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Sample records for yeast extract hydrolysate

  1. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  11. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  12. Membrane extraction for detoxification of biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Grzenia, David L; Schell, Daniel J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment. PMID:22361069

  13. Yeast Protein Production on Corn Cob Hydrolysates 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    unknown function in yeast, but its human ortholog, NUAK1, has been implicated in oncogenesis. We initially examined the growth rate or the mean rate of increase in size of tda1 mutants. These preliminary studies showed that homozygous diploid tda1 mutants...

  14. Thermal stability of yeast hydrolysate as a novel anti-obesity material.

    PubMed

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun Young; Lee, Hyunji; Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-01-15

    We examined the thermal stability of yeast hydrolysates before and after ultrafiltration (UF) in vitro, and the anti-obesity activity of yeast hydrolysates before and after heat treatment in vivo. Yeast hydrolysate after UF showed significantly higher thermal stability than before UF. Yeast hydrolysates before and after UF showed 3 and 4 thermal transition peaks in their thermograms, respectively, and the total thermal denaturation enthalpies of yeast hydrolysates before and after UF were 69.5 and 36.5 J/g, respectively. For the anti-obesity activity study, yeast hydrolysates before and after heating were administered ad libitum with water to 7-week-old male SD rats. The administration of yeast hydrolysate (YH-control; no heat treatment, YH-1; heat treatment at 140°C, and YH-2; heat treatment at 160°C) significantly increased mRNA expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) compared with control rats (saline administration). However, there was no significant difference between the heat-treated groups and YH-control and there was no significant difference in neuropeptide Y expression between the heat-treated groups and YH-control. These results suggest that yeast hydrolysate can be use an anti-obesity material after heat treatment. PMID:23122064

  15. Kinetic behavior of Candida guilliermondii yeast during xylitol production from Brewer's spent grain hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Dragone, Giuliano; Roberto, Inês C

    2005-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain, the main byproduct of breweries, was hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid to produce a hemicellulosic hydrolysate (containing xylose as the main sugar). The obtained hydrolysate was used as cultivation medium by Candidaguilliermondii yeast in the raw form (containing 20 g/L xylose) and after concentration (85 g/L xylose), and the kinetic behavior of the yeast during xylitol production was evaluated in both media. Assays in semisynthetic media were also performed to compare the yeast performance in media without toxic compounds. According to the results, the kinetic behavior of the yeast cultivated in raw hydrolysate was as effective as in semisynthetic medium containing 20 g/L xylose. However, in concentrated hydrolysate medium, the xylitol production efficiency was 30.6% and 42.6% lower than in raw hydrolysate and semisynthetic medium containing 85 g/L xylose, respectively. In other words, the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion from hydrolysate medium was strongly affected when the initial xylose concentration was increased; however, similar behavior did not occur from semisynthetic media. The lowest efficiency of xylitol production from concentrated hydrolysate can be attributed to the high concentration of toxic compounds present in this medium, resulting from the hydrolysate concentration process. PMID:16080723

  16. Biological detoxification of different hemicellulosic hydrolysates using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Moutta, Rondinele de Oliveira; Ferraz, Flavio de Oliveira; Vieira, Emílio Rosa; Nogueira, Andrei Santini; Baratella, Bruno Fernandes; Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos; Hou-Rui, Zhang; da Silva, Sílvio Silvério

    2011-01-01

    This work had as its main objective to contribute to the development of a biological detoxification of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from different biomass plants using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast. Tests with hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse in different concentrations were carried out to evaluate the influence of the hydrolysate concentration on the inhibitory compounds removal from the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, without reduction of sugar concentration. The highest reduction values of inhibitors concentration and less sugar losses were observed when the fivefold concentrated hydrolysate was treated by the evaluated yeast. In these experiments it was found that the high sugar concentrations favored lower sugar consumption by the yeast. The highest concentration reduction of syringaldehyde (66.67%), ferulic acid (73.33%), furfural (62%), and 5-HMF (85%) was observed when the concentrated hydrolysate was detoxified by using this yeast strain after 24 h of experimentation. The results obtained in this work showed the potential of the yeast Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 as detoxification agent of hemicellulosic hydrolysate of different biomass plants. PMID:20844925

  17. Beneficial effect of corncob acid hydrolysate on the lipid production by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lian; Huang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xue-Fang; Wang, Can; Wang, Bo; Zeng, Xin-An; Chen, Xin-De

    2015-01-01

    In this work, corncob acid hydrolysate and its simulated medium whose sugar composition was the same as the corncob acid hydrolysate were used as fermentation substrate for lipid production by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis. On the corncob acid hydrolysate, after 7 days of fermentation, the biomass, lipid content, lipid yield, and lipid coefficient of T. dermatis were 17.3 g/L, 40.2%, 7.0 g/L, and 16.5%, respectively. Interestingly, during the lipid fermentation on the corncob acid hydrolysate, glucose, xylose, arabinose, and even acetic acid could be well utilized as carbon sources by T. dermatis. Surprisingly, the lipid yield (7.0 g/L) of T. dermatis on the corncob acid hydrolysate was much higher than that (3.8 g/L) on the simulated medium, in spite of the fact that the lipid coefficient (17.4%) on the simulated medium was a little higher. This phenomenon further showed that lignocellulosic acid hydrolysate was a suitable substrate for lipid fermentation by T. dermatis. This work would help the comprehensive utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for lipid production. PMID:24840672

  18. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  19. Extraction of lipids from yeast.

    PubMed

    Sobus, M T; Homlund, C E

    1976-04-01

    Several methods for the extraction of lipids from intact yeast cells have been compared. Extraction of intact cells with methanol followed by methanol: benzene (1:1, v/v) and benzene resulted in the recovery of equal or greater amounts of polar and nonpolar lipids than obtained by other methods. A preparative method involving preincubation of cells with aqueous KOH followed by the treatment of the cellular residue as described above yielded slightly more steryl esters than was extracted from broken cell preparations. PMID:772348

  20. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate of spruce for detoxification and to facilitate analysis of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Persson, Per; Larsson, Simona; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Sivik, Björn; Munteanu, Florentina; Thörneby, Lars; Gorton, Lo

    2002-09-20

    This work describes a novel approach to detoxify lignocellulosic hydrolysates and facilitate the analysis of inhibitory compounds, namely supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The efficiency of the fermentation of lignocellulosic dilute-acid hydrolysates depends upon the composition of the hydrolysate and the organism used. Furthermore, it has been shown that inhibitors in the hydrolysate reduce the fermentation yield. This knowledge has given rise to the need to identify and remove the inhibiting compounds. Sample clean-up or work-up steps, to provide a clean and concentrated sample for the analytical system, facilitate the characterization of inhibitors, or indeed any compound in the hydrolysates. Removal of inhibitors was performed with countercurrent flow supercritical fluid extraction of liquid hydrolysates. Three different groups of inhibitors (furan derivatives, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids) and sugars were subsequently analyzed in the hydrolysate, extracted hydrolysate, and extract. The effect of the SFE treatment was examined with respect to fermentability with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Not only did the extraction provide a clean and concentrated sample (extract) for analysis, but also a hydrolysate with increased fermentability as well as lower concentrations of inhibitors such as phenolics and furan derivatives. PMID:12209817

  2. Ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates with yeast cells immobilized on corn stalk.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shoubao; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using whole cells of S. cerevisiae immobilized on corn stalks. In order to improve cell immobilization efficiency, biological modification of the carrier was carried out by cellulase hydrolysis. The results show that proper modification of the carrier with cellulase hydrolysis was suitable for cell immobilization. The mechanism proposed, cellulase hydrolysis, not only increased the immobilized cell concentration, but also disrupted the sleek surface to become rough and porous, which enhanced ethanol production. In batch fermentation with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 202.64 ± 1.86 g/l, an optimal ethanol concentration of 87.91 ± 1.98 g/l was obtained using a modified corn stalk-immobilized cell system. The ethanol concentration produced by the immobilized cells was 6.9% higher than that produced by the free cells. Ethanol production in the 14th cycle repeated batch fermentation demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized yeast cells. Under continuous fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor, the maximum ethanol concentration of 84.85 g/l, and the highest ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g (of reducing sugar) were achieved at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.10 h, whereas the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 43.54 g/l/h was observed at a HRT of 1.55 h. PMID:22395912

  3. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  5. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast,...

  7. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  8. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

  9. Lipid Production from Hemicellulose and Holocellulose Hydrolysate of Palm Empty Fruit Bunches by Newly Isolated Oleaginous Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Tampitak, Srikanya; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-07-01

    Palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are abundant lignocellulosic wastes from palm oil mills. They are potential sources of sugars which can be converted to microbial lipids by oleaginous yeasts. To produce sugars from EFB, two-step and one-step hydrolysis reactions were performed. In the first step, the use of diluted sulfuric acid (0.5 % w/v) hydrolyzed hemicelluloses and released mainly pentoses, and in the second step of hydrolysis of residual pulp using 2.5 % (w/v), sulfuric acid released more hexoses. The use of 2.5 % (w/v) sulfuric acid in one-step hydrolysis of holocelluloses released the highest amount of sugars (38.3 g/L), but it also produced high concentration of potential inhibitors (>1 g/L). Three oleaginous yeasts, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Candida tropicalis, were isolated and screened for their ability to convert EFB hydrolysates into lipids. These yeasts grew well and produced lipids from EFB hemicellulose and holocellulose hydrolysate after potential inhibitors were removed. This study shows that EFB can be used for lipid production. PMID:26026262

  10. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical. PMID:26056774

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of fermentation inhibiting compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Zautsen, R R M; Maugeri-Filho, F; Vaz-Rossell, C E; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M; de Bont, J A M

    2009-04-01

    Several compounds that are formed or released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass inhibit the fermentation of the hydrolysate. The use of a liquid extractive agent is suggested as a method for removal of these fermentation inhibitors. The method can be applied before or during the fermentation. For a series of alkanes and alcohols, partition coefficients were measured at low concentrations of the inhibiting compounds furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde, acetic acid, as well as for ethanol as the fermentation product. Carbon dioxide production was measured during fermentation in the presence of each organic solvent to indicate its biocompatibility. The feasibility of extractive fermentation of hydrolysate was investigated by ethanolic glucose fermentation in synthetic medium containing several concentrations of furfural and vanillin and in the presence of decanol, oleyl alcohol and oleic acid. Volumetric ethanol productivity with 6 g/L vanillin in the medium increased twofold with 30% volume oleyl alcohol. Decanol showed interesting extractive properties for most fermentation inhibiting compounds, but it is not suitable for in situ application due to its poor biocompatibility. PMID:19062184

  12. Extracting yeast stress genes by dependencies between stress treatments

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Extracting yeast stress genes by dependencies between stress treatments Arto Klamia,b , Janne analysis on discovered dependent samples OVERVIEW OF METHOD METHOD FINDING YEAST STRESS GENES RESULTS where,R.A. (2001) Remodeling of yeast genome expression in response to environmental changes, Mol. Biol. Cell, 12

  13. Yeast hydrolysate protects cartilage via stimulation of type II collagen synthesis and suppression of MMP-13 production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yooheon; Bae, Song Hwan; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-09-01

    Type II collagen (COL II) is one of the primary components of hyaline cartilage and plays a key role in maintaining chondrocyte function. COL II is the principal target of destruction, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have a major role in arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the chondroctye protection effects of specific fraction of yeast hydrolysate ((10-30?kDa molecular weight peptides). The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly increased in the YH-treated group compared to the control at concentrations above 50?µg/ml, respectively. The 200?µg/ml YH-treated group (3.43?±?0.23?µg/ml) showed significantly reduced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation relative to that in the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-treated control group (4.72?±?0.05?µg/ml). In the YH-treated group, MMP-13 level was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the IL-1?-treated group without YH treatment. However, MMP-1 and MMP-3 level were not different from that of control. Under the same conditions, we also examined mRNA levels of COL II. The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly higher in the YH-treated group than in the IL-1?-treated control group at concentrations above 100?µg/ml. In conclusion, YH stimulated COL II synthesis and significantly inhibited MMP-13 and GAG degradation caused by IL-1? treatment. PMID:23070893

  14. [Butanol production from corn stover hydrolysate with in-situ liquid-liquid extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Cheng, Xiang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Rui; Li, Chuanbin; Song, Andong

    2013-10-01

    Butanol production from corn stover hydrolysates (CSH) with in-situ liquid-liquid extraction was studied to enhance the production and reduce the fermentation cost. Oleyl alcohol was selected as the suitable solvent and added at the initial fermentation time with the ratio of 1:1 (oleyl alcohol: fermentation broth, V/V). Under this condition, butanol and ABE from CSH with 32.1 g/L total sugars were 3.28 and 4.72 g/L, which were 958.1% and 742.9% higher than those of the controls, respectively. Butanol and ABE production from CSH of 49.7 g/L total sugars after detoxification by ion exchange resin D301 coupled with extraction fermentation were 10.34 g/L and 14.72 g/L with an ABE yield of 0.31 g/g (g ABE/g utilized sugar), which were equal to those of glucose and xylose mixture fermentation. The detoxification and extraction fermentation technology of cellulosic butanol production would provide a crucial technical support to the industrialized production of cellulosic butanol. PMID:24432666

  15. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the...

  16. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the...

  19. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the...

  20. Quality assessment of lager brewery yeast samples and strains using barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity.

    PubMed

    van Nierop, Sandra N E; Axcell, Barry C; Cantrell, Ian C; Rautenbach, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Membrane active anti-yeast compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins, cause yeast membrane damage which is likely to affect yeast vitality and fermentation performance, parameters which are notoriously difficult to analyse. In this work the sensitivity of lager brewery yeast strains towards barley malt extracts with anti-yeast activity was assessed with an optimised assay. It was found that yeast, obtained directly from a brewery, was much more sensitive towards the malt extracts than the same yeast strain propagated in the laboratory. Sensitivity to the malt extracts increased during the course of a laboratory scale fermentation when inoculated with brewery yeast. As the assay was able to differentiate yeast samples with different histories, it shows promise as a yeast quality assay measuring the yeast's ability to withstand stress which can be equated to vitality. The assay was also able to differentiate between different lager yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagated in the laboratory when challenged with a number of malt extracts of varying anti-yeast activity. The assessment of yeast strains in the presence of malt extracts will lead to the identification of yeast strains with improved quality/vitality that can withstand malt-associated anti-yeast activity during brewery fermentations. PMID:19171262

  1. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

  2. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanzhen; Liu, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    (R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

  3. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability. PMID:26234438

  4. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii in brewery spent grain dilute-acid hydrolysate: effect of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Medeiros, Raquel; Gírio, Francisco M

    2007-12-01

    A brewery spent-grain hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. Addition of 6 g yeast extract/l increased the xylitol yield to 0.57 g/g, and productivity to 0.51 g/l h that were, respectively, 1.4 -and 1.8-times higher than the values obtained with non-supplemented hydrolysate. When corn steep liquor was combined with 3 g yeast extract/l, the highest xylitol yield, 0.58 g/g, was obtained with a similar productivity. PMID:17636384

  5. Traveling waves in yeast extract and in cultures of Dictyostelium discoideum

    E-print Network

    Steinbock, Oliver

    Traveling waves in yeast extract and in cultures of Dictyostelium discoideum Stefan C. Mu and a cellular system: yeast extract and cultures of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In both systems of sugar in a yeast extract leads to the spontaneous formation of NADH and proton waves. Manipula- tion

  6. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and its hydrolysate inhibit melanogenesis in B16F0 cells by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chien, Yin-Chih; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Wan-Chen; Pan, Yu-Yun; Su, Yu-Han; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of an aqueous alcohol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) and its hydrolysate on melanin synthesis and the mechanisms mediating the activity. The ratio of tyrosol to salidroside was 2.3 in hydroalcoholic extract, and 51.0 in hydrolysate. We found that R. rosea extract and its hydrolysate inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in mouse melanoma cells (B16F0 cells). R. rosea extract also inhibited gene and protein expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and inhibited c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, suppressed the activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?), and inhibited the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). R. rosea hydrolysate inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB, the activation of AKT and GSK3?, and the expression of MITF and tyrosinase. Our results suggest that R. rosea extract is a novel tyrosinase inhibitor and that it exerts its effects by regulating the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway in B16F0. Further in vivo studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of R. rosea extract as a skin whitening agent. PMID:24380755

  7. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7g/L after 48hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7g/L, respectively, after 48hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD. PMID:26248275

  8. A new yeast producing beta-glucosidase and tolerant to lignocellulose hydrolysate inhibitors for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion requires cellulose degradation in order to be utilized for growth and fermentation by common ethanologenic yeast. Cellulose is commonly enzymatically degraded into cellobiose by cellulase and subsequently cellobiose broken down into glucose by beta-glucos...

  9. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

  10. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  11. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  12. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH?)?SO?; peptone and yeast extract; (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH?)?SO? and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH?)?SO? was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  13. Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Armenante, P.M.; Fava, F.; Kafkewitz, D.

    1995-07-20

    The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized...

  19. Supplementation requirements of brewery's spent grain hydrolysate for biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, F; Duarte, L C; Lopes, S; Parajó, J C; Pereira, H; Gírio, F M

    2006-08-01

    The effect of nutrient supplementation of brewery's spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates was evaluated with respect to biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. For optimal biomass production, supplementation of full-strength BSG hydrolysates required only phosphate (0.5 g l(-1) KH(2)PO(4)), leading to a biomass yield and productivity of 0.60 g g(-1) monosaccharides and 0.55 g l(-1 )h(-1), respectively. Under the conditions studied, no metabolic products other than CO(2) and biomass were identified. For xylitol production, fourfold and sixfold concentrated hydrolysate-based media were used to assess the supplementation effects. The type of nutrient supplementation modulated the ratio of total polyols/total extracellular metabolites as well as the xylitol/arabitol ratio. While the former varied from 0.8 to 1, the xylitol/arabitol ratio reached a maximum value of 2.6 for yeast extract (YE)-supplemented hydrolysates. The increase in xylitol productivity and yield was related to the increase of the percentage of consumed xylose induced by supplementation. The best xylitol yield and productivity were found for YE supplementation corresponding to 0.55 g g(-1) and 0.36 g l(-1 )h(-1), respectively. In sixfold concentrated hydrolysates, providing that the hydrolysate was supplemented, the levels of xylitol produced were similar or higher than those for arabitol. Xylitol yield exhibited a further increase in the sixfold hydrolysate supplemented with trace elements, vitamins and minerals to 0.65 g g(-1), albeit the xylitol productivity was somewhat lower. The effect of using activated charcoal detoxification in non-supplemented versus supplemented sixfold hydrolysates was also studied. Detoxification did not improve polyols formation, suggesting that the hemicellulose-derived inhibitor levels present in concentrated BSG hydrolysates are well tolerated by D. hansenii. PMID:16520980

  20. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability. PMID:24001827

  1. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

  2. Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol recovery by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, C.; Casas, C.; Godia, F.; Poch, M.; Serra, A.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions on ethanol fermentation by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol-water separation by liquid-liquid extraction are presented. The characterization of a packed-bed fermentor with yeast immobilized in carrageenan gel beads as well as its main operational features are reported, giving special emphasis to cell growth inside the beads during continuous fermentation experiments. A new separation process for dilute ethanol-water mixtures based on a solvent extraction step is proposed. The process development and solvent selection have been carried out. Although the first results are promising, the energy costs of the process are still too high.

  3. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

  4. Treatment of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysates with advanced oxidative processes: a new and promising detoxification method to improve the bioconversion process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic constituents in biotechnological processes requires a selective separation of the main fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). During diluted acid hydrolysis for hemicellulose extraction, several toxic compounds are formed by the degradation of sugars and lignin, which have ability to inhibit microbial metabolism. Thus, the use of a detoxification step represents an important aspect to be considered for the improvement of fermentation processes from hydrolysates. In this paper, we evaluated the application of Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) for the detoxification of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the goal of improving ethanol bioproduction by Pichia stipitis yeast. Aiming to reduce the toxicity of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, different treatment conditions were analyzed. The treatments were carried out according to a Taguchi L16 orthogonal array to evaluate the influence of Fe+2, H2O2, UV, O3 and pH on the concentration of aromatic compounds and the fermentative process. Results The results showed that the AOPs were able to remove aromatic compounds (furan and phenolic compounds derived from lignin) without affecting the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Ozonation in alkaline medium (pH 8) in the presence of H2O2 (treatment A3) or UV radiation (treatment A5) were the most effective for hydrolysate detoxification and had a positive effect on increasing the yeast fermentability of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate. Under these conditions, the higher removal of total phenols (above 40%), low molecular weight phenolic compounds (above 95%) and furans (above 52%) were observed. In addition, the ethanol volumetric productivity by P. stipitis was increased in approximately twice in relation the untreated hydrolysate. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AOPs are a promising methods to reduce toxicity and improve the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:23414668

  5. Effects of different acid hydrolyses on the conversion of sweet sorghum bagasse into C5 and C6 sugars and yeast inhibitors using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2012-09-01

    Two different diluted acid pretreatments (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) and one mixture of these acids were tested in sweet sorghum bagasse and analyzed through surface response methodologies. The response variables were C5 and C6 sugars and inhibitors (acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and furfural). Results indicated that the three different pretreatments yielded similar amounts of total potentially fermentable sugars. The proposed acid hydrolysis schemes liberated 56-57% of total sugars available in the sweet sorghum bagasse (390-415 mg sugar/g bagasse) and 44-61 mg total inhibitors/g bagasse. A mild detoxification was effectively used in the optimized hydrolysates, but did not have effect an effect in the HCl/H(2)SO(4) mixture. The acetic acid and HMF significantly decreased in the HCl and H(2)SO(4) detoxified hydrolysates without any significant degradation of sugars. The HCl treatment was a good alternative due to its relatively lower hydrolysis time and adequate generation of C5 and C6 fermentable sugars. PMID:22728203

  6. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

  7. Single-cell protein production from Jerusalem artichoke extract by a recently isolated marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingmei; Chi, Zhenming; Sheng, Jun; Ni, Xiumei; Wang, Lin

    2007-12-01

    After crude protein of the marine yeast strains maintained in this laboratory was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that the G7a strain which was identified to be a strain of Cryptococcus aureus according to the routine identification and molecular methods contained high level of protein and could grow on a wide range of carbon sources. The optimal medium for single-cell protein production was seawater containing 6.0 g of wet weight of Jerusalem artichoke extract per 100 ml of medium and 4.0 g of the hydrolysate of soybean meal per 100 ml of medium, while the optimal conditions for single-cell protein production were pH 5.0 and 28.0 degrees C. After fermentation for 56 h, 10.1 g of cell dry weight per liter of medium and 53.0 g of crude protein per 100 g of cell dry weight (5.4 g/l of medium) were achieved, leaving 0.05 g of reducing sugar per 100 ml of medium and 0.072 g of total sugar per 100 ml of medium total sugar in the fermented medium. The yeast strain only contained 2.1 g of nucleic acid per 100 g of cell dry weight, but its cells contained a large amount of C(16:0) (19.0%), C(18:0) (46.3%), and C(18:1) (33.3%) fatty acids and had a large amount of essential amino acids, especially lysine (12.6%) and leucine (9.1%), and vitamin C (2.2 mg per 100 g of cell dry weight). These results show that the new marine yeast strain was suitable for single-cell protein production. PMID:17929010

  8. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Joana P.; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76–89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

  9. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer. PMID:25353311

  10. Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract

    PubMed Central

    Silva, S.Q.; Silva, D.C.; Lanna, M.C.S.; Baeta, B.E.L.; Aquino, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

  11. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20?35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration. PMID:25138600

  12. Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, K. I. R.; Araújo, P. V.; Sinisterra, R. D.; Cortés, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine (Cx) augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (?-cd) inclusion compounds, termed Cx:?-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:?-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a.) was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 ?g/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:?-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:?-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing ?-cd concentrations (1.71 ×103; 1.4 ×103; 3.45 ×103, and 3.74 ×103 CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:?-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of ?-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:?-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:?-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding. PMID:24031894

  13. Understanding the intracellular effects of yeast extract on the enhancement of Fc-fusion protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Yating; Liu, Xuping; Liu, Jintao; Zhang, Xintao; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Haibin; Tan, Wen-Song; Fan, Li

    2015-10-01

    Yeast extract (YE), as a non-animal source additive for mammalian cell culture medium, has been widely used for manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In the present study, one particular YE was found to have significantly improved the specific productivity (q p) of Fc-fusion protein in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell culture. In order to elucidate the intracellular effects of YE on protein productivity, steps of the target protein synthesis process were investigated to unveil their variations caused by YE addition. Stepwise analysis on Fc-fusion protein synthesis process showed that YE enhanced Fc-fusion protein gene transcription with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was activated to enhance the translation of Fc-fusion protein, and the block in post-translational steps of Fc-fusion protein was alleviated by YE addition as well. Our results revealed the responses of multiple protein production steps to the addition of YE and provided a practical guidance for the separation and application of active compounds from hydrolysates. PMID:26162671

  14. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

  15. Extracting regulatory sites from the upstream region of yeast genes by computational analysis of oligonucleotide frequencies.

    PubMed

    van Helden, J; André, B; Collado-Vides, J

    1998-09-01

    We present here a simple and fast method allowing the isolation of DNA binding sites for transcription factors from families of coregulated genes, with results illustrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although conceptually simple, the algorithm proved efficient for extracting, from most of the yeast regulatory families analyzed, the upstream regulatory sequences which had been previously found by experimental analysis. Furthermore, putative new regulatory sites are predicted within upstream regions of several regulons. The method is based on the detection of over-represented oligonucleotides. A specificity of this approach is to define the statistical significance of a site based on tables of oligonucleotide frequencies observed in all non-coding sequences from the yeast genome. In contrast with heuristic methods, this oligonucleotide analysis is rigorous and exhaustive. Its range of detection is however limited to relatively simple patterns: short motifs with a highly conserved core. These features seem to be shared by a good number of regulatory sites in yeast. This, and similar methods, should be increasingly required to identify unknown regulatory elements within the numerous new coregulated families resulting from measurements of gene expression levels at the genomic scale. All tools described here are available on the web at the site http://copan.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/ yeast-tools PMID:9719638

  16. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    ?ezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

  17. Analysis of the dynamics of relaxation type oscillation in glycolysis of yeast extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Das, J; Busse, H G

    1991-01-01

    In yeasts, the glycolysis may display oscillations of its metabolites while it is converting glucose. The dynamics of the oscillations has been investigated in cytoplasmic extracts of yeast under relaxation type conditions by determining the time course of some of the glycolytic metabolites. The compounds of the nucleotide pool have been identified as fast variables and the glucose derivatives as slow variables of the relaxation type. The period of oscillation has been subdivided into four phases which represent prominent parts of the limit cycle in the phase plane of a slow versus a fast variable. From the reaction processes in these phases, a dynamical picture of the mechanisms of oscillations is suggested. Accordingly, the oscillation results from an alternating activity of the fructose bisphosphate and the polysaccharide synthesis, both of which are coupled to glycolysis via the nucleotide pool. The processes in the phases are analyzed by calculating the rates of the reaction steps in the biochemical pathway. PMID:1832975

  18. Novel isolates for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Hou-Rui, Zhang; Xiang-Xiang, Qin; Silva, Silvio S; Sarrouh, Boutros F; Ai-Hua, Cai; Yu-Heng, Zhou; Ke, Jin; Qiu, Xiang

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, two new strians, Issatchenkia occidentalis (Lj-3, CCTCC M 2006097) and Issatchenkia orienalis (S-7, CCTCC M 2006098), isolated from different environments on solid media, were used in the detoxification process of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse. High-pressure liquid chromatography elution curve of UV-absorption compounds represented by acetic acid, furfural, and guaiacol (toxic compounds found in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate) showed that several chromatographic peaks were evidently diminished for the case of detoxified hydrolysate with isolate strains compared to the high peaks resulted for no detoxified hydrolysate. It was clear that these inhibitors were degraded by the two new isolates during their cultivation process. Fermentation results for the biodetoxified hydrolysate showed an increase in xylitol productivity (Q (p)) by 1.97 and 1.95 times (2.03 and 2.01 g l(-1) h(-1)) and in xylitol yield (Y (p)) by 1.72 and 1.65 times (0.93 and 0.89 g xylitol per gram xylose) for hydrolysate treated with S-7 and Lj-3, respectively, in comparison with no detoxified hydrolysate (1.03 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.54 g xylitol per gram xylose). This present work demonstrated the importance of Issatchenkia yeast in providing an effective biological detoxification approach to remove inhibitors and improve hydrolysate fermentability, leading to a high xylitol productivity and yield. PMID:18649037

  19. A simple approach for the simultaneous isolation and immobilization of invertase using crude extracts of yeast and Jack bean meal.

    PubMed

    Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F

    2000-03-16

    Crude cell-free extract of yeast cells was mixed with sufficient amount of Jack bean meal extract so as to precipitate all the invertase. The precipitate was then cross-linked using 2% glutaraldehyde retaining over 60% of the activity. The immobilized invertase could be reused for over ten batches without loss in activity. PMID:10737219

  20. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  1. In Vitro NER Assay Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris-acetate (pH 7.5) (40 ml), 0.39 M

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    Auble Lab In Vitro NER Assay Reagents: Water YPD Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris/v) DSD in water. Store at room temperature. Proteinase K: Make 20 mg/ml in water. Store in 50-µl aliquots. Protocol: Yeast Growth and Harvesting: 1. Inoculate yeast strain into 10 ml of YPD and grow to saturation

  2. Fractionation and characterization of brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of the hydrolysates with graded ammonium sulfate or ethanol precipitation was performed to obtain fractions homogeneous in terms of molecular weight (MW) and hydrophobicity. The emulsifying and foaming capacities of the resultant fractions were determined. MW distributions and surface hydrophobicities of fractions with protein contents exceeding 75% were investigated to determine relationships between technofunctional and physicochemical properties. It was found that the emulsifying and foaming properties are determined by different physicochemical properties of the proteins or peptides. Neither MW nor hydrophobicity alone determines the emulsifying and foaming properties of protein hydrolysates. BSG protein hydrolysates with good emulsifying properties contained less than 40% of fragments with MW exceeding 14 500. Moreover, these hydrolysates had a high surface hydrophobicity. BSG protein hydrolysates with good foaming properties contained less than 10% of material with MW lower than 1700. Hydrolysates with good foaming properties showed low surface hydrophobicities, except for protein hydrolysates with higher levels of protein fragments with MW exceeding 14 500 than of such fragments with MW in a 1700-14 500 range. PMID:19456139

  3. Inhibition of diabetic nephropathy in rats by an oral antidiabetic material extracted from yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Farid; Abassi, Zaid; Morgan, Michal; Sussan, Sharbel; Mirsky, Nitza

    2006-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes. The glucose tolerance factor (GTF) is a dietary agent extracted from several natural sources; the richest among them is brewer's yeast. Extraction and purification of an active and stable GTF preparation from brewer's yeast previously was successful, and a remarkable decrease in plasma glucose and lipids from administration of GTF to animals with type 1 diabetes was demonstrated. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether GTF affects nephropathy in diabetic rats. The average urinary volume and protein excretion throughout the collection period in diabetic rats was 56.95 +/- 2.2 ml/d and 5.42 +/- 0.95 mg/d, respectively. These values were significantly (P < 0.001 versus baseline values) higher compared with healthy controls (average urine volume 15.12 +/- 0.5 ml/d; average protein excretion 0.15 +/- 0.08 mg/d). Treatment with GTF reduced average urine volume and protein excretion to 29.1 +/- 1.94 ml/d (P < 0.01) and 1.55 +/- 1.17 mg/d (P < 0.05), respectively. Kidney weight, which was elevated in diabetic rats, slightly decreased in diabetic animals that were treated with GTF, in association with reduction of lipid peroxidation levels in the renal cortex and the heart. Endothelial nitric oxide immunoreactivity in the renal cortex of both healthy and diabetic rats that were treated with GTF was remarkably lower than that found in renal cortex of untreated diabetic animals. This study demonstrates that yeast-derived material, GTF, can inhibit the development of nephropathy that is induced by diabetes. PMID:16565236

  4. Simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomi, A.; Aboutboul, H.; Schmidell, W.

    1981-01-01

    The simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate utilizing a yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from the commercial pressed yeast largely employed in Brazilian distilleries is described. The model used in the simulation is derived from batch experimental runs. In order to assess the economical competitiveness of the continuous fermentation, some additional concepts, such as cell recycle, and two fermentors connected in series with and without feed division of fresh substrate, are analyzed and compared.

  5. Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions. Results Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition. Conclusions Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain. PMID:24885359

  6. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  7. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi )

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  8. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  9. Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

  10. Development of a D-xylose fermenting and inhibitor tolerant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high performance in lignocellulose hydrolysates using metabolic and evolutionary engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of bioethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysates requires a robust, D-xylose-fermenting and inhibitor-tolerant microorganism as catalyst. The purpose of the present work was to develop such a strain from a prime industrial yeast strain, Ethanol Red, used for bioethanol production. Results An expression cassette containing 13 genes including Clostridium phytofermentans XylA, encoding D-xylose isomerase (XI), and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway was inserted in two copies in the genome of Ethanol Red. Subsequent EMS mutagenesis, genome shuffling and selection in D-xylose-enriched lignocellulose hydrolysate, followed by multiple rounds of evolutionary engineering in complex medium with D-xylose, gradually established efficient D-xylose fermentation. The best-performing strain, GS1.11-26, showed a maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate of 1.1 g/g DW/h in synthetic medium, with complete attenuation of 35 g/L D-xylose in about 17 h. In separate hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates of Arundo donax (giant reed), spruce and a wheat straw/hay mixture, the maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate was 0.36, 0.23 and 1.1 g/g DW inoculum/h, and the final ethanol titer was 4.2, 3.9 and 5.8% (v/v), respectively. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Arundo hydrolysate, GS1.11-26 produced 32% more ethanol than the parent strain Ethanol Red, due to efficient D-xylose utilization. The high D-xylose fermentation capacity was stable after extended growth in glucose. Cell extracts of strain GS1.11-26 displayed 17-fold higher XI activity compared to the parent strain, but overexpression of XI alone was not enough to establish D-xylose fermentation. The high D-xylose consumption rate was due to synergistic interaction between the high XI activity and one or more mutations in the genome. The GS1.11-26 had a partial respiratory defect causing a reduced aerobic growth rate. Conclusions An industrial yeast strain for bioethanol production with lignocellulose hydrolysates has been developed in the genetic background of a strain widely used for commercial bioethanol production. The strain uses glucose and D-xylose with high consumption rates and partial cofermentation in various lignocellulose hydrolysates with very high ethanol yield. The GS1.11-26 strain shows highly promising potential for further development of an all-round robust yeast strain for efficient fermentation of various lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:23800147

  11. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000?mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500?mg/kg YE?+?500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60?d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW?+?YE groups during the 60?d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60?d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE?+?YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60?d growing period. PMID:22029790

  12. Fermentation and recovery of glutamic acid from palm waste hydrolysate by Ion-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Das, K; Anis, M; Azemi, B M; Ismail, N

    1995-12-01

    Glutamic acid produced from palm waste hydrolysate by fermentation with Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 13869 is produced with a remarkably high yield compared with that produced from pure glucose as a carbon source. The produce yield is 70 g/L with glucose, wherease, when palm waste hydrolysate is the fermentation medium in the same bioreactor under same conditions, it is 88 g/L. The higher yield may be attributed to the fact that this organism has the ability to convert sugars other than only glucose present in the hydrolysate. Bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production are pH 7.5, temperature of 30 degrees rmentation period of 48 h, inoculum size 6%, substrate concentration of 10 g per 100 mL, yeast extract 0.5 g per 100 mL as a suitable N source, and biotin at a concentration of 10 pg/L. Palm waste hydrolysate used in this study was prepared by enzymic saccharification of treated palm press fiber under conditions that yielded a maximum of 30 g/L total reducing sugars. Glutamic acid from fermentation broth was recovered by using a chromatographic column (5cm x 60 cm) packed with a strong ion-exchange resin. The filtered broth containing glutamic acid and other inorganic ions was fed to the fully charged column. The broth was continuously recycled at a flow rate of 50 mL/min (retention time of 55 min) until glutamic acid was fully adsorbed on the column leaving other ions in the effluent. Recovery was done by eluting with urea and sodium hydroxide for total displacement of glutamic acid from the resin. The eluent containing 88 g/L of glutamic acid was concentrated by evaporation to obtain solid crystals of the product. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623521

  13. The Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Hydrolysates on the Characteristics of Imitation Crab Stick

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Hwang, Jin-Won; Moon, Sungsil; Choi, Yeung-Joon; Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Yang, Han-Sul

    2014-01-01

    The effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) hydrolysates on the quality characteristics of imitation crab stick (ICS) during storage were investigated. ICS was prepared from Alaska Pollack, chicken breast surimi, and protein hydrolysates enzymatically extracted from MDC. ICS samples were divided into 4 groups: without protein hydrolysate (control), added with 0.5% protein hydrolysate (T1), added with 1.0% protein hydrolysate (T2), and added with 1.5% protein hydrolysate (T3). Results showed that crude protein content did not differ significantly among the ICS samples (p>0.05). ICS sample added with MDC hydrolysates had higher crude fat and ash content but lower moisture content than the control (p<0.05). Lightness was significantly lower in T2 and T3 than in the other groups at 0 and 4 wk of storage. Also, whiteness decreased in the groups contained MDC hydrolysates. Breaking force and jelly strength were higher in samples containing MDC hydrolysates compared to control samples (p<0.05). Additionally, saturated fatty acid contents were lower in the groups containing MDC hydrolysates than in control sample groups (p<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) were significantly higher in T2 and T3 than the control samples. In particular, all samples containing MDC hydrolysates had reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values at 4 wk. Free radical scavenging activity also was increased with addition of MDC hydrolysates.

  14. Multi-lamellar organization of fully deuterated lipid extracts of yeast membranes.

    PubMed

    Gerelli, Yuri; de Ghellinck, Alexis; Jouhet, Juliette; Laux, Valérie; Haertlein, Michael; Fragneto, Giovanna

    2014-12-01

    Neutron scattering studies on mimetic biomembranes are currently limited by the low availability of deuterated unsaturated lipid species. In the present work, results from the first neutron diffraction experiments on fully deuterated lipid extracts from the yeast Pichia pastoris are presented. The structural features of these fully deuterated lipid stacks are compared with those of their hydrogenous analogues and with other similar synthetic systems. The influence of temperature and humidity on the samples has been investigated by means of small momentum-transfer neutron diffraction. All of the lipid extracts investigated self-assemble into multi-lamellar stacks having different structural periodicities; the stacking distances are affected by temperature and humidity without altering the basic underlying arrangement. At high relative humidity the deuterated and hydrogenous samples are similar in their multi-lamellar arrangement, being characterized by two main periodicities of ?75 and ?110?Å reflecting the presence of a large number of polar phospholipid molecules. Larger differences are found at lower relative humidity, where hydrogenous lipids are characterized by a larger single lamellar structure than that observed in the deuterated samples. In both cases the heterogeneity in composition is reflected in a wide structural complexity. The different behaviour upon dehydration can be related to compositional differences in the molecular composition of the two samples, which is attributed to metabolic effects related to the use of perdeuterated growth media. PMID:25478835

  15. Selection and characterization of a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii strain for ethanol production at high temperature from cassava starch hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yuangsaard, Napatchanok; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Yamada, Mumoru; Limtong, Savitree

    2013-03-01

    Pichia kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 was isolated from traditional fermented pork sausage by an enrichment technique in a yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, supplemented with 4 % (v/v) ethanol at 40 °C and selected based on its ethanol fermentation ability at 40 °C in YPD broth composed of 16 % glucose, and in a cassava starch hydrolysate medium composed of cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 16 % glucose. The strain produced ethanol from cassava starch hydrolysate at a high temperature up to 45 °C, but the optimal temperature for ethanol production was at 40 °C. Ethanol production by this strain using shaking flask cultivation was the highest in a medium containing cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 18 % glucose, 0.05 % (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.09 % yeast extract, 0.05 % KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05 % MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, with a pH of 5.0 at 40 °C. The highest ethanol concentration reached 7.86 % (w/v) after 24 h, with productivity of 3.28 g/l/h and yield of 85.4 % of the theoretical yield. At 42 °C, ethanol production by this strain became slightly lower, while at 45 °C only 3.82 % (w/v) of ethanol, 1.27 g/l/h productivity and 41.5 % of the theoretical yield were attained. In a study on ethanol production in a 2.5-l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm throughout the fermentation, P. kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 7.35 % (w/v) after 33 h, a productivity of 2.23 g/l/h and a yield of 79.9 % of the theoretical yield. PMID:23132277

  16. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  17. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  18. Analysis of the oscillatory kinetics of glycolytic intermediates in a yeast extract by FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mair, Thomas; Zimányi, László; Khoroshyy, Petro; Müller, Andrea; Müller, Stefan C

    2006-01-01

    In the present work we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the time resolved and noninvasive measurement of multi-substrate/product interactions in complex metabolic networks as exemplified by the oscillating glycolysis in yeast extract. We found that many of the glycolytic intermediates can be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy. For this, we have constructed a spectral library of most of the glycolytic intermediates and obtained the kinetics of single components in spectra from glycolysing yeast extract by the use of mathematical fitting procedures. The results are in good agreement with the known phase relationships of oscillatory glycolysis. They provide the basis for future application of this method to investigate the energy metabolism of living cells. PMID:16236430

  19. Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity. PMID:24561722

  20. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an...

  1. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an...

  2. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an...

  3. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...food source from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed...gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable...whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an...

  4. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...food source from which the protein was derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed...gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable...whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an...

  5. Sophorolipid production from biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Liang, Yanna

    2015-02-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted on producing sophorolipids using Candida (Starmerella) bombicola from pure sugars and various oil sources, production of this biosurfactant has not been evaluated when cells are cultivated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, we report for the first time that C. bombicola is capable of producing sophorolipids on hydrolysates derived from sweet sorghum bagasse and corn fiber. Without oil supplementation, a sophorolipid concentration of 3.6 and 1.0 g/L was detected from cultures with bagasse and corn fiber hydrolysates, respectively. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, the yield of sophorolipids from these two hydrolysates in the same order was 84.6 and 15.6 g/L. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and nonsugar compounds in the hydrolysates, and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of sophorolipids than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. PMID:25475889

  6. Yeast extract promotes phase shift of bio-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 using cassava as substrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Zhigang; Zheng, Junping; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Le

    2012-12-01

    When fermenting on cassava (15-25%, w/v) with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, a severe delay (18-40 h) was observed in the phase shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis, compared to the cases of fermenting on corn. By adding yeast extract (2.5 g/L-broth) into cassava meal medium when the delay appeared, the phase shift was triggered and fermentation performances were consequently improved. Total butanol concentrations/butanol productivities, compared to those with cassava substrate alone, increased 15%/80% in traditional fermentation while 86%/79% in extractive fermentation using oleyl alcohol as the extractant, and reached the equivalent levels of those using corn substrate. Analysis of genetic transcriptional levels and measurements of free amino acids in the broth demonstrated that timely and adequate addition of yeast extract could promote phase shift by increasing transcriptional level of ctfAB to 16-fold, and indirectly enhance butanol synthesis through accelerating the accumulation of histidine and aspartic acid families. PMID:23023236

  7. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  8. Overcoming the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid extracts in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.

    PubMed

    Citulski, Joel; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2012-04-01

    For nearly two decades, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) has been used as a valuable tool for determining the total estrogenic potency of various environmental samples, including influent and effluent streams at municipal wastewater plants. However, applying the YES assay to wastewater sludges and stabilized biosolids has been problematic. This is due to co-extracted compounds from the solids either proving toxic to the yeast or masking the presence of estrogenic substances. The present research describes the development and validation of sample preparation steps that mitigate the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid samples in the YES assay, while allowing for reliable dose-dependent expression of estrogenic activity. A copper work-up for sulfur removal and chromatographic cleanup with silica and alumina were required in addition to solid-phase extraction to adequately remove interfering compounds. Sample stabilization methods such as autoclaving, lyophilization and formaldehyde treatment were found to be detrimental to the assay. Hence, heat-drying is recommended to prevent cytotoxicity and the degradation of estrogenic substances. PMID:22277884

  9. Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, I; Stenwig, H

    1996-01-01

    A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice. PMID:8837416

  10. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  11. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  12. Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; LeDuc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh

    2013-11-01

    To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4 °C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

  13. Anti-osteoporosis activity of red yeast rice extract on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Liu, W T; Chen, C Y; Ke, H P; Jiang, H L; Chen, X L; Shi, S Y; Wei, W; Zhang, X N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease, affecting millions of people worldwide and leading to significant morbidity and high costs. Monacolin K, an extract of red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), plays important roles in the management of dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate the protective effect of monacolin K on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham-operated and five ovariectomized (OVX) groups: OVX with vehicle, OVX with fluvastatin, and OVX with RYR extract of three graded doses. Bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers, and cell viability were analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification and western blot. Our results showed that administration of RYR extract markedly increased the bone mineral density in OVX rats. Moreover, RYR extract decreased the levels of bone turnover markers, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity. The MMT assay revealed that RYR extract treatment significantly improved the osteoblast viabilities in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that RYR extract enhanced the expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these data suggested RYR extract could protect against osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, most likely through activation of BMP2/4 expression. PMID:26345740

  14. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of extracts of ten African Ficus species (Moraceae) used traditionally to treat diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Ficus species have been used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The antidiabetic potential of certain species has been confirmed in vivo but the mechanism of activity remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the activity and to investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic activity of ten selected Ficus species through inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, and the possible relationship between these activities, the total polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methods Dried acetone leaf extracts were reconstituted with appropriate solvents and used to determine total polyphenolic content antioxidant activity, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results The crude acetone extract of F. lutea had the highest polyphenolic content (56.85?±?1.82 mg GAE/g of dry material) and the strongest antioxidant activity with a TEAC value of 4.80?±?0.90. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extracts of the Ficus species may not be ascribed to total polyphenolic content alone. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of F. lutea (64.3?±?3.6%) had the best ?-glucosidase (sucrase) inhibitory activity. The EC50 of F. lutea (290?±?111 ?g/ml) was not significantly different from that of F. sycomorus (217?±?69 ?g/ml). The ?-amylase inhibitory activity of F. lutea (95.4?±?1.2%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was the highest among the Ficus species screened. The EC50 for F. lutea (9.42?±?2.01 ? g/ml), though the highest, was not significantly different (p?extract of F. lutea is a partially non-competitive inhibitor of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Based on correlation coefficients polyphenolics may be responsible for ?-glucosidase activity but probably not for ?-amylase activity. Conclusion Antidiabetic activity potential via inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase was discovered in Ficus lutea which has not been previously reported. The acetone extract of the leaves was high in total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity, and was a potent inhibitor of ?-amylase activity. Research is underway to isolate the active compound(s) responsible for the antidiabetic activity and to confirm the in vitro antidiabetic activity and to investigate in vitro toxicity. PMID:23641947

  15. Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies on elastin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina

    2013-08-01

    The formation of reactive species and free radicals in water soluble elastin hydrolysates have been investigated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Elastin hydrolysates were obtained by hydrolysis of elastin extracted from aorta. An investigation of the photochemical properties of elastin hydrolysates in water was carried out using nanosecond laser irradiation. The transient spectra of elastin hydrolysates solution excited at 266 nm showed two bands. One of them with maximum at 295 nm and the second one with maximum at 400 nm. The reactions of hydrated electrons and ?OH radicals with elastin have been studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of elastin with e(aq)(-) small maximum absorption in UV and visible light was observed. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of the hydroxyl radicals with elastin two bands were observed. The first one at 320 nm and the second one at 410 nm. Reaction of OH radicals with elastin hydrolysates lead to formation of Tyr phenoxyl radicals with absorption at 410 nm. The influence of the addition of sodium azide NaN3 on the formation of the transients was evaluated. PMID:23702900

  16. The natural yeast extract isolated by ethanol precipitation inhibits melanin synthesis by modulating tyrosinase activity and downregulating melanosome transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Rhee, Do Young; Bang, Seung Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Chang, Sung Eun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of EP-2, a natural yeast extract isolated by ethanol precipitation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on melanogenesis and to determine its underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that although EP-2 is not a direct tyrosinase inhibitor, when EP-2 was added to the culture media of B16F10 melanoma cells, intracellular tyrosinase activity was decreased. However, EP-2 had no effect on the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor or tyrosinase. EP-2 was found to inhibit melanogenesis and melanosome transfer when it was added to melanocytes and keratinocytes in coculture. In addition, protease-activated receptor 2, a key protein associated with melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes, was downregulated in the presence of EP-2. In conclusion, EP-2 is a potent inhibitor of melanogenesis and its hypomelanogenic effect is related to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and transfer of melanosomes. PMID:25943301

  17. The effect of a yeast extract feed additive on turkeys challenged with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE) was added to the diet of turkeys which were exposed to E. coli and L. monocytogenes Scott A at 16 wks of age using coarse spray and feed inclusion. Positive c...

  18. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  19. INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

  20. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to...

  1. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to...

  2. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to...

  3. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to...

  4. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derived. (a) “Hydrolyzed wheat gluten,” “hydrolyzed soy protein,” and “autolyzed yeast extract” are examples of acceptable names. “Hydrolyzed casein” is also an example of an acceptable name, whereas “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to...

  5. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential. PMID:22942692

  6. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  7. Effects of bentonite and yeast extract as nutrient on decrease in hydraulic conductivity of porous media due to CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Eryürük, Ka?an; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Iwao; Katayama, Arata

    2015-10-01

    The reduction mechanism of hydraulic conductivity was investigated in porous media treated with bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates induced by growing cells of Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859). Bentonite, the bacterial cells, and a precipitation solution, composing of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea with or without 2% weight/volume yeast extract allowing the bacterial growth were sequentially introduced into the continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.05 and 3 mm in diameter. The treatments reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the columns from between 8.4 × 10(-1) and 4.1 × 10(-3) cm/s to between 9.9 × 10(-4) and 2.1 × 10(-6) cm/s as the lowest. With yeast extract, the conductivity continuously decreased during four days of the experiment, while became stable after two days without yeast extract. Introduction of the bacterial cells did not decrease the conductivity. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity was inversely correlated with the volume occupied by the depositions of bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates in column, showing the same efficiency but a larger effect of the CaCO3 precipitates with increasing volume by bacterial growth. The smaller glass beads resulted in larger volume of the depositions. Bentonite increased the deposition of CaCO3 precipitates. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that without yeast extract, bentonite and the CaCO3 precipitates formed aggregates with glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. With yeast extract, in addition to the aggregates, the individual CaCO3 precipitates formed separately from the aggregates reduced the hydraulic conductivity. PMID:25736267

  8. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that pH was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used for Saccharomyces fermentations. PMID:24739806

  9. A new ?-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native ?-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous ?-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing. PMID:22133603

  10. Influence of the propagation strategy for obtaining robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that efficiently co-ferment xylose and glucose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Development of xylose-fermenting yeast strains that are tolerant to the inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is crucial to achieve efficient bioethanol production processes. In this study, the importance of the propagation strategy for obtaining robust cells was studied. Addition of hydrolysate during propagation of the cells adapted them to the inhibitors, resulting in more tolerant cells with shorter lag phases and higher specific growth rates in minimal medium containing acetic acid and vanillin than unadapted cells. Addition of hydrolysate during propagation also resulted in cells with better fermentation capabilities. Cells propagated without hydrolysate were unable to consume xylose in wheat straw hydrolysate fermentations, whereas 40.3% and 97.7% of the xylose was consumed when 12% and 23% (v/v) hydrolysate, respectively, was added during propagation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed changes in gene expression, depending on the concentration of hydrolysate added during propagation. This study highlights the importance of using an appropriate propagation strategy for the optimum performance of yeast in fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25989314

  11. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  12. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10?h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200?AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1?L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10?h by 10 AP?U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4?h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10?h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72?h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

  13. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  14. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  15. Fractionation of yeast extract by nanofiltration process to assess key compounds involved in CHO cell culture improvement.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Mathilde; Kapel, Romain; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie; Oriol, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Yeast extract (YE) is known to greatly enhance mammalian cell culture performances, but its undefined composition decreases process reliability. Accordingly, in the present study, the nature of YE compounds involved in the improvement of recombinant CHO cell growth and IgG production was investigated. First, the benefits of YE were verified, revealing that it increased maximal concentrations of viable cells and IgG up to 73 and 60%, respectively compared to a reference culture. Then, the analyses of YE composition highlighted the presence of molecules such as amino acids, vitamins, salts, nucleobase, and glucose that were contained in reference medium, while others including peptides, trehalose, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids were not. Consequently, YE was fractionated by a nanofiltration process to deeper evaluate its effects on CHO cell cultures. The YE molecules already contained in reference medium were mainly isolated in the permeate fraction together with trehalose and short peptides, while other molecules were concentrated in the retentate. Permeate, which was free of macromolecules, exhibited a similar positive effect than raw YE on maximal concentrations. Additional studies on cell energetic metabolism underlined that dipeptides and tripeptides in permeate were used as an efficient source of nitrogenous substrates. PMID:26018298

  16. Yeast extract promotes decolorization of azo dyes by stimulating azoreductase activity in Shewanella sp. strain IFN4.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Negm, Fayek; Khalid, Azeem; Shaharoona, Baby; Hussain, Sabir; Mahmood Nadeem, Sajid; Crowley, David E

    2016-02-01

    Biological treatment of azo dyes commonly requires a combined anaerobic-aerobic process in which initial decolorization is achieved by reductive cleavage of azo bonds on the parent molecule. The present study was conducted to examine the relative importance of co-substrates for driving reductive decolorization of azo dyes by Shewanella sp. strain IFN4 using whole cells and enzyme assays. Results showed that the dye decolorization by strain IFN4 was faster in medium containing 1gL(-1) yeast extract (YE) as compared to nine other co-substrates. Moreover, only YE stimulated azoreductase activity (increased from 1.32 to 4.19U/mg protein). Increasing the level of YE up to 8gL(-)(1) resulted into 81% decolorization of the dye in 1h along with an increase in azoreductase activity up to 6.16U/mg protein. Among the components of YE, only riboflavin stimulated the decolorization process as well as enzyme activity. Moreover, strain IFN4 demonstrated flavin reductase activity, and a significant correlation (r(2)=0.98) between flavin reduction and dye reduction by this strain emphasized the involvement of flavin compounds in the decolorization process. The results of this study show that YE serves both as a source of reducing equivalents and an electron shuttle for catalyzing dye reduction. PMID:26454074

  17. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11. PMID:21474306

  18. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    PubMed

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  19. The evaluation of mixtures of yeast and potato extracts in growth media for biomass production of lactic cultures.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, H; Renard, N; Champagne, C P; Van Horn, D

    2002-07-01

    The effectiveness of yeast extracts (YE) and potato extracts (PE) to promote growth of seven lactic cultures was evaluated by automated spectrophotometry (AS). Two aspects of the growth curve were analysed: (1) maximum biomass obtained (using ODmax) and (2) highest specific growth rate mu(max)) Eleven lots from the same PE-manufacturing process were examined for lot-to-lot variability. The ODmax values of three of the seven strains were significantly affected by lot source, but mu(max) was not significantly affected. The growth of bacteria was systematically lower in base medium containing 100% PE than in base medium containing 100% YE for both ODmax or mu(max) data, which could be related to the lower content in nitrogen-based compounds in PE. In AS assays, highest OD values for Lactobacillus casei EQ28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R-011, Lactobacillus plantarum EQ12, and Streptococcus thermophilus R-083 were obtained with a mixture of PE and YE. Fermentations (2 L) were also carried out to determine the accuracy of AS to predict biomass levels obtained under fermentation trials. In these fermentations, replacement of 50% YE with PE was shown to enable good growth of S. thermophilus. With L. rhamnosus R-011, a high correlation (R2 = 0.95) was found between ODmax data obtained in the AS assays and that of the 2-L bioreactor when the same growth medium was used for both series of fermentations. However, AS was not as efficient when industrial media were used for the bioreactor assays. The relationship was still good for ODmax between AS data and that of the bioreactor data with L. rhamnosus R-011 in industrial LBS medium (R2 = 0.87), but was very poor with the S. thermophilus R-083 on Rosell #43 industrial medium (R2 = 0.33). Since PE cost 40% less than YE, there are strong economic advantages in considering such a partial replacement of YE by PE. PMID:12224561

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  2. Effect of nutrient supplementation of crude or detoxified concentrated distilled grape marc hemicellulosic hydrolysates on the xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3 g/L, was achieved after 172 hr (Q ( xylitol ) = 0.066 g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC) = 0.21 g/g); meanwhile, using detoxified concentrated hydrolysates, the concentration increased up to 19.7 g/L after 72 hr (Q ( xylitol ) = 0.274 g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC) = 0.38 g/g). On the other hand, using crude or detoxified hydrolysates, the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion was strongly affected by the addition of nutrients, suggesting that these hydrolysates present essential nutrients favouring the growth of D. hansenii. PMID:22239704

  3. Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals. PMID:24818698

  4. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4?g?l?1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C.?tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v?v?1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C.?tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46?g?g?1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0?g?g?1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  5. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  6. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

  7. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  8. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses: II. Nutrient excretion and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that an equine diet formulated with chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials (DFM) and Yucca schidigera extract would decrease excretion of nutrients that have potential for environmental impact. Horses were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) the aforementioned additives. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co were included in the ADD diet at a 100% replacement rate of sulfate forms used in the CTRL diet. Additionally, the ADD diet included organic selenium yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract. Ten horses were fed the 2 experimental diets during two 42-d periods in a crossover design. Total fecal and urine collection occurred during the last 14 d of each period. Results indicate no significant differences between Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co concentrations excreted via urine (P > 0.05) due to dietary treatment. There was no difference between fecal Cu and Mn concentrations (P > 0.05) based on diet consumed. Mean fecal Zn and Co concentrations excreted by horses consuming ADD were greater than CTRL (P < 0.003). Differences due to diet were found for selenium fecal (P < 0.0001) and urine (P < 0.0001) excretions, with decreased concentrations found for horses consuming organic selenium yeast (ADD). In contrast, fecal K (%) was greater (P = 0.0421) for horses consuming ADD, whereas concentrations of fecal solids, total N, ammonia N, P, total ammonia, and fecal output did not differ between dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In feces stockpiled to simulate a crude composting method, no differences (P > 0.05) due to diet were detected for particle size, temperature, moisture, OM, total N, P, phosphate, K, moisture, potash, or ammonia N (P > 0.05). Although no difference (P = 0.2737) in feces stockpile temperature due to diet was found, temperature differences over time were documented (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the addition of certain chelated mineral sources, organic Se yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract did not decrease most nutrient concentrations excreted. Horses consuming organic selenium as part of the additive diet had lower fecal and urine Se concentrations, as well as greater fecal K concentrations. PMID:23881677

  9. Whole Cell Extract Prep of Gal-Induced Yeast Cells Inoculate 3 X 5 ml YEP + 2% raffinose with single yeast colony harboring EE-MOT1-

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    minutes in GSA bottles. Wash cells with 10 ml cold Benoit's Extraction Buffer with BME and protease inhibitors. Resuspend cells in 10 ml Benoit's buffer and freeze at ­80 C or proceed to lyse cells in French ammonium sulfate 1.0 g amino acid drop out mix (e.g. minus W, U, L) Add 950 ml water, adjust pH to 7

  10. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  11. Biofunctional properties of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-03-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  12. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  13. Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

    1996-10-01

    There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

  14. Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:24928546

  15. In vitro microtubule-nucleating activity of spindle pole bodies in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: cell cycle-dependent activation in xenopus cell-free extracts

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The spindle pole body (SPB) is the equivalent of the centrosome in fission yeast. In vivo it nucleates microtubules (MTs) during mitosis, but, unlike animal centrosomes, does not act as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) during interphase. We have studied the MT- nucleating activity of SPBs in vitro and have found that SPBs in permeabilized cells retain in vivo characteristics. SPBs in cells permeabilized during mitosis can nucleate MTs, and are recognized by two antibodies: anti-gamma-tubulin and MPM-2 which recognizes phosphoepitopes. SPBs in cells permeabilized during interphase cannot nucleate MTs and are only recognized by anti-gamma-tubulin. Interphase SPBs which cannot nucleate can be converted to a nucleation competent state by incubation in cytostatic factor (CSF)-arrested Xenopus egg extracts. After incubation, they are recognized by MPM-2, and can nucleate MTs. The conversion does not occur in Xenopus interphase extract, but occurs in Xenopus interphase extract driven into mitosis by preincubation with exogenous cyclin B. The conversion is ATP dependent and inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors and alkaline phosphatase. Purified, active, cdc2 kinase/cyclin B complex in itself is not effective for activation of MT nucleation, although some interphase SPBs are now stained with MPM-2. These results suggest that the ability of SPBs in vitro to nucleate MTs after exposure to CSF- arrested extracts is activated through a downstream pathway which is regulated by cdc2 kinase. PMID:1533643

  16. Contribution of PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 to the resistance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 and PE-2 strains to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Romaní, Aloia; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-09-01

    PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 were previously identified as key genes for yeast tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. To better understand their contribution to yeast resistance to the multiple stresses occurring during lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentations, we overexpressed these genes in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCUG53310 and PE-2, and evaluated their impact on the fermentation of Eucalyptus globulus wood and corn cob hydrolysates. PRS3 overexpression improved the fermentation rate (up to 32%) and productivity (up to 48%) in different hydrolysates. ZWF1 and RPB4 overexpression did not improve the fermentation performance, but their increased expression in the presence of acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural was found to contribute to yeast adaptation to these inhibitors. This study expands our understanding about the molecular mechanisms involved in industrial yeast tolerance to the stresses occurring during lignocellulosic bioethanol production and highlights the importance of selecting appropriate strain backgrounds/hydrolysates combinations when addressing further improvement of these processes. PMID:25974617

  17. Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and/or cellobiose by yeast

    DOEpatents

    Jeffries, Thomas W.; Willis, Laura B.; Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai

    2013-09-10

    Provided herein are methods of using yeast cells to produce ethanol by contacting a mixture comprising xylose with a Spathaspora yeast cell under conditions suitable to allow the yeast to ferment at least a portion of the xylose to ethanol. The methods allow for efficient ethanol production from hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic material and sugar mixtures including at least xylose and glucose or xylose, glucose and cellobiose.

  18. Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

  19. State of the Art Manufacturing of Protein Hydrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Braun, Steven

    The use of protein hydrolysates in microbiological media has been in existence for several decades and the basic manufacturing process of protein hydrolysates has remained the same. However, with increasing use of protein hydrolysates in specialized applications such as animal cell culture processes, the manufacturing of protein hydrolysates has dramatically improved and is still in its infancy to uncover the specific peptide, peptides and combination of individual amino acids that produce intended effects for that application. This will change as the protein hydrolysate manufacturers and end-users exchange information and work towards the common goal of developing the best protein hydrolysates for specific applications. This chapter will review the generic manufacturing of protein hydrolysates describing individual unit operations, problems faced by manufacturers and suggestions for obtaining consistent product and guidelines for the end-users in getting regulatory support and setting up reliable specifications. Finally the chapter concludes with future trends of protein hydrolysates.

  20. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause kidney damage. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Red yeast is LIKELY UNSAFE during pregnancy. It ... about the safety of using red yeast during breast-feeding. Don’t use during pregnancy or breast-feeding. ...

  1. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

    PubMed Central

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. CONCLUSIONS This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25371280

  2. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  3. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides...

  4. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides...

  5. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides...

  6. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 244-251] PMID:23710634

  7. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.6649, P = 0.8658, P = 0.7465, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.7238), Zn (P = 0.2564), Mn (P = 0.8878), Co (P = 0.7097), or Se (P = 0.5877) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were greater at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.0407) and collection (P = 0.0054) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.0115) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0211) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0012) and CTRL (P = 0.0212). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.0095) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance. PMID:23736057

  8. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.041) and collection (P = 0.005) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.012) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.01) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance. PMID:23908163

  9. Rapid identification of 6328 isolates of pathogenic yeasts using MALDI-ToF MS and a simplified, rapid extraction procedure that is compatible with the Bruker Biotyper platform and database.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mark; Brown, Zoe; Houldsworth, Marian; Borman, Andrew M; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is essential, given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles, and the proposal of species-specific antifungal susceptibility interpretive breakpoints. Here we have evaluated the utility of MALDI-ToF MS analysis for the identification of clinical isolates of pathogenic yeasts. A simplified, rapid extraction method, developed in our laboratory, was applied to 6343 isolates encompassing 71 different yeast species, which were then subjected to MALDI-ToF MS analysis using a Bruker Microflex and the resulting spectra were assessed using the supplied Bruker database. In total, 6328/6343 (99.8%) of isolates were correctly identified by MALDI-ToF MS. Our simplified extraction protocol allowed the correct identification of 93.6% of isolates, without the need for laborious full extraction, and a further 394 (6.2%) of isolates could be identified after full extraction. Clinically relevant identifications with both extraction methods were achieved using the supplied Bruker database and did not require the generation of bespoke, in-house databases created using profiles obtained with the adapted extraction method. In fact, the mean LogScores obtained using our method were as robust as those obtained using the recommended, published full extraction procedures. However, an in-house database can provide a useful additional identification tool for unusual or rarely encountered organisms. Finally, the proposed methodology allowed the correct identification of over 75% of isolates directly from the initial cultures referred to our laboratory, without the requirement for additional sub-culture on standardised mycological media. PMID:26591008

  10. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ?55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch. PMID:25941741

  11. Thermophilic lactic acid production on hemicellulose hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Thomasser, C; Danner, H; Neureiter, M; Saidi, B; Braun, R

    2001-01-01

    Lactic acid has many applications. It can be utilised as road-deicing agent, in the food industry or--after polymerisation--as a biodegradable plastic. The use of lignocellulose biomass will significantly increase the competitiveness of lactic acid-based polymers compared to conventional petroleum based plastics. The Institute for Agrobiotechnology in Tulln (IFA-Tulln) developed a process to apply renewable resources as cheap feedstock for production of lactic acid. The utilisation of thermophiles combined with a suitable pretreatment method enables a fermentation under non sterile conditions with detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysates. This paper presents growth toxicity tests and batch experiments with bagasse hydrolysate, which were conducted to determine the fermentability of thermophilic wild type strains. PMID:15954612

  12. Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6% and an average bias of 1.4%. PMID:25673246

  13. Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in women who have taken antibiotics, are on hormonal contraception, have diabetes and or are pregnant. ? Women who have medical conditions or take medicines which weaken the immune system are at greater risk for yeast Signs and symptoms of yeast vaginitis ? ...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of brewers' spent grain proteins and technofunctional properties of the resulting hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2007-10-17

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort. Although it is the main byproduct of the brewing industry, it has received little attention as a marketable commodity and is mainly used as animal feed. Our work focuses on one of the main constituents of BSG, i.e., the proteins. The lack of solubility of BSG proteins is one of the limitations for their more extensive use in food processing. We therefore aimed to generate BSG protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties. BSG protein concentrate (BPC) was prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation. BPC was enzymatically hydrolyzed in a pH-stat setup by several commercially available proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, and Pepsin) for different times and/or with different enzyme concentrations in order to obtain hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (MW) distribution and hydrophobicity, as well as technofunctional properties, such as solubility, color, and emulsifying and foaming properties, were determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis of BPC improved emulsion and/or foam-forming properties. However, for the hydrolysates prepared with Alcalase and Pepsin, an increasing DH generally decreased emulsifying and foam-forming capacities. Moreover, the type of enzyme impacted the resulting technofunctional properties. Hydrolysates prepared with Flavourzyme showed good technofunctional properties, independent of the DH. Physicochemical characterization of the hydrolysates indicated the importance of protein fragments with relatively high MW (exceeding 14.5 k) and high surface hydrophobicity for favorable technofunctional properties. PMID:17896813

  15. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

    2013-05-01

    Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

  16. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  17. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall ?-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and ?-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-? (IFN-?) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-?, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (?-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities. PMID:26617014

  18. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  19. Iron-Binding Capacity of Defatted Rice Bran Hydrolysate and Bioavailability of Iron in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Foong, Lian-Chee; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2015-10-21

    The present study was aimed at utilizing defatted rice bran (DRB) protein as an iron-binding peptide to enhance iron uptake in humans. DRB samples were treated with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, and the total extractable peptides were determined. Furthermore, the iron-binding capacities of the DRB protein hydrolysates were determined, whereas iron bioavailability studies were conducted using an in vitro digestion and absorption model (Caco-2 cells). The results showed that the DRB protein hydrolysates produced by combined Alcalase and Flavourzyme hydrolysis had the best iron-binding capacity (83%) after 90 min of hydrolysis. The optimal hydrolysis time to produce the best iron-uptake in Caco-2 cells was found to be 180 min. The results suggested that DRB protein hydrolysates have potent iron-binding capacities and may enhance the bioavailability of iron, hence their suitability for use as iron-fortified supplements. PMID:26435326

  20. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  1. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  2. Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

  3. A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence. PMID:22567033

  4. Authentic Replication and Recombination of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus RNA in a Cell-Free Extract from Yeast?

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Judit; Nagy, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    To study the replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small tombusvirus of plants, we have developed a cell-free system based on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract. The cell-free system was capable of performing a complete replication cycle on added plus-stranded TBSV replicon RNA (repRNA) that led to the production of ?30-fold-more plus-stranded progeny RNAs than the minus-stranded replication intermediate. The cell-free system also replicated the full-length TBSV genomic RNA, which resulted in production of subgenomic RNAs as well. The cell-free system showed high template specificity, since a mutated repRNA, minus-stranded repRNA, or a heterologous viral RNA could not be used as templates by the tombusvirus replicase. Similar to the in vivo situation, replication of the TBSV replicon RNA took place in a membraneous fraction, in which the viral replicase-RNA complex was RNase and protease resistant but sensitive to detergents. In addition to faithfully replicating the TBSV replicon RNA, the cell-free system was also capable of generating TBSV RNA recombinants with high efficiency. Altogether, tombusvirus replicase in the cell-free system showed features remarkably similar to those of the in vivo replicase, including carrying out a complete cycle of replication, high template specificity, and the ability to recombine efficiently. PMID:18417594

  5. Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL ETHANOLOGENIC YEAST IN THE FERMENTATION OF SOFTWOOD LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUGARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, genetically unmodified ethanologenic yeast, integrated into the pre-hydrolysate fermentation stage of the softwood-to-ethanol bioconversion process, was identified as being capable of rapid assimilation and catabolism of all wood-derived hexose sugars (galactose, glucose, and mannose). Thi...

  7. In vitro exposure of Penicillium mycotoxins with or without a modified yeast cell wall extract (mYCW) on bovine macrophages (BoMacs).

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Young; Quinton, V Margaret; Boermans, Herman J; Swamy, H V L N; Karrow, Niel A

    2015-11-01

    Penicillium mycotoxins (PMs) are contaminants that are frequently found in grain or crop-based silage for animal feed. Previously, we have characterized the potential immunotoxicity of the following PMs: citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), and penicillic acid (PA) by using a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMacs). In the present study, cell proliferation was used as a bioassay endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of a modified yeast cell wall extract (mYCW), for preventing PM toxicity under various in vitro conditions such as the following: pH (3, 5, 7), incubation time (1, 2, 4, 6 h), percentage of mYCW (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 %), and PM concentration. mYCW was most effective in preventing the toxicity of 12.88 and 25.8 ?M OTA at pH 3.0 (p?

  8. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  9. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cholesterol levels and triglycerides. However, this specific product contains large amounts of a chemical similar to "statin" ... this product and other red yeast products that contain statins to be illegal unapproved drugs. However, outside ...

  10. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  11. Extraction and hydrolysis of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nicole M; Helle, Steve S; Duff, Sheldon J B

    2009-12-01

    Fermentable sugar obtained from lignocellulosic material exhibits great potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bio-ethanol. One potentially viable source of fermentable sugars is pyrolysis oil, commonly called bio-oil. Depending on the type of lignocellulosic material and the operating conditions used for pyrolysis, bio-oil can contain upwards of 10 wt% of 1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucopyranose (levoglucosan, LG), an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. This research investigated the extraction of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil via phase separation, the acid-hydrolysis of the levoglucosan into glucose, and the subsequent fermentation of this hydrolysate into ethanol. Optimal selection of water-to-oil ratio, temperature and contact time yielded an aqueous phase containing a levoglucosan concentration of up to 87 g/L, a yield of 7.8 wt% of the bio-oil. Hydrolysis conditions of 125 degrees C, 44 min and 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) resulted in a maximum glucose yield of 216% (when based on original levoglucosan), inferring other precursors of glucose were present in the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase contained solutes which inhibited fermentation, however, up to 20% hydrolysate solutions were efficiently fermented (yield=0.46 g EtOH/g glucose; productivity=0.55 g/L h) using high yeast inoculums (1 g/L in flask) and micro-aerophilic conditions. PMID:19616934

  12. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The...

  13. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The...

  14. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

  15. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

  16. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  17. Method to produce succinic acid from raw hydrolysates

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia Y.; Nghiem, Nhuan Phu

    2004-06-01

    A method for producing succinic acid from industrial-grade hydrolysates is provided, comprising supplying an organism that contains mutations for the genes ptsG, pflB, and ldhA, allowing said organism to accumulate biomass, and allowing said organism to metabolize the hydrolysate. Also provided is a bacteria mutant characterized in that it produces succinic acid from substrate contained in industrial-grade hydrolysate in a ratio of between 0.6:1 and 1.3:1 succinic acid to substrate.

  18. Yeast osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Stefan; Krantz, Marcus; Nordlander, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    Osmoregulation is the active control of the cellular water balance and encompasses homeostatic mechanisms crucial for life. The osmoregulatory system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is particularly well understood. Key to yeast osmoregulation is the production and accumulation of the compatible solute glycerol, which is partly controlled by the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling system. Genetic analyses combined with studies on protein-protein interactions have revealed the wiring scheme of the HOG signaling network, a branched mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) pathway that eventually converges on the MAPK Hog1. Hog1 is activated following cell shrinking and controls posttranscriptional processes in the cytosol as well as gene expression in the nucleus. HOG pathway activity can easily and rapidly be controlled experimentally by extracellular stimuli, and signaling and adaptation can be separated by a system of forced adaptation. This makes yeast osmoregulation suitable for studies on system properties of signaling and cellular adaptation via mathematical modeling. Computational simulations and parallel quantitative time course experimentation on different levels of the regulatory system have provided a stepping stone toward a holistic understanding, revealing how the HOG pathway can combine rigorous feedback control with maintenance of signaling competence. The abundant tools make yeast a suitable model for an integrated analysis of cellular osmoregulation. Maintenance of the cellular water balance is fundamental for life. All cells, even those in multicellular organisms with an organism-wide osmoregulation, have the ability to actively control their water balance. Osmoregulation encompasses homeostatic processes that maintain an appropriate intracellular environment for biochemical processes as well as turgor of cells and organism. In the laboratory, the osmoregulatory system is studied most conveniently as a response to osmotic shock, causing rapid and dramatic changes in the extracellular water activity. Those rapid changes mediate either water efflux (hyperosmotic shock), and hence cell shrinkage, or influx (hypoosmotic shock), causing cell swelling. The yeast S. cerevisiae, as a free-living organism experiencing both slow and rapid changes in extracellular water activity, has proven a suitable and genetically tractable experimental system in studying the underlying signaling pathways and regulatory processes governing osmoregulation. Although far from complete, the present picture of yeast osmoregulation is both extensive and detailed (de Nadal et al., 2002; Hohmann, 2002; Klipp et al., 2005). Simulations using mathematical models combined with time course measurements of different molecular processes in signaling and adaptation have allowed elucidation of the first system properties on the yeast osmoregulatory network. PMID:17875410

  19. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-16

    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)?m)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved. PMID:24188847

  20. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  1. Characterization of isolated yeast growth response to methionine analogs.

    PubMed

    Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Lingbeck, Jody M; Wilkinson, Heather H; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Biswas, Debabrata; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Methionine is one of the first limiting amino acids in poultry nutrition. The use of methionine-rich natural feed ingredients, such as soybean meal or rapeseed meal may lead to negative environmental consequences. Amino acid supplementation leads to reduced use of protein-rich ingredients. The objectives of this study were isolation of potentially high content methionine-containing yeasts, quantification of methionine content in yeasts and their respective growth response to methionine analogs. Minimal medium was used as the selection medium and the isolation medium of methionine-producing yeasts from yeast collection and environmental samples, respectively. Two yeasts previously collected along with six additional strains isolated from Caucasian kefir grains, air-trapped, cantaloupe, and three soil samples could grow on minimal medium. Only two of the newly isolated strains, K1 and C1, grew in minimal medium supplied with either methionine analogs ethionine or norleucine at 0.5% (w/v). Based on large subunit rRNA sequences, these isolated strains were identified as Pichia udriavzevii/Issatchenkia orientalis. P. kudriavzevii/I. orentalis is a generally recognized as a safe organism. In addition, methionine produced by K1 and C1 yeast hydrolysate yielded 1.3 ± 0.01 and 1.1 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) dry cell. Yeast strain K1 may be suitable as a potential source of methionine for dietary supplements in organic poultry feed but may require growth conditions to further increase their methionine content. PMID:24007489

  2. Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

  3. Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  4. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal Yeast Infection Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ... all adult women have had at least one "yeast infection" in their lifetime, according to the Centers ...

  6. Simultaneous Cellulase Production, Saccharification and Detoxification Using Dilute Acid Hydrolysate of S. spontaneum with Trichoderma reesei NCIM 992 and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sateesh, Lanka; Rodhe, Adivikatla Vimala; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Yadav, Kothagauni Srilekha; Prasad, Yenumulagerard; Rao, Linga Venkateswar

    2012-06-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials has several limitations. One aspect is the high production cost of cellulases used for saccharification of substrate and inhibition of fermenting yeast due to inhibitors released in acid hydrolysis. In the present work we have made an attempt to achieve simultaneous cellulases production, saccharification and detoxification using dilute acid hydrolysate of Saccharum spontaneum with and without addition of nutrients, supplemented with acid hydrolyzed biomass prior to inoculation in one set and after 3 days of inoculation in another set. Organisms used were T. reesei NCIM 992, and Aspergillus niger isolated in our laboratory. Cellulase yield obtained was 0.8 IU/ml on fourth day with T. reesei. Sugars were found to increase from fourth to fifth day, when hydrolysate was supplemented with nutrients and acid hydrolyzed biomass followed by inoculation with T. reesei. Phenolics were also found to decrease by 67%. PMID:23729891

  7. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  8. Yeast nucleosomes allow thermal untwisting of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, R H; Pederson, D S; Dean, A; Simpson, R T

    1987-01-01

    Thermal untwisting of DNA is suppressed in vitro in nucleosomes formed with chicken or monkey histones. In contrast, results obtained for the 2 micron plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are consistent with only 30% of the DNA being constrained from thermal untwisting in vivo. In this paper, we examine thermal untwisting of several plasmids in yeast cells, nuclei, and nuclear extracts. All show the same quantitative degree of thermal untwisting, indicating that this phenomenon is independent of DNA sequence. Highly purified yeast plasmid chromatin also shows a large degree of thermal untwisting, whereas circular chromatin reconstituted using chicken histones is restrained from thermal untwisting in yeast nuclear extracts. Thus, the difference in thermal untwisting between yeast chromatin and that assembled with chicken histones is most likely due to differences in the constituent histone proteins. Images PMID:3320966

  9. YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    YEAST GENETICS Fred Winston 7.1 Introduction Key Concepts · Genetic studies of the yeast. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal experimental organism. It is a microorganism that has a fast biology. Yeast has been the focus of extensive studies in many aspects of molecular biology. These areas

  10. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  11. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  12. Effect of cooking temperature on the crystallinity of acid hydrolysed-oil palm cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuthi, Fatin Afifah Binti Ahmad; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we studied the effect of acid hydrolysis temperature on the crystallinity of cellulose produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB). The hydrolysis temperature was studied from 120 to 140 °C at a fixed time and sulfuric acid, H2SO4 concentration which were 1 h and 1% (v/v) respectively. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was carried out to measure the crystallinity of cellulose produced at varying hydrolysis temperatures. During hydrolysis, the amorphous region of ?-cellulose was removed and the crystalline region was obtained. Percentage of crystallinity (CrI) for acid hydrolysed cellulose at 120, 130 and 140 °C were 54.21, 50.59 and 50.55 % respectively. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that acid hydrolysis defibrilised to microfibrils in ?-cellulose. The extraction process to produce ?-cellulose has also been successfully carried out as the impurities at the outer surface, lignin and hemicellulose were removed. These findings were supported by the disappearance of peaks at 1732, 1512 and 1243 cm-1 on Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of ?-cellulose. Similar peaks were identified in both the commercial microcrystalline cellulose (C-MCC) and acid hydrolysed cellulose (H-EFB), indicating the effectiveness of heat-catalysed acid hydrolysis.

  13. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    PubMed

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition. PMID:24941752

  14. ISOLATION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC HYDROLYSATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydrox...

  15. Rendered-protein hydrolysates for microbial synthesis of cyanophycin biopolymer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanophycin is a poly(arginyl-aspartate) biopolymer produced and stored intracellularly by bacteria. Cyanophycin has been proposed as a renewable replacement for petrochemical-based industrial products. An abundant source of amino acids and nitrogen such as in the form of protein hydrolysates is n...

  16. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

  17. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  18. Novel antioxidant Peptide derived from the ultrafiltrate of ovomucin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Oun Ki; Ha, Go Eun; Han, Gi-Sung; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2013-07-31

    The techno-functional properties of ovomucin as a gel-forming agent and its biological properties are well-known. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity in ovomucin hydrolysate using radical scavenging assays. Electrophoresis showed that ovomucin isolated from whole egg was well separated. Ovomucin hydrolysis was carried out using microbial protease according to different incubation times. These ovomucin hydrolysates exhibited 85% antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay after a 2 h incubation with protease and retained 90% activity until 24 h. At an incubation time of 4 h, the activity of ovomucin hydrolysates reached approximately 90%, corresponding to 115 ?M gallic acid equivalent, regardless of the proteases used. The partially purified fraction of the hydrolysate by ultrafiltration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was collected and then analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two peptides, LDEPDPL and NIQTDDFRT, in this fraction were identified. The antioxidant activities of these two synthesized peptides were measured to be 51.8 and 24.7% by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. PMID:23834012

  19. Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Tong; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 degrees C). After the mutant was grown in the yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over 61% of the total protein could be released from the cells treated at 37 degrees C. The mutant cells grown in the yacon extract still contained high level of essential amino acids and other nutrients. This means that the yacon extract could be used as the medium for growth of the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant which contained high content of crude protein. PMID:19727833

  20. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

  1. Adaptation and cultivation of permanent fish cell line CCO in serum-free medium and influence of protein hydrolysates on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Radoševi?, Kristina; Duki?, Bogdanka; Andlar, Martina; Slivac, Igor; Gaurina Sr?ek, Višnja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe the adaptation of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line to commercially available Ultra Culture serum-free medium by gradual reduction of serum concentration from 10 to 0 %. With this approach we obtained CCO cells fully adapted to serum-free conditions in 32 days. Growth, nutritional and morphological characteristics of these cells remained unchanged when compared to the control group kept in the presence of serum. Additionally, three commercially available protein hydrolysates were tested for the effects on growth performance of the newly serum-free adapted CCO cells. Supplementation with wheat gluten hydrolysate resulted in growth similar to serum free medium solely, while yeast and soy hydrolysates showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth. Taken together, the successful adaptation of CCO cells to serum-free conditions indicates their potential to be used in cytotoxicity assays when serum omission is demanded or for developing serum free bioprocesses using CCO cells. However, a more extended study on nutrient supplementation is still required to further boost the cell growth in a serum free culture. PMID:24993608

  2. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Fungal Infections > Vaginal Yeast ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  3. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince. PMID:25794753

  4. Yeast communities associated with sugarcane in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo, L A; Gomes, E A; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Hagler, A N

    1998-09-01

    Yeast communities associated with sugarcane leaves, stems and rhizosphere during different phases of plant development were studied near Campos, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Atmospheric temperature, soil granulometry and pH, and sugar cane juice degree Brix and pH were determined. Yeast communities associated with sugarcane were obtained after cellular extraction by shaking, blending and shaking plus sonication, and cultured on Yeast Nitrogen Base Agar plus glucose (0.5%) and Yeast Extract-Malt Extract Agar. No significant differences in yeast counts were found among the cellular extraction treatments and culture media. 230 yeast cultures were identified according to standard methods, and distinct yeast communities were found for each substrate studied. The prevalent species isolated from sugarcane were Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Debaryomyces hansenii. PMID:10943361

  5. The influence of initial xylose concentration, agitation, and aeration on ethanol production by Pichia stipitis from rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Paulo A; Mussatto, Solange Inês; Roberto, Inês C

    2010-11-01

    Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Shaking bath experiments were initially performed aiming to establish the best initial xylose concentration to be used in this bioconversion process. In the sequence, assays were carried out under different agitation (100 to 200 rpm) and aeration (V(flask)/V(medium) ratio varying from 2.5 to 5.0) conditions, and the influence of these variables on the fermentative parameters values (ethanol yield factor, Y(P/S); cell yield factor, Y(X/S); and ethanol volumetric productivity, Q(P)) was investigated through a 2(2) full-factorial design. Initial xylose concentration of about 50 g/l was the most suitable for the development of this process, since the yeast was able to convert substrate in product with high efficiency. The factorial design assays showed a strong influence of both process variables in all the evaluated responses. The agitation and aeration increase caused a deviation in the yeast metabolism from ethanol to biomass production. The best results (Y(P/S) = 0.37 g/g and Q(P) = 0.39 g/l.h) were found when the lowest aeration (2.5 V(flask)/V(medium) ratio) and highest agitation (200 rpm) levels were employed. Under this condition, a process efficiency of 72.5% was achieved. These results demonstrated that the establishment of adequate conditions of aeration is of great relevance to improve the ethanol production from xylose by Pichia stipitis, using rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as fermentation medium. PMID:19946760

  6. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of yeast tolerance and in situ detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass for biofuels production generates inhibitory compounds that interfere with microbial growth and subsequent fermentation. Remediation of the inhibitors by current physical, chemical, and biological abatement means is economically impractical and overcoming the i...

  8. Alcohol production from Jerusalem artichoke using yeasts with inulinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraud, J.P.; Daurelles, J.; Galzy, P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol from the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The results show that a fermentable extract can be easily obtained from the Jerusalem artichoke even under cold conditions. Yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol with good profitability. 19 refs.

  9. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for sure if yogurt with Lactobacillus or other probiotics can prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. If ... for sure if yogurt with Lactobacillus or other probiotics can prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. If ...

  10. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  11. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  12. Yeast Immunofluorescence Prepare Cells

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    temperature for 30 minutes. 5. Microfuge ~15 seconds to pellet yeast. Do step 11 now. 6. Wash 3 X 5 minutesYeast Immunofluorescence Prepare Cells: 1. Grow yeast in 25 ml YPD to OD600 = 0.2. We usually. Swirl gently for 10 minutes at room temperature. Paraformaldehyde (30%): A. Add 2.0 g paraformaldehyde

  13. CLONTECHInnovative Yeast Protocols Handbook

    E-print Network

    Erickson, F. Les

    CLONTECHInnovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Yeast Protocols Handbook PT3024-1 (PR13103 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY #12;Yeast Protocols Handbook CLONTECH Laboratories, Inc. www.clontech.com Protocol # PT3024-1 2 Version # PR13103 I. Introduction 4 II. Introduction to Yeast Promoters 5 III. Culturing

  14. Further Improvement of the Robust Recombinant Saccharomyces Yeast for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Nancy W. Y.; Adamec, Jiri; Mosier, Nathan, S.; Sedlak, Miroslav

    2011-04-09

    Since 1980, the PI’s laboratory at Purdue University has been at the forefront in developing recombinant Saccharomyces yeast for cellulosic ethanol production. Their innovation enabled them to successfully develop the recombinant Saccharomyces yeast strain 424A(LNH-ST) that has been validated by scientists in industry, universities, and National Laboratories. Strain 424A(LNH-ST) has also been used by a company to produce cellulosic ethanol since 2004. Nevertheless, this strain still needs improvement, particularly to achieve high ethanol titer when cellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used for ethanol production. In this project, we were able to carry out a total genetic overhaul of our yeast by carrying out nine different tasks to improve our 424A(LNH-ST) strain. Through these tasks we enabled the yeast to co-ferment arabinose together with other four sugars generally present in all cellulosic biomass. Thus 424A(LNH-ST) can now ferment all five sugars, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose present in any cellulosic biomass. We also successfully used adaptation techniques and direct genetic improvements to develop improved 424A(LNH-ST) strains that are more resistant to acetic acid or ethanol. These are the most significant inhibitors of those commonly present in cellulosic hydrolysates that prevent 424A(LNH-ST) from producing high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol. The acetic acid resistant strain has 89% better xylose utilization in the presence of acetic acid and 25% better overall ethanol yield. The ethanol resistant strain has 250% better ethanol volumetric productivity. The three tasks for improving the main metabolic pathways have all been successfully completed but the impact of these improvements was less dramatic. This demonstrates our yeast already has effective metabolic systems for co-fermenting cellulosic sugars. However, our attempt to improve the yeast to transport xylose and arabinose more efficiently had only limited success. Thus improving yeast sugar transport system continues to be a significant challenge.

  15. Further Improvement of the Robust Recombinant Saccharomyces Yeast for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Nancy, W. Y.; Adamec, Jiri; Mosier, Nathan, S.; Sedlak, Miroslav

    2011-04-07

    Since 1980, the PIâ??s laboratory at Purdue University has been at the forefront in developing recombinant Saccharomyces yeast for cellulosic ethanol production. Their innovation enabled them to successfully develop the recombinant Saccharomyces yeast strain 424A(LNH-ST) that has been validated by scientists in industry, universities, and National Laboratories. Strain 424A(LNH-ST) has also been used by a company to produce cellulosic ethanol since 2004. Nevertheless, this strain still needs improvement, particularly to achieve high ethanol titer when cellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used for ethanol production. In this project, we were able to carry out a total genetic overhaul of our yeast by carrying out nine different tasks to improve our 424A(LNH-ST) strain. Through these tasks we enabled the yeast to co-ferment arabinose together with other four sugars generally present in all cellulosic biomass. Thus 424A(LNH-ST) can now ferment all five sugars, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose present in any cellulosic biomass. We also successfully used adaptation techniques and direct genetic improvements to develop improved 424A(LNH-ST) strains that are more resistant to acetic acid or ethanol. These are the most significant inhibitors of those commonly present in cellulosic hydrolysates that prevent 424A(LNH-ST) from producing high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol. The acetic acid resistant strain has 89% better xylose utilization in the presence of acetic acid and 25% better overall ethanol yield. The ethanol resistant strain has 250% better ethanol volumetric productivity. The three tasks for improving the main metabolic pathways have all been successfully completed but the impact of these improvements was less dramatic. This demonstrates our yeast already has effective metabolic systems for co-fermenting cellulosic sugars. However, our attempt to improve the yeast to transport xylose and arabinose more efficiently had only limited success. Thus improving yeast sugar transport system continues to be a significant challenge.

  16. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  17. Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins.

    PubMed

    Langmaier, F; Mokrejs, P; Kolomaznik, K; Mladek, M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of waste collagen proteins (H), from current industrial manufacture (leather, edible meat product casings, etc.) of mean molecular mass 20-30 kDa by a reaction with dialdehyde starch (DAS), produces hydrogels applicable as biodegradable (or even edible) packaging materials for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Thermo-reversibility of prepared hydrogels is given by concentrations of H and DAS in a reaction mixture. At concentrations of H 25-30% (w/w) and that of DAS 15-20% (related to weight of hydrolysate), thermo-reversible hydrogels arise, which can be processed into packaging materials by a technique similar to that of soft gelatin capsules (SGC). Exceeding the limit of 20% DAS leads to hydrogels that are thermo-reversible only in part, a further increase in DAS concentration then leads to thermo-irreversible gels whose processing into biodegradable packaging materials necessitates employment of other procedures. PMID:17376664

  18. Kinetic studies of cellodextrins hydrolyses by exocellulase from trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Teh-An Hsu, Cheng-Shung Gong; Tsao, G.T.

    1980-11-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolyses of cellotriose and of cellotetraose by cellobiohydrolase were studied using a convenient integral technique. Reaction mechanisms and mathematical models were postulated to describe the reactions. The end-products of the reaction were found to be inhibitory toward hydrolysis in a competitive mode. Hydrolysis of cellotraose produces cellobiose and hydrolysis of cellotriose produces cellobiose and glucose. Both sugars inhibit the enzyme with cellobiose being a stronger inhibitor.

  19. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response. PMID:17092385

  20. The Use of Protein Hydrolysates for Weed Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christians, Nick; Liu, Dianna; Unruh, Jay Bryan

    Corn gluten meal, the protein fraction of corn (Zea mays L.) grain, is commercially used as a natural weed control agent and nitrogen source in horticultural crops and in the turf and ornamental markets. Corn gluten hydrolysate, a water soluble form of gluten meal, has also been proposed for the same purpose, although it could be sprayed on the soil rather than applied in the granular form. Five depeptides, glutaminyl-glutamine (Gln-Gln), glycinyl-alanine (Gly-Ala), alanyl-­glutamine (Ala-Glu), alanyl-asparagine (Ala-Asp), and alaninyl-alanine (Ala-Ala) and a pentapeptide leucine-serine-proline-alanine-glutamine (Leu-Ser-Pro-Ala-Gln) were identified as the active components of the hydrolysate. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ala-Ala acted on some metabolic process rather than directly on the mitotic apparatus. Similar to the chloracetamides and sulfonyl-urea hebicides, Ala-Ala inhibits cell division rather than disrupting of cell division processes. Cellular ultrastructure changes caused by exposure to Ala-Ala implicate Ala-Ala as having membrane-disrupting characteristics similar to several synthetic herbicides. The potential use of the hydrolysate and the peptides as weed controls is discussed.

  1. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  2. FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties.

    PubMed

    Van Der Ven, Cornelly; Muresan, Sorel; Gruppen, Harry; De Bont, Dries B A; Merck, Karin B; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-11-20

    Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties of hydrolysates. Principal component analysis revealed that hydrolysates prepared from different protein sources or with different classes of proteolytic enzymes are distinguished effectively on basis of their FTIR spectra. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis showed satisfactory to good prediction of functional parameters; the coefficient of determination (R(2)) varied from 0.60 to 0.92. The accurate prediction of bitterness and emulsion forming ability of hydrolysates by using only one uncomplicated and rapid analytical method has not been reported before. FTIR spectra in combination with multivariate data analysis proved to be valuable in protein hydrolysate fingerprinting and can be used as an alternative for laborious functionality measurements. PMID:12428941

  3. Electrochemical detoxification of phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for Clostridium fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Min; Min, Kyoungseon; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is being preferred as a feedstock in the biorefinery, but lignocellulosic hydrolysate usually contains inhibitors against microbial fermentation. Among these inhibitors, phenolics are highly toxic to butyric acid-producing and butanol-producing Clostridium even at a low concentration. Herein, we developed an electrochemical polymerization method to detoxify phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for efficient Clostridium fermentation. After the electrochemical detoxification for 10h, 78%, 77%, 82%, and 94% of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and syringaldehyde were removed, respectively. Furthermore, 71% of total phenolics in rice straw hydrolysate were removed without any sugar-loss. Whereas the cell growth and metabolite production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii were completely inhibited in un-detoxified hydrolysate, those in detoxifying rice straw hydrolysate were recovered to 70-100% of the control cultures. The electrochemical detoxification method described herein provides an efficient strategy for producing butanol and butyric acid through Clostridium fermentation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:25863199

  4. A study of some thiol ester hydrolyses as models for the deacylation step of papain-catalysed hydrolyses

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, G.; Williams, A.

    1965-01-01

    1. The self-catalysed hydrolyses of the thiol esters, S-hippurylthioglycollic acid and S-ethyl monothiolsuccinate, have been shown to be slower than the deacylation step for the papain-catalysed hydrolysis of hippuric esters, by a factor approx. 105. This difference in rate constants largely reflects a difference in activation energy, which together with other evidence drawn from the literature make it unlikely that a carboxylate ion could be the nucleophile responsible for the deacylation of acyl-papain. 2. The imidazole-catalysed hydrolysis of S-hippurylthioglycollic acid and ethyl thiolacetate have activation energies similar to that for the deacylation step in papain-catalysed hydrolyses. This, together with other evidence drawn from the literature, suggests that the imidazole of a histidine residue is the nucleophile responsible for the deacylation of acyl-papain. PMID:14343130

  5. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel extracellular lipase from the thermotolerant yeast Candida thermophila.

    PubMed

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2007-03-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Candida thermophila SRY-09 isolated from Thailand produces an extracellular lipase that hydrolyses various triglycerides. To clone the gene encoding the lipase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with a C. thermophila genomic library and screened for lipase activity on medium containing olive oil emulsion and rhodamine B. One C. thermophila lipase gene (CtLIP) was found that contained an ORF of 1317 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 438 amino acids. Candida thermophila lipase contained a Gly-Asp-Ser-Gln-Gly motif which matched the consensus Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly conserved among lipolytic enzymes. Heterologous expression of the cloned CtLIP under the control of the alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) promoter in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and enzymatic measurements confirmed the function of the respective protein as a lipase. The recombinant CtLIP could hydrolyse various substrates at high temperature (55 degrees C) with higher efficiency than at 37 or 45 degrees C and preferentially hydrolysed two-positional ester bonds. As with C. thermophila, the heterologously expressed lipase was secreted into the medium by Pichia pastoris. PMID:17266732

  6. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of germinated and hydrolysed Brazilian soybean flours.

    PubMed

    Vernaza, Maria Gabriela; Dia, Vermont P; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2012-10-15

    The effect of germination in combination with Alcalase hydrolysis of Brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 133 on the production of soybean flours with bioactive peptides as modulators of oxidative stress and markers of inflammation was monitored. The electrophoretic profile showed a weak protein breakdown during germination. However, a strong breakdown of the proteins can be observed after the first hour of hydrolysis with Alcalase. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the protein extracts showed differences in the intensity and profile of peptide mass fingerprint due to germination and hydrolysis. Germinated flour showed higher soluble protein concentration and antioxidant capacity. All soybean protein extracts and protein hydrolysates produced (G0, G18 and G72) showed a significant (p<0.05) inhibition on inflammatory markers such as nitric oxide (20.5-69.3%), iNOS (22.8-93.6%), PGE(2) (64.0-88.3%), COX-2 (36.2-76.7%), and TNF-? (93.9-99.5%) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, protein extracts of flours with 18 h of germination were more potent in inhibiting pro-inflammatory responses when compared to 72 h. It can be concluded that a combination of 72 h of soybean BRS 133 germination and 1h Alcalase hydrolysis resulted in the formation of bioactive compounds with more potent antioxidant activity, and improvement in the reduction of some of the markers of inflammation. PMID:23442677

  7. Industrial robust yeast isolates with great potential for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Romaní, Aloia; Ruiz, Héctor A; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-06-01

    The search of robust microorganisms is essential to design sustainable processes of second generation bioethanol. Yeast strains isolated from industrial environments are generally recognised to present an increased stress tolerance but no specific information is available on their tolerance towards inhibitors that come from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. In this work, a strategy for the selection of different yeasts using hydrothermal hydrolysate from Eucalyptus globulus wood, containing different concentrations of inhibitors, was developed. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four Kluyveromyces marxianus strains isolated from industrial environments and four laboratory background strains were evaluated. Interestingly, a correlation between final ethanol titer and percentage of furfural detoxification was observed. The results presented here highlight industrial distillery environments as a remarkable source of efficient yeast strains for lignocellulosic fermentation processes. Selected strains were able to resourcefully degrade furfural and HMF inhibitors, producing 0.8g ethanol/Lh corresponding to 94% of the theoretical yield. PMID:24704884

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell defense mechanisms. Conclusion These results suggest the mechanisms of tolerance for the Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum are based on increased cellular efficiency caused apparently by downregulation of non-critical genes and increasing the expression of genes in energy production and conversion rather than tolerance to specific hydrolysate components. The wild type, conversely, responds to hydrolysate media by down-regulating growth genes and up-regulating stress response genes. PMID:25128475

  9. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards the organological quality of the olive oil. PMID:16942987

  10. FISH MEALS, FISH COMPONENTS, AND FISH PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES AS POTENTIAL INGREDIENTS IN PET FOODS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of thirteen fish substrates (pollock by-products, fish protein hydrolysates, and fish meals) was conducted, as was an experiment to determine palatability of two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate and salmon meal wi...

  11. [Hepatoprotective properties of balm Herbamarin and hydrolysates from marine invertebrates in toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Burtseva, T I; Semenova, N V; Popov, A M; Li, I A; Veselova, O B; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2005-01-01

    Protective properties of a syrup balm "Herbamarin" and food hydrolysates of scallop, octopus and crab were investigated using experimental toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication. Preventive administration of the balm and hydrolysates to animals subjected to an intoxications by 40% alcohol and CCl4 normalized clinical-diagnostic parameters of liver and blood plasma of experimental animals. PMID:15945353

  12. Development of a simple and sensitive fluorimetric method for isolation of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -hydrolysing bacteria R.L. Harcourt*, I. Horne, T.D. Sutherland, B.D. Hammock1 , R.J. Russell and J.G. Oakeshott . Incorporation of coumaphos into agar plates allowed the rapid detection of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria when tool to screen for bacteria possessing phosphotriesterase activity. INTRODUCTION Organophosphorus (OP

  13. Characterization and Bioactivity of Hydrolysates produced from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Justification: Interest in protein hydrolysates is increasing because of their improved functionality and health benefits, particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, compared to their parent proteins. Large-scale production of hydrolysates is expensive, and one way to minimize co...

  14. Effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates on the physicochemical stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cheetangdee, Nopparat

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of proteins from rice bran was studied, comparing alkaline- and carbohydrase-aided extraction. It was found that protein extractability could be effectively improved using carbohydrases (Viscozyme L and ?-amylase), especially when mechanical force was incorporated. Then, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH), and employed to stabilize soybean O/W emulsion. Improved colloidal stability of the emulsions could be achieved using RBPH, especially at higher DH level, as indicated by an increase in the emulsifying activity index and better long-term dispersibility. The present work novelty suggested the efficiency of RBPH to improve oxidative stability of the emulsions. The most potent antioxidant activity was exhibited by RBPH with DH of 6.4 and 7.6%. With their efficiency to promote physicochemical stability of the emulsions, RBPH might be potently employed as a natural additive in emulsified food products, which is significant to value addition of rice bran for further industrial application. PMID:25391683

  15. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P<0.05) improved (>40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. PMID:26041225

  16. Prions in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

  17. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste as a suitable feedstock for the production of lipid by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus aerius.

    PubMed

    Ghanavati, Hossein; Nahvi, Iraj; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2015-04-01

    The detoxified pre-hydrolysate and enzymatic hydrolysate of OFMSW were used as substrates for lipid production by Cryptococcus aerius. Factorial experimental designs were employed for the optimization of dilute acid pre-hydrolysis, detoxification by over-liming, enzymatic hydrolysis, and lipid production. OFMSW pre-hydrolysis with 3% H2SO4 for 45 min was found to be the optimal treatment, resulted in total sugar concentration of 65.5 g/L (32.8% yield, based on grams of total reducing sugar per gram of OFMSW). The optimal detoxification conditions of the pre-hydrolysate by over-liming was incubation at 30 °C and pH 11 for 24h, resulted in the reduction of total nitrogen, total phenolic compounds, and furans by 51.3%, 45.1%, and 100%, respectively. The residual solid was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, and the highest sugar concentration of 30.5 g/L was obtained. At optimal conditions, the yeast cultivation on the detoxified pre-hydrolysate and enzymatic hydrolysate resulted in the lipid production of 3.9 g/L (12.8% yield, based on g lipid per g consumed sugar) and 4.3g/L (17.1% yield, based on g lipid per g consumed sugar), respectively. The elemental analysis showed the presence of heavy metals including iron (925 mg/l), zinc (59 mg/l), lead (4.7 mg/l), and nickel (3.5mg/l) in the pre-hydrolysate, which were significantly reduced by the over-liming detoxification. PMID:25595390

  18. Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

  19. An Ontology-Empowered Model for Annotating Protein-Protein Interaction Data: a Case Study for Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Haarslev, Volker

    for Budding Yeast Arash Shaban-Nejad and Volker Haarslev Dept. Computer Science and Software Eng to support and improve data mining tasks of yeast protein interactions for knowledge discovery on our experience in extracting knowledge from current data and information sources of the yeast protein

  20. Production of arabitol by yeasts: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kordowska-Wiater, M

    2015-08-01

    Arabitol belongs to the pentitol family and is used in the food industry as a sweetener and in the production of human therapeutics as an anticariogenic agent and an adipose tissue reducer. It can also be utilized as a substrate for chemical products such as arabinoic and xylonic acids, propylene, ethylene glycol, xylitol and others. It is included on the list of 12 building block C3-C6 compounds, designated for further biotechnological research. This polyol can be produced by yeasts in the processes of bioconversion or biotransformation of waste materials from agriculture, the forest industry (l-arabinose, glucose) and the biodiesel industry (glycerol). The present review discusses research on native yeasts from the genera Candida, Pichia, Debaryomyces and Zygosaccharomyces as well as genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are able to utilize biomass hydrolysates to effectively produce L- or D-arabitol. The metabolic pathways of these yeasts leading from sugars and glycerol to arabitol are presented. Although the number of reports concerning microbial production of arabitol is rather limited, the research on this topic has been growing for the last several years, with researchers looking for new micro-organisms, substrates and technologies. PMID:25809659

  1. Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

  2. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (-32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (-23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions. PMID:26378569

  3. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitors selectively inhibit/deactivate cellulase performance.

    PubMed

    Mhlongo, Sizwe I; den Haan, Riaan; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we monitored the inhibition and deactivation effects of various compounds associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates on individual and combinations of cellulases. Tannic acid representing polymeric lignin residues strongly inhibited cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and ?-glucosidase 1 (BGL1), but had a moderate inhibitory effect on endoglucanase 2 (EG2). Individual monomeric lignin residues had little or no inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes. However, coniferyl aldehyde and syringaldehyde substantially decreased the activity of CBH1 and deactivated BGL1. Acetic and formic acids also showed strong inhibition of BGL1 but not CBH1 and EG2, whereas tannic, acetic and formic acid strongly inhibited a combination of CBH1 and EG2 during Avicel hydrolysis. Diminishing enzymatic hydrolysis is largely a function of inhibitor concentration and the enzyme-inhibitor relationship, rather than contact time during the hydrolysis process (i.e. deactivation). This suggests that decreased rates of hydrolysis during the enzymatic depolymerisation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates may be imparted by other factors related to substrate crystallinity and accessibility. PMID:26453468

  4. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Malomo, Sunday A.; Onuh, John O.; Girgih, Abraham T.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (?32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (?23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions. PMID:26378569

  5. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26?g/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. PMID:25977046

  6. Isolation of Yeast Nuclei Growth of Yeast

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    )] X final volume. Preparation of Spheroplasts 1. Harvest yeast at OD600 = 0.6 - 0.8 (OD600 = 0.8 is ~5 in ddH2O. Centrifuge again as in step 4. Prepare pretreatment buffer. 6. Pretreatment: Resuspend cell pellet(s) per 1 g of wet weight in 4 ml of freshly prepared Pretreatment Buffer at room temperature

  7. Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl

    E-print Network

    Yeast transcription factors Kevin Struhl Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Studies of yeast Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are fundamentally similar in eukaryotic organisms from yeasts to humans (for reviews of yeast transcription, see [1,2]). Compo- nents of the chromatin template and the basic RNA

  8. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  9. Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

  10. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  11. Yeast infections (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

  12. RNAi in Budding Yeast

    E-print Network

    Drinnenberg, Ines A.

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

  13. Identification of Small Aliphatic Aldehydes in Pretreated Lignocellulosic Feedstocks and Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Effects on Yeast.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Stagge, Stefan; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-11

    Six lignocellulosic hydrolysates produced through acid pretreatment were analyzed for the occurrence of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. Acetaldehyde was found in all six (0.3-1.6 mM) and formaldehyde in four (?4.4 mM), whereas glycolaldehyde was not detected. To assess the relevance of these findings, fermentations with yeast and formaldehyde or acetaldehyde were performed in the concentration interval 0.5-10 mM. Formaldehyde already inhibited at 1.0 mM, whereas 5.0 mM acetaldehyde was needed to obtain a clear inhibitory effect. After 24 h of fermentation, 1.5 mM formaldehyde reduced the glucose consumption by 85%, the balanced ethanol yield by 92%, and the volumetric productivity by 91%. The results show that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are prevalent in pretreated lignocellulose and that formaldehyde in some cases could explain a large part of the inhibitory effects on yeast by lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as three of six hydrolysates contained ?1.9 mM formaldehyde, which was shown to be strongly inhibitory. PMID:26528761

  14. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  15. Xylitol production by yeasts isolated from rotting wood in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, and description of Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Guamán-Burneo, Maria C; Dussán, Kelly J; Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Portero, Patricia; Carvajal-Barriga, Enrique J; da Silva, Sílvio S; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated D-xylose-assimilating yeasts that are associated with rotting wood from the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, for xylitol production from hemicellulose hydrolysates. A total of 140 yeast strains were isolated. Yeasts related to the clades Yamadazyma, Kazachstania, Kurtzmaniella, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia and Saturnispora were predominant. In culture assays using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, Candida tropicalis CLQCA-24SC-125 showed the highest xylitol production, yield and productivity (27.1 g L(-1) xylitol, Y p/s (xyl) = 0.67 g g(-1), Qp = 0.38 g L(-1). A new species of Cyberlindnera, strain CLQCA-24SC-025, was responsible for the second highest xylitol production (24 g L(-1), Y p/s (xyl) = 0.64 g g(-1), Qp = 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1)) on sugarcane hydrolysate. The new xylitol-producing species Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strain CLQCA-24SC-025(T) (=UFMG-CM-Y517(T); CBS 13997(T)). The MycoBank number is MB 812171. PMID:26219566

  16. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 ?g/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24772406

  17. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  18. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  19. Biochemical Comparison of Commercial Selenium Yeast Preparations.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Sheena; Owens, Rebecca; Ward, Patrick; Connolly, Cathal; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition. The addition of Se to the diet through dietary supplements or fortified food/feed is increasingly common owing to the often sub-optimal content of standard diets of many countries. Se supplements commercially available include the inorganic mineral salts such as sodium selenite or selenate, and organic forms such as Se-enriched yeast. Today, Se yeast is produced by several manufacturers and has become the most widely used source of Se for human supplementation and is also widely employed in animal nutrition where approval in all species has been granted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Characterisation and comparison of Se-enriched yeast products has traditionally been made by quantifying total selenomethionine (SeMet) content. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it does not consider the effects of Se deposition on subsequent digestive availability. In this study, an assessment was made of the water-soluble extracts of commercially available Se-enriched yeast samples for free, peptide-bound and total water-soluble SeMet. Using LC-MS/MS, a total of 62 Se-containing proteins were identified across four Se yeast products, displaying quantitative/qualitative changes in abundance relative to the certified reference material, SELM-1 (P value <0.05; fold change ?2). Overall, the study indicates that significant differences exist between Se yeast products in terms of SeMet content, Se-containing protein abundance and associated metabolic pathways. PMID:25855372

  20. Single-cell protein production by the acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from acid hydrolysates of waste paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ivarson, K.C.; Morita, H.

    1982-03-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH less than 1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 4 degrees C was diluted with water to a pH of less than 0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. (Refs. 30).

  1. Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper †

    PubMed Central

    Ivarson, K. C.; Morita, H.

    1982-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH <1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H2SO4 at 4°C was diluted with water to a pH of <0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. PMID:16345970

  2. Development and validation of an in-house database for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based yeast identification using a fast protein extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-05-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  3. Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

  4. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis and detoxification of red alga Pterocladiella capillacea for bioethanol fermentation with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Wei-Chen; Chou, Han-Kai; Yang, Jungwoo; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor

    2014-09-01

    One-step sulfuric acid saccharification of the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea was optimized, and various detoxification methods (neutralization, overliming, and electrodialysis) of the acid hydrolysate were evaluated for fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A proximate composition analysis indicated that P. capillacea was rich in carbohydrates. A significant galactose recovery of 81.1 ± 5% was also achieved under the conditions of a 12% (w/v) biomass load, 5% (v/v) sulfuric acid, 121°C, and hydrolysis for 30 min. Among the various detoxification methods, electrodialysis was identified as the most suitable for fermentable sugar recovery and organic acid removal (100% reduction of formic and levulinic acids), even though it failed to reduce the amount of the inhibitor 5-HMF. As a result, K. marxianus fermentation with the electrodialyzed acid hydrolysate of P. capillacea resulted in the best ethanol levels and fermentation efficiency. PMID:24851812

  5. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

  6. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

  8. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

  9. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

  10. Characterization of antigens from type A and B yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Buckley, H R; Campbell, C C

    1977-01-01

    The antigenic composition of cytoplasmic extract and culture filtrate antigens of type A and B yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum grown in a synthetic medium was studied. These preparations from type A and B yeast cells contained varying amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and protein-carbohydrate complexes. The antigenic analysis of these preparations was performed by antigen-antiserum absorption with subsequent immunodiffusion and cross-immunoelectrophoresis with absorption in situ in an intermediate gel. All protein antigens observed in culture filtrate of either type A or B yeast cells were also present in the cytoplasmic extracts of the same type. The cytoplasmic extract of type A and B yeast cells each contained certain characteristic antigens that were not shared by the other type. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis with different molecular weight fractions of the antigenic preparations from both types indicated the polydisperse nature of Histoplasma yeast cell antigens. PMID:193788

  11. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15?g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63?g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2?h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2?h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33?g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19?g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. PMID:25941925

  12. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ye?im; Eken-Saraço?lu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study demonstrates that Pichia stipitis is able to grow and ferment sugars to ethanol in detoxified hazelnut hydrolysate derived from delignified biomass. PMID:20599381

  13. Improvement of the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates by detoxification using electrodialysis and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Trinh, Ly Thi Phi; Lee, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2014-01-01

    A two-step detoxification process consisting of electrodialysis and adsorption was performed to improve the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates. The constituents of the hydrolysate differed significantly between mixed hardwood and softwood. Acetic acid and furfural concentrations were high in the mixed hardwood, whereas 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration was relatively low compared with that of the mixed softwood. The removal efficiency of acetic acid reached 100% by electrodialysis (ED) process in both hydrolysates, while those of furfural and HMF showed very low, due to non-ionizable properties. Most of the remaining inhibitors were removed by XAD-4 resin. In the mixed hardwood hydrolysate without removal of the inhibitors, ethanol fermentation was not completed. Meanwhile, both ED-treated hydrolysates successfully produced ethanol with 0.08 and 0.15 g/Lh ethanol productivity, respectively. The maximum ethanol productivity was attained after fermentation with 0.27 and 0.35 g/Lh of detoxified hydrolysates, which were treated by ED, followed by XAD-4 resin. PMID:24321607

  14. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  15. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60?g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30?g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  16. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Ma?gorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (?232.3 TEAC, ?M Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (?88?M/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  17. Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

  18. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  19. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells. PMID:25033548

  20. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  1. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  2. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Videlier, Mathieu; Camadro, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bottom-up shotgun MS-based proteomics is an extremely powerful and simple tool to provide high quality quantitative analyses of the yeast proteome with only microgram amounts of total protein. Although the experimental design of this approach is rather straightforward and does not require the modification of growth conditions, proteins or peptides, several factors must be taken into account to benefit fully from the power of this method. Key factors include the choice of an appropriate method for the preparation of protein extracts, careful evaluation of the instrument design and available analytical capabilities, the choice of the quantification method (intensity-based vs. spectral count), and the proper manipulation of the selected quantification algorithm. The elaboration of this robust workflow for data acquisition, processing, and analysis provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the yeast proteome. PMID:26483028

  3. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  4. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate. PMID:25397813

  5. Yeast Media Sterilization Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    bucket (to minimize exposure to heat). 2. Syringe filter sterilize into sterile 100 ml glass bottle. 31 Yeast Media Sterilization Guidelines: Use the following exposure times for liquids and remove temperature. Add carbon source from sterilized 20% solution. SD (Synthetic Dextrose) "Drop In" Medium: 1 L 20

  6. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  7. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  8. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovomucoid and the functional properties of its hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Suh, J W; Ahn, D U

    2015-09-01

    Ovomucoid is well known as a "trypsin inhibitor" and is considered to be the main food allergen in egg. However, the negative functions of ovomucoid can be eliminated if the protein is cut into small peptides. The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze ovomucoid using various enzyme combinations, and compare the functional properties of the hydrolysates. Purified ovomucoid was dissolved in distilled water (20 mg/mL) and treated with 1% of pepsin, ?-chymotrypsin, papain, and alcalase, singly or in combinations. Sodium sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) results of the hydrolysates indicated that pepsin (OMP), alcalase (OMAl), alcalase+trypsin (OMAlTr), and alcalase+papain (OMAlPa) treatments best hydrolyzed the ovomucoid, and the 4 treatments were selected to determine their functional characteristics. Among the 4 enzyme treatments, hydrolysate from OMAlTr showed the highest iron-chelating and antioxidant activities, while OMP showed higher ACE-inhibitory activity, but lower Fe-chelating activity than the other treatments. However, no difference in the copper-chelating activity among the treatments was found. MS/MS analysis identified numerous peptides from the hydrolysates of OMAlPa and OMAlTr, and majority of the peptides produced were <2 kDa. Pepsin treatment (OMP), however, hydrolyzed ovomucoid almost completely and produced only amino acid monomers, di- and tri-peptides. The ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the enzyme hydrolysates were not consistent with the number and size of peptides in the hydrolysates, but we do not have information about the quantity of each peptide present in the hydrolysates at this point. PMID:26195809

  10. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Domestic and Imported Skim Milk Powders Treated with Papain

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Go Eun; Chang, Oun Ki; Han, Gi Sung; Ham, Jun Sang; Park, Beom-Young; Jeong, Seok-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins have many potential sequences within their primary structure, each with a specific biological activity. In this study, we compared and investigated the bioactivities of hydrolysates of the domestic (A, B) and imported (C, D) skim milk powders generated using papain digestion. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that all milk powder proteins were intact, indicating no autolysis. Electrophoretic analysis of hydrolysates showed papain treatment caused degradation of milk proteins into peptides of various size. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates, determined using 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and total phenolic contents (TPC) assays, increased with incubation times. In all skim milk powders, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysates were highest following 24 h papain treatment (TPC: A, 196.48 ?M GE/L; B, 194.52 ?M GE/L; C, 194.76 ?M GE/L; D, 163.75 ?M GE/L; ABTS: A, 75%; B, 72%; C, 72%; D, 57%). The number of peptide derived from skim milk powders, as determined by LC-MS/MS, was 308 for A, 283 for B, 208 for C, and 135 for D. Hydrolysate A had the highest antioxidant activity and the most potential antioxidant peptides amongst the four skim milk powder hydrolysates. A total of 4 ?-lactoglobulin, 4 ?s1-casein, and 56 ?-casein peptide fragments were identified as potential antioxidant peptides in hydrolysate A by LC-MS/MS. These results suggest that domestic skim milk could have applications in various industries, i.e., in the development of functional foods.

  11. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and bioactive peptides in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, G

    2009-10-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed and evaluated. A new concept for the safety assessment of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof is developed. Benchmarks for the evaluation are safety of total protein intake, safety of free amino acid intake, documented history of safe use, outcome of questionnaires in efficacy studies and safety studies. Similar to the intake of intact proteins with a history of safe use, the intake of hydrolysates made from them, does not raise concern about safety, provided the applied proteolytic enzymes are food grade and thus of suitable quality. The safety of hydrolysates and of fractions thereof, including the so-called bioactive peptides, should always be assessed by the company before market introduction (company safety assessment). Only when a novel protein source is used or a novel production process is applied, which results in significant changes in nutritional value, metabolic effect or increased level of undesirable substances, that products might fall under novel food regulations. This means that company safety assessment should be reviewed and approved by external independent experts (external safety evaluation) and the novel protein hydrolysate (fraction) is authorized by competent authorities before market introduction. It is argued that good judgement on the safety of hydrolysates and the fractions thereof can be obtained by comparing the anticipated intake of amino acids by these products with those levels to be reasonably expected to be ingested under normal conditions of consumption of a balanced and varied diet. The paper shows a decision tree that can be used for safety assessment. PMID:19623200

  12. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

  13. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized > 90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

  14. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  15. Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant peptides from ethanol-soluble proteins hydrolysate of Sphyrna lewini muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Chi, Chang-Feng; Zhang, Qi-Hong; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2012-08-01

    To get high yield of ethanol-soluble proteins (EP) and the antioxidant peptides from Sphyrna lewini muscle, orthogonal experiments (L(9)(3)(4)) were applied to optimize the best extraction conditions and enzyme hydrolysis conditions. The yield of EP reached 5.903±0.053% under the optimum conditions of ethanol concentration 90%, solvent to material ratio 20:1, extraction temperature of 40°C and extraction time of 80min. The antioxidant SEPH (EP hydrolysate of S. lewini muscle) was prepared by using papain under the optimum conditions of enzymolysis time 2h, total enzyme dose 1.2%, enzymolysis temperature 50°C and pH 6, and its DPPH radical scavenging activity reached 21.76±0.42% at the concentration of 10mg/ml. Two peptides (F42-3 and F42-5) were isolated from SEPH by using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The structures of F42-3 and F42-5 were identified as Trp-Asp-Arg and Pro-Tyr-Phe-Asn-Lys with molecular weights of 475.50Da and 667.77Da, respectively. F42-3 and F42-5 exhibited good scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical (EC(50) 0.15mg/ml and 0.24mg/ml), ABTS radical (EC(50) 0.34mg/ml and 0.12mg/ml), and superoxide anion radical (EC(50) 0.09mg/ml and 0.11mg/ml), but moderate DPPH radical (EC(50) 3.63mg/ml and 4.11mg/ml). F42-3 and F42-5 were also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system and peroxyl free radical scavenging in ?-carotene linoleic acid assay. Their high activities were due to the smaller size and the presence of antioxidative amino acids within the peptide sequences. PMID:22652579

  16. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  17. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that have been made so far to elucidate the mechanisms for the often dramatic benefits that hydrolysates can impart on cell culture processes. Given the variety of roles that hydrolysates likely play in each cell type, close collaboration between protein hydrolysate manufacturers and biopharmaceutical developers will continue to be critical to expanding the industry's knowledge and retaining hydrolysates as a tool for enhancing media formulations.

  18. Application of taste sensing system for characterisation of enzymatic hydrolysates from shrimp processing by-products.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Imelda W Y; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an instrumental taste-sensing system to distinguish between shrimp processing by-products hydrolysates produced using different proteases and hydrolysis conditions, and the possible association of taste sensor outputs with human gustatory assessment, salt content, and bioactivity. Principal component analysis of taste sensor output data categorised samples according to the proteases used for hydrolysis. High umami sensor outputs were characteristic of bromelain- and Flavourzyme-produced hydrolysates, compared to low saltiness and high bitterness outputs of Alcalase-produced hydrolysates, and high saltiness and low umami outputs of Protamex-produced hydrolysates. Extensively hydrolysed samples showed higher sourness outputs. Saltiness sensor outputs were correlated with conductivity and sodium content, while umami sensor responses were related to gustatory sweetness, bitterness and umami, as well as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Further research should explore the dose dependence and sensitivity of each taste sensor to specific amino acids and peptides. PMID:24128587

  19. Toxic effects of dietary hydrolysed lipids: an in vivo study on fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sæle, Øystein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Olsvik, Pål A; Hjelle, Jan I; Harboe, Torstein; Hamre, Kristin

    2013-03-28

    We have previously described that fish larvae absorb a larger fraction of dietary monoacylglycerol than TAG. To investigate how dietary hydrolysed lipids affect a vertebrate at early life stages over time, we fed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae six diets with different degrees of hydrolysed lipids for 30 d. The different diets had no effect on growth, but there was a positive correlation between the level of hydrolysed lipids in the diets and mortality. Important genes in lipid metabolism, such as PPAR, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), were regulated by the different diets. Genes involved in the oxidative stress response did not respond to the increased lipid hydrolysation in the diets. However, enterocyte damage was observed in animals fed diets with 2.7 % NEFA (diet 3) or more. It is thus possible that mortality was due to infections and/or osmotic stress due to the exposure of the subepithelial tissue. In contrast to earlier experiments showing a positive effect of dietary hydrolysed lipids, we have demonstrated a toxic effect of dietary NEFA on Atlantic cod larvae. Toxicity is not acute but needs time to accumulate. PMID:22813630

  20. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted ?-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and ?-amylase amount 12U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product. PMID:26434522

  1. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-08-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48 h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50 g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  2. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Kliza, S.; Hayes, D.

    1982-11-01

    Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results indicate that this raw material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. (Refs. 15).

  3. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10?g/kg diet of WPC, 10?g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40?g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20?g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40?g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  4. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  5. Mitochondrial inheritance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation, play a key role in cellular energy metabolism, and are critical for cell survival and proliferation. The propagation of mitochondria during cell division depends on replication and partitioning of mitochondrial DNA, cytoskeleton-dependent mitochondrial transport, intracellular positioning of the organelle, and activities coordinating these processes. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a valuable model organism to study the mechanisms that drive segregation of the mitochondrial genome and determine mitochondrial partitioning and behavior in an asymmetrically dividing cell. Here, I review past and recent advances that identified key components and cellular pathways contributing to mitochondrial inheritance in yeast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Guest Editors: Manuela Pereira and Miguel Teixeira. PMID:24183694

  6. Structural properties and hydrolysabilities of Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum: Effect of aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfeng; Xin, Donglin; Hou, Xincun; Wu, Juying; Fan, Xifeng; Li, Kena; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    The effects of aqueous ammonia pretreatment on structural properties and hydrolysabilities of Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum were investigated. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment increased cellulose crystallinities and hydrolysabilities of Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum. Compared with Chinese Pennisetum, Hybrid Pennisetum showed better enzymatic digestibility. Xylanase supplementation was more effective than the increase of cellulase loadings in the hydrolysis of aqueous ammonia pretreated Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum. After supplementation of 2mg of xylanase/g dry matter to 5 FPU of cellulases/g dry matter, the hydrolysis yields of cellulose of aqueous ammonia pretreated Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum were 92.3-95.4%, and the hydrolysis yields of xylan were 86.9-94.2%. High hydrolysability and low dosage of enzyme loadings together with the advantages of high yield and widely distribution demonstrated the potential of Chinese Pennisetum and Hybrid Pennisetum for the production of platform sugars. PMID:26320389

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovomucin and the functional and structural characteristics of peptides in the hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Suh, J W; Ahn, D U

    2016-02-01

    Ovomucin was hydrolyzed using enzymes or by heating under alkaline conditions (pH 12.0), and the functional, structural and compositional characteristics of the peptides in the hydrolysates were determined. Among the treatments, heating at 100 °C for 15 min under alkaline conditions (OM) produced peptides with the highest iron-binding and antioxidant capacities. Ovomucin hydrolyzed with papain (OMPa) or alcalase (OMAl) produced peptides with high ACE-inhibitory activity. The mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the peptides from OMPa were <2 kDa, but peptides from OMTr and OM were >2 kDa. OMAl hydrolyzed ovomucin almost completely and no peptides within 700-5000 Da were found in the hydrolasate. The results indicated that the number and size of peptides were closely related to the functionality of the hydrolysates. Considering the time, cost and activities of the hydrolysates, OM was the best treatment for hydrolyzing ovomucin to produce functional peptides. PMID:26304326

  8. Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Cameron, R.G.; Buslig, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37{degrees}C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid.

  9. Mathematical modeling of hydrolysate diffusion and utilization in cellulolytic biofilms of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiwu; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Lochner, Adriane; Elkins, James G; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The morphological and structural properties of microbial biofilms are influenced by internal substrate diffusion and utilization processes. In the case of microbial hydrolysis of plant cell walls, only thin and uniform biofilm structures are typically formed by cellulolytic microorganisms. In this study, we develop a hydrolysate diffusion and utilization model system to examine factors influencing cellulolytic biofilm formation. Model simulations using Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis as a representative organism, reveal that the growth of the cellulolytic biofilm is limited by hydrolysate utilization but not diffusion. As a consequence, the cellulolytic biofilm has a uniform growth rate, and there is a hydrolysate surplus that diffuses through the cellulolytic biofilm into the bulk solution where it is consumed by planktonic cells. Predictions based on the model were tested in a cellulose fermentation study and the results are consistent with the model and previously reported experimental data. The factors determining the rate-limiting step of biofilm growth are also analyzed.

  10. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (?E) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests. PMID:26344985

  11. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  12. Tapping into yeast diversity.

    PubMed

    Fay, Justin C

    2012-11-01

    Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

  13. Antioxidant potential of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-28

    Date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. Date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a pH range of 2-12. The hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.3%, w/w). Incorporation of hydrolysates (200 ppm) in fish model systems resulted in the highest inhibition (30%) of oxidation in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 9%). In addition, hydrolysates and carnosine inhibited ?-carotene oxidation by 75%. The hydrolysates (0.1 mg/mL) inhibited LDL cholesterol oxidation by 60%, whereas carnosine inhibited oxidation by 80% after 12 h of incubation. Additionally, hydrolysates and carnosine effectively inhibited hydroxyl (6 mg/mL) and peroxyl (0.1 mg/mL) radical-induced DNA scission. Therefore, date seed protein hydrolysates could be used as a potential functional food ingredient for health promotion. PMID:25553507

  14. Characterization of new roles for the glucanosyltransferase Gas1 and other carbohydrate modifying enzymes in transcriptional silencing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Koch, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    at elevated temperature, and on yeast extract-peptone-temperature sensitivity…………………………………………….128 Table 3-3. Yeastyeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD). In addition, they are sensitive to elevated temperature,

  15. Application of enzymatic apple pomace hydrolysate to production of 2,3-butanediol by alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059.

    PubMed

    Bia?kowska, Aneta M; Gromek, Ewa; Krysiak, Joanna; Sikora, Barbara; Kalinowska, Halina; J?drzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Kubik, Celina; Lang, Siegmund; Schütt, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis by a nonpathogenic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059 from enzymatic hydrolysate of depectinized apple pomace and its blend with glucose was studied. In shake flasks, the maximum diol concentration in fed-batch fermentations was 113 g/L (in 163 h, from the hydrolysate, feedings with glucose) while in batch processes it was around 27 g/L (in 32 h, from the hydrolysate and glucose blend). Fed-batch fermentations in the 0.75 and 30 L fermenters yielded 87.71 g/L 2,3-BD in 160 h, and 72.39 g/L 2,3-BD in 94 h, respectively (from the hydrolysate and glucose blend, feedings with glucose). The hydrolysate of apple pomace, which was for the first time used for microbial 2,3-BD production is not only a source of sugars but also essential minerals. PMID:26445877

  16. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    E-print Network

    Lam, Felix H.

    Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical ...

  17. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.

    PubMed

    Ianieva, O D

    2013-01-01

    The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

  18. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies lignocellulosic biomass conversion industry. Numerous yeast genes were found to be associated with the inhibitor tolerance. However developed tolerant ethanologenic yeast Saccharo- myces cerevisiae NRRL Y-50049, we investigate pathway

  20. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

    2015-05-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant. PMID:25619117

  1. Effect of lignocellulosic degradation compounds from steam explosion pretreatment on ethanol fermentation by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Jose Miguel; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Ignacio; González, Alberto; Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    The filtrate from steam-pretreated poplar was analyzed to identify degradation compounds. The effect of selected compounds on growth and ethanolic fermentation of the thermotolerant yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875 was tested. Several fermentations on glucose medium, containing individual inhibitory compounds found in the hydrolysate, were carried out. The degree of inhibition on yeast strain growth and ethanolic fermentation was determined. At concentrations found in the prehy-drolysate, none of the individual compounds significantly affected the fermentation. For all tested compounds, growth was inhibited to a lesser extent than ethanol production. Lower concentrations of catechol (0.96 g/L) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1.02 g/L) were required to produce the 50% reduction in cell mass in comparison to other tested compounds. PMID:12721481

  2. Significant quantities of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase are present in the cell wall of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Motshwene, Precious; Brandt, Wolf; Lindsey, George

    2003-01-01

    NaOH was used to extract proteins from the cell walls of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This treatment was shown not to disrupt yeast cells, as NaOH-extracted cells displayed a normal morphology upon electron microscopy. Moreover, extracted and untreated cells had qualitatively similar protein contents upon disruption. When yeast was grown in the presence of 1 M mannitol, two proteins were found to be present at an elevated concentration in the cell wall. These were found to be the late-embryogenic-abundant-like protein heat-shock protein 12 and the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase. The presence of phosphoglycerate mutase in the cell wall was confirmed by immunocytochemical analysis. Not only was the phosphoglycerate mutase in the yeast cell wall found to be active, but whole yeast cells were also able to convert 3-phosphoglycerate in the medium into ethanol, provided that the necessary cofactors were present. PMID:12238949

  3. Elucidating Mechanisms of Biofuel and Hydrolysate Tolerance in Microorganisms: Rational and Empirical Approaches

    E-print Network

    Liszka, Sarah Huffer

    2013-01-01

    ethanol   effects   on   intact   yeast   cells   and  effects   of   acetic   acid,   furfural,   and   p-­?hydroxybenzoic   acid   on   growth   and   ethanol  productivity  of  yeasts.  effects   of   ethanol,   butanol,   and   isobutanol   on   the   membranes   of   several   types   of   organisms   including   archaea,   yeast,  

  4. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Wild Flowers Collected around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, and Characterization of the Unrecorded Yeast Bullera coprosmaensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Min; Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ha-Kun; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-09-01

    Several types of yeasts were isolated from wild flowers around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea and identified by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons for the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S ribosomal DNA using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. In total, 60 strains from 18 species were isolated, and Pseudozyma spp. (27 strains), which included Pseudozyma rugulosa (7 strains) and Pseudozyma aphidis (6 strains), was dominant species. Among the 60 strains, Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 represented a newly recorded yeast strain in Korea, and its microbiological characteristics were investigated. The yeast cell has an oval-shaped morphology measuring 1.4 × 1.7 µm in size. Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 is an asporous yeast that exhibits no pseudomycelium formation. It grew well in vitamin-free medium as well as in yeast extract-malt extract broth and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) broth, and it is halotolerant growing in 10% NaCl-containing YPD broth. PMID:26539042

  5. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Wild Flowers Collected around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, and Characterization of the Unrecorded Yeast Bullera coprosmaensis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Min; Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ha-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Several types of yeasts were isolated from wild flowers around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea and identified by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons for the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S ribosomal DNA using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. In total, 60 strains from 18 species were isolated, and Pseudozyma spp. (27 strains), which included Pseudozyma rugulosa (7 strains) and Pseudozyma aphidis (6 strains), was dominant species. Among the 60 strains, Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 represented a newly recorded yeast strain in Korea, and its microbiological characteristics were investigated. The yeast cell has an oval-shaped morphology measuring 1.4 × 1.7 µm in size. Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 is an asporous yeast that exhibits no pseudomycelium formation. It grew well in vitamin-free medium as well as in yeast extract-malt extract broth and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) broth, and it is halotolerant growing in 10% NaCl-containing YPD broth. PMID:26539042

  6. New and emerging yeast pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

  7. Improvement of butanol production from a hardwood hemicelluloses hydrolysate by combined sugar concentration and phenols removal.

    PubMed

    Mechmech, Fatma; Chadjaa, Hassan; Rahni, Mohamed; Marinova, Mariya; Ben Akacha, Najla; Gargouri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using hardwood hemicellulosic pre-hydrolysate recovered from a dissolving pulping process for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation has been investigated. Dilutions and detoxification methods based on flocculation and nanofiltration were tested to determine the inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds and to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors removal on fermentation. Flocculation carried out with ferric sulfate was the most effective method for removal of phenolics (56%) and acetic acid (80%). The impact on fermentation was significant, with an ABE production of 6.40 g/L and 4.25 g/L when using flocculation or combined nanofiltration/flocculation respectively, as compared to a non-significant production for the untreated hydrolysate. By decreasing the toxicity effect of inhibitors, this study reports for the first time that the use of these techniques is efficient to increase the inhibitory concentration threshold of phenols, from 0.3g/L in untreated hydrolysate, to 1.1g/L in flocculated and in nanofiltrated and flocculated hydrolysates. PMID:26046428

  8. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, ?- and ?-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  9. Porcine Splenic Hydrolysate has Antioxidant Activity in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Taek Joon

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of porcine splenic hydrolysate (PSH) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Peptide hydrolysates were prepared, using the proteolytic enzyme Alcalase®. The molecular weights of PSH were 37,666, 10,673, 6,029, and 2,918 g/mol. Rats were fed a 5% (w/v) PSH diet, instead of a casein diet, for 4 wk. The food intake, body weight gain, and liver weight of rats in the PSH group were similar to those in the control (CONT) group. There were no differences in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, or albumin levels between PSH and CONT groups. However, the level of in vivo hepatic lipid peroxidation in PSH group was significantly lower than that in CONT. In vivo hepatic catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the PSH group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The in vitro protein digestibility of PSH was lower than that of casein. The in vitro trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of PSH was significantly higher than that of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The in vitro radical scavenging activities of PSH were significantly higher than those of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The present findings suggest that porcine splenic peptides improve the antioxidant status in rats by enhancing hepatic catalase and GSH-Px activities, and indicate a potential mechanism of radical scavenging activity during gastrointestinal passage.

  10. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Margarita D.; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8?mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05?U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03?U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2?U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%), total phenolics (15.3–27.2??g/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7–242.8??g/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

  11. Protein Hydrolysates from Beta-Conglycinin Enriched Soybean Genotypes Inhibit Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a worldwide health concern and a well recognized predictor of premature mortality associated with a state of chronic inflammation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) produced from different soybean genotypes by alcalase (SAH) or simulated gastroint...

  12. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded ?-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with single—factor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...

  14. Identification of novel antibacterial peptides isolated from a commercially available casein hydrolysate by autofocusing technique.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Hend A; Abdou, Adham M; Nakamura, Yasushi; Park, Eun Young; Mohamed, Hamdi A; Sato, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Autofocusing, as a simple and safe technique, was used to fractionate casein hydrolysate based on the amphoteric nature of its peptides. The antibacterial activity of casein hydrolysate and its autofocusing fractions (A1-10) was examined against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The basic fraction A9 exhibited the highest activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150 ?g/mL, whereas casein hydrolysate showed MIC values ranging from 2000 to 8000 ?g/mL. The antibacterial peptides in A9 were purified by using a series of size exclusion and reversed phase chromatographies. Three peptides exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 100 ?g/mL. These peptides were generated from ?(s2)-casein, ?(s1)-casein, and ?-casein and identified as K165 KISQRYQKFALPQYLKTVYQHQK188, I6KHQGLPQEV15, and T136EAVESTVATL146, respectively. Therefore, the results revealed that casein hydrolysate had potent antibacterial peptides that could be isolated by autofocusing technique. PMID:22539466

  15. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM) (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da) of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da), 120 min (802 Da) and 180 min (567 Da) in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da) and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da). Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases. PMID:25894223

  16. Characterization of peptides found in unprocessed and extruded amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM) (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da) of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da), 120 min (802 Da) and 180 min (567 Da) in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da) and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da). Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases. PMID:25894223

  17. Influence of peptides-phenolics interaction on the antioxidant profile of protein hydrolysates from Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jabalera, Anaid; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Dávila-Ortíz, Gloria; Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Megías, Cristina; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    The role of the peptides-phenolic compounds (PC) interaction on the antioxidant capacity profile (ACP) of protein hydrolysates from rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in 36 hydrolysates obtained from a PC-rich and PC-reduced protein substrate. The latent profile analysis (LPA), with data of seven in vitro methods and one assay for cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), allowed identifying five distinctive groups of hydrolysates, each one with distinctive ACP. The interaction of peptides with naturally present PC diminished in vitro antioxidant activity in comparison with their PC-reduced counterparts. However, CAA increased when peptides-PC interaction occurred. The profile with the highest average CAA (62.41 ± 1.48%), shown by hydrolysates obtained by using alcalase, shared typical values of Cu(2+)-catalysed ?-carotene oxidation (62.41 ± 0.43%), ?-carotene bleaching inhibition (91.75 ± 0.22%) and Cu(2+)-chelating activity (74.53 ± 0.58%). The possibilities for a sample to exhibit ACP with higher CAA increased with each unit of positively charged amino acids, according to multinomial logistic regression analysis. PMID:25704722

  18. Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program has set goals of making ethanol cost competitive by 2012 and replacing 30% of 2004 transportation supply with biofuels by 2030. Both goals require improvements in conversions of cellulosic biomass to sugars as well as improvements in fermentation rates and yields. Current best pretreatment processes are reasonably efficient at making the cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin matrix amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, but they release a number of toxic compounds into the hydrolysate which inhibit the growth and ethanol productivity of fermentation organisms. Conditioning methods designed to reduce the toxicity of hydrolysates are effective, but add to process costs and tend to reduce sugar yields, thus adding significantly to the final cost of production. Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production will likely require enhanced understanding of the source and mode of action of hydrolysate toxic compounds, the means by which some organisms resist the actions of these compounds, and the methodology and mechanisms for conditioning hydrolysate to reduce toxicity. This review will provide an update on the state of knowledge in these areas and can provide insights useful for the crafting of hypotheses for improvements in pretreatment, conditioning, and fermentation organisms.

  19. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  20. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  1. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, ?- and ?-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  2. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix. PMID:18044830

  3. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  4. Automated Segmentation and Classification of High Throughput Yeast Assay Spots

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad; Parrish, Jodi R.; Finley, Russell L.

    2009-01-01

    Several technologies for characterizing genes and proteins from humans and other organisms use yeast growth or color development as read outs. The yeast two-hybrid assay, for example, detects protein-protein interactions by measuring the growth of yeast on a specific solid medium, or the ability of the yeast to change color when grown on a medium containing a chromogenic substrate. Current systems for analyzing the results of these types of assays rely on subjective and inefficient scoring of growth or color by human experts. Here an image analysis system is described for scoring yeast growth and color development in high throughput biological assays. The goal is to locate the spots and score them in color images of two types of plates named “X-Gal” and “growth assay” plates, with uniformly placed spots (cell areas) on each plate (both plates in one image). The scoring system relies on color for the X-Gal spots, and texture properties for the growth assay spots. A maximum likelihood projection-based segmentation is developed to automatically locate spots of yeast on each plate. Then color histogram and wavelet texture features are extracted for scoring using an optimal linear transformation. Finally an artificial neural network is used to score the X-Gal and growth assay spots using the extracted features. The performance of the system is evaluated using spots of 60 images. After training the networks using training and validation sets, the system was assessed on the test set. The overall accuracies of 95.4% and 88.2% are achieved respectively for scoring the X-Gal and growth assay spots. PMID:17948730

  5. The Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure. PMID:20554704

  6. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (P<0.05). The hydrolysates obtained with Izyme AL® and visceral alkaline-proteases showed the highest and lowest radical scavenging capacity, while prepared with commercial trypsin was the most effective in reducing ferric ions and showed the best metal chelating properties. The hydrolysate obtained with Izyme AL® showed the lowest iron reducing ability, but provided the highest average molecular weight (? 7 kDa), followed by commercial trypsin (2.2 kDa) and visceral alkaline-proteases (1.75 kDa). After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the hydrolysates showed significant higher radical scavenging, reducing ferric ions and chelating activities. Gelatin hydrolysates, from fish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. PMID:26304317

  7. Complex physiology and compound stress responses during fermentation of alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli ethanologen.

    PubMed

    Schwalbach, Michael S; Keating, David H; Tremaine, Mary; Marner, Wesley D; Zhang, Yaoping; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Grass, Jeffrey A; Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Ellinger, James; Dale, Bruce; Kiley, Patricia J; Landick, Robert

    2012-05-01

    The physiology of ethanologenic Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkali-pretreated plant hydrolysates is complex and not well studied. To gain insight into how E. coli responds to such hydrolysates, we studied an E. coli K-12 ethanologen fermenting a hydrolysate prepared from corn stover pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion. Despite the high sugar content (?6% glucose, 3% xylose) and relatively low toxicity of this hydrolysate, E. coli ceased growth long before glucose was depleted. Nevertheless, the cells remained metabolically active and continued conversion of glucose to ethanol until all glucose was consumed. Gene expression profiling revealed complex and changing patterns of metabolic physiology and cellular stress responses during an exponential growth phase, a transition phase, and the glycolytically active stationary phase. During the exponential and transition phases, high cell maintenance and stress response costs were mitigated, in part, by free amino acids available in the hydrolysate. However, after the majority of amino acids were depleted, the cells entered stationary phase, and ATP derived from glucose fermentation was consumed entirely by the demands of cell maintenance in the hydrolysate. Comparative gene expression profiling and metabolic modeling of the ethanologen suggested that the high energetic cost of mitigating osmotic, lignotoxin, and ethanol stress collectively limits growth, sugar utilization rates, and ethanol yields in alkali-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22389370

  8. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the ? and ? 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (< 3 kDa, 3-10 kDa, and > 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  9. Biocatalysis of nitro substituted styrene oxides by non-conventional yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yeates, C A; van Dyk, M S; Botes, A L; Breytenbach, J C; Krieg, H M

    2003-05-01

    Yeast strains (410) from more than 45 different genera were screened for the enantioselective hydrolysis of nitro substituted styrene oxides. These strains included 262 yeasts with known epoxides hydrolase activity for various other epoxides. Epoxide hydrolase activity for p-nitrostyrene oxide (pNSO) (177 strains) and m-nitrostyrene oxide (mNSO) (148 strains) was widespread in the yeasts, while activity for o-nitrostyrene oxide (oNSO) was less ubiquitous (22 strains). The strains that displayed enantioselectivity in the hydrolysis of one or more of the nitro substituted styrene oxides (35 strains) were also screened against styrene oxide (SO). Rhodosporidium toruloides UOFS Y-0471 displayed the highest enantioselectivity for pNSO (ee 55%, yield 35%) while Rhodotorula glutinis UOFS Y-0653 displayed the highest enantioselectivity for mNSO (ee > 98%, yield 29%), oNSO (ee 39%, yield 19%) and SO (ee > 98%, yield 19%). (R)-Styrene oxide was preferentially hydrolysed to the corresponding (R)-diol with retention of configuration at the stereogenic centre. In the case of the nitro substituted styrene oxides the absolute configurations of the remaining epoxides and the formed diols were not established. PMID:12882165

  10. Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

  11. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

  12. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  13. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  14. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G.; Siman-Tov, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida...

  17. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  19. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  20. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  1. Yeast Breads: Made at Home. 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

    1957-01-01

    refrigeration. It may substitute for compressed yeast in any recipe when dissolving directions on the package are followed. sugar and salt Yeast and sugar work together to form carbon dioxide gas which causes the dough to rise. Salt helps control... this rate of rise and also flavors the bread. Sugar helps give a golden brown color to the crust. fat Some type of fat or oil is included in nearly all yeast breads. It conditions the gluten, making a dough that stretches easily as the bubbles...

  2. Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1999-04-05

    The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  3. Re-assessment of YAP1 and MCR1 contributions to inhibitor tolerance in robust engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Development of robust yeast strains that can efficiently ferment lignocellulose-based feedstocks is one of the requirements for achieving economically feasible bioethanol production processes. With this goal, several genes have been identified as promising candidates to confer improved tolerance to S. cerevisiae. In most of the cases, however, the evaluation of the genetic modification was performed only in laboratory strains, that is, in strains that are known to be quite sensitive to various types of stresses. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing genes encoding the transcription factor (YAP1) and the mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (MCR1), either alone or in combination, in an already robust and xylose-consuming industrial strain of S. cerevisiae and evaluated the effect during the fermentation of undiluted and undetoxified spruce hydrolysate. Overexpression of either gene resulted in faster hexose catabolism, but no cumulative effect was observed with the simultaneous overexpression. The improved phenotype of MCR1 overexpression appeared to be related, at least in part, to a faster furaldehyde reduction capacity, indicating that this reductase may have a wider substrate range than previously reported. Unexpectedly a decreased xylose fermentation rate was also observed in YAP1 overexpressing strains and possible reasons behind this phenotype are discussed. PMID:25147754

  4. Determination of total acid content in biomass hydrolysates by solvent-assisted and reaction based headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liu-Lian; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chen, Li-Hui

    2015-11-27

    This work reports on a novel method for the determination of total acid (TA) in biomass hydrolysates by a solvent-assisted and reaction-based headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The neutralization reaction between the acids in hydrolysates and bicarbonate in an ethanol (50%) aqueous solution was performed in a closed headspace sample vial, from which the carbon dioxide generated from the reaction was detected by HS-GC. It was found that the addition of ethanol can effectively eliminate the precipitation of some organic acids in the biomass hydrolysates. The results showed that the reaction and headspace equilibration can be achieved within 45min at 70°C; the method has a good precision (RSD<3.27%) and accuracy (recovery of 97.4-105%); the limit of quantification is 1.36?mol. The present method is quite suitable to batch analysis of TA content in hydrolysate for the biorefinery related research. PMID:26499971

  5. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170?, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ? 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone.

  6. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the red yeast rice products on the market contain very little monacolin K. These products may ... them that it is against the law to market these products as dietary supplements. Despite the FDA ...

  7. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Siverio, José M

    2002-08-01

    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed. PMID:12165428

  8. Metabolomics analysis of soy hydrolysates for the identification of productivity markers of mammalian cells for manufacturing therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason; Shah, Bhavana; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Bhebe, Prince; Zhang, Zhongqi; Nicklaus, Michele; Kombe, Maua C

    2015-01-01

    Soy hydrolysates are widely used as a nutrient supplement in mammalian cell culture for the production of recombinant proteins. The batch-to-batch variability of a soy hydrolysate often leads to productivity differences. This report describes our metabolomics platform, which includes a battery of LC-MS/MS modes of operation, and advanced data analysis software for automated data processing. The platform was successfully used for screening productivity markers in soy hydrolysates during the production of two therapeutic antibodies in two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. A total of 123 soy hydrolysate batches were analyzed, from which 62 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #1 and 12 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #2. For cell line #1, out of 19 amino acids, 106 other metabolites and 4,131 peptides identified in the soy hydrolysate batches being used, several nucleosides and short hydrophobic peptides showed negative correlation with antibody titer, while ornithine, citrulline and several amino acids and organic acids correlated positively with titer. For cell line #2, only ornithine and citrulline showed strong positive correlation. When ornithine was spiked into the culture media, both cell lines demonstrated accelerated cell growth, indicating ornithine as a root cause of the performance difference. It is proposed that better soy hydrolysate performance resulted from better bacterial fermentation during the hydrolysate production. A few selected markers were used to predict the performance of other soy hydrolysate batches for cell line #1. The predicted titers agreed with the experimental values with good accuracy. PMID:25583076

  9. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  10. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

  11. Production of feather hydrolysates with antioxidant, angiotensin-I converting enzyme- and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Roberta; Daroit, Daniel J; Correa, Ana P F; Meira, Stela M M; Mosquera, Mauricio; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-09-25

    The antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of feather hydrolysates obtained with the bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. kr6 were investigated. Keratin hydrolysates were produced with different concentrations of thermally denatured feathers (10-75 g l(-1)) and initial pH values (6.0-9.0). Soluble proteins accumulated in high amounts in media with 50 and 75 g l(-1) of feathers, reaching values of 18.5 and 22 mg ml(-1), respectively, after 48 hours of cultivation. In media with 50 g l(-1) of feathers, initial pH had minimal effect after 48 hours. Maximal protease production was observed after 24 hours of cultivation, and feather concentration and initial pH values showed no significant effect on enzyme yields at this time. Feather hydrolysates displayed in vitro antioxidant properties, and optimal antioxidant activities were observed in cultures with 50 g l(-1) feathers, at initial pH 8.0, after 48 hours growth at 30°C. Also, feather hydrolysates were demonstrated to inhibit the angiotesin I-converting enzyme by 65% and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by 44%. The bioconversion of an abundant agroindustrial waste such as chicken feathers can be utilized as a strategy to obtain hydrolysates with antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Feather hydrolysates might be employed as supplements in animal feed, and also as a potential source of bioactive molecules for feed, food and drug development. PMID:25038398

  12. Surface display of a bifunctional glutathione synthetase on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting chicken feather hydrolysate into glutathione.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhiqi; Tan, Hongming; Zhou, Shining; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-08-01

    The low economic profits of feather recycling lead that the large amount of feathers is currently discarded in China. To convert feather hydrolysates into GSH with high values, surface display of the bifunctional glutathione synthetase encoded by gcsgs from Streptococcus thermophilus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the potential in glutathione (GSH) production from feather hydrolysates were studied. The surface-displayed GCSGS could be used to convert feather hydrolysates into GSH. Results showed that 10 g/l of feather was converted into 321.8 mg/l GSH by the Trichoderma atroviride F6 and surface-displayed GCSGS in the study. Compared with production of intracellular GSH by S. cerevisiae from amino acids or feather hydrolysate, the concentration of GSH in the study was higher, and purification of GSH was more feasible. Due to the glycolytic pathway, the S. cerevisiae was used to generate ATP and cheap feather hydrolysate as precursors, the process for GSH production based on surface-displayed GCSGS is cheap and feasible. The process showed the potential to convert feather hydrolysates into GSH on an industrial scale. PMID:24706360

  13. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) hydrolysates inhibit inflammation in LPS-induced macrophages through suppression of NF-?B pathways.

    PubMed

    Oseguera-Toledo, Miguel E; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Dia, Vermont P; Amaya-Llano, Silvia L

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of protein hydrolysates of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties Negro 8025 and Pinto Durango and determine their effect on the markers of inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability was determined and the percentage of viable cells was calculated and concentrations that allowed >80% cell viability were used to determine the markers of inflammation. Alcalase hydrolysates and pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates showed the highest antioxidant capacity after 80 and 120min of hydrolysis, respectively. Alcalase hydrolysates of the common bean Pinto Durango at 120min inhibited inflammation, with IC50 values of 34.9±0.3, 13.9±0.3, 5.0±0.1 and 3.7±0.2?M, while var. Negro needed 43.6±0.2, 61.3±0.3, 14.2±0.3 and 48.2±0.1?M for the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin E2 production, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production, respectively. Also, hydrolysates significantly inhibited the transactivation of NF-?B and the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. In conclusion, hydrolysates from the common bean can be used to combat inflammatory and oxidative-associated diseases. PMID:25214111

  14. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  15. The nutritional value of a whey hydrolysate formula compared with a whey-predominant formula in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; Hauser, B; Blecker, U; Suys, B; Peeters, S; Keymolen, K; Loeb, H

    1993-07-01

    Forty-five healthy infants were included in a double-blind randomized prospective study comparing the nutritional value of two formulas. One group received a whey-predominant formula (n = 20); the other group received a whey hydrolysate formula (n = 25). Four infants of the whey hydrolysate group were dropped because they refused the formula. Although the mean daily volume intake was smaller with the whey hydrolysate formula compared with the whey-predominant formula (p < 0.001), the weight gain in the two groups after 13 weeks was identical (27.2 g/day in both groups; the mean difference in weight gain between the groups after 13 weeks was only 8 g). Length gain at 13 weeks was 10.4 cm in the whey-predominant formula group and 10.8 cm in the whey hydrolysate formula group (p = NS). After 13 weeks, blood was sampled for hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, glycemia, proteins, albumin, prealbumin, calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, iron, iron-binding capacity, zinc, and vitamins A and E. Except for the iron-binding capacity, zinc, urea (in plasma as well as in urine) (all three were higher in the whey hydrolysate group), no significant differences were found. According to these results, exclusive feeding of the whey hydrolysate formula from birth to 3 months of age to healthy infants appears to result in an adequate nutritional status, as assessed at 3 months of age. PMID:8350218

  16. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  17. Resinless section electron microscopy reveals the yeast cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Penman, J; Penman, S

    1997-04-15

    The cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially invisible using conventional microscopy techniques. A similar problem was solved for the mammalian cell cytoskeleton using resinless section electron microscopy, a technique applied here to yeast. In the resinless image, soluble proteins are no longer cloaked by embedding medium and must be removed by selective detergent extraction. In yeast, this requires breaching the cell wall by digesting with Zymolyase sufficiently to allow detergent extraction of the plasma membrane lipids. Gel electropherograms show that the extracted or "soluble" proteins are distinct from the retained or "structural" proteins that presumably comprise the cytoskeleton. These putative cytoskeleton proteins include the major portions of a 43-kDa protein, which is presumably actin, and of proteins in a band appearing at 55 kDa, as well as numerous less abundant, nonactin proteins. Resinless section electron micrographs show a dense, three-dimensional web of anastomosing, polymorphic filaments bounded by the remnant cell wall. Although the filament network is very heterogenous, there appear to be two principal classes of filament diameters-5 nm and 15-20 nm-which may correspond to actin and intermediate filaments, respectively. A large oval region of lower filament density probably corresponds to the vacuole, and an electron dense spheroidal body, 300-500 nm in diameter, is likely the nucleus. The techniques detailed in this report afford new approaches to the study of yeast cytoarchitecture. PMID:9108046

  18. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

  20. Biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Su, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2009-12-01

    A "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. In this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with Cellulomonas uda E3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees C), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees C), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. This temperature-shift strategy was shown to markedly increase the reducing sugar (especially, monosaccharide and disaccharide) concentration in the hydrolysate while hydrolyzing pure (carboxymethyl-cellulose, xylan, avicel and cellobiose) and natural (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse and Napier-grass) cellulosic materials. The cellulosic hydrolysates from CMC and xylan were successfully converted to H(2) via dark fermentation with Clostridium butyricum CGS5, attaining a maximum hydrogen yield of 4.79 mmol H(2)/g reducing sugar. PMID:19604692

  1. Biocatalytic conversion of poultry processing leftovers: Optimization of hydrolytic conditions and peptide hydrolysate characterization.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, I V; Sforza, S; Lambertini, F; Ismailova, D Yu; Khotchenkov, V P; Volik, V G; Dossena, A; Popov, V O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-04-15

    Peptide hydrolysate (PH) was produced by deep controllable bioconversion of poultry processing leftovers (broiler necks), by means of a multienzyme composition, containing four commercially available enzyme preparations (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Protamex). The design of multienzyme composition (MEC) was applied to yield a hydrolysate with adjusted properties, including minimized antigenicity and bitterness. The protein recovery was optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design. The individual and interactive effects of hydrolysis conditions (time, hydromodule and MEC dosage) were studied. The experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA method and a well-predictive, second order polynomial model was developed using multiple regression analysis. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were found to be: hydrolysis time 3h, hydromodule 2.25l/kg and dosage of MEC 0.25%. The corresponding predicted value for protein recovery was 75.34%, 2 times higher compared to traditional long-term heating hydrolysis. The PH obtained is a low allergenic product with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26616995

  2. Pyrochars from bioenergy residue as novel bio-adsorbents for lignocellulosic hydrolysate detoxification.

    PubMed

    Monlau, F; Sambusiti, C; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Solhy, A; Barakat, A

    2015-07-01

    The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. PMID:25863902

  3. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  4. Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is present in high concentrations in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis and the connective tissues of the dermis. It is associated with many beneficial biological activities including water retention, maintenance of various cellular functions, and skin homeostasis. Puerariae Radix (PR), a Chinese herb and a popular food in Asia, is used for various medicinal purposes including anti-hypertension, anti-angina pectoris and anti-dipsotropic. PR is rich in isoflavone glycosides like genistin and daidzin as soya. In this study, Bifidobactericum breve CCRC 14061 and CCRC 11846 were used for the fermentation of PR; moreover, acid was used to hydrolyze PR decoction. Genistein and daidzein in the hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The HA production in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) was measured after 48 hours incubation with PR and its hydrolysate, respectively. HA was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and retinoic acid was used as the positive control. After fermentation with Bifidobactericum breve, the contents of daidzein and genistein were increased 785% and 1,010% by CCRC 14061, and 192% and 406% by CCRC 11846, respectively, whereas after acid hydrolysis, only daidzein was increased by 990%. The production of HA in NHEK was increased after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 14061, acid hydrolysate, PR decoction and retinoic acid (22+/- 0.2%), whereas no increase of HA concentration was found after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 11846. Furthermore, the PR hydrolysate stimulated the HA production of NHEK, and the effect was dose-dependent (18.6%-83.9%). In conclusion, PR preparations would stimulate HA production in NHEK cells which might be used as a new cosmetic ingredient in moisturizers and an anti-aging agent. PMID:20128051

  5. Antioxidant Effect and Functional Properties of Hydrolysates Derived from Egg-White Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae-Yeon; Jo, Kyungae; Cho, So Young; Kim, Jin Man; Lim, Kwangsei; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized commercially available proteolytic enzymes to prepare egg-white protein hydrolysates (EPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis. The antioxidant effect and functionalities of the resultant products were then investigated. Treatment with Neutrase yielded the most ?-amino groups (6.52 mg/mL). Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Protamex, and Ficin showed similar degrees of ?-amino group liberation (3.19-3.62 mg/mL). Neutrase treatment also resulted in the highest degree of hydrolysis (23.4%). Alcalase and Ficin treatment resulted in similar degrees of hydrolysis. All hydrolysates, except for the Flavourzyme hydrolysate, had greater radical scavenging activity than the control. The Neutrase hydrolysate showed the highest 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (IC50=3.6mg/mL). Therefore, Neutrase was identified as the optimal enzyme for hydrolyzing egg-white protein to yield antioxidant peptides. During Neutrase hydrolysis, the reaction rate was rapid over the first 4 h, and then subsequently declined. The IC50 value was lowest after the first hour (2.99 mg/mL). The emulsifying activity index (EAI) of EPH treated with Neutrase decreased, as the pH decreased. The EPH foaming capacity was maximal at pH 3.6, and decreased at an alkaline pH. Digestion resulted in significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The active peptides released from egg-white protein showed antioxidative activities on ABTS and DHHP radical. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products.

  6. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl? treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  7. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

  8. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  9. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B? (FB?), partially hydrolysed FB?, hydrolysed FB? and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB? on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Irene; Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Varga, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Christiane; Slavik, Veronika; Reisinger, Nicole; Malachová, Alexandra; Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week, urine and faeces samples were collected over 24?h and analysed for fumonisin metabolites as well as for the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio by validated LC-MS/MS based methods. While the latter was significantly increased in the FB1 positive control group, the Sa/So ratios of the partially and fully hydrolysed fumonisins were indifferent from the negative control group. Although NDF was partly cleaved during digestion, the liberated amounts of FB1 did not raise the Sa/So ratio. These results show that the investigated alkaline and thermal processing products of FB1 were, at the tested concentrations, non-toxic for rats, and suggest that according food processing can reduce fumonisin toxicity for humans. PMID:25475052

  10. Physical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe; Blecker, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of ?-d-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that ?-d-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12mPas and a high degree of brightness of extracted ?-d-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast ?-d-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26471666

  11. Metabolism of Multiple Aromatic Compounds in Corn Stover Hydrolysate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Austin, Samantha; Kontur, Wayne S; Ulbrich, Arne; Oshlag, J Zachary; Zhang, Weiping; Higbee, Alan; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Hodge, David B; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-07-21

    Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates hold great potential as a feedstock for microbial biofuel production, due to their high concentration of fermentable sugars. Present at lower concentrations are a suite of aromatic compounds that can inhibit fermentation by biofuel-producing microbes. We have developed a microbial-mediated strategy for removing these aromatic compounds, using the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. When grown photoheterotrophically in an anaerobic environment, R. palustris removes most of the aromatics from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH), while leaving the sugars mostly intact. We show that R. palustris can metabolize a host of aromatic substrates in ACSH that have either been previously described as unable to support growth, such as methoxylated aromatics, and those that have not yet been tested, such as aromatic amides. Removing the aromatics from ACSH with R. palustris, allowed growth of a second microbe that could not grow in the untreated ACSH. By using defined mutants, we show that most of these aromatic compounds are metabolized by the benzoyl-CoA pathway. We also show that loss of enzymes in the benzoyl-CoA pathway prevents total degradation of the aromatics in the hydrolysate, and instead allows for biological transformation of this suite of aromatics into selected aromatic compounds potentially recoverable as an additional bioproduct. PMID:26121369

  12. Optimization of the Preparation of Fish Protein Anti-Obesity Hydrolysates Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yanping; Peng, Chen; Wang, Jinju

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not significant, and the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis by alkaline protease were initial pH 11, temperature 39 °C, enzyme dosage 122 U/mL and 10 h of hydrolysis time. Under these conditions, the porcine pancreas lipase and the ?-amylase inhibitory rate could reach 53.04% ± 1.32% and 20.03 ± 0.89%, while predicted value were 54.63% ± 1.75%, 21.22% ± 0.70%, respectively. In addition, Lineweaver-Burk plots showed noncompetitive inhibition. The Ki value calculated was 84.13 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that fish water-soluble protein could be used for obtaining anti-obesity hydrolysates. PMID:23377020

  13. In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of fermentatively and enzymatically prepared chicken liver protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Elias, Mercy; Jini, R; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-12-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared from chicken liver using fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis. The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM5368 was employed in the fermentation process and a commercial protease (Alcalase® 2.5) was used in enzymatic hydrolysis. Chicken liver hydrolysates prepared by fermentation (FCLH) and enzymatic hydrolysis (ECLH) revealed appreciable amounts of protein [55.85 and 61.34 %; on dry weight basis, respectively]. Fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 14.3 and 26.12 % of degree of hydrolysis. Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging of superoxide, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals were determined for both FCLH & ECLH. FCLH & ECLH showed total antioxidant activity of 0.99 and 1.13 ?g AAE mg(-1) proteins, respectively; while, they scavenged 96.14 and 92.76 % of DPPH radicals respectively. FCLH showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity (32.16 %) than ECLH (19.29 %). Superoxide anion scavenging activity of FCLH & ECLH were found to be 95.02 & 88.94 %, respectively. Residues obtained after both treatments also exhibited antioxidant activities. FCLH reported highest antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes (30 mm); while, ECLH showed antibacterial activity only against Micrococcus luteus (12 mm). Both hydrolysates have the potential to be a protein rich ingredient for use in formulated foods and possible help in reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26604378

  14. Detoxification of biomass hydrolysates with nucleophilic amino acids enhances alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Carvin, Jamarius; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds generated in biomass pretreatment hinder the biochemical conversion of biomass hydrolysates to biofuels. A novel approach of detoxifying hydrolysates with amino acids for ethanol production was developed. Among the 20 amino acids assessed for their detoxification efficiency and nucleophilicity, cysteine was the most effective one. It increased both ethanol productivity and final yield of biomass hydrolysates from 0.18 (untreated) to 1.77 g/L/h and from 0.02 to 0.42 g/g, respectively. Detoxification efficiency was followed by histidine and it increased the final yield to 0.42 g/g, then by lysine, tryptophan and asparagine. It was observed all five effective amino acids contained reactive side-chain functional groups, which played important roles in the amino acid detoxification reaction. The study further showed cysteine and glycine detoxifications were temperature and pH dependent. The mechanistic study using mass spectrometry revealed thiazolidine carboxylic acid, a Schiff base, was formed by condensation of aldehyde and cysteine. PMID:25812813

  15. Encapsulation of Phaseolus lunatus Protein Hydrolysate with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Segura Campos, Maira Rubí; Betancur Ancona, David Abram; Chel Guerrero, Luis Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of recent research has been to seek alternative therapeutic treatments; for this reason, the use of protein hydrolysates from diverse sources has been studied. A way to guarantee that these treatments reach the site of action is through protection with covers, such as microcapsules. Therefore, proteins from the legume Phaseolus lunatus were hydrolyzed and encapsulated with a blend of Delonix regia carboxymethylated gum/sodium alginate (50?:?50?w/w). Hydrolysis release conditions in a simulated gastrointestinal system were obtained using CaCl2 concentrations as the main factor, indicating that lower CaCl2 concentrations lead to an increased hydrolysis release. Beads obtained with 1.0?mM of CaCl2 exhibited a better hydrolysate release rate under intestinal simulated conditions and the proteins maintained an IC50 of 2.9?mg/mL. Capsules obtained with the blend of Delonix regia carboxymethylated gum/sodium alginate would be used for the controlled delivery of hydrolysates with potential use as nutraceutical or therapeutic agents. PMID:25937975

  16. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51mmHg. PMID:26617047

  17. Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Dey, Satya S; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%) and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis by response surface methodology using a central composite design. A model equation was proposed to determine effects of temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate ratio and time on DH where optimum values found to be 59.37 °C, 8.25, 1.84% and 84.42 min. for maximum degree of hydrolysis 33.13% respectively. The model showed a good fit in experimental data because 92.13% of the variability within the range of values studied could be explained by it. The protein hydrolysate obtained contained high protein content (72.3%) and amino acid (529.93 mg/gm) of which essential amino acid and flavour amino acid were was 54.67-55.93% and 39.27-38.32% respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2.99) and chemical score (1.05) of hydrolysate was suitable enough to recommend as a functional food additive. PMID:24426043

  18. Rapid determination of furfural in biomass hydrolysate by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2010-11-26

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for rapid determination of furfural in the biomass hydrolysate. The data show that a near-complete mass transfer of furfural in the sample from biomass hydrolysate to the vapor phase (headspace) was achieved within 3 min at 105°C when a very small (<40 ?L) sample was added to a 20 mL headspace sample vial. The acid-catalyzed furfural decomposition under these conditions was negligible. The furfural in the vapor phase was then determined by HS-GC using a flame ionization detector. The results showed that the method has an excellent measurement precision (RSD<0.5%) and accuracy (recovery=100.2±1.7%) for furfural quantification in carbohydrate hydrolysate samples. The method requires no sample pretreatment, so it is simple, rapid and accurate, and suitable for applications in lignocellulosic biomass conversion to fuel ethanol or other high value-added products. PMID:20970806

  19. Biobutanol production from corn stover hydrolysate pretreated with recycled ionic liquid by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ji-Cai; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In this study, corn stover (CS) hydrolysates, pretreated by fresh and recycled ionic liquid (IL) [Bmim][Cl], were utilized in butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. An efficient CS pretreatment procedure using [Bmim][Cl] was developed, giving a glucose concentration of 18.7gL(-1) using ten times recycled [Bmim][Cl], representing about 77% of that produced with fresh IL (24.2gL(-1)). Fermentation of hydrolysate I (pretreated by fresh IL) resulted in 7.4gL(-1) butanol with a yield of 0.21ggtotal-sugar(-1) and a productivity of 0.11gL(-1)h(-1), while 7.9gL(-1) butanol was achieved in fermentation using hydrolysate II (pretreated by ten times reused IL) with similar levels of acetone and ethanol, as well as yield and productivity. This study provides evidence for the efficient utilization of IL in CS pretreatment for biobutanol fermentation. PMID:26318847

  20. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  1. Acid trehalase in yeasts and filamentous fungi: localization, regulation and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Parrou, Jean Luc; Jules, Matthieu; Beltran, Gemma; François, Jean

    2005-04-01

    Yeasts and filamentous fungi are endowed with two different trehalose-hydrolysing activities, termed acid and neutral trehalases according to their optimal pH for enzymatic activity. A wealth of information already exists on fungal neutral trehalases, while data on localization, regulation and function of fungal acid trehalases have remained elusive. The gene encoding the latter enzyme has now been isolated from two yeast species and two filamentous fungi, and sequences encoding putative acid trehalase can be retrieved from available public sequences. Despite weak similarities between amino acids sequences, this type of trehalase potentially harbours either a transmembrane segment or a signal peptide at the N-terminal sequence, as deduced from domain prediction algorithms. This feature, together with the demonstration that acid trehalase from yeasts and filamentous fungi is localized at the cell surface, is consistent with its main role in the utilisation of exogenous trehalose as a carbon source. The growth on this disaccharide is in fact pretty effective in most fungi except in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast species actually exhibits a "Kluyver effect" on trehalose. Moreover, an oscillatory behaviour reminiscent of what is observed in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures at low dilution rate is also observed in batch growth on trehalose. Finally, the S. cerevisiae acid trehalase may also participate in the catabolism of endogenous trehalose by a mechanism that likely requires the export of the disaccharide, its extracellular hydrolysis, and the subsequent uptake of the glucose released. Based on these recent findings, we suggest to rename "acid" and "neutral" trehalases as "extracellular" and "cytosolic" trehalases, which is more adequate to describe their localization and function in the fungal cell. PMID:15780651

  2. Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

  3. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  4. Coherent regulation in yeast’s cell-cycle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Ne?e; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan

    2015-05-01

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast’s cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield an exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  5. Assessment of conventional and novel extraction techniques on extraction efficiency of five anthraquinones from Rheum emodi.

    PubMed

    Arvindekar, Aditya U; Pereira, Galvina R; Laddha, Kirti S

    2015-10-01

    Rheum emodi is principally known to consist 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones (DHAQs) that find immense use in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries and in herbal medication and food sector. The aim of this study was to compare non-conventional and classical methods for extraction of anthraquinones from R. emodi. Optimisation of the extraction parameters for various methods was done and their extraction efficiency was evaluated. In preliminary screening experiments, choice of solvent and solid : solvent ratio was optimised. Comparison of extraction efficiency for classical methods like maceration, heat-reflux, soxhletion and non-conventional methods like ultra-sonication and sublimation was done for five DHAQs - aloe emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion using HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection in native and acid hydrolysed samples. It was observed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of anthraquinones with a solid : solvent ratio of 1:20. A prior acid hydrolysis led to significant increase in anthraquinone extraction. Among the extraction methods heat reflux for 45 min was the most prominent extraction method with highest recovery of the DHAQs. In ultrasonic assisted extraction, an increase in the anthraquinone extraction was seen till 45 min after which the concentration declined. A novel, solvent-free, green and selective method of extraction by sublimation was found to be effective for extraction of anthraquinones. PMID:26396403

  6. Feature extraction Feature extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Feature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make (hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! · Pros

  7. Feature extraction Feature extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Feature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make (hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · Pros

  8. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 ?m plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  9. Yeast cell wall and live yeast products and their combination in broiler diets formulated with weekly ingredient variations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J; Hashim, M; Haq, A; Bailey, C A

    2015-10-01

    A 6-week broiler study was conducted to evaluate whether subjecting the intestinal microflora of broilers to the effect of weekly variations in feed ingredients could be ameliorated by the inclusion of yeast-derived feed additives: a yeast cell wall extract (YCW), live yeast culture (LY) or their combination (YCW + LY). Recent changes in ingredient prices have motivated producers to formulate diets not necessarily based primarily on corn and soya bean meal. Intestinal microflora in birds can vary significantly based on the ingredient composition of their diet, and the make-up of the flora can influence overall bird performance. Within the three nutrient phases of this study, birds were fed either a traditional corn-soya ingredient profile or a variable-ingredient regimen, which had weekly changes in the ingredient composition. There were consistent ameliorative effects of the yeast treatments in both the corn-soya and the variable-ingredient groups throughout all 6 weeks, with the YCW + LY combination showing a reduced effect when compared to either product fed alone. The effectiveness of YCW and LY on ameliorating the effects of weekly ingredient variations appeared most effective during the starter and grower phases, but was less significant during the sixth week. PMID:25939376

  10. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  11. Transcription Regulatory Networks in Yeast Cell Cycle

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER 4 Transcription Regulatory Networks in Yeast Cell Cycle Nilanjana Banerjee and Michael Q. Zhang* Introduction T he functional genomics techniques for mapping transcription regulatory networks organisms. As a consequence, yeast is particularly amenable for analyz- ing transcriptional regulatory

  12. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  13. Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    106 Pre-Absorbing Antibody with Yeast Cells Preparation of Fixed Yeast 1. Plan to do steps 1-10 in the yeast immunofluorescence method. But, start with 100 mls of cells at OD600=0.2. Then, do all steps in quadruplicate. Do pretreatment, and digest cells for 10 minutes. 2. Pool all yeast in SPC + Pics in one

  14. 280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    280 EXPRESSION IN YEAST [23] [23] Manipulating Yeast Genome Using Plasmid Vectors By TIM STEARNS, HONG MA, and DAVID BOTSTEIN The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a popular high status of yeast as an experimental system is in large part due to the work of the many geneticists

  15. Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jo

    Yeast through the ages: A statistical analysis of genetic changes in aging yeast A. Wise J. Hardin focuses on the analysis of data from a yeast DNA microarray experiment. The biological question that motivates our research is "What genetic changes in yeast happen over time?" In order to explore the research

  16. APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates. Yeast cells grow well on a minimal medium containing dextrose (glucose) as a carbon source and salts

  17. Protein Affinity Chromatography with Purified Yeast DNA Polymerase ? Detects Proteins that Bind to DNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeff; Formosa, Tim

    1992-02-01

    We have overexpressed the POL1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified the resulting DNA polymerase ? polypeptide in an apparently intact form. We attached the purified DNA polymerase covalently to an agarose matrix and used this matrix to chromatograph extracts prepared from yeast cells. At least six proteins bound to the yeast DNA polymerase ? matrix that did not bind to a control matrix. We speculate that these proteins might be DNA polymerase ? accessory proteins. Consistent with this interpretation, one of the binding proteins, which we have named POB1 (polymerase one binding), is required for normal chromosome transmission. Mutations in this gene cause increased chromosome loss and an abnormal cell morphology, phenotypes that also occur in the presence of mutations in the yeast ? or ? polymerase genes. These results suggest that the interactions detected by polymerase affinity chromatography are biologically relevant and may help to illuminate the architecture of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery.

  18. Consumption of partially hydrolysed guar gum stimulates Bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Sumitani, K; Tokunaga, M; Ishihara, N; Okubo, T; Fujisawa, T

    2015-01-01

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fibre that is non-digestible in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that PHGG benefits the health of hosts by altering the colonic microbiota and stimulating short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. However, it remains unclear which bacteria ferment PHGG in the human large intestine. In this study, the effect of PHGG on faecal bacteria was analysed to specify the bacteria that contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. Ten healthy volunteers consumed PHGG (6 g/day) for 2 weeks. Faeces were collected at 2 weeks prior to consumption, at the end of 2 weeks of consumption, and 2 weeks after consumption of PHGG. Bacterial DNA was extracted from these collected faeces and subjected to real-time PCR using bacterial group- or species-specific primers. The copy number of the butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene and the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium, the Clostridium coccoides group, the Roseburia/ Eubacterium rectale group, Eubacterium hallii, and butyrate-producing bacterium strain SS2/1 were significantly increased by the intake of PHGG. Other bacteria and bacterial groups were not significantly influenced by the intake of PHGG. It was believed that the Roseburia/E. rectale group bacteria, Bifidobacterium, the lactate-utilising, butyrate-producing bacteria, E. hallii and bacterium strain SS2/1, would contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. PHGG may benefit health by stimulating Bifidobacterium and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine. PMID:25519526

  19. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  20. SUPPLEMENTARY METHODS The Yeast Flux Balance Model

    E-print Network

    Kishony, Roy

    -14 .The yeast Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) model used in the present work is based on the stoichiometricSUPPLEMENTARY METHODS The Yeast Flux Balance Model Details about Flux Balance Analysis (FBA-7 . In particular, global-scale gene deletions in silico experiments were performed in yeast 8-10 and E. coli11

  1. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  2. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  3. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  4. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  5. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  6. YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    YEASTBOOK PERSPECTIVES Yeast: An Experimental Organism for 21st Century Biology David Botstein*,1, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT In this essay, we revisit the status of yeast as a model system for biology. We first summarize important contributions of yeast to eukaryotic biology that we anticipated

  7. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  8. Rewiring yeast sugar transporter preference through modifying a conserved protein motif.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric M; Tong, Alice; Bui, Hang; Spofford, Caitlin; Alper, Hal S

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of exogenous sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates, such as xylose, must be improved before yeast can serve as an efficient biofuel and biochemical production platform. In particular, the first step in this process, the molecular transport of xylose into the cell, can serve as a significant flux bottleneck and is highly inhibited by other sugars. Here we demonstrate that sugar transport preference and kinetics can be rewired through the programming of a sequence motif of the general form G-G/F-XXX-G found in the first transmembrane span. By evaluating 46 different heterologously expressed transporters, we find that this motif is conserved among functional transporters and highly enriched in transporters that confer growth on xylose. Through saturation mutagenesis and subsequent rational mutagenesis, four transporter mutants unable to confer growth on glucose but able to sustain growth on xylose were engineered. Specifically, Candida intermedia gxs1 Phe(38)Ile(39)Met(40), Scheffersomyces stipitis rgt2 Phe(38) and Met(40), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hxt7 Ile(39)Met(40)Met(340) all exhibit this phenotype. In these cases, primary hexose transporters were rewired into xylose transporters. These xylose transporters nevertheless remained inhibited by glucose. Furthermore, in the course of identifying this motif, novel wild-type transporters with superior monosaccharide growth profiles were discovered, namely S. stipitis RGT2 and Debaryomyces hansenii 2D01474. These findings build toward the engineering of efficient pentose utilization in yeast and provide a blueprint for reprogramming transporter properties. PMID:24344268

  9. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 ?g g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard. PMID:26212980

  10. Enhanced lipid production with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate by Rhodotorula glutinis using a high cell density culture strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, energy crisis and environmental issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming, etc. has roused peoples' concern. Biodiesel, as renewable energy, has attracted much attention to deal with such problems. This work studied the lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate. The results indicated that R. glutinis had high tolerance to the inhibitors in corncob hydrolysate and it could utilize undetoxified corncob hydrolysate directly for lipid production. The cell grew well with undetoxified hydrolysate in the batch culture of 5L fermentor with the optimized C/N ratio of 75, lipid titer and lipid content reached 5.5g/L and 36.4%, respectively. High cell density culture with two-stage nitrogen feeding strategy was studied to enhance the lipid production, biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of 70.8, 33.5g/L and 47.2% were obtained. The results indicated the potential application for lipid production by R. glutinis with corncob hydrolysate directly. PMID:25585258

  11. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2014-09-01

    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media. PMID:24983690

  12. Process for Assembly and Transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Synthetic Yeast Artificial Chromosome Containing a Multigene Cassette to Express Enzymes That Enhance Xylose Utilization Designed for an Automated Platform.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; Cox, Elby J; Bang, Sookie S; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Saha, Badal C; Qureshi, Nasib; Gibbons, William R; Fry, Michelle R; Moser, Bryan R; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Sterner, David E; Butt, Tauseef R; Riedmuller, Steven B; Jones, Marjorie A; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M

    2015-12-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system in yeast and to design an assembly process suitable for an automated platform. Expression of XI and XKS from the YAC was confirmed by Western blot and PCR analyses. The recombinant and wild-type strains showed similar growth on plates containing hexose sugars, but only recombinant grew on D-xylose and L-arabinose plates. In glucose fermentation, doubling time (4.6 h) and ethanol yield (0.44 g ethanol/g glucose) of recombinant were comparable to wild type (4.9 h and 0.44 g/g). In whole-corn hydrolysate, ethanol yield (0.55 g ethanol/g [glucose + xylose]) and xylose utilization (38%) for recombinant were higher than for wild type (0.47 g/g and 12%). In hydrolysate from spent coffee grounds, yield was 0.46 g ethanol/g (glucose + xylose), and xylose utilization was 93% for recombinant. These results indicate introducing a YAC expressing XI and XKS enhanced xylose utilization without affecting integrity of the host strain, and the process provides a potential platform for automated synthesis of a YAC for expression of multiple optimized genes to improve yeast strains. PMID:25720598

  13. Looking beyond Saccharomyces: the potential of non-conventional yeast species for desirable traits in bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Radecka, Dorota; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Mateo, Raquel Quintilla; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2015-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for millennia in the production of food and beverages and is by far the most studied yeast species. Currently, it is also the most used microorganism in the production of first-generation bioethanol from sugar or starch crops. Second-generation bioethanol, on the other hand, is produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks that are pretreated and hydrolyzed to obtain monomeric sugars, mainly D-glucose, D-xylose and L-arabinose. Recently, S. cerevisiae recombinant strains capable of fermenting pentose sugars have been generated. However, the pretreatment of the biomass results in hydrolysates with high osmolarity and high concentrations of inhibitors. These compounds negatively influence the fermentation process. Therefore, robust strains with high stress tolerance are required. Up to now, more than 2000 yeast species have been described and some of these could provide a solution to these limitations because of their high tolerance to the most predominant stress conditions present in a second-generation bioethanol reactor. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the non-conventional yeast species showing unusual tolerance to these stresses, namely Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (osmotolerance), Kluyveromyces marxianus and Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha (thermotolerance), Dekkera bruxellensis (ethanol tolerance), Pichia kudriavzevii (furan derivatives tolerance) and Z. bailii (acetic acid tolerance). PMID:26126524

  14. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in bakers' yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhubo; Wang, Beibei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xianan; Liu, Tao; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing ?-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2?mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9?mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4?mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources. PMID:24424342

  15. Prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goats fed Clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation.

    PubMed

    Murdiati, T B; McSweeney, C S; Campbell, R S; Stoltz, D S

    1990-10-01

    Although plants containing hydrolysable tannins can be hepatotoxic, such poisoning has not been reported in Indonesia despite the presence of these plants. In order to determine the hepatotoxic potential of Indonesian plants, goats were intoxicated experimentally with the Indonesian plant Climedia hirta (harendong), which contained 19% hydrolysable tannin. The prophylactic effect of Ca(OH)2 supplementation on the disease was also examined. Two groups of goats were fed for 28 days with grain-based pellets containing 50% harendong leaf or 50% harendong leaf + 8% Ca(OH)2. Two control groups were fed similar pellets containing 50% of the non-toxic elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with and without 8% Ca(OH)2. Serum enzymes indicative of liver damage were monitored during the experiment and histopathological examination of selected tissues was done at the conclusion of the experiment. In goats given unsupplemented harendong pellets there was a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase from 50.2 and 20.6 U l-1 to 219.6 and 63.3 U l-1, respectively. These changes were associated with moderate to severe nuclear plemorphism, vacuolation and megalocytosis of hepatocytes and deposits of brown pigment in the Kupffer cells. There was also nephrosis of the renal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, abomasitis and enteritis. Biochemical and histological changes were reduced significantly in the harendong + Ca(OH)2 group and virtually absent from control groups. It is concluded that hydrolysable tannins in harendong leaf are hepato- and nephrotoxic and associated with gastroenteritis, but that poisoning may be ameliorated by Ca(OH)2 supplementation. PMID:2254583

  16. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ward, David P; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2015-09-11

    A critical step in the bioprocessing of sustainable biomass feedstocks, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP), is the isolation of the component sugars from the hydrolysed polysaccharides. This facilitates their subsequent conversion into higher value chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Separation methodologies such as centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) offer an alternative to traditional resin-based chromatographic techniques for multicomponent sugar separations. Highly polar two-phase systems containing ethanol and aqueous ammonium sulphate are examined here for the separation of monosaccharides present in hydrolysed SBP pectin: l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an effective phase system modifier improving monosaccharide separation. The best phase system identified was ethanol:DMSO:aqueous ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) (0.8:0.1:1.8, v:v:v) which enabled separation of the SBP monosaccharides by CPC (200mL column) in ascending mode (upper phase as mobile phase) with a mobile phase flow rate of 8mLmin(-1). A mixture containing all four monosaccharides (1.08g total sugars) in the proportions found in hydrolysed SBP was separated into three main fractions; a pure l-rhamnose fraction (>90%), a mixed l-arabinose/d-galactose fraction and a pure d-galacturonic acid fraction (>90%). The separation took less than 2h demonstrating that CPC is a promising technique for the separation of these sugars with potential for application within an integrated, whole crop biorefinery. PMID:26278358

  17. Origin of d-amino acids detected in the acid hydrolysates of purified Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Homma, Hiroshi; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2015-12-10

    In previous report, we detected d-amino acids in the acid hydrolysates of purified recombinant ?-galactosidase. Here, we employed a deuterium-hydrogen exchange method to discriminate innate d-amino acids from those generated during hydrolytic incubation. After hydrolysis of ?-galactosidase in DCl/D2O, amino acids were derivatized with NBD-F and separated on a reverse-phase column, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a chiral column. Our results show an absence of innate d-amino acid residues in the protein and suggest that the protein undergoes isomerization during a very early stage of hydrolytic incubation. PMID:25999172

  18. Comparison of methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate for bacterial cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. In order to decrease the production cost of bacterial cellulose, lignocellulose-based media have considerable potential as alternative cost-effective feedstocks. However, pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose to sugars also generate fermentation inhibitors. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is needed to achieve efficient production of BC. In this investigation, different methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate prior to production of BC were compared with respect to effects on potential inhibitors and fermentable sugars, sugar consumption, BC yield, and cell viability. The objectives were to identify efficient detoxification methods and to achieve a better understanding of the role played by different inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Results In a first series of experiments, the detoxification methods investigated included treatments with activated charcoal, alkali [sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide (overliming), and ammonium hydroxide], anion and cation ion-exchange resins, and reducing agents (sodium sulfite and sodium dithionite). A second series of detoxification experiments included enzymatic treatments (laccase and peroxidase). The potential inhibitors studied included aliphatic acids, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. The best effects in the first series of detoxification experiments were achieved with activated charcoal and anion exchanger. After detoxification with activated charcoal the BC yield was 8.2 g/L, while it was 7.5 g/L in a reference medium without inhibitors. Treatments with anion exchanger at pH 10 and pH 5.5 gave a BC yield of 7.9 g/L and 6.3 g/L, respectively. The first series of experiments suggested that there was a relationship between the BC yield and phenolic inhibitors. Therefore, the second series of detoxification experiments focused on treatments with phenol-oxidizing enzymes. The BC yield in the laccase-detoxified hydrolysate reached 5.0-5.5 g/L after 14 days cultivation, which demonstrated the important inhibitory role played by phenolic compounds. Conclusions The investigation shows that detoxification methods that efficiently remove phenolics benefit bacterial growth and BC production. Negative effects of salts could not be excluded and the osmotolerance of Gluconacetobacter xylinus needs to be further investigated in the future. Combinations of detoxification methods that efficiently decrease the concentration of inhibitors remain as an interesting option. PMID:24119691

  19. Effect of alkaline cooking of maize on the content of fumonisins B1 and B2 and their hydrolysed forms.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, A; Lattanzio, V M T; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Pascale, M

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nixtamalization on the content of fumonisins (FBs), hydrolysed (HFBs) and partially hydrolysed (PHFBs) fumonisins in maize was investigated at laboratory-scale. Maize naturally contaminated with FBs and PHFBs was cooked with lime. Starting raw maize, steeping and washing waters and final masa fractions were analysed for toxin content. Control-cooking experiments without lime were also carried out. The nixtamalization reduced the amount of FBs and PHFBs in masa and converted them to HFBs. However, the three forms of fumonisins collected in all fractions amounted to 183%, indicating that nixtamalization made available forms of matrix-associated fumonisins that were then converted to their hydrolysed forms. Control-cooking enhanced FBs and PHFBs reduction, due to the solubility of fumonisins in water during the steeping process, but did not form HFBs. These findings indicate that benefits associated with enhancing the nutritional value of nixtamalized maize are also associated with a safer product in terms of fumonisin contamination. PMID:26304451

  20. Optimization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by rice dregs hydrolysates using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-qing; Xuan, Guo-dong; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Qi-he; Xu, Ying

    2005-06-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides have been shown to have antihypertensive effects and have been utilized for physiologically functional foods and pharmaceuticals. The ACE inhibitory ability of a hydrolysate is determined by its peptide composition. However, the peptide composition of a hydrolysate depends on proteolytic enzyme and the hydrolysis conditions. In this study, the effect of process conditions on the ACE inhibitory activity of rice dregs hydrolyzed with a trypsin was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. It was shown that the ACE inhibitory activity of rice dregs hydrolysates could be controlled by regulation of five process conditions. Hydrolysis conditions for optimal ACE inhibition were defined using the response surface model of fractional factorial design (FFD), steepest ascent design, and central composite design (CCD). PMID:15909335

  1. Functional properties of autolysate and enzymatic hydrolysates from yam tsukuneimo (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) tuber mucilage tororo: antioxidative activity and antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kai, Norihisa; Tanoue, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    Yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo hydrolysates were prepared by autolysis and three different peptic enzymes. Except for pepsin hydrolysate, tororo was perfectly digested. Each hydrolysate for 100 mg/ml significantly prolonged the induction period of auto-oxidation of linoleic acid, which was similar to 5 mM ascorbic acid. These hydrolysates also possessed high scavenging activities such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and DPPH radicals. Moreover, high antihypertensive activities were detected in these hydrolysates except for autolysate, which were similar to various fermented foods such as miso, natto, sake, cheese, and so on. Present findings suggest that yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo may be useful for preventing diseases associated with reactive oxygen species and blood pressure in the body system and it can fully absorb the useful components from it to digest using the gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25477651

  2. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2004-12-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities. PMID:15556087

  3. CPTC and NIST-sponsored Yeast Reference Material Now Publicly Available

    Cancer.gov

    Posted on February 15, 2010 The yeast protein extract (RM8323) developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the auspices of NCI's CPTC initiative is currently available to the public at https://www-s.nist.gov/srmors/view_detail.cfm?srm=8323.

  4. Angular and spectrally resolved investigations of yeast cells by light scattering microscopy and goniometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Julian; Müller, Dennis; Nothelfer, Steffen; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-07-01

    Spectrally and angular resolved light scattering from yeast cells was studied with a scattering microscope and a goniometer. Different cell models were investigated with help of analytical solutions of Maxwell's equations. It was found that extraction of precise morphological and optical cellular properties from the measured scattering patterns and phase functions requires more sophisticated cell models than standard Mie theory.

  5. Identification of a NF?B inhibitory peptide from tryptic ?-casein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, J; Klempt, M; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P Chr; Meisel, H

    2014-12-15

    Several bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of major milk proteins, requiring enzymatic proteolysis for release and activation. The present study aimed at the identification of potential anti-inflammatory activities in tryptic hydrolysates of bovine ?-casein. Inflammatory processes involve in most cases an activation of Nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B), which is a pro-inflammatory transcription factor of several genes. Hence, a NF?B reporter cell line was established, and TNF-? mediated activation of NF?B was used as a measurement. Bovine ?-casein (?-CN) was hydrolysed by trypsin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Total proteolysate as well as the fraction containing peptides between 1 and 5 kDa showed an inhibitory effect in the cell-based assay, while the fraction containing molecules smaller than 1 kDa did not. This anti-inflammatory effect was ascribed to a group of large, hydrophobic peptides, which were identified using LC-MS. The main peptide was synthesised and showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in HEK(nfkb-RE)-cells. Thus, for the first time, a casein-derived peptide having an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro has been identified. PMID:25038658

  6. Development of silane-hydrolysate binder for UV-resistant thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed characterizaton and formulation studies were performed on a methyltriakoxysilane hydrolysate as a binder for thermal control coatings. The binder was optimized by varying hydrolysis temperature, time, catalyst type, and water concentration. The candidate coating formulations, based on this binder with TiO2 pigment, were optimized via a detailed series of sprayed test panels that included the parameters of binder/pigment ratio, ethanol content, pigment particle size, coating thickness and cure conditions. A typical optimized coating was prepared by acetic acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyltriethoxysilane with 3.25 mol-equivalents of water over a 24 hour period at room temperature. The resulting hydrolysate was directly mixed with pre-milled TiO2 (12 grams pigment/26 grams binder) to yield a sprayable consistency. Panels were sprayed to result in a nominal cure coating thickness of 2 mils. Cure was affected by air drying for 24 hr at room temperature plus 72 hr at 150 F. These coatings are typically extremely tough and abrasion-resistant, with an absorptance (alpha) of 0.20 and emittance (e) of 0.89. No significant coating damage was observed in the mandrel bend test, even after exposure to thermal cycling from -160 to 160 F. Vacuum exposure of the coatings for 930 hours at 1 equivalent UV sun resulted in no visible degradation and no significant increase in absorptance.

  7. Heavy Metal Complexation of Thiol-Containing Peptides from Soy Glycinin Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiuzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming; Zhang, Caimeng; Kong, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Many thiol-containing molecules show heavy metal complexation ability and are used as antidotes. In this study, the potential function associated with thiol-containing peptides (TCPs) from soy protein hydrolysates as natural detoxicants for heavy metals is reported. TCPs enriched by Thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B covalent chromatography had different molecular weight distributions as well as different numbers of proton dissociable groups, depending on the proteases and degree of hydrolysis. The major contribution of sulfhydryl groups was confirmed by the largest pH decrease between 8.0 and 8.5 of the pH titration curves. The complexation of TCPs with heavy metalswas evaluated by stability constants (?n) of TCP-metal complexes whose stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 (ML) and 1:2 (ML2). TCPs from degree of hydrolysis of 25% hydrolysates gave high affinities towards Hg2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ (giving similar or even bigger lg? values than that of glutathione). A significantly positive correlation was found between the logarithm of stability constants for ML2 (lg?2) and the sulfhydryl group content. Molecular weight distribution of TCPs affected the complexation with Pb2+ notably more than Hg2+ and Cd2+. These results suggest that soy TCPs have the potential to be used in the formulation of functional foods to counteract heavy metal accumulation in humans. PMID:25867477

  8. Utilization of corncob acid hydrolysate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiong, Lian; Guo, Hai-Jun; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

    2015-02-01

    In this study, corncob acid hydrolysate was used as a substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. After 2 weeks' static fermentation, a BC yield of 4 g/L could be obtained. Both effects of medium composition and fermentation condition on the BC production were evaluated. Most extra substrates (carbon and nitrogen sources) except mannitol, butyric acid, and levulinic acid showed no effect on the improvement of BC yield. Fermentation condition including fermentation mode, inoculation concentration, and initial pH showed certain influence on the BC yield and thus should be well controlled. The analysis by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the BC sample had obvious nano-network structure, clear functional groups that were found in cellulose, and relatively high crystallinity and crystallinity index value. Moreover, the BC sample had great water-holding capacity. Overall, corncob acid hydrolysate could be one promising substrate for BC production. PMID:25422061

  9. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 ?g/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 ?g/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin ?+? conglutin. PMID:24128446

  10. Preparation of linear maltodextrins using a hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase with cyclodextrin- and starch-hydrolysing activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan

    2015-03-30

    A novel method for the preparation of linear maltodextrins from cyclodextrins and starch was proposed. To accomplish this process, an amylopullulanase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu) was characterized and used. CMApu with an estimated molecular mass of 62.7 kDa by SDS-PAGE had a maximal pullulan-hydrolysing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. It could also hydrolyse amylopectin (AP), starch, ?-CD and amylose (AM), in a decreasing order of relative activities from 88.96% to 57.17%. TLC and HPAEC analysis revealed that CMApu catalyzed the debranching and degrading reactions to produce linear malto-oligosaccharides (? G8-G1) from G8-?-CD and/or normal CDs, amylodextrins (DP6-96) from AM, and amylodextrins (DP1-76) from AP and potato starch. Our results showed that CMApu had a great potential for the industrial preparation of linear maltodextrins from normal starch instead of waxy starch, malto-oligosaccharides or sucrose. And the high optimal temperature of CMApu facilitated the simultaneous gelatinization and hydrolysis of cereal starch. PMID:25563953

  11. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactive peptides and hydrolysates from pulses and their potential use as functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive peptides (BPs) are amino acid sequences derived from food proteins. Their relevance lies in the biological activities they have once they are released from the parent protein. BPs or protein hydrolysates can be commercialized as nutraceutical products or functional ingredients according to their activities. Different food protein sources have been researched for their potential to generate BPs. However, with the exception of lunasin (derived from soy), animal protein sources have been predominantly exploited as commercial BPs sources. On the other hand, pulses have shown diverse BP contents without further impact on their commercialization. Pulses are a rich source of protein in the human diet and their consumption has been associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. The beneficial effect in human health has been related to their micronutrients, phytochemical bioactive compounds, and recently BPs. This article reviews the current literature about pulse protein hydrolysates and BPs with proved angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, cancer preventing, and other health promoting activities. Proteolysis process is commonly achieved by digestive and microorganism enzymes. BP purification and identification has consisted mainly on size segregation procedures followed by mass spectrometry techniques. Hydrolysis time, peptide size, and hydrophobicity are employed as process variants and structural features relevant for the BP activities. Finally, some considerations about industrial processing and BPs used as functional food ingredients were reviewed. PMID:24547749

  13. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 ?M trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  14. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of ?-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of ?-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and ?-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  15. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of gelatin hydrolysates and identification of bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Herregods, Griet; Van Camp, John; Morel, Nicole; Ghesquière, Bart; Gevaert, Kris; Vercruysse, Lieselot; Dierckx, Stephan; Quanten, Erwin; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-01-26

    In this project we report on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of a bovine gelatin hydrolysate (Bh2) that was submitted to further hydrolysis by different enzymes. The thermolysin hydrolysate (Bh2t) showed the highest in vitro ACE inhibitory activity, and interestingly a marked in vivo blood pressure-lowering effect was demonstrated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In contrast, Bh2 showed no effect in SHR, confirming the need for the extra thermolysin hydrolysis. Hence, an angiotensin I-evoked contractile response in isolated rat aortic rings was inhibited by Bh2t, but not by Bh2, suggesting ACE inhibition as the underlying antihypertensive mechanism for Bh2t. Using mass spectrometry, seven small peptides, AG, AGP, VGP, PY, QY, DY and IY or LY or HO-PY were identified in Bh2t. As these peptides showed ACE inhibitory activity and were more prominent in Bh2t than in Bh2, the current data provide evidence that these contribute to the antihypertensive effect of Bh2t. PMID:21174470

  16. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  17. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  18. Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, J.N.; Ireland, R.S.; Margaritis, A.; Lachance, M.A.

    1985-12-01

    Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined, 36 produced more than 1 g of ethanol liter/sup -1/ from 20 g of D-xylose liter/sup -1/, all under aerated conditions. Closer examination of the strains indicated that their time courses of D-xylose fermentation followed different patterns. Some strains produced more biomass than ethanol, and among these, ethanol may or may not be assimilated rapidly after depletion of D-xylose. Others produced more ethanol than biomass, but all catabolized ethanol after carbohydrate exhaustion. Ethanol production appeared best at low pH values and under mild aeration. Possible correlations between the nutritional profiles of the yeasts and their ability to produce ethanol from D-xylose were explored by multivariate analysis. D-Xylose appeared slightly better utilized by yeasts which rate poorly in terms of fermentation. The fermentation of D-glucose had no bearing on D-xylose fermentation. No specific nutritional trait could discriminate well between better D-xylose fermentors and other yeasts.

  19. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. 172.381 Section 172.381... Additives § 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers yeast. Vitamin D2 bakers yeast may be used safely in foods as a source...) Vitamin D2 bakers yeast is the substance produced by exposing bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...

  20. An indirect assay for volatile compound production in yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Davide; Walther, Andrea; Trost, Kajetan; Vrhovsek, Urska; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Traditional flavor analysis relies on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Here we describe an indirect method coupling volatile compound formation to an ARO9-promoter-LacZ reporter gene. The resulting ?-galactosidase activity correlated well with headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS/SPME) GC-MS data, particularly with respect to the formation of rose flavor. This tool enables large-scale screening of yeast strains and their progeny to identify the most flavor active strains. PMID:24424137

  1. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Burcoglu, Julianne; Zhao, Liang; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin ??. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence. PMID:26262643

  2. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Burcoglu, Julianne; Zhao, Liang; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin ??. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence. PMID:26262643

  3. Ethanol production by thermotolerant yeast and its UV resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Neelam, A; Amarjit, S

    1991-01-01

    Six thermotolerant yeasts were isolated at 37 degrees C from over-ripe grapes by serial dilution technique using glucose yeast extract medium. Purified yeast cultures were screened for ethanol production at 37 degrees C by batch fermentation, using cane molasses containing 20% sugars. Sugar conversion efficiency of these isolates varied from 66.0 to 88.5% and ethanol productivity from 1.11 to 1.73 ml/l/h. The highest ethanol producing isolate was exposed to UV radiations and 13 mutants were picked up from the UV treatment exhibiting 0.1 to 1.0%, survival. The UV mutants varied in cell size from parent as well as among themselves. Determination of ethanol produced by all the mutants revealed that only five mutants resulted in 4.5 to 6.2% increase in sugar conversion and 8.25 to 18.56% increase in ethanol concentration coupled with maximum ethanol productivity of 2.4 ml/l/h in 48 h of batch fermentation of cane molasses (20% sugars) at 37 degrees C temperature. PMID:1726618

  4. Yeast ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any... in food. (e) This regulation is issued prior to general evaluation of use of this ingredient in...

  9. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  10. Effect of spray drying on the sensory and physical properties of hydrolysed casein using gum arabic as the carrier.

    PubMed

    Subtil, S F; Rocha-Selmi, G A; Thomazini, M; Trindade, M A; Netto, F M; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2014-09-01

    This study was aimed at spray drying hydrolysed casein using gum Arabic as the carrier agent, in order to decrease the bitter taste. Three formulations with differing proportions of hydrolysed casein: gum Arabic (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70) were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility in water and in oil, particle size and distribution, particle morphology, thermal behaviour (DSC) and bitter taste by a trained sensory panel using a paired-comparison test (free samples vs. spray dried samples). The proportion of hydrolysed casein did not affect the morphology of the microspheres. The spray drying process increased product stability and modified the dissolution time, but had no effect on the ability of the material to dissolve in either water or oil. The sensory tests showed that the spray drying process using gum Arabic as the carrier was efficient in attenuating or masking the bitter taste of the hydrolysed casein. PMID:25190858

  11. Optimization study of ethanolic fermentation from oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chin, K L; H'ng, P S; Wong, L J; Tey, B T; Paridah, M T

    2010-05-01

    Ethanolic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out on three types of hydrolysates produced from lignocelulosic biomass which are commonly found in Malaysia such as oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood. The effect of fermentation temperature and pH of hydrolysate was evaluated to optimize the fermentation efficiency which defined as maximum ethanol yield in minimum fermentation time. The fermentation process using different temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 30 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius were performed on the prepared fermentation medium adjusted to pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. Results showed that the fermentation time was significantly reduced with the increase of temperature but an adverse reduction in ethanol yield was observed using temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. As the pH of hydrolysate became more acidic, the ethanol yield increased. Optimum fermentation efficiency for ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using S. cerevisiae can be obtained using 33.2 degrees Celsius and pH 5.3. PMID:20056407

  12. A TECHNIQUE TO RECOVER TRACER AS CARBOXYL-CARBON AND ALPHA-NITROGEN FROM AMINO ACIDS IN SOIL HYDROLYSATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotope analysis of biochemical compounds provides an unequivocal means for detecting assimilation of tracer C and N into microbial biomass. A diffusion method recently developed to determine amino acid-N by ninhydrin oxidation of soil hydrolysates was modified to permit simultaneous collection of ...

  13. Production of Antihypertensive Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Enriched Edible Yeast Using Gugija (Lycium chinesis Mill)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ran; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Won-Jong; Kim, Ha-Kun; Kwak, Hahn-Shik

    2010-01-01

    To produce bioactive compound enriched yeast using medicinal Gugiga (Lycium chinensis Mill), several edible Saccharomyces species were cultured in Gugija extracts added yeast extract, peptone and dextrose medium (GE - YEPD medium) at 30? for 24 hr, and their growth were determined. Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae K-7 and Sacchromyces cerevisiae ACTC 7904 were better than those of the other yeasts. Two yeasts were selected and then determined their some physiological functionalities after cultivated the yeasts in the GE - YEPD medium and compared those grown on YEPD medium. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of S. cerevisiae K-7 grown on GE - YEPD medium was about 20% higher than that grown on YEPD medium. Superoxide dismutase-like activity of S. cerevisiae ACTC 7904 was also about 12% more high. However, the other physiological functionalities were almost same or lower. Optimal addition concentration of Gugija extract was 10%, and maximally growth and ACE inhibitory activity of S. cerevisiae K-7 were shown when the strain was cultured in 10% Gugija extracts containing YEPD medium at 30? for 12 hr. PMID:23956656

  14. Profiling of Yeast Lipids by Shotgun Lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Klose, Christian; Tarasov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics is a rapidly growing technology for identification and quantification of a variety of cellular lipid molecules. Following the successful development and application of functional genomic technologies in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we witness a recent expansion of lipidomics applications in this model organism. The applications include detailed characterization of the yeast lipidome as well as screening for perturbed lipid phenotypes across hundreds of yeast gene deletion mutants. In this chapter, we describe sample handling, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods developed for yeast lipidomics studies. PMID:26483029

  15. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  16. Sirtuins in yeast: phenotypes and tools.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, Scott; Kwan, Elizabeth; Dang, Weiwei; Bedalov, Antonio; Kennedy, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Originally discovered as a transcriptional silencing protein, SIR2 was later linked to yeast replicative aging and the rest was history. Sir2p is now known to be a member of a class of protein deacetylases with a unique enzymatic activity coupling the deacetylation event to NAD(+) hydrolysis. While still incompletely understood, the mechanism by which Sir2p modulates yeast aging is linked to inhibition of rDNA recombination. Here we describe phenotypes associated with yeast Sirtuins and assays used to monitor Sirtuin function in yeast, including the replicative aging assay. PMID:24014397

  17. Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein hydrolysates decrease hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and concanavalin-A (con-A) stimulated IFN-? production in cell culture.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates and fractionated hydrolysates prepared from brewers' spent grain (BSG) using proteases, including Alcalase 2.4L, Flavourzyme and Corolase PP. Hydrolysates were designated K-Y, including fractionated hydrolysates with molecular weight (m.w.) < 3, <5 and >5 kDa. Where computable, IC50 values were lower in U937 (1.38-9.78%) than Jurkat T cells (1.15-13.82%). Hydrolysates L, Q and R and fractionated hydrolysates of U and W (<3, <5, >5 kDa) significantly (P < 0.01) protected against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. A fractionated hydrolysate of W (<5 kDa) protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage, P < 0.01. Hydrolysates K, N, P, U, U > 5 kDa, V, V > 5 kDa, W, W > 5 kDa significantly (P < 0.05) reduced a concanavlin-A (con-A) stimulated production of interferon-? (IFN-?). In conclusion, BSG protein hydrolysates demonstrate bioactivity in vitro; lower m.w. hydrolysates (<3, <5 kDa) show greatest antioxidant activity and unfractionated or higher m.w. hydrolysates (>5 kDa) possess anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24113874

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems.

    PubMed

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana; Karama?, Magdalena; Kancheva, Vessela; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO)-in a homogeneous lipid media and during ?-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v) mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC) method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH) and after hydrolysis (EAH) was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA). PMID:26703558

  19. Feasibility of filamentous fungi for biofuel production using hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production by culturing oleaginous fungi with lignocellulosic materials. Thus, identification of filamentous fungal strains capable of utilizing lignocellulosic hydrolysates for lipid accumulation is critical to improve the process and reduce the production cost. Results The growth performances of eleven filamentous fungi were investigated when cultured on glucose and xylose. Their dry cell weights, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles were determined. Six fungal strains with high lipid contents were selected to culture with the hydrolysate from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw. The results showed that all the selected fungal strains were able to grow on both detoxified liquid hydrolysate (DLH) and non-detoxified liquid hydrolysate (NDLH). The highest lipid content of 39.4% was obtained by Mortierella isabellina on NDLH. In addition, NDLH with some precipitate could help M. isabellina form pellets with an average diameter of 0.11?mm. Conclusion This study demonstrated the possibility of fungal lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. M. isabellina was the best lipid producer grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysates among the tested filamentous fungi, because it could not only accumulate oils with a high content by directly utilizing NDLH to simplify the fermentation process, but also form proper pellets to benefit the downstream harvesting. Considering the yield and cost, fungal lipids from lignocellulosic biomass are promising alternative sources for biodiesel production. PMID:22824058

  20. 21 CFR 172.381 - Vitamin D2 bakers yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Vitamin D2 bakers yeast is the substance produced by exposing bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to ultraviolet light, resulting in the photochemical conversion of endogenous ergosterol in bakers yeast to vitamin D2 (also...