate ratio [60-90 Anson-unit (AU)/kg protein] to achieve maximum antioxidant activity. Experiments were designed according to the central composite design. RESULTS Each of the studied variables had a significant effect on responses (P < 0.05). Optimal conditions to achieve antioxidant activity were, temperature (48.27 °C), time (158.78), min and enzyme/substrate ratio (83.35) Anson-unit/kg protein. Under these conditions, antioxidant activity was 68.21%, R2 for model was 0.983. The values indicated the high accuracy of the model to predict the reaction conditions considering different variables. The chemical analysis of protein hydrolysate showed high protein content (83.78%) and low fat content (0.34%). CONCLUSION Our results showed that protein hydrolysate of sheep visceral, can be used as a natural antioxidant with high nutritional value. PMID:25258632

Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

2014-01-01

440

Bio-mimetic mineralization potential of collagen hydrolysate obtained from chromium tanned leather waste.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics serve as an alternative to autogenous-free bone grafting by virtue of their excellent biocompatibility. However, chemically synthesized HA lacks the strong load-bearing capacity as required by bone. The bio-mimetic growth of HA crystals on collagen surface provides a feasible solution for synthesizing bone substitutes with the desired properties. This study deals with the utilization of the collagen hydrolysate recovered from leather waste as a substrate for promoting HA crystal growth. Bio-mimetic growth of HA was induced by subjecting the hydrolysate to various mineralization conditions. Parameters that would have a direct effect on crystal growth were varied to determine the optimal conditions necessary. Maximum mineralization was achieved with a combination of 10mM of CaCl2, 5mM of Na2HPO4, 100mM of NaCl and 0.575% glutaraldehyde at a pH of 7.4. The metal-protein interactions leading to formation of HA were identified through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystal dimensions were determined to be in the nanoscale range by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size and crystallinity of bio-mimetically grown HA indicate that hydrolysate from leather waste can be used as an ideal alternative substrate for bone growth. PMID:25686958

Banerjee, Pradipta; Madhu, S; Chandra Babu, N K; Shanthi, C

2015-04-01

441

Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.  

PubMed

In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3. PMID:25497057

Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

2015-05-01

442

Purification and characterisation of a novel antioxidant peptide derived from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) protein hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Protein derived from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was hydrolysed using four kinds of proteases (pepsin, papain, neutrase and alcalase), and the neutrase hydrolysate (BNH) obtained by 3-h hydrolysis exhibited the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to other hydrolysates. By using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a novel antioxidant peptide (BNH-P7) was isolated from BNH, and its amino acid sequence was identified as YPPAK (Tyr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Lys) with molecular weight of 574 Da. BNH-P7 exhibited good scavenging activity on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical with EC(50) of 2.62, 0.228, and 0.072 mg/ml, respectively. BNH-P7 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The high activity of BNH-P7 was due to the small size and the presence of antioxidant and hydrophobic amino acid residues (Tyr and Pro) within its sequence. PMID:23411302

Wang, Bin; Li, Li; Chi, Chang-Feng; Ma, Jia-Hui; Luo, Hong-Yu; Xu, Yin-feng

2013-06-01

443

Transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis of protein hydrolysates from the white shrimp (L. vannamei).  

PubMed

An RNAseq approach associated to mass spectrometry was conducted to assess the composition, molecular mass distribution and primary sequence of hydrolytic peptides issued from hydrolysates of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-products. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses indicated that 69.2% of the 214-nm-absorbing components had apparent molecular masses below 1000 Da, and 88.3% below 2000 Da. OFFGEL-nLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF and nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 808 peptides based on the NCBI EST databank (161,397 entries) completed by the new L. vannamei databank (58,508 entries) that we created from the RNAs of tissues used for hydrolysate production. Whereas most of hydrolytic peptides have a MW below 2000 Da, preliminary investigations of antimicrobial properties revealed three antibacterial fractions that demonstrate functional activities. The abundance of small peptides as well as the biological activities detected could imply very interesting applications for shrimp hydrolysate in the field of aquaculture feeding. PMID:24998765

Robert, Marie; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Fournier, Vincent; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Henry, Joël

2014-09-30

444

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

1989-06-06

445

Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

Hedya Jemai; Mohamed Bouaziz; Ines Fki; Abdelfattah El Feki; Sami Sayadi

2008-01-01

446

Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

447

Study of amyloids using yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

2012-01-01

448

Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

449

Effect of lemon extract on foodborne microorganisms.  

PubMed

A quantitative investigation was conducted on the antimicrobial effect of lemon extract against some food spoilage microorganisms: yeasts, Bacillus species, and lactic acid bacteria. Growth kinetics and dose-response profiles were determined from experimental data obtained with a suitable macrodilution methodology based on a turbidimetric technique. Growth and no-growth status of microbial suspensions were expressed in terms of noninhibitory concentration (NIC) and MIC. Lemon extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of the investigated vegetative cells and spores of microorganisms; effects were similar for bacteria and yeasts. The NICs for all microorganisms were very small, at around 10 ppm. Based on MICs, among the Bacillus species, the more resistant was Bacillus licheniformis. For yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the least resistant, and similar results were obtained for Pichia subpelliculosa. Candida lusitaniae had an MIC of more than 100 ppm. Both Lactobacillus species were more resistant to lemon extract; concentrations necessary to provoke complete inhibition were approximately 150 ppm. PMID:17803147

Conte, A; Speranza, B; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

2007-08-01

450

Enhanced ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing EHT1 with deleted FAA1.  

PubMed

The fruity odor of Chinese liquor is largely derived from ester formation. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is one of the most important esters in the strong aromatic Chinese liquor (or Luzhou-flavor liquor), which is the most popular and best-selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate in strong aromatic liquor is mainly produced by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold with high esterification abilities in a mud pit at later fermentation stages at the expense of both fermentation time and grains rather than by the ethanol-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To increase the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae AY15) and shorten the fermentation period, we constructed a recombinant strain EY15 by overexpressing EHT1 (encoding ethanol hexanoyl transferase), in which FAA1 (encoding acyl-CoA synthetases) was deleted. In liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate and solid fermentation of sorghum, ethyl caproate production by EY15 was remarkably increased to 2.23 and 2.83 mg/L, respectively, which were 2.97- and 2.80-fold higher than those of the parental strain AY15. Furthermore, an increase in ethyl octanoate (52 and 43 %) and ethyl decanoate (61 and 40 %) production was observed. The differences in fermentation performance between EY15 and AY15 were negligible. This study resulted in the creation of a promising recombinant yeast strain and introduced a method that can be used for the clean production of strong aromatic Chinese liquor by ester-producing S. cerevisiae without the need for a mud pit. PMID:24370880

Chen, Yefu; Li, Feng; Guo, Jian; Liu, Guangxin; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

2014-03-01

451

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is develope