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1

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01

2

Acute and subacute toxicity of yeast hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to obtain data on the safety-in-use of yeast hydrolysate in 10–30kDa molecular weight as a dietary supplement by assessing its acute and subacute oral toxicity in female and male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The single oral dose of the hydrolysate at 5000mg\\/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the general behavior and gross

Eun-Young Jung; Hyun-Sun Lee; Un Jae Chang; Song Hwan Bae; Ki Han Kwon; Hyung Joo Suh

2010-01-01

3

Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 ?g/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. PMID:20801644

Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

2011-01-01

4

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

5

Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.  

PubMed

Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

2015-01-01

6

Controlled pilot development unit-scale fed-batch cultivation of yeast on spruce hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Yeast production on hydrolysate is a likely process solution in large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulose. The hydrolysate will be available on site, and the yeast has furthermore been shown to acquire an increased inhibitor tolerance when cultivated on hydrolysate. However, due to over-flow metabolism and inhibition, efficient yeast production on hydrolysate can only be achieved by well-controlled substrate addition. In the present work, a method was developed for controlled addition of hydrolysate to PDU (process development unit)-scale aerobic fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3000. A feed rate control strategy, which maintains the ethanol concentration at a low constant level, was adapted to process-like conditions. The ethanol concentration was obtained from on-line measurements of the ethanol mole fraction in the exhaust gas. A computer model of the system was developed to optimize control performance. Productivities, biomass yields, and byproduct formation were evaluated. The feed rate control worked satisfactorily and maintained the ethanol concentration close to the setpoint during the cultivations. Biomass yields of 0.45 g/g were obtained on added hexoses during cultivation on hydrolysate and of 0.49 g/g during cultivation on a synthetic medium with glucose as the carbon source. Exponential growth was achieved with a specific growth rate of 0.18 h-1 during cultivation on hydrolysate and 0.22 h-1 during cultivation on glucose. PMID:17330957

Rudolf, Andreas; Lequeux, Gaspard; Lidén, Gunnar

2007-01-01

7

Medicinal yeast extracts.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. PMID:10547066

Schlemm, D J; Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Stanley, A E; Keller, S J

1999-09-01

8

Nitrile and amide-hydrolysing activity of acrylic acid-tolerant yeast Trichosporon asahii ZZB-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonia acrylate-tolerant yeast ZZB-1, capable of nitrile- and amide-hydrolysing activity, was isolated from soil samples.\\u000a Based on the morphology, 18S rRNA gene, internal-transcribed-spacer and 26S rRNA gene D1\\/D2 domain sequences, this strain\\u000a was provisionally identified as Trichosporon asahii. Strain ZZB-1 contained a two-enzyme system, i.e. nitrile-hydrolysing and amide-hydrolysing activity for the hydrolysis of\\u000a nitriles\\/amides to corresponding acids and ammonia.

Zhengbo Zhang; Liang Gao; Chuntian Zhao; Juanping Qiu

9

Enhancement of glycerol production with ram horn hydrolysate by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of ram horn hydrolysate (RHH) as a supplement for enhancement of glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. For this purpose, first, RHH was produced. Ram horns were hydrolyzed by treating with acid (6 N H2SO4), and the RHH was obtained. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars, total lipids and amino acids of

Esabi Basaran Kurbanoglu

2003-01-01

10

Feeding on yeast hydrolysate enhances attraction to cue-lure in Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding on yeast hydrolysate (a source of nitrogen) has a strong influence on the physiology and behaviour of the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), affecting longevity, sexual maturation, oogenesis, and mating performance. In this study, we demonstrate that access to yeast hydrolysate also influences the development of attraction to cue-lure in Q-flies. We provided virgin Q-flies

Christopher W. Weldon; Diana Perez-Staples; Phillip W. Taylor

2008-01-01

11

Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium  

DOEpatents

This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

2000-01-01

12

Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonization of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry, chestnut tannin extracts, and conden...

13

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2014-04-01

14

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2011-04-01

15

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2012-04-01

16

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2013-04-01

17

Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in

Solange I. Mussatto

2012-01-01

18

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

19

Naturally contaminated shellfish samples: quantification of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts and cytotoxicity assessment.  

PubMed

Contamination of shellfish from the Portuguese coast with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins is a recurrent event, with most of the commercial bivalves contaminated with high percentages of esters of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2). This report describes the quantification of DSP toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts of several cockle and mussel samples naturally contaminated and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity profiles in V79 cells. The quantification of the acyl esters in the shellfish samples involved the cleavage of the ester bond through alkaline hydrolysis and the release of the parent toxins OA and DTX2. Unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) for the detection and quantification of DSP toxins. The cytotoxicity of the analysed extracts was evaluated using the MTT reduction assay and compared with the cytotoxicity presented by different concentrations of OA standard (1-100?nM). OA exhibited marked cytotoxic effects and decreased cell viability in a dose dependent mode, with an IC?? of 27?nM. The cytotoxicity pattern of unhydrolysed extracts was clearly dependent on the concentration of free toxins. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the esterified toxins present was revealed after their conversion into free toxins by alkaline hydrolysis. For the hydrolysed extracts of cockles and mussels, the cytotoxicity presented was mainly related to the concentration of OA and DTX2. PMID:20981863

Rodrigues, Susana M; Vale, Paulo; Chaveca, Teresa; Laires, António; Rueff, José; Oliveira, Nuno G

2010-10-01

20

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent...

2010-04-01

21

Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates.  

PubMed

(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

Wang, Yuanzhen; Liu, Shijie

2014-01-01

22

Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

2014-01-01

23

Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii in brewery spent grain dilute-acid hydrolysate: effect of supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brewery spent-grain hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. Addition of 6 g yeast extract\\/l increased the xylitol yield to 0.57 g\\/g, and productivity to 0.51 g\\/l h that were, respectively,\\u000a 1.4 -and 1.8-times higher than the values obtained with non-supplemented hydrolysate. When corn steep liquor was combined\\u000a with 3 g yeast extract\\/l, the highest xylitol yield, 0.58 g\\/g, was obtained with

Florbela Carvalheiro; Luís C. Duarte; Raquel Medeiros; Francisco M. Gírio

2007-01-01

24

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

25

A new yeast producing beta-glucosidase and tolerant to lignocellulose hydrolysate inhibitors for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion requires cellulose degradation in order to be utilized for growth and fermentation by common ethanologenic yeast. Cellulose is commonly enzymatically degraded into cellobiose by cellulase and subsequently cellobiose broken down into glucose by beta-glucos...

26

Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

2014-01-01

27

Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

28

Use of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activity of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) was studied. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 50°C, respectively, when toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle was used as a substrate. When viscera extract from hybrid catfish was used for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish muscle, extract concentration, reaction time, and fish muscle/buffer ratio affected the hydrolysis and nitrogen recovery (NR) (p<0.05). Optimum conditions for toothed ponyfish muscle hydrolysis were 3.5% hybrid catfish viscera extract, 15 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). High correlation between the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and NR (R(2)=0.974) was observed. Freeze-dried hydrolysate had a high protein content (89.02%, dry weight basis) and it was brownish yellow in colour (L(?)=63.67, a(?)=6.33, b(?)=22.41). The protein hydrolysate contained a high amount of essential amino acids (48.22%) and had arginine and lysine as the dominant amino acids. PMID:23122156

Klomklao, Sappasith; Kishimura, Hideki; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-01-15

29

Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

2013-01-01

30

Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.  

PubMed

We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

2011-06-01

31

A 220-kilodalton glycoprotein in yeast extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus adherence to human endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

A 220-kDa glycoprotein from yeast extract causes a twofold decrease in S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro. Medium constituents can have a significant effect on bacterial adherence interactions. Images PMID:2037385

Elliott, D A; Hatcher, V B; Lowy, F D

1991-01-01

32

Oligomeric hydrolysable tannins from Tibouchina multiflora.  

PubMed

Two hydrolysable tannins, nobotanin O and nobotanin P, were isolated from the leaf extract of Tibouchina multiflora (Melastomataceae) and their dimeric and tetrameric structures elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical correlations with nobotanin B and K, respectively. Thirteen known hydrolysable tannins including nobotanins A, B, C and J, which are oligomers characteristic of the Melastomataceae, were also isolated. PMID:10647222

Yoshida, T; Amakura, Y; Yokura, N; Ito, H; Isaza, J H; Ramirez, S; Pelaez, D P; Renner, S S

1999-12-01

33

Assessment of in vivo and in vitro cytotoxic activity of hydrolysable tannin extracted from Rhizophora apiculata barks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizophora apiculata is a common mangrove tree in Malaysia. The bark of this tree has been reported to contain a chemical constituent such as\\u000a tannin that exhibited antimicrobial activity. Recently hydrolysable tannins have been studied for their potential effects\\u000a against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells through different mechanisms. The essence of the present study was to focus\\u000a on the in

Lim Sheh Hong; Darah Ibrahim; Jain Kassim

34

Supplementation requirements of brewery's spent grain hydrolysate for biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941.  

PubMed

The effect of nutrient supplementation of brewery's spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates was evaluated with respect to biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. For optimal biomass production, supplementation of full-strength BSG hydrolysates required only phosphate (0.5 g l(-1) KH(2)PO(4)), leading to a biomass yield and productivity of 0.60 g g(-1) monosaccharides and 0.55 g l(-1 )h(-1), respectively. Under the conditions studied, no metabolic products other than CO(2) and biomass were identified. For xylitol production, fourfold and sixfold concentrated hydrolysate-based media were used to assess the supplementation effects. The type of nutrient supplementation modulated the ratio of total polyols/total extracellular metabolites as well as the xylitol/arabitol ratio. While the former varied from 0.8 to 1, the xylitol/arabitol ratio reached a maximum value of 2.6 for yeast extract (YE)-supplemented hydrolysates. The increase in xylitol productivity and yield was related to the increase of the percentage of consumed xylose induced by supplementation. The best xylitol yield and productivity were found for YE supplementation corresponding to 0.55 g g(-1) and 0.36 g l(-1 )h(-1), respectively. In sixfold concentrated hydrolysates, providing that the hydrolysate was supplemented, the levels of xylitol produced were similar or higher than those for arabitol. Xylitol yield exhibited a further increase in the sixfold hydrolysate supplemented with trace elements, vitamins and minerals to 0.65 g g(-1), albeit the xylitol productivity was somewhat lower. The effect of using activated charcoal detoxification in non-supplemented versus supplemented sixfold hydrolysates was also studied. Detoxification did not improve polyols formation, suggesting that the hemicellulose-derived inhibitor levels present in concentrated BSG hydrolysates are well tolerated by D. hansenii. PMID:16520980

Carvalheiro, F; Duarte, L C; Lopes, S; Parajó, J C; Pereira, H; Gírio, F M

2006-08-01

35

Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber  

PubMed Central

Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed deposits of organic matter in the junction of the cuticles that probably collaborates to the sealing of the cuticles, increasing the brightness and softness. Conclusions These results show that the enzymatic method to produce keratin peptides for hair care products is an attractive and eco- friendly method with a great potential in the cosmetic industry. PMID:23414102

2013-01-01

36

Screening of carob bean yeasts. Chemical composition of Schizosaccharomyces versatilis grown on aqueous carob extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An improved extraction procedure for soluble sugars and tannins from carob bean is described. The yeast flora of the carob is rich, withSaccharomyces predominant; an isolate ofSchizosaccharomyces versatilis cultured in the aqueous extract utilizes tannins as well as sugars to give a high biomass and protein yield of good quality.

S. G. Marakis; A. D. Karagouni

1985-01-01

37

Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

2007-01-01

38

Complex coacervation of collagen hydrolysate extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan for controlled release of lavender oil.  

PubMed

In the world, approximately 600,000 metric tonnes of chromium-containing solid wastes are generated by the leather industry each year. Environmental concerns and escalating landfill costs are becoming increasingly serious problems to the leather industry and seeking solutions to these problems is a prime concern in much research today. In this study, solid collagen-based protein hydrolysate was isolated from chromium-tanned leather wastes and its chemical properties were determined. Microcapsules of collagen hydrolysate (CH) - chitosan (C) crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) containing Lavender oil (LO) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The effects of various processing parameters, including the CH to C ratio, LO content, and GA, on the oil load (%), oil content (%), encapsulation efficiency (%) and release rate of LO from microcapsules were investigated. As the ratio of C present in the CH/C mixture and crosslinking density increased, the release rate of LO from microcapsules slowed down. Optical and scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that the LO microcapsules were spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed that there was no significant interaction between CH/C complex and LO. PMID:22361107

Ocak, Bu?ra

2012-06-15

39

Treatment of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysates with advanced oxidative processes: a new and promising detoxification method to improve the bioconversion process  

PubMed Central

Background The use of lignocellulosic constituents in biotechnological processes requires a selective separation of the main fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). During diluted acid hydrolysis for hemicellulose extraction, several toxic compounds are formed by the degradation of sugars and lignin, which have ability to inhibit microbial metabolism. Thus, the use of a detoxification step represents an important aspect to be considered for the improvement of fermentation processes from hydrolysates. In this paper, we evaluated the application of Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) for the detoxification of rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the goal of improving ethanol bioproduction by Pichia stipitis yeast. Aiming to reduce the toxicity of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, different treatment conditions were analyzed. The treatments were carried out according to a Taguchi L16 orthogonal array to evaluate the influence of Fe+2, H2O2, UV, O3 and pH on the concentration of aromatic compounds and the fermentative process. Results The results showed that the AOPs were able to remove aromatic compounds (furan and phenolic compounds derived from lignin) without affecting the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Ozonation in alkaline medium (pH 8) in the presence of H2O2 (treatment A3) or UV radiation (treatment A5) were the most effective for hydrolysate detoxification and had a positive effect on increasing the yeast fermentability of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate. Under these conditions, the higher removal of total phenols (above 40%), low molecular weight phenolic compounds (above 95%) and furans (above 52%) were observed. In addition, the ethanol volumetric productivity by P. stipitis was increased in approximately twice in relation the untreated hydrolysate. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AOPs are a promising methods to reduce toxicity and improve the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:23414668

2013-01-01

40

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

41

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress may provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed on a standard diet, or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (YE), to determine if YE would improve disease resistance in a stress model.2. At 16 weeks of age, half of the

G. R. Huff; V. Dutta; W. E. Huff; N. C. Rath

2011-01-01

42

Gastrointestinal Maturation is Accelerated in Turkey Poults Supplemented with a Mannan-Oligosaccharide Yeast Extract (Alphamune)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, increase body weight in pigs, and reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. The influence of Alphamune™ on gastrointestinal tract development has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evalu...

43

GASTROINTESTINAL MATURATION IS ACCELERATED IN TURKEY POULTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE YEAST EXTRACT (ALPHAMUNE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...

44

Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)

1991-12-31

45

Biphenyl synthase from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The biphenyl aucuparin accumulated in Sorbus aucuparia L. cell cultures in response to yeast extract treatment. Incubation of cell-free extracts from challenged cell cultures with benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA led to the formation of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. This reaction was catalysed by a novel polyketide synthase, which

Benye Liu; Till Beuerle; Tim Klundt; Ludger Beerhues

2004-01-01

46

Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.

1982-04-01

47

Identification and Quantitation of Phosphorus Metabolites in Yeast Neutral pH Extracts by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

31P NMR spectroscopy offers a possibility to obtain a survey of all low-molecular-weight phosphorylated compounds in yeast. The yeast cells have been extracted using chloroform into a neutral aqueous phase. The use of high fields and the neutral pH extracts, which are suitable for NMR analysis, results in well-resolved 31P NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR experiments, such as proton-detected heteronuclear single

Anita Teleman; Peter Richard; Mervi Toivari; Merja Penttilä

1999-01-01

48

Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.  

PubMed

In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

2014-10-01

49

Evaluation of corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate for xylitol production by adapted strain of Candida tropicalis.  

PubMed

A maximum xylose extraction of 21.98 g/L was obtained in hydrolysate with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:8 (w/v) at 1% H(2)SO(4) and treated for 30 min. The optimized and treated corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate medium supplemented with (g/L) yeast extract 5.0, KH(2)PO(4) 2.0, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 0.3 and methanol 10 mL whose pH was adjusted to 4.5 acts as production medium. Under this condition; the adapted strain of C. tropicalis resulted in 1.22-fold increase in xylitol yield and 1.70-fold enhancement in volumetric productivity was obtained as compared to parent strain of C. tropicalis. On concentrating the hydrolysate under vacuum using rotavapor proves to be efficient in terms of improved xylitol yield and productivity over microwave assisted concentration using adapted strain of C. tropicalis. The immobilized cells of C. tropicalis resulted in more than 70% efficiency up to third cycle. The xylitol production could be scaled up to 10 L fermentor. PMID:23399194

Misra, Swati; Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Saxena, R K

2013-02-15

50

Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

Rezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

2014-11-14

51

Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

1980-01-01

52

Overcoming inhibitors in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate: improving fermentability by feedstock detoxification and adaptation of Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

In order to improve the fermentative efficiency of sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production, various methods to mitigate the effects of inhibitory compounds were employed. These methods included detoxification treatments utilizing activated charcoal, anion exchange resin, overliming, and ethyl acetate extraction. Results demonstrated the greatest fermentative improvement of 50% wood hydrolysate (v/v) by Pichia stipitis with activated charcoal treatment. Another method employed to reduce inhibition was an adaptation procedure to produce P. stipitis stains more tolerant of inhibitory compounds. This adaptation resulted in yeast variants capable of improved fermentation of 75% untreated wood hydrolysate (v/v), one of which produced 9.8 g/l ± 0.6 ethanol, whereas the parent strain produced 0.0 g/l ± 0.0 within the first 24 h. Adapted strains RS01, RS02, and RS03 were analyzed for glucose and xylose utilization and results demonstrated increased glucose and decreased xylose utilization rates in comparison to the wild type. These changes in carbohydrate utilization may be indicative of detoxification or tolerance activities related to proteins involved in glucose and xylose metabolism. PMID:21614610

Stoutenburg, Rosanna M; Perrotta, Joseph A; Nakas, James P

2011-12-01

53

Topical application of yeast extract accelerates the wound healing of diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of yeast have been used as the active ingredient in medications under names such as "tissue or skin respiratory factor," Biodyne (Sperti Drug Co, Cincinnati, Ohio--now defunct), and live yeast cell derivative (LYCD). Beneficial clinical results from the use of LYCD have been reported for the treatment of burns, wounds, and hemorrhoids. The medicinal effects of LYCD have recently been localized to a protein fraction containing a mixture of several peptides. The effects of topical application of the peptide mixture on wounds were examined in diabetic mice, an animal model in which the healing process is disrupted and delayed. Full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of diabetic (DB) and nondiabetic (non-DB) mice. Half of the DB and non-DB mice were treated with 0.05 mL of LYCD after wounding and for 4 successive days. All other mice received vehicle. Wound areas were measured at Day 0 and at 2-day intervals. Mice were sacrificed at 3, 7, 10, 21, and 28 days postinjury. Differences in the extent and quality of healing appeared between DB mice receiving LYCD and DB mice receiving vehicle by day 10 (P < .0001). By 24 days postinjury, DB mice receiving LYCD had achieved 100% wound closure, whereas DB mice receiving vehicle had achieved only 31.4% wound closure. Histologic examination of wounds reflected improved wound healing in DB mice receiving LYCD as compared with those receiving vehicle. A topically applied yeast extract peptide mixture significantly attenuates wound closure and the degree of cellular reorganization of full-thickness excisional wounds of DB mice. PMID:10188114

Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Schlemm, D J; Greenhalgh, D G; Keller, S J

1999-01-01

54

Biphenyl synthase from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia.  

PubMed

Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The biphenyl aucuparin accumulated in Sorbus aucuparia L. cell cultures in response to yeast extract treatment. Incubation of cell-free extracts from challenged cell cultures with benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA led to the formation of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. This reaction was catalysed by a novel polyketide synthase, which will be named biphenyl synthase. The most efficient starter substrate for the enzyme was benzoyl-CoA. Relatively high activity was also observed with 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA but, instead of the corresponding biphenyl, the derailment product 2-hydroxybenzoyltriacetic acid lactone was formed. PMID:14595561

Liu, Benye; Beuerle, Till; Klundt, Tim; Beerhues, Ludger

2004-01-01

55

Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment.  

PubMed Central

Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

1977-01-01

56

Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.  

PubMed

Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4?-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3?-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound. PMID:21706170

Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-01-01

57

Purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin citreoviridin has been associated with the 'yellow rice' disease, which caused cardiac beriberi in Japan. In Brazil, the consumption of contaminated rice was suspected to be involved in a recent beriberi outbreak. In this work, citreoviridin was produced by Penicillium citreonigrum, cultivated in 500 ml yeast extract sucrose (YES) liquid medium for 8 days at 25ºC, and the toxin extracted with chloroform from the liquid medium and the mycelium. A total of 15.3 g of crude extract was obtained from 48 culture flasks, with an estimated citreoviridin contend of 5.54 g, 74.3% being present in the mycelia. Semi-preparative HPLC of the crude extract yielded 27.1% citreoviridin. The HPLC-purified citreoviridin fraction was fully characterised by UV/VIS, FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, LC-MS/MS and LC-MSD TOF, and purity confirmed by gravimetric analysis. Isocitreoviridin was also produced by P. citreonigrum, accounting for about 10% of the citreoviridin present in the crude extract, most transformed into citreoviridin after 10 months under freezing conditions protected from light. Citreoviridin was shown to be stable under the same conditions, although it can suffer isomerisation after a longer storage period. Isomerisation is a potential source of variability in toxicological studies and purity of the material should be checked before study initiation. PMID:25190053

da Rocha, Mariana Wagner; Resck, Inês Sabioni; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

2014-09-29

58

Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions. Results Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition. Conclusions Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain. PMID:24885359

2014-01-01

59

Development of a D-xylose fermenting and inhibitor tolerant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high performance in lignocellulose hydrolysates using metabolic and evolutionary engineering  

PubMed Central

Background The production of bioethanol from lignocellulose hydrolysates requires a robust, D-xylose-fermenting and inhibitor-tolerant microorganism as catalyst. The purpose of the present work was to develop such a strain from a prime industrial yeast strain, Ethanol Red, used for bioethanol production. Results An expression cassette containing 13 genes including Clostridium phytofermentans XylA, encoding D-xylose isomerase (XI), and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway was inserted in two copies in the genome of Ethanol Red. Subsequent EMS mutagenesis, genome shuffling and selection in D-xylose-enriched lignocellulose hydrolysate, followed by multiple rounds of evolutionary engineering in complex medium with D-xylose, gradually established efficient D-xylose fermentation. The best-performing strain, GS1.11-26, showed a maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate of 1.1 g/g DW/h in synthetic medium, with complete attenuation of 35 g/L D-xylose in about 17 h. In separate hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates of Arundo donax (giant reed), spruce and a wheat straw/hay mixture, the maximum specific D-xylose consumption rate was 0.36, 0.23 and 1.1 g/g DW inoculum/h, and the final ethanol titer was 4.2, 3.9 and 5.8% (v/v), respectively. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Arundo hydrolysate, GS1.11-26 produced 32% more ethanol than the parent strain Ethanol Red, due to efficient D-xylose utilization. The high D-xylose fermentation capacity was stable after extended growth in glucose. Cell extracts of strain GS1.11-26 displayed 17-fold higher XI activity compared to the parent strain, but overexpression of XI alone was not enough to establish D-xylose fermentation. The high D-xylose consumption rate was due to synergistic interaction between the high XI activity and one or more mutations in the genome. The GS1.11-26 had a partial respiratory defect causing a reduced aerobic growth rate. Conclusions An industrial yeast strain for bioethanol production with lignocellulose hydrolysates has been developed in the genetic background of a strain widely used for commercial bioethanol production. The strain uses glucose and D-xylose with high consumption rates and partial cofermentation in various lignocellulose hydrolysates with very high ethanol yield. The GS1.11-26 strain shows highly promising potential for further development of an all-round robust yeast strain for efficient fermentation of various lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:23800147

2013-01-01

60

Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

2014-12-01

61

The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe prevention of cardiovascular risk, as occurs in lipoprotein disorders, is required since childhood. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in a group of children affected by primary dyslipidemia, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols.

O. Guardamagna; F. Abello; V. Baracco; B. Stasiowska; F. Martino

2011-01-01

62

SUMO expression shortens the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth caused by complex interactive effects of major mixed fermentation inhibitors found in hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The complex inhibitory effects of inhibitors present in lignocellulose hydrolysate suppress the ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the interactive inhibitory effects play important roles in the actual hydrolysate, few studies have investigated glycolaldehyde, the key inhibitor of hot-compressed water-treated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Given this challenge, we investigated the interactive effects of mixed fermentation inhibitors, including glycolaldehyde. First, we confirmed that glycolaldehyde was the most potent inhibitor in the hydrolysate and exerted interactive inhibitory effects in combination with major inhibitors. Next, through genome-wide analysis and megavariate data modeling, we identified SUMOylation as a novel potential mechanism to overcome the combinational inhibitory effects of fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, overall SUMOylation was increased and Pgk1, which produces an ATP molecule in glycolysis by substrate-level phosphorylation, was SUMOylated and degraded in response to glycolaldehyde. Augmenting the SUMO-dependent ubiquitin system in the ADH1-expressing strain significantly shortened the lag phase of growth, released cells from G2/M arrest, and improved energy status and glucose uptake in the inhibitor-containing medium. In summary, our study was the first to establish SUMOylation as a novel platform for regulating the lag phase caused by complex fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25359478

Jayakody, Lahiru N; Kadowaki, Masafumi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Horie, Kenta; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

63

In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

2014-01-01

64

Multi-lamellar organization of fully deuterated lipid extracts of yeast membranes.  

PubMed

Neutron scattering studies on mimetic biomembranes are currently limited by the low availability of deuterated unsaturated lipid species. In the present work, results from the first neutron diffraction experiments on fully deuterated lipid extracts from the yeast Pichia pastoris are presented. The structural features of these fully deuterated lipid stacks are compared with those of their hydrogenous analogues and with other similar synthetic systems. The influence of temperature and humidity on the samples has been investigated by means of small momentum-transfer neutron diffraction. All of the lipid extracts investigated self-assemble into multi-lamellar stacks having different structural periodicities; the stacking distances are affected by temperature and humidity without altering the basic underlying arrangement. At high relative humidity the deuterated and hydrogenous samples are similar in their multi-lamellar arrangement, being characterized by two main periodicities of ?75 and ?110?Å reflecting the presence of a large number of polar phospholipid molecules. Larger differences are found at lower relative humidity, where hydrogenous lipids are characterized by a larger single lamellar structure than that observed in the deuterated samples. In both cases the heterogeneity in composition is reflected in a wide structural complexity. The different behaviour upon dehydration can be related to compositional differences in the molecular composition of the two samples, which is attributed to metabolic effects related to the use of perdeuterated growth media. PMID:25478835

Gerelli, Yuri; de Ghellinck, Alexis; Jouhet, Juliette; Laux, Valérie; Haertlein, Michael; Fragneto, Giovanna

2014-12-01

65

Fermentative production of L(+)-lactic acid using hydrolyzed acorn starch, persimmon juice and wheat bran hydrolysate as nutrients.  

PubMed

The use of hydrolyzed acorn starch as a novel carbon source for L(+)-lactic acid production was proposed. The effects of carbon-nitrogen ratio and growth factor on the fermentations were studied by single factor experiments. A lower carbon-nitrogen ratio could enhance L(+)-lactic acid production, and the expensive yeast extract could be replaced by the cheap persimmon juice providing growth factor for L(+)-lactic acid production when wheat bran hydrolysate was used as the nitrogen source. The dosages of wheat bran hydrolysate and persimmon juice in the medium were statistically optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The yield of L(+)-lactic acid reached 45.78g/100g dry acorn with a final concentration of 57.61+/-1.37g/l and a productivity of 1.60+/-0.12g/lh when the batch fermentation was carried out in a 5l bioreactor under the optimal conditions of wheat bran hydrolysate 24.55g/l and persimmon juice 12.30g/l. Comparative batch fermentations using different raw materials such as acorn, cassava, corn and glucose showed that both the yield and the productivity of L(+)-lactic acid production were the highest when the hydrolyzed acorn starch was used as the carbon source. Therefore, the acorn could be used as a new substitute of grain raw material in L(+)-lactic acid production. PMID:20116239

Lu, Zhengdong; He, Feng; Shi, Yue; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

2010-05-01

66

Sophorolipid Production from Biomass Hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Although extensive research has been conducted on producing sophorolipids using Candida (Starmerella) bombicola from pure sugars and various oil sources, production of this biosurfactant has not been evaluated when cells are cultivated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, we report for the first time that C. bombicola is capable of producing sophorolipids on hydrolysates derived from sweet sorghum bagasse and corn fiber. Without oil supplementation, a sophorolipid concentration of 3.6 and 1.0 g/L was detected from cultures with bagasse and corn fiber hydrolysates, respectively. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, the yield of sophorolipids from these two hydrolysates in the same order was 84.6 and 15.6 g/L. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and nonsugar compounds in the hydrolysates, and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of sophorolipids than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. PMID:25475889

Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Liang, Yanna

2014-12-01

67

[Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].  

PubMed

Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress. PMID:25272834

Huang, Lei; Xiao, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guang; Mo, Ge; Lin, Shu-Fang; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lan-Ping

2014-06-01

68

Semiconservative replication in yeast nuclear extracts requires Dna2 helicase and supercoiled template 1 1 Edited by M. Yaniv  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the preparation of nuclear extracts from yeast cells synchronised in S-phase that support the aphidicolin-sensitive, semi-conservative replication of primer-free, supercoiled plasmid in vitro. This is monitored by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication intermediates that have incorporated [?-32P]dATP, by the conversion of methylated template DNA into a hemi-methylated or DpnI-resistant form, and by substitution of dTTP with

D Braguglia; P Heun; P Pasero; B. P Duncker; S. M Gasser

1998-01-01

69

Controlled evaluation of trypticase soy broth with and without gelatin and yeast extract in the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.  

PubMed

The addition of gelatin to blood culture media has been suggested to prevent the inhibition of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius that is caused by sodium polyanetholsulfonate. To determine the effect of such supplementation on the overall yield of microorganisms, we compared the yield and speed of detection of clinically important microorganisms from 5422 paired 10-ml samples of blood cultured in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) containing 0.03% sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS) and TSB/SPS containing 1.2% gelatin and 1.0% yeast extract (mTSB). The atmosphere of incubation (open venting unit) and ratio of blood to broth (1:5) were the same for both samples. Only cultures with adequate blood sample (greater than or equal to 80% of stated volume) were compared statistically. Addition of gelatin and yeast extract resulted in inhibited growth of Enterobacteriaceae (p less than 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p less than 0.01), fungi (p less than 0.05), and the overall set of microorganisms encountered (p less than 0.001). It delayed growth of Enterobacteriaceae (p less than 0.001) but reduced the time to recover staphylococci (p less than 0.02). Of 12 isolates of species usually inhibited by SPS, seven grew only with the addition of gelatin and yeast extract, none grew only without supplementation, and five grew in both media. Although gelatin and yeast extract may improve the yield of some specific bacteria, the routine use of these additives cannot be recommended for all blood culture media. PMID:2831009

Reimer, L G; Reller, L B; Wang, W L; Mirrett, S

1987-09-01

70

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2012-04-01

71

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2011-04-01

72

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2010-04-01

73

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2013-04-01

74

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to the...

2014-04-01

75

Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate\\/yeast extract medium. Part I. multiple factor kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty pH-controlled batch cultures with Lactobacillus helveticus were carried out in whey permeate-yeast extract medium according to a composite design with three factors: pH setpoint, and yeast extract and initial whey permeate concentrations. Growth and production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Richards and Luedeking and Piret models, respectively, and analyzed statistically with response surfaces. The maximum specific

Adolf Willem Schepers; Jules Thibault; Christophe Lacroix

2002-01-01

76

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

77

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sardinelle ( Sardinella aurita) by-products protein hydrolysates obtained by treatment with microbial and visceral fish serine proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from heads and viscera of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) by treatment with various proteases were investigated. Protein hydrolysates were obtained by treatment with Alcalase®, chymotrypsin, crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Aspergillus clavatus ES1, and crude enzyme extract from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera. All hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activity

Ali Bougatef; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Rozenn Ravallec-Plé; Yves Leroy; Didier Guillochon; Ahmed Barkia; Moncef Nasri

2008-01-01

78

Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: Extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14–5323 mg\\/kg) and Cu (8–12987 mg\\/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR\\/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first

Pasi Peltola; Angela Ivask; Mats Åström; Marko Virta

2005-01-01

79

Purification of xylose in simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates using a two-step emulsion liquid membrane process.  

PubMed

Purification of xylose in simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates was attempted using a two-step emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process. The effects of various experimental variables on extraction of each component in the hydrolysates were investigated in the ELM steps. In the first ELM step, acetic acid could be selectively removed from the hydrolysates and highly enriched in the stripping phase, and loss of xylose was insignificant. In the second ELM step, sulfuric acid could be selectively removed from simulated acetic acid-free hemicellulosic hydrolysates and somewhat enriched in the stripping phase. There was just small loss of xylose, and the final pH of the feed phase approached a pH level suitable for ethanol fermentation. Also, concentration of xylose in the feed phase was attained as an incidental outcome during each ELM run. Conclusively, the two-step ELM process was found to be a promising futuristic technology for purification of sugars in real hemicellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25108268

Lee, Sang Cheol

2014-10-01

80

The survival and recovery of Salmonella typhimurium phage type U285 in frozen meats and tryptone soya yeast extract broth.  

PubMed

The survival of S. typhimurium U285 was studied in cooked minced beef, sausage mixture and tryptone soya yeast extract (TSY) broth stored at freezer temperatures (-18 degrees C to -20 degrees C) for up to 10 weeks. Survival, as indicated by changes in viable counts, was best in minced beef followed by sausage mixture and TSY broth. Metabolic injury was minimal in each substrate whereas structural injury was detected, especially in TSY broth. Recovery, as indicated by changes in viable counts during thawing at room temperature, was generally complete after thawing 10 g or 10 ml amounts for 2 h. Viable counts obtained after thawing at refrigerator temperature for 24 h were similar to those obtained after 2h at room temperature. For specimens containing low inocula of salmonellae (0.5 cells/g), more isolations were obtained with pre-enrichment than with direct enrichment for minced beef and sausage mixture. PMID:3079470

Barrell, R A

1988-06-01

81

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS CHALLENGED WITH COLD STRESS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI TO ALPHAMUNE™, A DIETARY YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two battery trials were conducted using a yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™, to protect turkey poults from production losses due to cold stress and E. coli infection. Trial 1 used commercially hatched day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-wk-old hens in their 2nd wk of lay and Trial 2...

82

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

83

Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

1997-01-01

84

Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates constitute an alternative to intact proteins and elemental formulas in the development of special formulations designed to provide nutritional support to patients with different needs. The production of extensive protein hydrolysates by sequential action of endopeptidases and exoproteases coupled with the development of post-hydrolysis procedures is considered the most effective way to obtain protein hydrolysates with defined characteristics.

Alfonso Clemente

2000-01-01

85

Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening plant extracts for antifungal activity is increasing due to demand for new antifungal agents, but the testing methods present many challenges. Standard broth microdilution methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of available antifungal agents are available now, but these methods are optimised for single compounds instead of crude plant extracts. In this study we evaluated the standard NCCLS method as

Manjuan Liu; Veronique Seidel; David R. Katerere; Alexander I. Gray

2007-01-01

86

Ethanol production from corn cob hydrolysates by Escherichia coli KO11.  

PubMed

Corn cob hydrolysates, with xylose as the dominant sugar, were fermented to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. When inoculum was grown on LB medium containing glucose, fermentation of the hydrolysate was completed in 163 h and ethanol yield was 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar. When inoculum was grown on xylose, ethanol yield dropped, but fermentation was faster (113 h). Hydrolysate containing 72.0 g/l xylose and supplemented with 20.0 g/l rice bran was readily fermented, producing 36.0 g/l ethanol within 70 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations were not higher for fermentations using higher cellular concentration inocula. A simulation of an industrial process integrating pentose fermentation by E. coli and hexose fermentation by yeast was carried out. At the first step, E. coli fermented the hydrolysate containing 85.0 g/l xylose, producing 40.0 g/l ethanol in 94 h. Baker's yeast and sucrose (150.0 g/l) were then added to the spent fermentation broth. After 8 h of yeast fermentation, the ethanol concentration reached 104.0 g/l. This two-stage fermentation can render the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol more attractive due to increased final alcohol concentration. PMID:12242633

de Carvalho Lima, K G; Takahashi, C M; Alterthum, F

2002-09-01

87

Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that pH was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used for Saccharomyces fermentations. PMID:24739806

2014-01-01

88

Isolation and characterization of a thermally extracted yeast cell wall fraction potentially useful for improving the foaming properties of sparkling wines.  

PubMed

Two different yeast cell wall extracts were obtained using enzymatic digestion and thermal treatment. The effects of the extracts obtained on the foaming properties of a model wine and two sparkling wines were studied. The model wine and sparkling wines, supplemented with the thermal extract, presented better foaming properties than did the samples supplemented with the enzymatic extract. The fractioning (Con A chromatography) and characterization (SDS-PAGE, SEC, GC, and RP-HPLC) of both extracts showed that the fraction responsible for the foaming properties is constituted by mannoproteins with a relative molecular weight between 10 and 30 kDa, presenting an equilibrated composition of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein domains. This thermal extract did not modify the protein stability in both the model wine and the sparkling wines. These results demonstrate that the enrichment of a sparkling wine with mannoproteins extracted by mild heat procedures will contribute to improving its foaming properties. PMID:17002468

Núñez, Y P; Carrascosa, A V; Gonzalez, R; Polo, M C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A

2006-10-01

89

Application of supercritical CO(2) extraction for the elimination of odorant volatile compounds from winemaking inactive dry yeast preparation.  

PubMed

A procedure based on the application of supercritical CO(2) extraction to reduce and/or to remove odorant volatile compounds from a winemaking inactive dry yeast (IDY) preparation has been set up. By applying a factorial design, a screening of different temperatures and pressure conditions was assayed in order to determine the optimal deodorization conditions, and afterward the effect of several sample pretreatments was investigated. The best extraction conditions were achieved at 200 atm and 60 degrees C, applying the cryogenic grinding of the sample and using 40% (w/w) ethanol as cosolvent. By using these conditions, it was possible to reduce to approximately 70% of the volatile compounds present in the samples that may be released into the wines and therefore affecting their sensory characteristics. Odorant volatile compounds such as 2-methylhydroxypyrrole, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine completely disappeared from the deodorized sample as verified by GC-O analysis. Additional experiments in model wines confirmed the low release of volatile compounds from the deodorized samples, without provoking any change to their nonvolatile composition (nitrogen compounds and neutral polysaccharides) that is related to the technological properties of these preparations. PMID:20170168

Pozo-Bayón, María Angeles; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Mendiola, Jose A; Ibáñez, Elena; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

2010-03-24

90

System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate  

DOEpatents

A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

2013-12-17

91

Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.  

PubMed

Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and phosphorylated, as well as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase subunit, Slx5. PMID:24300101

Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

2013-01-01

92

Effects of Ca(OH)(2) treatments ("overliming") on the composition and toxicity of bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose syrups from dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysates of hemicellulose contain inhibitors that prevent efficient fermentation by yeast or bacteria. It is well known that the toxicity of these hydrolysate syrups can be ameliorated by optimized "overliming" with Ca(OH)(2). We have investigated the optimization of overliming treatments for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysates (primarily pentose sugars) using recombinant Escherichia coli LY01 as the biocatalyst. A comparison of composition before and after optimal overliming revealed a substantial reduction in furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and three unidentified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks. Organic acids (acetic, formic, levulinic) were not affected. Similar changes have been reported after overliming of spruce hemicellulose hydrolysates (Larsson et al., 1999). Our studies further demonstrated that the extent of furan reduction correlated with increasing fermentability. However, furan reduction was not the sole cause for reduced toxicity. After optimal overliming, bagasse hydrolysate was rapidly and efficiently fermented (>90% yield) by LY01. During these studies, titration, and conductivity were found to be in excellent agreement as methods to estimate sulfuric acid content. Titration was also found to provide an estimate of total organic acids in hydrolysate, which agreed well with the sum of acetic, levulinic, and formic acids obtained by HPLC. Titration of acids, measurement of pH before and after treatment, and furan analyses are proposed as relatively simple methods to monitor the reproducibility of hydrolysate preparations and the effectiveness of overliming treatments. PMID:10898862

Martinez, A; Rodriguez, M E; York, S W; Preston, J F; Ingram, L O

2000-09-01

93

Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop  

PubMed Central

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

94

Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop.  

PubMed

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

95

In Vitro NER Assay Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris-acetate (pH 7.5) (40 ml), 0.39 M  

E-print Network

/v) DSD in water. Store at room temperature. Proteinase K: Make 20 mg/ml in water. Store in 50-µl aliquots at -20°C. 10 mg/ml RNase A: make in water. Boil for 10 minutes to inactivate DNase. Store at -20°CAuble Lab In Vitro NER Assay Reagents: Water YPD Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris

Auble, David

96

Glass bead lysis of whole yeast cells The following protocol is suitable for preparation of 5 OD600 units of whole-cell extract at a final  

E-print Network

at room temperature (RT). 3. Decant supernatant, resuspend cell pellet in 1 mL sterile water, and transferGlass bead lysis of whole yeast cells The following protocol is suitable for preparation of 5 OD600 units of whole-cell extract at a final concentration of 0.5 OD600 units per 20 µL of SDS-PAGE reducing

Odorizzi, Greg

97

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii  

DOEpatents

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

1992-03-31

98

Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species.  

PubMed

Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hannaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferrii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals. PMID:24818698

Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

2014-07-01

99

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION OF CRUDE OR DETOXIFIED CONCENTRATED DISTILLED GRAPE MARC HEMICELLULOSIC HYDROLYSATES ON THE XYLITOL PRODUCTION BY Debaryomyces hansenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3 g\\/L, was achieved after

José Manuel Salgado; Noelia Rodríguez; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Domínguez

2012-01-01

100

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2013-04-01

101

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2011-04-01

102

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2012-04-01

103

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2014-04-01

104

21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200 Section 573...Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the...

2010-04-01

105

Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid\\/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending

Vijai K. Pasupuleti; Chris Holmes; Arnold L. Demain

2010-01-01

106

Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  

PubMed

In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-11-01

107

Effect of mechanically deboned chicken meat hydrolysates on the physicochemical properties of imitation fish paste.  

PubMed

This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-Woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

2014-01-01

108

Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste  

PubMed Central

This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

2014-01-01

109

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

110

Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

111

Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

112

Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

1996-10-01

113

Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved\\u000a by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis – peptides, amino acids\\u000a and minerals present in the protein and acid\\/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable\\u000a side chains depending

Vijai K. Pasupuleti; Chris Holmes; Arnold L. Demain

114

Application of isotope dilution analysis for the evaluation of extraction conditions in the determination of total selenium and selenomethionine in yeast-based nutritional supplements.  

PubMed

Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) has been used to quantify total selenium, total solubilized selenium, and the selenomethionine (SeMet) amount in yeast and yeast-based nutritional supplements after acid microwave digestion and different enzymatic extraction procedures. For this purpose, both a (77)Se-enriched SeMet spike, previously synthesized and characterized in our laboratory, and a (77)Se(VI) spike were used. In the analysis of the nutritional supplements, the SeMet spike was added to the sample and extracted under different conditions, and the (78)Se/(77)Se and (80)Se/(77)Se isotope ratios were measured as peak area ratios after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The formation of SeH(+) and mass discrimination were corrected using a natural SeMet standard injected every three samples. Similarly, total solubilized selenium was measured in the extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis using the (77)Se-enriched SeMet as a spike by direct nebulization without a chromatographic separation. To establish a mass balance, total selenium was also determined by IDA-ICP-MS on the yeast tablets after microwave digestion using (77)Se(VI) as a spike. Results showed that all enzymatic procedures tested were able to solubilize total selenium quantitatively from the solid. However, the recovery for the species SeMet, the major selenium compound detected, was seriously affected by the enzymatic procedure employed and also by the matrix composition of the supplement evaluated. For the yeast sample, SeMet recovery increased from 68 to 76% by the combined use of driselase and protease. For the nutritional supplements, the two most effective procedures appeared to be protease and driselase/protease, with a SeMet recovery ranging from 49 to 63%, depending upon the supplement evaluated. In the case of in vitro gastrointestinal enzymolysis, the results obtained showed 26-37% SeMet recovery, while the rest of selenium was solubilized as other unknown compounds (probably Se-containing peptides). PMID:16506800

Hinojosa Reyes, L; Marchante-Gayón, J M; García Alonso, J I; Sanz-Medel, A

2006-03-01

115

Effect of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or Aspergillus oryzae plus yeast culture plus mineral and vitamin supplement on performance of Holstein cows during a complete lactation.  

PubMed

The addition of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (Amaferm) increased milk flow and mean 3.5% FCM production during the latter stages of the full lactation trial compared with the control group and the Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract plus yeast culture plus mineral-vitamin supplement (VitaFerm) group. Based on the differences observed when FCM production was determined for the cows at various stages of lactation, Amaferm apparently had its greatest effect during the early stages of the lactation cycle and subsequent milk production was likely a result of higher initial production. The response difference observed between the Amaferm and VitaFerm treatments could have resulted from the additional minerals provided by the VitaFerm compared with the Amaferm and control groups. PMID:2283420

Kellems, R O; Lagerstedt, A; Wallentine, M V

1990-10-01

116

Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.  

PubMed

Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:24928546

Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

2014-08-01

117

Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

2014-10-01

118

Development of an enzymatic fish hydrolysate and its use in instant soup bases.  

PubMed

The successful conservation of fish products, at low costs, is a subject of special interest in the developing countries. Conscious of this fact, our group has been studying several fish conservation methods, such as autolysis with high salt concentrations, and has obtained a sauce of high nutritive value and long shelf life. Nevertheless, the reaction process takes from four to six months. In the study herein reported, the hydrolysis was accelerated and controlled by using the following enzymes: papain, HT proteolytic, and Brew (N) zyme. The hydrolysate was then mixed with cereals to prepare instant soups. As results indicated, the best hydrolysate was obtained with Brew (N) zyme at 50 degrees C and 8.30 hours. This hydrolysate contains 93.0 g/100 g crude protein with a protein efficiency ratio (PER) and a net protein utilization (NPU) of 60% that of casein's NPU as well as a content of 0.8% ether extract. The lowest-cost mixtures with the highest nutritive value were: hydrolysate-wheat-soymeal, and hydrolysate-rice-soymeal, with 38.3 and 29.7 protein per 100 g of mixture, respectively, and a NPU of 79.0 and 79.8% in relation to casein, respectively. The soups prepared had a satisfactory acceptance rating. There were no significant differences in flavor and aroma at a confidence level of 95%. The cost per gram of protein is about US$ 0.22 per kg. PMID:3842931

Gálvez, A; Morales de Léon, J; Bourges Rodríguez, H

1985-12-01

119

Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. The fact that microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot has led to a growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolysed by the enzyme invertase.

Jeff Gore; Hyun Youk; Alexander van Oudenaarden

2009-01-01

120

Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and/or cellobiose by yeast  

DOEpatents

Provided herein are methods of using yeast cells to produce ethanol by contacting a mixture comprising xylose with a Spathaspora yeast cell under conditions suitable to allow the yeast to ferment at least a portion of the xylose to ethanol. The methods allow for efficient ethanol production from hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic material and sugar mixtures including at least xylose and glucose or xylose, glucose and cellobiose.

Jeffries, Thomas W.; Willis, Laura B.; Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai

2013-09-10

121

Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.  

PubMed

Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

Rucklidge, Julia J

2013-01-01

122

Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.  

PubMed

Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries. PMID:18075222

Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

2008-01-01

123

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) muscle.  

PubMed

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidative activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from muscle of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) were investigated. Sardinelle protein hydrolysates (SPH) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus pumilus A1 (SPHA1), Bacillus mojavensis A21 (SPHA21) and crude enzyme extract from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) viscera (SPHEE). The protein hydrolysates SPHA1, SPHA21 and SPHEE contained high protein content 79.1%, 78.25% and 74.37%, respectively. The protein hydrolysates had an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by their concentrations. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, reducing power assay, chelating activity, ?-carotene bleaching and DNA nicking assay. All protein hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. SPHA21 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (89% at 6 mg/ml) and higher ability to prevent bleaching of ?-carotene than SPHA1 and SPHEE (p?

Ben Khaled, Hayet; Ktari, Naourez; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Moncef

2014-04-01

124

Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity. PMID:20390104

Wang, Yu-Kai; He, Hai-Lun; Wang, Guo-Fan; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2010-01-01

125

Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn\\/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except

B. E. Watkins; R. L. Kanna; R. D. Chambers; R. S. Upadhye; C. O. Promeda

1996-01-01

126

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

127

A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.  

PubMed

The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different ?-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced ?-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 ?g L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

2014-04-01

128

Evaluation of red chicory extract as a natural antioxidant by pure lipid oxidation and yeast oxidative stress response as model systems.  

PubMed

The search for renewable and abundant sources of antioxidants has recently focused on agricultural byproducts, especially promising due to their natural origins and low costs. In particular, plant raw materials are sources of important compounds such as dietary fiber, carotenoids, tocopherols, and polyphenolics, which are mostly discarded during harvesting and processing. Among these vegetal crops, red chicory is attractive because of the large quantity of its byproducts (residues as leaves and stems); moreover, there is no information on its role as a food and feed ingredient. In this study, red chicory leaf residue was evaluated as a natural substitute for synthetic antioxidants for the food and feed industry. After lyophilization, a red chicory extract (RC) was characterized for its phenolic profile and its oxidative stability as compared to BHT. RC was shown to reduce lipid peroxidation of different oils in the Rancimat test. In addition, the antioxidant property of RC was studied in a model system by evaluating the Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to oxidative stress by means of gene expression. In this analysis, the RC extract, added to the yeast culture prior to oxidative stress induction, exhibited a pleiotropic protective effect on stress responsive genes. PMID:21488640

Lante, Anna; Nardi, Tiziana; Zocca, Federico; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2011-05-25

129

Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8?h), and reaction temperatures (60–120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6?h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28?g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03?g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01?g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75?g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S.; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2012-01-01

130

Physiological response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to weak acids present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Weak acids are present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate as potential inhibitors that can hamper the use of this renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. To study the effects of weak acids on yeast growth, physiological investigations were carried out in batch cultures using glucose as carbon source in the presence of acetic, formic, levulinic, and vanillic acid at three different concentrations at pH 5.0. The results showed that acids at moderate concentrations can stimulate the glycolytic flux, while higher levels of acid slow down the glycolytic flux for both aerobically and anaerobically grown yeast cells. In particular, the flux distribution between respiratory and fermentative growth was adjusted to achieve an optimal ATP generation to allow a maintained energy level as high as it is in nonstressed cells grown exponentially on glucose under aerobic conditions. In addition, yeast cells exposed to acids suffered from severe reactive oxygen species stress and depletion of reduced glutathione commensurate with exhaustion of the total glutathione pool. Furthermore, a higher cellular trehalose content was observed as compared to control cultivations, and this trehalose probably acts to enhance a number of stress tolerances of the yeast. PMID:25331461

Guo, Zhongpeng; Olsson, Lisbeth

2014-12-01

131

Endogenous hydrogen peroxide is a key factor in the yeast extract-induced activation of biphenyl biosynthesis in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia.  

PubMed

Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins produced by plants belonging to Pyrinae, a subtribe of the economically important Rosaceae family. The formation of aucuparin, a well-known biphenyl, is induced by yeast extract (YE) in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying YE-induced activation of biphenyl biosynthesis remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the addition of YE to the cell cultures results in a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS; H(2)O(2) and O(2) (-)), followed by transcriptional activation of the biphenyl synthase 1 gene (BIS1) encoding the key enzyme of the biphenyl biosynthetic pathway and aucuparin accumulation. Pretreatment of the cell cultures with ROS scavenger dihydrolipoic acid and NADPH oxidase-specific inhibitor diphenylene iodonium abolished all of the above YE-induced biological events. However, when the cell cultures was pretreated with superoxide dismutase specific inhibitor N,N-diethyldithiocarbamic acid, although O(2) (-) continued to be generated, the H(2)O(2) accumulation, BIS1 expression and aucuparin production were blocked. Interestingly, exogenous supply of H(2)O(2) in the range of 0.05-10 mM failed to induce aucuparin accumulation. These results indicate that endogenous generation of H(2)O(2) rather than that of O(2) (-) is a key factor in YE-induced accumulation of biphenyl phytoalexins in cell cultures of S. aucuparia. PMID:22086110

Qiu, Xiaofang; Lei, Caiyan; Huang, Lili; Li, Xing; Hao, He; Du, Zhigao; Wang, Hong; Ye, Hechun; Beerhues, Ludger; Liu, Benye

2012-01-01

132

Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract\\/corn steep liquor\\/glucose medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled

Mi-Young Ha; Si-Wouk Kim; Yong-Woon Lee; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2003-01-01

133

Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2013-04-01

134

Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

2013-01-01

135

Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

2014-12-01

136

A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

137

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

138

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

2013-01-01

139

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

140

Thiamin metabolism and thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetic regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilises external thiamin for the production of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) or can synthesise the cofactor itself. Prior to uptake into the cell thiamin phosphates are first hydrolysed and thiamin is taken up as free vitamin which is then pyrophosphorylated by a pyrophosphokinase. Synthesis of ThDP starts with the production of hydroxyethylthiazole and hydroxymethylpyrimidine. Those are linked

Stefan Hohmann; Peter A Meacock

1998-01-01

141

Combined effects of dietary yeast supplementation and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of Queensland fruit fly.  

PubMed

Yeast hydrolysate supplements promote maturation of many tephritid flies targeted for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT), including Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; 'Q-fly'). Recently, application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene has been demonstrated to further promote maturation in some species. We here investigate the separate and combined effects of yeast hydrolysate and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of sterile male and female Q-flies. Two methods of applying methoprene solution were used; topical application to adults and dipping of pupae. Consistent with previous studies, access to yeast hydrolysate greatly increased maturation of both male and female Q-flies. Maturation was further promoted by methoprene treatment, with similar effects evident for males and females and for both application methods. For flies provided access to yeast hydrolysate supplements, methoprene treatment advanced maturation by approximately 2days. No effects of diet or methoprene treatment were found on timing of copulation or copula duration. Countering the positive effects on sexual maturation, dipping of pupae in methoprene/acetone solution did diminish emergence rates and flight ability indices, and increased rates of wing deformity. Promising results of the present study encourage further investigation of treatment methods that maximise maturation while minimising detrimental effects on other aspects of fly quality. PMID:24424344

Collins, Samuel R; Reynolds, Olivia L; Taylor, Phillip W

2014-02-01

142

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

143

Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

2014-01-01

144

Extraction and hydrolysis of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil.  

PubMed

Fermentable sugar obtained from lignocellulosic material exhibits great potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bio-ethanol. One potentially viable source of fermentable sugars is pyrolysis oil, commonly called bio-oil. Depending on the type of lignocellulosic material and the operating conditions used for pyrolysis, bio-oil can contain upwards of 10 wt% of 1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucopyranose (levoglucosan, LG), an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. This research investigated the extraction of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil via phase separation, the acid-hydrolysis of the levoglucosan into glucose, and the subsequent fermentation of this hydrolysate into ethanol. Optimal selection of water-to-oil ratio, temperature and contact time yielded an aqueous phase containing a levoglucosan concentration of up to 87 g/L, a yield of 7.8 wt% of the bio-oil. Hydrolysis conditions of 125 degrees C, 44 min and 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) resulted in a maximum glucose yield of 216% (when based on original levoglucosan), inferring other precursors of glucose were present in the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase contained solutes which inhibited fermentation, however, up to 20% hydrolysate solutions were efficiently fermented (yield=0.46 g EtOH/g glucose; productivity=0.55 g/L h) using high yeast inoculums (1 g/L in flask) and micro-aerophilic conditions. PMID:19616934

Bennett, Nicole M; Helle, Steve S; Duff, Sheldon J B

2009-12-01

145

Microencapsulation in yeast cells.  

PubMed

A method for encapsulating high concentrations of essential oils into bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is described. The process involves mixing an aqueous suspension of yeast and an essential oil, which allows the oil to pass freely through the cell wall and membrane and remain passively within the cell. Oil droplets sequestered within the cell were clearly visible using confocal microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell wall and membrane remain intact during the process. Cells quickly lost viability during the process and it appeared unnecessary for the cells to be viable for the process to occur. Encapsulated oil was recovered from the cells using a water/ethanol extraction procedure and analysed by gas chromatography. No significant differences were noted between encapsulated and unencapsulated oil profiles. The rate of permeation of oil into the yeast cells was found to increase significantly at higher temperatures due to the phase transition of the lipid membrane. The rates at which different essential oils permeated the cell varied considerably due to variations in terpene chemistry. The encapsulation of straight chain hydrocarbons highlighted the effects of molecular size, shape and the presence of hydroxl groups on the process. The process occurs by passive diffusion as a result of hydrophobic flavour components partitioning into the cell membrane and intracellular lipid. This paper briefly reviews the patented literature and reports some of the initial observations of the transport mechanisms involved during the accumulation of essential oils by yeast cells. PMID:9818954

Bishop, J R; Nelson, G; Lamb, J

1998-01-01

146

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

147

Genetic improvement of native xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic substrates are the largest source of fermentable sugars for bioconversion to fuel ethanol and other valuable compounds. To improve the economics of biomass conversion, it is essential that all sugars in potential hydrolysates be converted efficiently into the desired product(s). While hexoses are fermented into ethanol and some high-value chemicals, the bioconversion of pentoses in hydrolysates remains inefficient. This remains one of the key challenges in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Native pentose-fermenting yeasts can ferment both glucose and xylose in lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. However, they perform poorly in the presence of hydrolysate inhibitors, exhibit low ethanol tolerance and glucose repression, and ferment pentoses less efficiently than the main hexoses glucose and mannose. This paper reviews classical and molecular strain improvement strategies applied to native pentose-fermenting yeasts for improved ethanol production from xylose and lignocellulosic substrates. We focus on Pachysolen tannophilus, Scheffersomyces (Candida) shehatae, Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis, and Spathaspora passalidarum which are good ethanol producers among the native xylose-fermenting yeasts. Strains obtained thus far are not robust enough for efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates and can benefit from further improvements. PMID:25404205

Harner, Nicole K; Wen, Xin; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Austin, Glen D; Ho, Chi-Yip; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Lee, Hung

2015-01-01

148

Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700–1700 Da was produced using an\\u000a ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in\\u000a a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL?1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited

Jingfeng Wang; Yuming Wang; Qingjuan Tang; Yi Wang; Yaoguang Chang; Qin Zhao; Changhu Xue

2010-01-01

149

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

2014-01-01

150

Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations  

PubMed Central

Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate. PMID:22185398

2011-01-01

151

Characterization of isolated yeast growth response to methionine analogs.  

PubMed

Methionine is one of the first limiting amino acids in poultry nutrition. The use of methionine-rich natural feed ingredients, such as soybean meal or rapeseed meal may lead to negative environmental consequences. Amino acid supplementation leads to reduced use of protein-rich ingredients. The objectives of this study were isolation of potentially high content methionine-containing yeasts, quantification of methionine content in yeasts and their respective growth response to methionine analogs. Minimal medium was used as the selection medium and the isolation medium of methionine-producing yeasts from yeast collection and environmental samples, respectively. Two yeasts previously collected along with six additional strains isolated from Caucasian kefir grains, air-trapped, cantaloupe, and three soil samples could grow on minimal medium. Only two of the newly isolated strains, K1 and C1, grew in minimal medium supplied with either methionine analogs ethionine or norleucine at 0.5% (w/v). Based on large subunit rRNA sequences, these isolated strains were identified as Pichia udriavzevii/Issatchenkia orientalis. P. kudriavzevii/I. orentalis is a generally recognized as a safe organism. In addition, methionine produced by K1 and C1 yeast hydrolysate yielded 1.3 ± 0.01 and 1.1 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) dry cell. Yeast strain K1 may be suitable as a potential source of methionine for dietary supplements in organic poultry feed but may require growth conditions to further increase their methionine content. PMID:24007489

Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Lingbeck, Jody M; Wilkinson, Heather H; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Biswas, Debabrata; Ricke, Steven C

2013-01-01

152

Economic evaluation of a multicompartment bioreactor for ethanol production using in situ extraction of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

We have previously described a multicompartment reactor that can be used with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production from a starch hydrolysate. By separating a solvent layer (tri-normal-butylphosphate, or TBP) from a cell layer, ethanol was extracted in situ and phase toxicity was prevented. Pressure cycling of the gas phase can be used to reduce significantly mass-transfer limitations that often limit entrapped-cell systems. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that with TBP the multicompartment reactor is generally more economically favorable at low volumes, and the traditional system is more favorable at high volumes. Improved solvents can increase economic viability at high volumes (10{sup 8} L/yr of 95% ethanol).

Shuler, M.L.; Steinmeyer, D.E.; Togna, A.P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

1991-12-31

153

Emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing properties of gluten hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Gluten is produced as a coproduct of the wheat starch isolation process. In this study, gluten was hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-6-10 and 1-2-3 with alcalase and trypsin, respectively. These peptidases have a clearly distinct substrate specificity. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt % oil) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization at pH 7.5. Gluten peptides with DH 3 proved to be the most effective in producing peptides displaying emulsifying properties. Higher levels of alcalase hydrolysates (2.0 wt %) than of trypsin hydrolysates (1.0 wt %) were required to produce stable emulsions with small droplet sizes, which is attributed to differences in the nature of the peptides formed. The emulsions had small mean droplet diameters (d32 < 1000 nm). Emulsions produced with trypsin hydrolysates (stable after 9 days at 55 °C) displayed better thermal stability compared to those produced with alcalase hydrolysates (destabilized after 2 days at 37 °C). The hydrolysate-containing emulsions, however, were quickly destabilized by salt addition (?100 mM NaCl) and when the pH approached the isoelectric point of the coated droplets (pH ~5.5). Microscopic analysis revealed the formation of air-in-oil-in-water emulsions at lower hydrolysate concentrations, whereas at higher concentrations (?3.0 wt %) extensive flocculation occurred. Both phenomena contributed to creaming of the emulsions. These results may be useful for the utilization of gluten hydrolysates in food and beverage products. PMID:24571632

Joye, Iris J; McClements, David J

2014-03-26

154

Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

155

Attempts to detect lycopersene formation in yeast  

PubMed Central

1. ?-Ionone vapour has been shown to cause an increase in the more saturated carotenes and a decrease in the less saturated carotenes of Rhodotorula glutinis. Lycopersene (dihydrophytoene) has been proposed as a precursor to phytoene. Attempts were made to isolate lycopersene from ?-ionone-treated cultures of R. glutinis. 2. Large samples of ?-ionone-treated cultures were examined for the presence of lycopersene. Spots were detected on silicic acid plates that could not be differentiated from synthetic lycopersene on the basis of column and thin-layer chromatographic separations and staining techniques. The lycopersene-like substance could be obtained from non-treated pigmented yeast as well as baker's yeast. 3. An extraction of bacterial-grade yeast extract also yielded a lycopersene-like substance. The extracts of R. glutinis cells cultured on media not containing yeast extract did not contain the lycopersene-like compound. 4. No significant carbon was incorporated into the lycopersene zone from 14C-labelled mevalonate, acetate and glucose by R. glutinis and baker's yeast. 5. These results indicate that compounds may exist with chromatographic properties similar to lycopersene, but that lycopersene could not be detected in either a pigmented or a non-pigmented yeast. PMID:5753091

Scharf, S. S.; Simpson, K. L.

1968-01-01

156

Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

2014-09-01

157

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

158

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

The Exploratorium

2012-03-10

159

Mungbean Protein Hydrolysates Obtained with Alcalase Exhibit Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mung-bean protein isolates were hydrolysed by two proteases alcalase and neutrase commercially available for food industry use, and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the enzymatic hydrolysates were measured at different hydrolysis times. The non-hydrolysed protein showed no inhibitory activity. Hydrolysates generated with neutrase displayed very low ACE inhibitory activity, while those obtained with alcalase exhibited high inhibitory

Guan Hong Li; Guo Wei Le; Huan Liu; Yong Hui Shi

2005-01-01

160

Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays  

PubMed Central

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

2012-01-01

161

Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (?-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown. PMID:25408464

Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa

2015-02-01

162

Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-12-15

163

Rendered-protein hydrolysates for microbial synthesis of cyanophycin biopolymer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyanophycin is a poly(arginyl-aspartate) biopolymer produced and stored intracellularly by bacteria. Cyanophycin has been proposed as a renewable replacement for petrochemical-based industrial products. An abundant source of amino acids and nitrogen such as in the form of protein hydrolysates is n...

164

Properties of protein concentrates and hydrolysates from Amaranthus and Buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein concentrates and pepsin hydrolysates were made after isoelectric precipitation of the proteinaceous liquor from wet-milling of grain of five Amaranthus and one buckwheat genotype. The Amaranthus protein concentrates exhibited better solubility, foaming, and emulsification than two commercial soy protein controls. Many protein properties depend on solubility, and Amaranthus protein concentrates were more soluble than soy protein isolate. The buckwheat

Feliciano P. Bejosano; Harold Corke

1999-01-01

165

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW HYDROLYSATE USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 48.9 gL**-1 glucose was used to produce 20.1 gL**-1 ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 gL**-1h**-1 and 0....

166

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials a wide range of compounds which are inhibitory to microorganisms are formed or released. Based on their origin the inhibitors are usually divided in three major groups: weak acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. These compounds limit efficient utilisation of the hydrolysates for ethanol production by fermentation. If the inhibitors are identified and the mechanisms

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

167

Assessing the potential of wild yeasts for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

Bioethanol fermentations expose yeasts to a new, complex and challenging fermentation medium with specific inhibitors and sugar mixtures depending on the type of carbon source. It is, therefore, suggested that the natural diversity of yeasts should be further exploited in order to find yeasts with good ethanol yield in stressed fermentation media. In this study, we screened more than 50 yeast isolates of which we selected five isolates with promising features. The species Candida bombi, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Torulaspora delbrueckii showed better osmo- and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae isolates had the highest ethanol yield in fermentation experiments mimicking high gravity fermentations (25 % glucose) and artificial lignocellulose hydrolysates (with a myriad of inhibitors). Interestingly, among two tested S. cerevisiae strains, a wild strain isolated from an oak tree performed better than Ethanol Red, a S. cerevisiae strain which is currently commonly used in industrial bioethanol fermentations. Additionally, a W. anomalus strain isolated from sugar beet thick juice was found to have a comparable ethanol yield, but needed longer fermentation time. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts yielded lower ethanol amounts. PMID:25413210

Ruyters, Stefan; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Willems, Kris A; Lievens, Bart

2014-11-21

168

Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. PMID:25461010

Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

2015-01-01

169

Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.  

PubMed

The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of pectinolytic activity was found in mangaba frozen pulp communities. Around 30% of all isolates produced pectinases. The ability to split arbutin was observed in all communities ranging from 8% in yeasts from pitanga frozen pulps to 40.6% in acerola ripe fruit communities. Among 432 species tested, 125 were active for beta-glucosidase production, and Kloeckera apis, P. antarctica, C. sorbosivorans, and C. spandovensis-like were the most active species. PMID:12353886

Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

2002-08-01

170

Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides  

PubMed Central

Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41?mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24?mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28?mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48?mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21?mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38?mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20?kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits. PMID:22927875

Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

171

Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

2010-03-01

172

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

173

Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of oleaginous yeast, which is helpful for optimization of biomass hydrolysis processes, detoxified pretreatment of hydrolysates and lipid production using lignocellulosic materials. PMID:22260291

2012-01-01

174

Efficient production of sophorolipids by Starmerella bombicola using a corncob hydrolysate medium.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs) are amphiphilic compounds produced from a variety of saccharides and vegetable oils by the yeast Starmerella bombicola and related strains, and they have commercial uses as detergents. In the present study, SL production was investigated using a corncob hydrolysate (CCH) medium derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks as a source of hydrophilic carbon substrates. Excess sulfuric acid concentrations during pretreatment of the corncobs increased the furfural concentrations and turned the CCH dark brown. The optimal sulfuric acid concentration was 1% (w/v), and the treated CCH, containing 45 g/l glucose, allowed the production of 33.7 g/l of SLs following 4 days of cultivation. Additional autoclaving (121°C, 20 min) inhibited SL production and cell growth by 36% and 40%, respectively. Ammonium nitrate (0.1 g-N/l) restored SL production to the autoclaved CCH. Finally, a cost-effective SL production of 49.2 g/l, with a volumetric productivity of 12.3 g/l/day, was achieved using CCH medium during batch cultivation in a jar fermentor. PMID:25240400

Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuka; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

2014-09-15

175

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

176

Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

177

Fermentation of eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate was evaluated for xylitol formation by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. Batch fermentation carried-out with high inoculum density (3.0 g\\/l) showed a dramatic improvement in substrate utilization and resulted in the formation of 13.77 g\\/l xylitol after 88 h. The use of a lower inoculum concentration (1.0 g\\/l) resulted in an initial lag phase characterized by absence of

M. G. A. Felipe; L. A. Alves; S. S. Silva; I. C. Roberto; I. M. Mancilha; J. B. Almeida e Silva

1996-01-01

178

Safety evaluation of fish protein hydrolysate supplementation in malnourished children.  

PubMed

Amizate® is a proprietary protein hydrolysate preparation derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using endogenous hydrolytic enzymes; it contains mostly free amino acids and short peptides, as well as small amounts of micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals). In this study, the safety of supplementation with fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was examined in 438 malnourished children in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. The children were between the ages of six to eight and met the Gomez classification for mild or moderate malnutrition. They were randomized to receive one of three interventions for four months, including a chocolate drink (control), or Amizate® (3 or 6g/day) in a chocolate drink. Administration of Amizate® was well-tolerated, with no adverse events reported. Growth (i.e., body weight gain, changes in height, and body mass index) was not negatively impacted by administration of Amizate®, and routine biochemical analysis of blood and urine samples did not reveal any abnormalities that were attributable to the intervention. Findings from this study demonstrate that daily consumption of 3 or 6g of fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was safe and suitable for supplementing the diets of malnourished children. PMID:24569051

Nesse, Knut Olav; Nagalakshmi, A P; Marimuthu, P; Singh, Mamta; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Ho, Manki; Simon, Ryan R

2014-06-01

179

The Use of Protein Hydrolysates for Weed Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn gluten meal, the protein fraction of corn (Zea mays L.) grain, is commercially used as a natural weed control agent and nitrogen source in horticultural crops and in the turf and ornamental markets. Corn gluten hydrolysate, a water soluble form of gluten meal, has also been proposed for the same purpose, although it could be sprayed on the soil rather than applied in the granular form. Five depeptides, glutaminyl-glutamine (Gln-Gln), glycinyl-alanine (Gly-Ala), alanyl-­glutamine (Ala-Glu), alanyl-asparagine (Ala-Asp), and alaninyl-alanine (Ala-Ala) and a pentapeptide leucine-serine-proline-alanine-glutamine (Leu-Ser-Pro-Ala-Gln) were identified as the active components of the hydrolysate. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ala-Ala acted on some metabolic process rather than directly on the mitotic apparatus. Similar to the chloracetamides and sulfonyl-urea hebicides, Ala-Ala inhibits cell division rather than disrupting of cell division processes. Cellular ultrastructure changes caused by exposure to Ala-Ala implicate Ala-Ala as having membrane-disrupting characteristics similar to several synthetic herbicides. The potential use of the hydrolysate and the peptides as weed controls is discussed.

Christians, Nick; Liu, Dianna; Unruh, Jay Bryan

180

Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

2013-01-01

181

Intracerebroventricular Administration of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Reduces Body Weight without Affecting Food Intake in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause body weight loss but the mechanism of\\u000a action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion\\u000a of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and body weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n?=?24) received i.c.v. injections of soy hydrolysate I (SH I) or

Nerissa Vaughn; Anthony Rizzo; Dolores Doane; J. Lee Beverly; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

2008-01-01

182

Proteomic Research Reveals the Stress Response and Detoxification of Yeast to Combined Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:22952687

Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

2012-01-01

183

[Hygienic characteristics of food hydrolysates made from small ocean fish and krill].  

PubMed

A study was made of the biological value of acid and enzymatic hydrolysates from capelin, luminous anchovy and krill. Hydrolysates were obtained with the use of protosubtilin G-10-X or hydrochloric acid. The products were found to contain 39 to 64% of "crude" protein, with about 40% of total nitrogen belonging to non-protein one, 0.47-2.07% of lipids, 29.7-54.3% of mineral substances including 26.6-52.4% of sodium chloride. All the hydrolysates were limited in tryptophan, the deficiency being more demonstrable in acid hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy was rich in sulfur-containing amino acids (score 112%), whereas the remaining products were marked by their deficiency (score 53-90%). The products were rich in lysine, leucine, isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids. The anabolic efficacy was discovered to be the highest for enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy, exceeding the analogous characteristics for casein. The biological value of hydrolysate from capelin and krill was lower than that of casein. This was supported by the amino acid analysis data. The assimilability of all hydrolysates was established as fairly high. Hydrolysates are employed for manufacturing broth bricks and pastes. PMID:4082514

Solomko, G I; Prudnikova, L V; Prokopenko, O V; Orlova, T A

1985-01-01

184

Selection of Yarrowia lipolytica strains with high protein content from yeasts isolated from different marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 78 Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish, and marine algae were obtained. After the crude protein of the yeasts was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that seven strains of the marine yeasts grown in soy bean cake hydrolysate with 20 g L-1 of glucose for 48 h at 28°C contained more than 41.0 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight and the cell dry weight was more than 4.4 g per L of the culture. Among them, strain SWJ-1b contained the highest crude protein. The results of Biolog identification and molecular methods further confirmed that they indeed belonged to Y. lipolytica.

Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Xianghong

2007-10-01

185

Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain  

PubMed Central

Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell defense mechanisms. Conclusion These results suggest the mechanisms of tolerance for the Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum are based on increased cellular efficiency caused apparently by downregulation of non-critical genes and increasing the expression of genes in energy production and conversion rather than tolerance to specific hydrolysate components. The wild type, conversely, responds to hydrolysate media by down-regulating growth genes and up-regulating stress response genes. PMID:25128475

2014-01-01

186

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery’s Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and\\u000a biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast\\u000a extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost\\u000a fermentation routes for several top value

Luís C. Duarte; Florbela Carvalheiro; Sónia Lopes; Ines Neves; Francisco M. Gírio

2008-01-01

187

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Phd Program

188

Antioxidative efficacy of alkali-treated tilapia protein hydrolysates: a comparative study of five enzymes.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of alkali-treated tilapia protein hydrolysates were determined by their ability to inhibit the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in a washed muscle model system and by their ability to inhibit DPPH free radicals and chelate ferrous ion in an aqueous solution. Protein isolates were prepared from tilapia white muscle using alkali solubilization at pH 11.0 and reprecipitation at pH 5.5. Protein hydrolysates were prepared by hydrolyzing the isolates using five different enzymes, Cryotin F, Protease A Amano, Protease N Amano, Flavourzyme, and Neutrase, to 7.5, 15, and 25% degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All of the protein hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of TBARS and PV. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates increased with the DH. Also, the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates varied significantly (p<0.05) among the different enzymes. The ability of different enzyme-catalyzed protein hydrolysates to scavenge DPPH radicals was not reflected in their ability to inhibit oxidation in a washed tilapia model system. In a washed muscle model system, the hydrolysates prepared using Cryotin F were most effective and the hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme and Neutrase were least effective in inhibiting the development of TBARS and PV, whereas in an aqueous solution, hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective in scavenging DPPH radicals and chelating ferrous ions. Enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the size of tilapia protein hydrolysates and, in general, tilapia protein hydrolysates with low molecular weights were better antioxidants than those with high molecular weights. PMID:18247531

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G

2008-02-27

189

Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Enzymatically hydrolyzed fish protein hydrolysates could be used as a source of antioxidative nutraceuticals. In our current work, we have investigated alkali-solubilized tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for their reducing power. Tilapia protein isolate was prepared by an alkaline solubilization technique and used as a substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. Cryotin, protease A 'Amano' 2, protease N 'Amano', Neutrase and Flavourzyme, were used separately to determine their effectiveness in hydrolyzing tilapia protein isolate. ROS scavenging ability was quantified using an isoluminol enhanced chemiluminescent assay in the presence of a) hydrogen peroxide or b) mononuclear cells isolated from human blood. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the hydrolysates using 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), were also investigated. Results showed that, in general, the TEAC, FRAP values and ROS scavenging ability of the hydrolysates increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Among the different hydrolysates, those prepared using Cryotin were most effective and Amano A2 hydrolysates were least effective in scavenging ABTS*(+) and ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide. However, FRAP assay showed that hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective, and Amano N and Neutrase hydrolysates were least effective in reducing ferric ions. No significant difference was observed among the hydrolysates produced with different enzymes in their ability to scavenge ROS generated by phorbol myristate acetate stimulated mononuclear cells. These results shed light on the in vitro ROS scavenging ability of alkali solubilized tilapia protein hydrolysates, as well as potential nutraceutical use of these hydrolysates. PMID:18828605

Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

2008-11-12

190

Exogenous nucleic acids and nucleotides are efficiently hydrolysed and taken up as nucleosides by intestinal explants from suckling piglets.  

PubMed

Human milk is a rich source of RNA, free nucleotides (NT) and nucleosides (NS). To determine the uptake of different NS sources by the intestinal epithelium, jejunal explants from suckling piglets were cultured in a medium supplemented with a mixture of NS (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, uridine; 10 mg/l each), a mixture of five NT (AMP, CMP, GMP, IMP, UMP; 7 mg/l each) or RNA (60 mg/l), respectively. Aliquots from the media were taken at different times (0.5, 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 180 min). NS and NT concentrations were analysed in the different supernatants at those periods using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. When explants were cultured in the presence of NS the concentration of these compounds, excepting cytidine, rapidly decreased, suggesting that they are efficiently taken up. When explants were incubated in the presence of NT, the total concentration of these compounds decreased while the total concentration of NS increased, suggesting that enterocytes efficiently hydrolyse NT into NS. Likewise, when explants were incubated in the presence of RNA, the total concentration of both NT and NS increased, indicating that intestinal explants are able to hydrolyse RNA to NT and then to NS in the absence of luminal enzymes. In conclusion, the jejunum of piglets at weaning is able to hydrolyse RNA and free NT to NS, and NS, excepting cytidine, are efficiently taken up by the small intestine. These results suggest that the current concentration of NT used to supplement infant formulas should be reconsidered. PMID:17403274

Gil, Angel; Gómez-León, Carmen; Rueda, Ricardo

2007-08-01

191

Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards the organological quality of the olive oil. PMID:16942987

Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

2006-02-01

192

Development of a simple and sensitive fluorimetric method for isolation of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria  

E-print Network

-hydrolysing bacteria R.L. Harcourt*, I. Horne, T.D. Sutherland, B.D. Hammock1 , R.J. Russell and J.G. Oakeshott . Incorporation of coumaphos into agar plates allowed the rapid detection of coumaphos-hydrolysing bacteria when tool to screen for bacteria possessing phosphotriesterase activity. INTRODUCTION Organophosphorus (OP

Hammock, Bruce D.

193

Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex*  

PubMed Central

Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements. PMID:16421963

Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

2006-01-01

194

Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein isolate (BPI) by Alcalase and some physiochemical and antioxidant properties of the resulting hydrolysates were characterised. The hydrolysis resulted in remarkable decrease in the globulins or protein aggregates and concomitant increase in peptide fragments. The surface hydrophobicity of the hydrolysates decreased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (DH) and reached a

Chuan-He Tang; Jing Peng; Da-Wen Zhen; Zhong Chen

2009-01-01

195

FUNCTIONAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF RED SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA) ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to develop and characterize hydrolysate powders made from red (sockeye) salmon heads. The effects of different proteolytic enzymes and different reaction durations (25, 50, 75 min) on functional and nutritional properties of red (sockeye) salmon head hydrolysates were...

196

Acid hemicellulose hydrolysates: Physical treatments and continuous immobilized-cell fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardwood hemicellulose acid hydrolysates, enriched in pentoses through countercurrent operations, have been fermented by Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y2460 in batch reactors. In order to evaluate the effects of pentose as well as inhibitor concentrations on the overall ethanol yield, several materials have been used for the physical treatment of this hydrolysate: Fly ash, a mixture of ionexchange resins, a porous

P. Perego; A. Converti; M. Zilli; M. Del Borghi

1994-01-01

197

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

198

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism. PMID:18322039

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

199

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

200

Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm-1 region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan.

Pielesz, Anna

2014-01-01

201

Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan.  

PubMed

FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20°C and 100°C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm(-1) region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan. PMID:24055677

Pielesz, Anna

2014-01-24

202

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

203

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

204

Antihypertensive Effects of Hydrolysates of Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and Their Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive activities of wakame hydrolysates have been investigated in several studies. Methods: Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) was hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for ACE was measured. Of these hydrolysates 4 with potent ACE inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Results:

Minoru Sato; Takashi Oba; Toshiyasu Yamaguchi; Toshiki Nakano; Takashi Kahara; Katsura Funayama; Akio Kobayashi; Takahisa Nakano

2002-01-01

205

Yeast Alive! Watch Yeast Live and Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson for Grades 6-8 explores the chemical reaction that happens when yeast makes bread rise. The process, called fermentation, occurs when tiny living organisms (yeast) feed on the sugars in flour dough, expelling carbon dioxide as they go. It promotes understanding of how enzymes can cause chemical reactions. This resource combines a 4-minute video of the process plus a hands-on lab that allows students to see the effects of fermentation within a typical 40-45 minute middle school class period.

2011-08-19

206

Yeast biomass production in brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.  

PubMed

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h(-1), 0.61 g g(-1), and 0.56 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids. PMID:18418745

Duarte, Luís C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Inês; Gírio, Francisco M

2008-03-01

207

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

208

Characterization of structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from surimi processing by-products.  

PubMed

Structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) from surimi processing by-products, prepared by Protamex and Alcalase, were evaluated. As the DH increased, the zeta potentials of the hydrolysates increased (p>0.05). The surface hydrophobicity of the hydrolysates was significantly affected by DH (p<0.05). A wide variety of peptides were obtained after hydrolysis by Protamex and Alcalase. The hydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, contained more large protein molecules than did the others. Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased solubility to more than 65% over a wide pH range (pH 2-10). The interfacial activities of hydrolysates decreased with increasing DH (p<0.05). The hydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, exhibited the best interfacial properties among all of the samples. Thermal properties were also affected by the hydrolysis. The results reveal that structures and functionalities of the hydrolysates were determined both by DH and enzyme type employed. PMID:24423557

Liu, Yongle; Li, Xianghong; Chen, Zhijun; Yu, Jian; Wang, Faxiang; Wang, Jianhui

2014-05-15

209

Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

2012-01-01

210

Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

2013-11-01

211

Wheat gluten hydrolysate affects race performance in the triathlon.  

PubMed

Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is a food ingredient, prepared by partial enzymatic digestion of wheat gluten, which has been reported to suppress exercise-induced elevation of serum creatinine kinase (CK) activity. However, its effects on athletic performance have not yet been elucidated. This is the presentation of an experiment performed on five female college triathletes who completed an Olympic distance triathlon with or without ingestion of 21 g of WGH during the cycling leg. The experiment was performed in a crossover double-blind manner. The race time of the running leg and thus the total race time was significantly shorter when WGH was ingested. However, serum CK levels exhibited no apparent differences between the two WGH or placebo groups. PMID:24649002

Koikawa, Natsue; Aoki, Emi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Nagaoka, Isao; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimmura, Yuki; Sawaki, Keisuke

2013-07-01

212

[Short peptide fragments with antiulcer activity from a collagen hydrolysate].  

PubMed

A peptide acidic hydrolysate of collagen (PHC) was obtained under conditions (4 N HCl) ensuring the predominant formation of short peptides, glyprolines. They were separated and their antiulcer activity was studied. Thirty individual peptides with molecular masses of 174-420 amu were isolated from the PHC by HPLC. The PHC was shown to predominantly contain 2- to 4-aa peptides, including PG, GP, and PGP. Experiments on rats demonstrated that, on intragastric administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg, PHC enhances the stability of the gastric mucosa to the action of ulcerogenic factors, such as ethanol and stress, and exhibits a protecting antiulcer effect. Even a lesser dose (0.1 mg/kg), which reduced ulcer area twofold, was effective in the stress model of ulcer formation. The intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of PHC at a dose of 1 mg/kg was found to exhibit a therapeutic effect in the acetate model of ulcer formation. PMID:16637291

Zolotarev, Iu A; Badmaeva, K E; Bakaeva, Z V; Samonina, G E; Kopylova, G N; Dadaian, A K; Zverkov, Iu B; Garanin, S K; Vas'kovski?, B V; Ashmarin, I P; Miasoedov, N F

2006-01-01

213

Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

PubMed Central

Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support “intestinal health”. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity. Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [3H] thymidine incorporation into epithelial rat intestinal RIE-1 and human colonic HT29 cells. Effects on restitution (cell migration) were analysed using wounded HT29 monolayers and its ability to influence gastric injury analysed using a rat indomethacin restraint model. Partial characterisation of bioactive agents was performed using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Results: Both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased by about threefold when added at 1 mg/ml (p<0.01). Gastric injury was reduced by 59% when gavaged at 25 mg/ml (p<0.05), results similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 12.5 ?g/ml. The vast majority of biological activity was soluble in ethanol, with glutamine in its single, di-, and tripeptide forms probably accounting for approximately 40% of the total bioactivity seen. Fatty acid constituents may also have contributed to cell migratory activity. Conclusions: Fish protein hydrolysate possesses biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies appear justified. PMID:15888784

Fitzgerald, A J; Rai, P S; Marchbank, T; Taylor, G W; Ghosh, S; Ritz, B W; Playford, R J

2005-01-01

214

RNAi in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

Drinnenberg, Ines A.

215

Vaginal Yeast Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans in the vagina. Candida is yeast, which is a type of fungus. ... small numbers, and symptoms only appear with overgrowth. Candida can multiply when an imbalance occurs, such as ...

216

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

217

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

218

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

219

Forces in yeast flocculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

220

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

PubMed

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-01-22

221

The use of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates to recover healthy microbiota in infected vaginas treated with an antifungal agent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate how konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) could support the healthy re-colonisation of vaginal microflora post infections. A total of 26 female patients (12 controls and 14 treatments) aged 18 to 25 suffering from vaginal infection were recruited for this study. Patients were assigned randomly into two groups to receive a standard antifungal treatment or a standard antifungal treatment plus pessary capsules containing 200 mg GMH (twice a week for thirty days). Patients were assessed on day zero, sixteen and thirty of the trial. Several parameters were determined including yeast and bacterial counts, the KOH test, pH, Gram staining and wet mount microscopic observations. The results showed that the counts of Candida were diminished completely with antifungal treatment for both groups. However, the total bacterial counts increased with time in the GMH pessary group unlike the control. The normalised average KOH scores were reduced sharply with time in both groups although in the control group scores started to increase after sixteen days. The normalised average white blood cell scores also decreased with time for both groups. Epithelial cell scores decreased only for the GMH pessary group while clue cells and yeast-like fungi decreased with time for both control and GMH pessary groups. These results indicate the improvement of vaginal health recovery (post antifungal treatment for Candida infection) and especially the presence of healthy microflora due to the introduction of GMH in the vagina. The data indicate that it would be worth examining further the health benefits of GMH in a vaginal health format with a view to employing the material as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent. It provides an alternative approach to reducing vaginal infections and promoting consumer health. PMID:22348910

Tester, R; Al-Ghazzewi, F; Shen, N; Chen, Z; Chen, F; Yang, J; Zhang, D; Tang, M

2012-03-01

222

Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

223

Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.  

PubMed

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

224

Production and characterization of yeast killer toxin monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were obtained after fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from mice primed with a crude extract of yeast killer toxin produced by a strain of Hansenula anomala. Hybridomas were selected by specific immunoassay reaction of their fluid with crude yeast killer toxin extract. Among the monoclonal antibodies, which were characterized by the Western blot technique, one (designated KT4) proved to have precipitating properties, thus permitting the neutralization of the killer activity of the toxin. Experiments in double immunodiffusion showed that monoclonal antibody KT4 produced homologous precipitin bands by reacting with either the crude toxin used as immunogen or a toxic extract of Hansenula mrakii. It is suggested that these monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the purification, characterization, and understanding of the bioactions of yeast killer toxins. Images PMID:2434524

Polonelli, L; Morace, G

1987-01-01

225

Radical scavenging and amino acid profiling of wedge clam, Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Body, foot and viscera of Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) were hydrolyzed using commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin and papain) and tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power assays. In comparison between all the hydrolysates, papain viscera (28.513?±?0.165 & 0.186?±?0.008) and foot (33.567?±?0.132 & 0.166?±?0.013) hydrolysates showed highest DPPH and reducing power ability respectively. The active hydrolysates were purified with DEAE- cellulose followed by Sephadex G-25 columns connected to FPLC. Further, the isolated active fractions were loaded onto HPLC for their amino acid profiling and found with the presence of potential amino acids viz., histidine, cysteine, alanine etc. These results suggest that the isolated antioxidant peptide from viscera and foot hydrolysate of D. cuneatus can be used in treating human diseases where free radicals and oxidative damage are involved. PMID:25477664

Nazeer, R A; Saranya, M A V; Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf

2014-12-01

226

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins.  

E-print Network

linkage between a phenolic acid and the carbohydrate of hydrolysable tannins. TAH hastannins in the growth medium. We have established ba- sic will be sequenced and examined for regu- latory motifs that control tannin respon- siveness. In both cases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

228

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

229

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2010-04-01

230

Antioxidant properties of whey protein hydrolysates as measured by three methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Protamex) were used for the preparation of whey protein hydrolysates.\\u000a The aim of this research was to find out whether these hydrolysates can be used as a source of whey derived antioxidants.\\u000a Hydrolyzed samples, including their unhydrolyzed protein solutions were tested by the ABTS (2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic\\u000a acid) decolorization assay, by the total radical-trapping potential

Adriena Dryáková; Anne Pihlanto; Pertti Marnila; Ladislav ?urda; Hannu J. T. Korhonen

2010-01-01

231

Antihypertensive effect of alcalase generated mung bean protein hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mung bean protein isolates were hydrolyzed by alcalase and neutrase, respectively, and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme\\u000a (ACE) inhibitory activities of the enzymatic hydrolysates were determined at different hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory\\u000a activity recorded was for a hydrolysate generated by alcalase (IC50: 0.64 mg protein\\/ml) after 2 h of hydrolysis. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure was observed in spontaneously

Guan-Hong Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Huan Liu; Guo-Wei Le

2006-01-01

232

Single-cell protein production from ram horn hydrolysate by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ram horns obtained from the slaughterhouse of Erzurum, Turkey were hydrolyzed by treating with acid (6N–HCl) and ram horn hydrolysate (RHH) was obtained. The hydrolysate was used as substrate to grow Bacillus cereus NRRL B-3711, Bacillus subtilis NRRL NRS-744 and Escherichia coli in batch system at 30 °C; air 1.5 v\\/v\\/min; stirring 150 rpm. Both RHH and biomass samples were

Esab? Basaran Kurbanoglu; Omer Faruk Algur

2002-01-01

233

Microbiological Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of New Records of Yeasts from Wild Flowers in Yokjido, Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25071392

Hyun, Se-Hee

2014-01-01

234

Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure  

PubMed Central

In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

2014-01-01

235

Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis  

PubMed Central

Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60?g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30?g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

2014-01-01

236

In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) stronger bile acid binding capacity than all others hydrolysates tested and all crystalline bile acids tested were highly bound by cholestyramine, a positive control well known as a cholesterol-reducing agent. The bile acid binding capacity of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was almost preserved after gastrointestinal proteases digestion. The molecular weight of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was determined and most of the peptides were found between 500–180 Da. The results showed that Flavourzyme hydrolysate may be used as a potential cholesterol-reducing agent. PMID:21541043

Kongo-Dia-Moukala, Jauricque Ursulla; Zhang, Hui; Irakoze, Pierre Claver

2011-01-01

237

Lipid production for second generation biodiesel by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula graminis.  

PubMed

The increasing cost of vegetable oils is turning the use of microbial lipids into a competitive alternative for the production of biodiesel fuel. The oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula graminis is able to use a broad range of carbon sources for lipid production, and is able to resist some of the inhibitors commonly released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Using undetoxified corn stover hydrolysate as substrate, the yeast achieved a lipid productivity and lipid content of 0.21 g/L/h and 34%w/w, respectively. The corresponding results with crude glycerol as carbon source were 0.15 g/L/h and 54%w/w, respectively. Therefore, R. graminis appears to be a suitable candidate for fermentation processes involving renewable resources. PMID:22366600

Galafassi, Silvia; Cucchetti, Daniela; Pizza, Francesca; Franzosi, Giuliana; Bianchi, Daniele; Compagno, Concetta

2012-05-01

238

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

239

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

240

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

241

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

242

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

243

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

244

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

245

Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of rice straw hydrolysate without detoxification using a newly adapted strain of Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

An enhanced inhibitor-tolerant strain of Pichia stipitis was successfully developed through adaptation to acid-treated rice straw hydrolysate. The ethanol production obtained by fermentation of NaOH-neutralized hydrolysate without detoxification using the adapted P. stipitis was comparable to fermentation of overliming-detoxified hydrolysate. The ethanol yield using the adapted P. stipitis with both types of hydrolysate at pH 5.0 achieved 0.45 g(p) g(s)(-1), which is equivalent to 87% of the maximum possible ethanol conversion. Furthermore, the newly adapted P. stipitis demonstrated significantly enhanced tolerance to sulfate and furfural despite the fact that both inhibitors had not been removed from the hydrolysate by NaOH neutralization. Finally, the ethanol conversion could be maintained at 60% and above when the neutralized hydrolysate contained 3.0% sulfate and 1.3gL(-1) furfural. PMID:19349164

Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song

2009-09-01

246

Genetics of Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

247

Development of a phenotypic assay for characterisation of ethanologenic yeast strain sensitivity to inhibitors released from lignocellulosic feedstocks.  

PubMed

Inhibitors released by the breakdown of plant cell walls prevent efficient conversion of sugar into ethanol. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reliable inhibitor sensitivity assay for ethanologenic yeast strains. The assay comprised bespoke 96-well plates containing inhibitors in isolation or combination in a format that was compatible with the Phenotypic Microarray Omnilog reader (Biolog, hayward, CA, USA). A redox reporter within the assay permits analysis of inhibitor sensitivity in aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. Results from the assay were verified using growth on spot plates and tolerance assays in which maintenance of viability was assessed. The assay allows for individual and synergistic effects of inhibitors to be determined. It was observed that the presence of both acetic and formic acid significantly inhibited the yeast strains assessed, although this impact could be partially mitigated by buffering to neutral pH. Scheffersomyces stipitis, Candida spp., and Pichia guilliermondii demonstrated increased sensitivity to short chain weak acids at concentrations typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. S. cerevisiae exhibited robustness to short chain weak acids at these concentrations. However, S. stipitis, Candida spp., and P. guilliermondii displayed increased tolerance to HMF when compared to that observed for S. cerevisiae. The results demonstrate that the phenotypic microarray assay developed in the current study is a valuable tool that can be used to identify yeast strains with desirable resistance to inhibitory compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:24664516

Greetham, D; Wimalasena, T; Kerruish, D W M; Brindley, S; Ibbett, R N; Linforth, R L; Tucker, G; Phister, T G; Smart, K A

2014-06-01

248

Effect of Nitrogen Source Concentration on Curdlan Production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 Grown on Prairie Cordgrass Hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 h. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 h when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 h when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 h was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 h from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate. PMID:25397813

West, Thomas P

2014-11-14

249

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

250

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2014-09-23

251

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... rash on the penis if they have unprotected sex with an infected woman. If this happens to your partner, he should see a doctor. Men who haven’t been circumcised are at higher risk. Lesbians may be at risk for spreading yeast infections ...

252

Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

2011-01-01

253

Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that have been made so far to elucidate the mechanisms for the often dramatic benefits that hydrolysates can impart on cell culture processes. Given the variety of roles that hydrolysates likely play in each cell type, close collaboration between protein hydrolysate manufacturers and biopharmaceutical developers will continue to be critical to expanding the industry's knowledge and retaining hydrolysates as a tool for enhancing media formulations.

Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

254

Housefly larvae hydrolysate: orthogonal optimization of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and functional properties  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidant, one of the most important food additives, is widely used in food industry. At present, antioxidant is mostly produced by chemical synthesis, which would accumulate to be pathogenic. Therefore, a great interest has been developed to identify and use natural antioxidants. It was showed that there are a lot of antioxidative peptides in protein hydrolysates, possessing strong capacity of inhibiting peroxidation of macro-biomolecular and scavenging free redicals in vivo. Enzymatic hydrolysis used for preparation of antioxidative peptides is a new hot-spot in the field of natural antioxidants. It reacts under mild conditions, with accurate site-specific degradation, good repeatability and few damages to biological activity of protein. Substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis are usually plants and aqua-animals. Insects are also gaining attention because of their rich protein and resource. Antioxidative peptides are potential to be exploited as new natural antioxidant and functional food. There is a huge potential market in medical and cosmetic field as well. Result Protein hydrolysate with antioxidant activity was prepared from housefly larvae, by a two-step hydrolysis. Through orthogonal optimization of the hydrolysis conditions, the degree of hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 60%. Fractionated hydrolysate at 25?mg/mL, 2.5?mg/mL and 1?mg/mL exhibited approximately 50%, 60% and 50% of scavenging capacity on superoxide radicals, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Hydrolysate did not exhibit substantial ion chelation. Using a linoneic peroxidation system, the inhibition activity of hydrolysate at 20?mg/mL was close to that of 20??g/mL tertiary butylhydroquinone, suggesting a potential application of hydrolysate in the oil industry as an efficient antioxidant. The lyophilized hydrolysate presented almost 100% solubility at pH 3-pH 9, and maintained nearly 100% activity at pH 5-pH 8 at 0°C- 4°C and room temperature during the first 6?months of storage. Essential amino acids in the hydrolysate accounted for 43% of the total amino acids. Conclusions The results suggesting that hydrolysate could be added to food oils as an efficient antioxidant. It might be useful for food additives, diet nutrients and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:23683361

2013-01-01

255

Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Summary The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5?hydroxy?2?methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre?)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that specifically metabolize the fermentation inhibitors while preserving the sugars for subsequent use by the fermentation host. The bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 was isolated from enrichment cultures with HMF as the sole carbon source and was found to metabolize many of the toxic constituents of lignocellulosic hydrolysate including furfural, HMF, acetate, formate and a host of aromatic compounds. Remarkably, this microorganism does not grow on the most abundant sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates: glucose, xylose and arabinose. In addition, C. basilensis HMF14 can produce polyhydroxyalkanoates. Cultivation of C. basilensis HMF14 on wheat straw hydrolysate resulted in the complete removal of furfural, HMF, acetate and formate, leaving the sugar fraction intact. This unique substrate profile makes C. basilensis HMF14 extremely well suited for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates prior to their use as fermentation feedstock. PMID:21255332

Wierckx, Nick; Koopman, Frank; Bandounas, Luaine; De Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

2010-01-01

256

Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from alkaline-aided channel catfish protein isolates.  

PubMed

Antioxidative activity of hydrolyzed protein prepared from alkali-solubilized catfish protein isolates was studied. The isolates were hydrolyzed to 5, 15, and 30% degree of hydrolysis using the protease enzyme, Protamex. Hydrolyzed protein was separated into hydrolysates and soluble supernatants, and both of these fractions were studied for their metal chelating ability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and their ability to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in washed tilapia muscle containing tilapia hemolysate. Both hydrolysates and supernatants were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of catfish protein hydrolysates decreased, whereas the ORAC value, metal chelating ability, and ability to inhibit TBARS increased, with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Hydrolysate samples showed higher DPPH radical scavenging ability and Fe(3+) reducing ability, and supernatant samples had higher metal chelating ability. In general, low molecular weight (MW) peptides had high ORAC values and high metal chelating ability, and high MW peptides had a higher reducing power (FRAP) and were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals. In a washed muscle model system, the ability of catfish protein hydrolysates and their corresponding supernatants to inhibit the formation of TBARS increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. PMID:18662014

Theodore, Ann E; Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G

2008-08-27

257

Application of taste sensing system for characterisation of enzymatic hydrolysates from shrimp processing by-products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an instrumental taste-sensing system to distinguish between shrimp processing by-products hydrolysates produced using different proteases and hydrolysis conditions, and the possible association of taste sensor outputs with human gustatory assessment, salt content, and bioactivity. Principal component analysis of taste sensor output data categorised samples according to the proteases used for hydrolysis. High umami sensor outputs were characteristic of bromelain- and Flavourzyme-produced hydrolysates, compared to low saltiness and high bitterness outputs of Alcalase-produced hydrolysates, and high saltiness and low umami outputs of Protamex-produced hydrolysates. Extensively hydrolysed samples showed higher sourness outputs. Saltiness sensor outputs were correlated with conductivity and sodium content, while umami sensor responses were related to gustatory sweetness, bitterness and umami, as well as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Further research should explore the dose dependence and sensitivity of each taste sensor to specific amino acids and peptides. PMID:24128587

Cheung, Imelda W Y; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

2014-02-15

258

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

2001-01-01

259

Regulation of yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase by valine and ATP.  

PubMed Central

The first step in the common pathway for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is catalysed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 4.1.3.18). The enzyme is found in plants, fungi and bacteria, and is regulated by controls on transcription and translation, and by allosteric modulation of catalytic activity. It has long been known that the bacterial enzyme is composed of two types of subunit, and a similar arrangement has been found recently for the yeast and plant enzymes. One type of subunit contains the catalytic machinery, whereas the other has a regulatory function. Previously, we have shown [Pang and Duggleby (1999) Biochemistry 38, 5222--5231] that yeast AHAS can be reconstituted from its separately purified subunits. The reconstituted enzyme is inhibited by valine, and ATP reverses this inhibition. In the present work, we further characterize the structure and the regulatory properties of reconstituted yeast AHAS. High phosphate concentrations are required for reconstitution and it is shown that these conditions are necessary for physical association between the catalytic and regulatory subunits. It is demonstrated by CD spectral changes that ATP binds to the regulatory subunit alone, most probably as MgATP. Neither valine nor MgATP causes dissociation of the regulatory subunit from the catalytic subunit. The specificity of valine inhibition and MgATP activation are examined and it is found that the only effective analogue of either regulator of those tested is the non-hydrolysable ATP mimic, adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate. The kinetics of regulation are studied in detail and it is shown that the activation by MgATP depends on the valine concentration in a complex manner that is consistent with a proposed quantitative model. PMID:11463345

Pang, S S; Duggleby, R G

2001-01-01

260

Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant

2005-01-01

261

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

262

Utilization of meat industry by products: protein hydrolysate from sheep visceral mass.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from pre-treated sheep visceral mass (including stomach, large and small intestines) by enzymatic treatment at 43+/-1 degrees C (at the in situ pH 7.1+/-0.2 of the visceral mass) using fungal protease. The enzyme readily solubilized the proteins of the visceral mass as indicated by the degree of hydrolysis (34%) and nitrogen recovery (>64%). Hydrolysis with an enzyme level of 1% (w/w of total solids) at 43+/-1 degrees C with a pH around 7.0 for 45 min was found to be the optimum condition. The yield of protein hydrolysate was about 6% (w/w). The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate that was very hygroscopic, was comparable to that of casein. PMID:16457999

Bhaskar, N; Modi, V K; Govindaraju, K; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

2007-01-01

263

Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.  

PubMed

The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

2012-12-15

264

Acid-generated soy protein hydrolysates and their interfacial behavior on model surfaces.  

PubMed

The present work attempts to provide data to warrant the consideration of soy proteins (SP) as potentially useful biomolecules for practical chemical and surface applications. Despite their sundry properties, SP use has been limited by their high molecular weight. In response to this limitation, we analyze acid hydrolysates of soy proteins (0.1 N HCl, 70 °C) for surface modification. Techniques typical in protein (SDS-PAGE) as well as colloidal (charge demand and electrophoretic mobility) analyses were used to follow the effects of molecular changes that occur upon hydrolysis. Adsorption experiments on hydrophobic (polypropylene) and mineral (aluminum oxide) surfaces were subsequently carried out to further interrogate the surface activity resultant from soy hydrolysis. It was found that during adsorption the hydrolysates tended to form less surface aggregates and adsorbed at faster rates compared with unmodified SP. Overall, the benefits derived from the application of SP hydrolysates are highlighted. PMID:25314296

Arboleda, Julio C; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A

2014-11-10

265

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

266

Effect of maltodextrin and gum arabic on water sorption and glass transition temperature of spray dried chicken meat hydrolysate protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water adsorption isotherm and glass transition temperatures (Tg) of chicken protein hydrolysate powder, with and without maltodextrin or gum Arabic, were studied in order to investigate their stability. The hydrolysate powder, pure and formulated with 10%, 20% and 30% (w\\/w) of additive, was obtained by spray drying. The sorption isotherm was determined by the gravimetric method. A differential scanning

Louise Emy Kurozawa; Kil Jin Park; Miriam Dupas Hubinger

2009-01-01

267

Design and Construction of Two Yeast Shuttle Vectors Containing Human Procollagen Genes Expression Cassette for Expression in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body. Their main function is to provide structural and mechanical support for the tissues, but they are also involved in a number of other biological functions including cell attachment, migration and differentiation. Collagens and gelatins are widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Every year, more than 50,000 tons of collagen and gelatin are used in medical applications. These materials may have some viral and prion impurity and/or stimulate allergic response in human body. Therefore, scientists have produced human collagen in recombinant systems. In this study we have constructed two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast. Total RNA was extracted from human skin fibroblast cell line, and cDNA synthesis was done by oligo dt. Then gene fragments were amplified from the cDNA with the necessary changes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally they were cloned in yeast vector pPICZ?A containing regulatory sequences for expressing and secreting the polypeptide product. Two yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression cassettes were created. Final constructs were confirmed by enzymatic digestion, PCR of desired fragment and sequencing. The yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 can be transferred into the yeast in the later stages to determine the scale of expression. PMID:23407617

Abdemami, Baharak; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Shahreza, Hossein Khanahmad; Ghavami, Mehdi

2011-01-01

268

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

269

Genome evolution in yeasts.  

PubMed

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity to explore such mechanisms. We present here the complete, assembled genome sequences of four yeast species, selected to represent a broad evolutionary range within a single eukaryotic phylum, that after analysis proved to be molecularly as diverse as the entire phylum of chordates. A total of approximately 24,200 novel genes were identified, the translation products of which were classified together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins into about 4,700 families, forming the basis for interspecific comparisons. Analysis of chromosome maps and genome redundancies reveal that the different yeast lineages have evolved through a marked interplay between several distinct molecular mechanisms, including tandem gene repeat formation, segmental duplication, a massive genome duplication and extensive gene loss. PMID:15229592

Dujon, Bernard; Sherman, David; Fischer, Gilles; Durrens, Pascal; Casaregola, Serge; Lafontaine, Ingrid; De Montigny, Jacky; Marck, Christian; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Talla, Emmanuel; Goffard, Nicolas; Frangeul, Lionel; Aigle, Michel; Anthouard, Véronique; Babour, Anna; Barbe, Valérie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Blanchin, Sylvie; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Bleykasten, Claudine; Boisramé, Anita; Boyer, Jeanne; Cattolico, Laurence; Confanioleri, Fabrice; De Daruvar, Antoine; Despons, Laurence; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Fairhead, Cécile; Ferry-Dumazet, Hélène; Groppi, Alexis; Hantraye, Florence; Hennequin, Christophe; Jauniaux, Nicolas; Joyet, Philippe; Kachouri, Rym; Kerrest, Alix; Koszul, Romain; Lemaire, Marc; Lesur, Isabelle; Ma, Laurence; Muller, Héloïse; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Nikolski, Macha; Oztas, Sophie; Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, Odile; Pellenz, Stefan; Potier, Serge; Richard, Guy-Franck; Straub, Marie-Laure; Suleau, Audrey; Swennen, Dominique; Tekaia, Fredj; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Westhof, Eric; Wirth, Bénédicte; Zeniou-Meyer, Maria; Zivanovic, Ivan; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Thierry, Agnès; Bouchier, Christiane; Caudron, Bernard; Scarpelli, Claude; Gaillardin, Claude; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc

2004-07-01

270

Tapping into yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

Fay, Justin C

2012-11-01

271

Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.  

PubMed

This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

2015-03-15

272

Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (P<0.05). When gelatin hydrolysate with 40%DH was determined for its pH and thermal stability, ORAC and chelating activity remained constant or slightly increased in a wide pH range (1-9) and during heating (100°C) for 240min. It was also stable in simulated gastrointestinal tract model system. Moreover, gelatin hydrolysate at a level of 500 and 1000ppm could inhibit lipid oxidation in both ?-carotene linoleate and cooked comminuted pork model systems. Therefore, gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22953833

Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2012-12-01

273

Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.  

PubMed

Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

2015-06-01

274

Utilization of lipid extracted algal biomass and sugar factory wastewater for algal growth and lipid enhancement of Ettlia sp.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the use of hydrolysate of lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) combined with the sugar factory wastewater (SFW) as a low cost nutrient and a carbon source, respectively for microalgal cultivation. Microalgal strain Ettlia sp. was both mixotrophically and heterotrophically cultivated using various amounts of hydrolysate and SFW. The culture which was grown in medium containing 50% LEA hydrolysate showed highest growth, achieving 5.26 ± 0.14 gL(-1) after 12 days of cultivation. The addition of SFW increased the lipid productivity substantially from 5.8 to 95.5 mg L(-1)d(-1) when the culture medium was fortified with 20% SFW. Gas chromatography analysis indicated a noticeable increase of 20% in C16 and C18 fraction in FAME distribution under above condition. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of LEA hydrolysate and sugar factory waste water can be a powerful growth medium for economical algal cultivation. PMID:24811446

Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Farooq, Wasif; Suh, William I; Shrivastav, Anupama; Park, Min S; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Yang, Ji-Won

2014-07-01

275

Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

PubMed

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

Ianieva, O D

2013-01-01

276

Transcriptional regulatory network for sexual differentiation in fission yeast  

E-print Network

promoter, cells were grown in EMM contain- ing 15 ?M thiamine, washed three times in EMM, and incu- bated at 32°C for 18 h. In every experiment, RNA extracted from cells overexpressing a particular transcription factor was compared with RNA from cells... chromatids is ensured by two distinct mechanisms at the first meiotic division in fission yeast. EMBO J 2003, 22:2284-2296. 19. Maundrell K: Thiamine-repressible expression vectors pREP and pRIP for fission yeast. Gene 1993, 123:127-130. 20. Bähler J: Cell...

Mata, Juan; Wilbrey, Anna; Bahler, Jurg

2007-10-10

277

The influence of the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis on antioxidative properties and ACE-inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates from goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates from goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle, with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) from 5 to 25%, prepared by treatment with crude proteases extract from smooth hound intestines, were investigated. Goby protein hydrolysates (GPHs) are rich in Gly and Thr, which accounted for 14.1-15% and 11.6-13.2% of the total amino acids, respectively. The antioxidant activities of GPHs were investigated by using several in vitro assay systems. All GPHs exhibited significant metal chelating activity and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, and inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation. For the ACE-inhibitory activity, as the DH increased, the activity of GPHs increased. The obtained results revealed that antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of GPHs were influenced by the degree of hydrolysis. A medium degree of enzymatic hydrolysis was appropriate to obtain GPHs with good antioxidant activity, while small peptides were essential to obtain high ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:24764223

Nasri, Rim; Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Jemil, Ines; Ben Slama-Ben Salem, Rabeb; Nasri, Moncef; Karra-Châabouni, Maha

2014-07-01

278

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.  

PubMed

Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5?g/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates. PMID:24837968

Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

2014-10-15

279

Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue - ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.  

PubMed

In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study. PMID:25367247

Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

2015-01-24

280

Water Sorption and Glass Transition Temperature of Spray-Dried Mussel Meat Protein Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water sorption behavior at 25°C and glass transition temperature (Tg) of mussel meat protein hydrolysate powder without and with maltodextrin 10 DE or gum arabic at 15 and 30% (w\\/w) were studied in this work. The sorption isotherms were determined by the gravimetric method, and the glass transition temperature was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after powder conditioning

Vanessa M. Silva; Louise E. Kurozawa; Kil J. Park; Míriam D. Hubinger

2012-01-01

281

Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOEpatents

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

2013-07-02

282

Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOEpatents

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

2013-10-29

283

Purification and identification of immunomodulating peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Alaska pollock frame.  

PubMed

To prepare immunomodulating peptides from Alaska pollock frame (APF) hydrolysates, trypsin was employed for enzymatic hydrolysis, and the immunomodulating activities of the hydrolysates were studied using splenic lymphocytes proliferation assay. The highest activity of the hydrolysates was reached when DH ranged from 15% to 18%. The peptide fractions which exhibited the highest activity were further purified using ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC. The peptides were identified using nano-LC-ESI mass spectrometry. Finally, three immunomodulating peptides were obtained, and the amino acid sequences were Asn-Gly-Met-Thr-Tyr, Asn-Gly-Leu-Ala-Pro, and Trp-Thr, respectively. The lymphocyte proliferation rates were 35.92%, 32.96%, and 31.35% in the presence of 20 ?g/ml purified peptides, respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the APF proteins hydrolysates prepared by trypsin could serve as a source of peptides with immunomodulating activity. It provided a scientific basis for the preparation of immunomodulating peptides. PMID:23107696

Hou, Hu; Fan, Yan; Li, Bafang; Xue, Changhu; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xue

2012-09-15

284

Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola  

PubMed Central

Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, ?- and ?-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

2014-01-01

285

Preparations of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Buckwheat Globulin and Their Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein enzymatic hydrolysate (PEH) of buckwheat was prepared by the seven proteases, such as pronase, pepsin, papain, trypsin, subtilisin, thennolysin and a -chymotrypsin, and their angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The buckwheat globulin (Bglo) prepared by the isoelectric precipitation method was hydrolyzed gradually by all present proteases, especially the rapid proteolysis was found with pronase,

Akira Kawakami; Toyo Inbe; Hiroshi Kayahara; Asakazu Horii

286

Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8?mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05?U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03?U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2?U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%), total phenolics (15.3–27.2??g/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7–242.8??g/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

Marinova, Margarita D.; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P.

2010-01-01

287

HYDROLYSE DES TRIGLYCRIDES A CHAINES LONGUES DANS LA CAILLETTE DU VEAU PRRUMINANT  

E-print Network

'une hydrolyse des triglycérides alimentaires dans la caillette. En effet, en régime lipidoprive, les quantités immediately after the pylorus. They received either milk substitutes containing only tallow (22 to 25 p. 100 of the dry matter) as a source of fat, or starch-enriched skim-milk. The (i) Wyzska Szkola Rolnicza Dziekanat

Boyer, Edmond

288

Enzymatic Grafting of Peptides from Casein Hydrolysate to Chitosan. Potential for Value-Added Byproducts from  

E-print Network

Enzymatic Grafting of Peptides from Casein Hydrolysate to Chitosan. Potential for Value Tyrosinase was used to initiate the grafting of peptides onto the amine-containing polysaccharide chitosan peptide grafting onto the chitosan backbone. A peptide-modified chitosan derivative was generated

Raghavan, Srinivasa

289

Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with single—factor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...

290

Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

291

Evaluation of the hypotensive potential of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive activity of bovine and porcine collagen hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The hydrolyzed collagens were subjected to ultrafiltration using membranes with cutoffs of 30-50 kDa (permeate P1), 5-8 kDa (permeate P2), or 1-2 kDa (permeate P3) in order to obtain products with a narrower range of molecular size. The hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagens and their permeates showed low ACE inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 5.42-15.58 mg of protein/mL). However, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, a significant increase in the ACE inhibitory potency of the hydrolyzed collagens was observed (IC(50) = 0.97-4.02 mg of protein/mL). Permeates had a higher ACE inhibitory activity and hypotensive activity than non-ultrafiltered hydrolysates. The P1 permeate of bovine and porcine collagen and the P3 fraction of the porcine collagen hydrolysate exhibited the best antihypertensive activity in vivo, promoting a maximum reduction in blood pressure of 22 mm Hg, 21.33 mm Hg, and 21.33 mm Hg, respectively, while lisinopril promoted a maximum reduction of 51.00 mm Hg. These results suggest that the commercial collagen hydrolysates of bovine and porcine origin may be a potential source of bioactive peptides. PMID:18800907

Faria, Mariza; da Costa, Elizabete Lourenço; Gontijo, José Antônio Rocha; Netto, Flávia Maria

2008-09-01

292

Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded ?-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

293

Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of the Biomass Program has set goals of making ethanol cost competitive by 2012 and replacing 30% of 2004 transportation supply with biofuels by 2030. Both goals require improvements in conversions of cellulosic biomass to sugars as well as improvements in fermentation rates and yields. Current best pretreatment processes are reasonably efficient at making the cellulose/hemicellulose/lignin matrix amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, but they release a number of toxic compounds into the hydrolysate which inhibit the growth and ethanol productivity of fermentation organisms. Conditioning methods designed to reduce the toxicity of hydrolysates are effective, but add to process costs and tend to reduce sugar yields, thus adding significantly to the final cost of production. Reducing the cost of cellulosic ethanol production will likely require enhanced understanding of the source and mode of action of hydrolysate toxic compounds, the means by which some organisms resist the actions of these compounds, and the methodology and mechanisms for conditioning hydrolysate to reduce toxicity. This review will provide an update on the state of knowledge in these areas and can provide insights useful for the crafting of hypotheses for improvements in pretreatment, conditioning, and fermentation organisms.

Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M.

2009-01-01

294

A new method for rapid screening of ester-producing yeasts using in situ HS-SPME.  

PubMed

The selection of ester-producing yeasts is difficult because these molecules evaporate quickly, are extremely unstable and may be missed during analytical manipulation. We propose an easy, fast and efficient headspace-SPME method for screening of ester-producing yeasts directly at the extraction vials (in situ HS-SPME). PMID:24814753

Garavaglia, Juliano; Habekost, Andressa; Bjerk, Thiago Rodrigues; de Souza Schneider, Rosana de Cassia; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Valente, Patricia

2014-08-01

295

Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308).2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4

R. Morales-López; E. Auclair; F. Van Immerseel; R. Ducatelle; F. García; J. Brufau

2010-01-01

296

A combined chemical and enzymatic method to determine quantitatively the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of yeasts.  

PubMed

A reliable method to determine cell wall polysaccharides composition in yeast is presented, which combines acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulphuric acid treatment is used to determine mannans, whereas specific hydrolytic enzymes are employed in a two sequential steps to quantify chitin and the proportion of ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,6)-glucan in the total ?-glucan of the cell wall. In the first step, chitin and ?-(1,3)-glucan were hydrolysed into their corresponding monomers N-acetylglucosamine and glucose, respectively, by the combined action of a chitinase from Streptomyces griseus and a pure preparation of endo/exo-?-(1,3)-glucanase from Trichoderma species. This step was followed by addition of recombinant endo-?-(1,6)-glucanase from Trichoderma harzianum with ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger to hydrolyse the remaining ?-glucan. This latter component corresponded to a highly branched ?-(1,6)-glucan that contained about 75-80% of linear ?-(1,6)-glucose linked units as deduced from periodate oxidation. We validated this novel method by showing that the content of ?-(1,3), ?-(1,6)-glucan or chitin was dramatically decreased in yeast mutants defective in the biosynthesis of these cell wall components. Moreover, we found that heat shock at 42 °C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and treatment of this yeast species and Candida albicans with the antifungal drug caspofungin resulted in 2- to 3-fold increase of chitin and in a reduction of ?-(1,3)-glucan accompanied by an increase of ?-(1,6)-glucan, whereas ethanol stress had apparently no effect on yeast cell wall composition. PMID:25041403

Schiavone, Marion; Vax, Amélie; Formosa, Cécile; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; François, Jean M

2014-09-01

297

Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests  

PubMed Central

Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N?=?16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N?=?10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our results provide a basis for future work in sensory, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms of hydrolysate avoidance and on the potential use of hydrolysates for pest management. PMID:19122811

Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

298

Production of Food Grade Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2006-01-01

299

Complex Physiology and Compound Stress Responses during Fermentation of Alkali-Pretreated Corn Stover Hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli Ethanologen  

PubMed Central

The physiology of ethanologenic Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkali-pretreated plant hydrolysates is complex and not well studied. To gain insight into how E. coli responds to such hydrolysates, we studied an E. coli K-12 ethanologen fermenting a hydrolysate prepared from corn stover pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion. Despite the high sugar content (?6% glucose, 3% xylose) and relatively low toxicity of this hydrolysate, E. coli ceased growth long before glucose was depleted. Nevertheless, the cells remained metabolically active and continued conversion of glucose to ethanol until all glucose was consumed. Gene expression profiling revealed complex and changing patterns of metabolic physiology and cellular stress responses during an exponential growth phase, a transition phase, and the glycolytically active stationary phase. During the exponential and transition phases, high cell maintenance and stress response costs were mitigated, in part, by free amino acids available in the hydrolysate. However, after the majority of amino acids were depleted, the cells entered stationary phase, and ATP derived from glucose fermentation was consumed entirely by the demands of cell maintenance in the hydrolysate. Comparative gene expression profiling and metabolic modeling of the ethanologen suggested that the high energetic cost of mitigating osmotic, lignotoxin, and ethanol stress collectively limits growth, sugar utilization rates, and ethanol yields in alkali-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22389370

Schwalbach, Michael S.; Tremaine, Mary; Marner, Wesley D.; Zhang, Yaoping; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L.; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Ellinger, James; Dale, Bruce; Kiley, Patricia J.

2012-01-01

300

Complex physiology and compound stress responses during fermentation of alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli ethanologen.  

PubMed

The physiology of ethanologenic Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkali-pretreated plant hydrolysates is complex and not well studied. To gain insight into how E. coli responds to such hydrolysates, we studied an E. coli K-12 ethanologen fermenting a hydrolysate prepared from corn stover pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion. Despite the high sugar content (?6% glucose, 3% xylose) and relatively low toxicity of this hydrolysate, E. coli ceased growth long before glucose was depleted. Nevertheless, the cells remained metabolically active and continued conversion of glucose to ethanol until all glucose was consumed. Gene expression profiling revealed complex and changing patterns of metabolic physiology and cellular stress responses during an exponential growth phase, a transition phase, and the glycolytically active stationary phase. During the exponential and transition phases, high cell maintenance and stress response costs were mitigated, in part, by free amino acids available in the hydrolysate. However, after the majority of amino acids were depleted, the cells entered stationary phase, and ATP derived from glucose fermentation was consumed entirely by the demands of cell maintenance in the hydrolysate. Comparative gene expression profiling and metabolic modeling of the ethanologen suggested that the high energetic cost of mitigating osmotic, lignotoxin, and ethanol stress collectively limits growth, sugar utilization rates, and ethanol yields in alkali-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22389370

Schwalbach, Michael S; Keating, David H; Tremaine, Mary; Marner, Wesley D; Zhang, Yaoping; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Grass, Jeffrey A; Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Ellinger, James; Dale, Bruce; Kiley, Patricia J; Landick, Robert

2012-05-01

301

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

302

Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

2009-12-01

303

Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation  

PubMed

Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production. PMID:9933520

Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

1999-01-01

304

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

305

Optimization of Maillard reaction with ribose for enhancing anti-allergy effect of fish protein hydrolysates using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Halibut is served on sushi and as sliced raw fish fillets. We investigated the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction (MR) with ribose using response surface methodology to reduce the allergenicity of its protein. A 3-factored and 5-leveled central composite design was used, where the independent variables were substrate (ribose) concentration (X1, %), reaction time (X2, min), and pH (X3), while the dependent variables were browning index (Y1, absorbance at 420nm), DPPH scavenging (Y2, EC50 mg/mL), FRAP (Y3, mM FeSO4/mg extract) and ?-hexosaminidase release (Y4, %). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: X1, 28.36%; X2, 38.09min; X3, 8.26. Maillard reaction products of fish protein hydrolysate (MFPH) reduced the amount of nitric oxide synthesis compared to the untreated FPH, and had a significant anti-allergy effect on ?-hexosaminidase and histamine release, compared with that of the FPH control. We concluded that MFPH, which had better antioxidant and anti-allergy activities than untreated FPH, can be used as an improved dietary source. PMID:25624251

Yang, Sung-Yong; Kim, Se-Wook; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Kwang-Won

2015-06-01

306

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

307

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

308

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

309

Lager yeast comes of age.  

PubMed

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

Wendland, Jürgen

2014-10-01

310

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.  

PubMed

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-09-01

311

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

312

A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.  

PubMed

The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

2014-08-30

313

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

of ' oven to give crustiness. Makes 2 dozen large rolls. 1 Crusty water rolls. TOMATO CHEESE ROLLS 314 cup lukewarm tomato juice 1 package yeast or 1 .yeast cake 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons .melted butter or margarine 2114 CUPS... flour Add yeast and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and Irt $tdnd until dissolved. Add salt and fat. Add half the fln~lr and beat until smooth. Add remaining flour Place in greased bowl and brush with melted fat. Cover 2nd let rise until doubled...

Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

1957-01-01

314

Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins.  

PubMed

Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The individual and interactive effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) or hydrolysate (WPH) (3.7 and 4.9% w/w), unmodified deoiled or hydrolysed lecithin (0.48 or 0.7% w/w) and carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) 18.5 or glucose syrup with DE 34 (11% w/w) on the properties of formula emulsions with 4% v/w sunflower oil, were investigated using a full factorial design. The emulsions were characterised by particle size distribution, coalescence stability, creaming rate, and also surface protein and lecithin concentration. WPI-containing emulsions proved to be stable against coalescence and showed only little creaming after 1 and 7 days standing. There was a significant increase in the mean droplet size and a significant deterioration of coalescence and creaming stability when WPH instead of WPI was used as the protein source, due to the lower number of large peptides and lower surface activity of the WPH. Increasing the WPH concentration led to an increase in oil droplet size and further deterioration of the stability of the emulsions. The starch hydrolysate and lecithin also significantly influenced the emulsion properties. Their influence was less strong when the emulsion contained WPI. Under the conditions used WPH-based emulsions were more stable, in terms of creaming and coalescence, when a low level of protein was used in conjunction with hydrolysed lecithin and glucose syrup. Oil droplets in emulsions containing unmodified lecithin in either the continuous or disperse phase and WPH in the continuous phase were very sensitive to coalescence. The addition of starch hydrolysates (DE 18.5) induced intensive flocculation and phase separation in these emulsions. PMID:11377944

Tirok, S; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

2001-07-01

315

Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

2014-01-01

316

Effects of aldehydes on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.  

PubMed

The effects of five representative aldehydes in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and the lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans were investigated for the first time. There was no relationship between the hydrophobicity and the toxicity of aldehyde, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was less toxic than aromatic aldehydes and furfural. Binary combination of aromatic aldehydes caused a synergistic inhibitory effect, but combination of furan and aromatic aldehydes reduced the inhibition instead. A longer lag phase was found due to the presence of aldehydes and the decrease of sugar consumption rate, but more xylose was utilized by T. fermentans in the presence of aldehydes, especially at their low concentrations. The variation of malic enzyme activity was not related to the delay of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of aldehydes on cell growth was more dependent on inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than that on lipid content. PMID:21443267

Huang, Chao; Wu, Hong; Liu, Qiu-ping; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zong, Min-hua

2011-05-11

317

A new pullulan-producing yeast and medium optimization for its exopolysaccharide production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast strain Y68 producing high level of pullulan was isolated from the phyton collected in Toulouse, France. This strain was identified to be Rhodotorula bacarum by BIOLOG analysis. This is the first report that pullulan was produced by Rhodotorula bacarum. The optimal medium (g L-1) for pullulan production by this strain was 80 glucose, 20 soybean cake hydrolysate, 5 K2HPO4, 1 NaCl, 0.2 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.6 (NH4)2SO4, pH 7.0. Under this condition, 54 gL-1 pullulan was produced within 60 h at 30°C. Pullulan is a better starting material for producing marine prodrugs.

Shuangzhi, Zhao; Zhenming, Chi

2003-04-01

318

Characterisation of hydrolysable tannins from leaves of Betula pubescens by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) method, assisted by diode array detection, for the characterisation of individual hydrolysable tannins in birch leaves was developed. With the method, it was found that birch (Betula pubescens) leaves contained an exceptionally complex mixture of hydrolysable tannins; 14 gallotannins and 20 ellagitannins were identified. The developed HPLC–ESI-MS method allows the qualitative and

J.-P Salminen; V Ossipov; J Loponen; E Haukioja; K Pihlaja

1999-01-01

319

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate and sugar mixtures to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli KO11, carrying the ethanol pathway genes pdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) and adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) from Zymomonas mobilis integrated into its chromosome, has the ability to metabolize pentoses and hexoses to ethanol, both in synthetic medium and\\u000a in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In the fermentation of sugar mixtures simulating hemicellulose hydrolysate sugar composition\\u000a (10.0 g of glucose\\/l and 40.0 g of xylose\\/l)

Caroline Maki Takahashi; Katia Gianni de Carvalho Lima; Débora Fumie Takahashi; Flávio Alterthum

2000-01-01

320

The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

2014-01-01

321

Evaluation of nonionic adsorbent resins for removal of inhibitory compounds from corncob hydrolysate for ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of XAD4-column treatment on removal of several fermentation inhibitors from corncob hydrolysate (CH). From analysis using a model hydrolysate, more than 99% of 5-hydroxy-methyl furfural, furfural and vanillin were removed by this treatment, and more than 97% of the total xylose, glucose and arabinose remained in the detoxified CH (DCH). The resulting DCH was tested as a substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest ethanol levels for S. cerevisiae were 1.40 and 4.92 g l(-1) in CH and DCH, respectively. For P. stipitis, the levels were 0 and 4.73 g l(-1) in the CH and DCH media, respectively. The levels of alcohol volumetric productivity in the DCH medium were 0.374 and 0.200 g l(-1)h(-1) for S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis, respectively. PMID:24094738

Hatano, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Naokazu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Kubota, Kenji

2013-12-01

322

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

323

Efficient utilization of hemicellulose hydrolysate for propionic acid production using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose, which contains glucose, xylose, and arabinose as the 3 main sugars, is an important renewable source for biorefinery. In this study, propionic acid production from glucose, xylose, or arabinose using Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was investigated. Using xylose, the predominant sugar in hemicellulose, a final propionic acid concentration of 53.2 g l(-1) was obtained via fed-batch fermentation. Using corncob molasses, a waste by-product from xylitol production as a representative of hemicellulose hydrolysate, the final concentration of propionic acid was 71.8 g l(-1), with a corresponding productivity of 0.28 g l(-1) h(-1). The present study suggests that hemicellulose hydrolysate is an excellent carbon source for efficient propionic acid production by this strain. PMID:22481002

Liu, Zhen; Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Xu, Ping

2012-06-01

324

Hydrolyses of alpha- and beta-cellobiosyl fluorides by cellobiohydrolases of Trichoderma reesei.  

PubMed Central

Cellobiohydrolase II hydrolyses alpha- and beta-D-cellobiosyl fluorides to alpha-cellobiose at comparable rates, according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The stereochemistry, absence of transfer products and strict hyperbolic kinetics of the hydrolysis of alpha-cellobiosyl fluoride suggest that the mechanism for the alpha-fluoride may be the enzymic counterpart of the SNi reaction observed in the trifluoroethanolysis of alpha-glucopyranosyl fluoride [Sinnott and Jencks (1980) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 2026-2032]. The absolute factors by which this enzyme accelerates fluoride ion release are small and greater for the alpha-fluoride than for the beta, suggesting that its biological function may not be just glycoside hydrolysis. Cellobiohydrolase I hydrolyses only beta-cellobiosyl fluoride, which is, however, an approx. 1-3% contaminant in alpha-cellobiosyl fluoride as prepared and purified by conventional methods. Instrumental assays for the various components of the cellulase complex are discussed. PMID:8489514

Konstantinidis, A K; Marsden, I; Sinnott, M L

1993-01-01

325

Novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides isolated from Alcalase hydrolysate of mung bean protein.  

PubMed

Mung bean protein isolates were hydrolyzed for 2 h by Alcalase. The generated hydrolysate showed angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with the IC(50) value of 0.64 mg protein/ml. Three kinds of novel ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate by Sephadex G-15 and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). These peptides were identified by amino acid composition analysis and matrix assisted-laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), as Lys-Asp-Tyr-Arg-Leu, Val-Thr-Pro-Ala-Leu-Arg and Lys-Leu-Pro-Ala-Gly-Thr-Leu-Phe with the IC(50) values of 26.5 microM, 82.4 microM and 13.4 microM, respectively. PMID:16680798

Li, Guan-Hong; Wan, Ju-Zhen; Le, Guo-Wei; Shi, Yong-Hui

2006-08-01

326

Purification of a novel nitric oxide inhibitory peptide derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of Mytilus coruscus.  

PubMed

Shellfish contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. To purify a novel anti-inflammatory peptide from Mytilus coruscus (M. coruscus), we applied enzymatic hydrolysis and tangential flow filtration (TFF) and investigated its nitric oxide inhibitory property. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavouzyme hydrolysates, which showed clearly superior nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7, were further purified using a TFF system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anti-inflammatory peptide composed of 10 amino acid residues was obtained, and the sequence was identified as Gly-Val-Ser-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Leu at N-terminal position. The peptide from M. coruscus effectively inhibited nitric oxide production on macrophage cells. This is the first report of an anti-inflammatory peptide derived from the hydrolysates of M. coruscus. PMID:23500953

Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kang, Seo Hee; Choi, Dong-Kug; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung Suck; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

2013-06-01

327

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

/4 cup lukewarm tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and

Reasonover, Frances

1971-01-01

328

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

1989-06-06

329

Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents.  

PubMed

Inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates were treated with the reducing agents dithionite and sulfite to achieve improved fermentability. Addition of these reducing agents (in the concentration range 5.0-17.5 mM) to enzymatic hydrolysates of spruce wood or sugarcane bagasse improved processes based on both SHF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation). The approach was exemplified in ethanolic fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by using hydrolysates with sugar concentrations>100 g/L (for SHF) and with 10% dry-matter content (for SSF). In the SHF experiments, treatments with dithionite raised the ethanol productivities of the spruce hydrolysate from 0.2 to 2.5 g×L(-1)×h(-1) and of the bagasse hydrolysate from 0.9 to 3.9 g×L(-1)×h(-1), values even higher than those of fermentations with reference sugar solutions without inhibitors. Benefits of the approach include that the addition of the reducing agent can be made in-situ directly in the fermentation vessel, that the treatment can be performed at a temperature and pH suitable for fermentation, and that the treatment results in dramatically improved fermentability without degradation of fermentable sugars. The many benefits and the simplicity of the approach offer a new way to achieve more efficient manufacture of fermentation products from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:20822900

Alriksson, Björn; Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2011-01-01

330

Alginate fibres modified with unhydrolysed and hydrolysed chitosans for wound dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of commercial chitosans were sourced, subjected to controlled acid hydrolysis, and their molecular size profiles and degrees of acetylation (DA) determined (pre- and post-hydrolysis) by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Unhydrolysed and hydrolysed chitosans were subsequently utilised for modification of sodium alginate\\/alginic acid fibres (prepared using a range of different fibre spinning conditions), and

C. J Knill; J. F Kennedy; J Mistry; M Miraftab; G Smart; M. R Groocock; H. J Williams

2004-01-01

331

Inhibition of growth of Zymomonas mobilis by model compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Background During the pretreatment of biomass feedstocks and subsequent conditioning prior to saccharification, many toxic compounds are produced or introduced which inhibit microbial growth and in many cases, production of ethanol. An understanding of the toxic effects of compounds found in hydrolysate is critical to improving sugar utilization and ethanol yields in the fermentation process. In this study, we established a useful tool for surveying hydrolysate toxicity by measuring growth rates in the presence of toxic compounds, and examined the effects of selected model inhibitors of aldehydes, organic and inorganic acids (along with various cations), and alcohols on growth of Zymomonas mobilis 8b (a ZM4 derivative) using glucose or xylose as the carbon source. Results Toxicity strongly correlated to hydrophobicity in Z. mobilis, which has been observed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for aldehydes and with some exceptions, organic acids. We observed Z. mobilis 8b to be more tolerant to organic acids than previously reported, although the carbon source and growth conditions play a role in tolerance. Growth in xylose was profoundly inhibited by monocarboxylic organic acids compared to growth in glucose, whereas dicarboxylic acids demonstrated little or no effects on growth rate in either substrate. Furthermore, cations can be ranked in order of their toxicity, Ca++ >?>?Na+?>?NH4+?>?K+. HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), furfural and acetate, which were observed to contribute to inhibition of Z. mobilis growth in dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate, do not interact in a synergistic manner in combination. We provide further evidence that Z. mobilis 8b is capable of converting the aldehydes furfural, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and to some extent syringaldehyde to their alcohol forms (furfuryl, vanillyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl and syringyl alcohol) during fermentation. Conclusions Several key findings in this report provide a mechanism for predicting toxic contributions of inhibitory components of hydrolysate and provide guidance for potential process development, along with potential future strain improvement and tolerance strategies. PMID:23837621

2013-01-01

332

3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although\\u000a 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been\\u000a done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs\\u000a and is difficult

Ines Baer; Beatriz de la Calle; Philip Taylor

2010-01-01

333

Hepatitis C virus inhibitory hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Two new hydrolysable tannins, chebumeinin A (1) and chebumeinin B (2), together with eight known related compounds (3-10), were isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The new compounds were structurally determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known compounds characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with literature values. All isolates were evaluated by an HCV protease inhibition assay, and some compounds were found to be potently active. PMID:25261266

Ajala, Olusegun S; Jukov, Azzaya; Ma, Chao-Mei

2014-12-01

334

[Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].  

PubMed

Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

2014-05-01

335

Speciation of chromium in chromium yeast.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The separation was achieved on a weak anion exchange column. The mobile phase was pH 7.0 ammonium nitrate solution. The redox reaction between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was avoided during separation and determination. This separation method could be used to separate the samples with large concentration differences between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The alkaline digestion was used to extract chromium in solid sample, which had no effect on the retention time and the peak area of the Cr(VI). However, the conversion of Cr(VI) from Cr(III) was observed during alkaline digestion, which displayed positive relation with the ratio of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) contents of chromium yeasts cultured in media with different chromium additions were determined. The spike recoveries of Cr(VI) for chromium yeasts were in the range of 95-108 %. PMID:25269546

Guo, Xuena; Liu, Wei; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2014-12-01

336

Resinless section electron microscopy reveals the yeast cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially invisible using conventional microscopy techniques. A similar problem was solved for the mammalian cell cytoskeleton using resinless section electron microscopy, a technique applied here to yeast. In the resinless image, soluble proteins are no longer cloaked by embedding medium and must be removed by selective detergent extraction. In yeast, this requires breaching the cell wall by digesting with Zymolyase sufficiently to allow detergent extraction of the plasma membrane lipids. Gel electropherograms show that the extracted or "soluble" proteins are distinct from the retained or "structural" proteins that presumably comprise the cytoskeleton. These putative cytoskeleton proteins include the major portions of a 43-kDa protein, which is presumably actin, and of proteins in a band appearing at 55 kDa, as well as numerous less abundant, nonactin proteins. Resinless section electron micrographs show a dense, three-dimensional web of anastomosing, polymorphic filaments bounded by the remnant cell wall. Although the filament network is very heterogenous, there appear to be two principal classes of filament diameters-5 nm and 15-20 nm-which may correspond to actin and intermediate filaments, respectively. A large oval region of lower filament density probably corresponds to the vacuole, and an electron dense spheroidal body, 300-500 nm in diameter, is likely the nucleus. The techniques detailed in this report afford new approaches to the study of yeast cytoarchitecture. PMID:9108046

Penman, J; Penman, S

1997-04-15

337

Purification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin.  

PubMed

To obtain hydrolysates with high degree of hydrolysis (DH) and scavenging radical activity, tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was hydrolyzed by properase E and multifect neutral. The optimum hydrolysis condition of each enzyme was determined using the orthogonal experiment, and double-enzyme hydrolysis was further applied. The results showed the tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysate (TSGH) obtained by progressive hydrolysis using multifect neutral and properase E had the highest DH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The IC(50) values of TSGH on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (·O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) activities were also determined. TSGH was further purified using gel filtration chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and RP-HPLC. The peptides were identified using nano-LC-ESI mass spectrometry. Finally, two antioxidant peptides were identified and the amino acid sequences were Glu-Gly-Leu (317.33 Da) and Tyr-Gly-Asp-Glu-Tyr (645.21 Da), respectively. The IC(50) values of two peptides on hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were 4.61 ?g mL(-1)and 6.45 ?g mL(-1), respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the hydrolysates of TSG prepared by multifect neutral and properase E could serve as a source of peptides with high antioxidant activity. It provided a scientific basis for the preparation of antioxidant peptides. PMID:22955032

Zhang, Yufeng; Duan, Xiu; Zhuang, Yongliang

2012-11-01

338

Optimization of the Preparation of Fish Protein Anti-Obesity Hydrolysates Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

The enzymatic condition for producing the anti-obesity hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology, which also derived a statistical model for experimental validation. Compared with neutral protease, papain and protamex, the porcine pancreas lipase inhibitory rate of hydrolysates from fish water-soluble protein was higher with alkaline protease. Results showed that the model terms were significant, the terms of lack of fit were not significant, and the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis by alkaline protease were initial pH 11, temperature 39 °C, enzyme dosage 122 U/mL and 10 h of hydrolysis time. Under these conditions, the porcine pancreas lipase and the ?-amylase inhibitory rate could reach 53.04% ± 1.32% and 20.03 ± 0.89%, while predicted value were 54.63% ± 1.75%, 21.22% ± 0.70%, respectively. In addition, Lineweaver-Burk plots showed noncompetitive inhibition. The Ki value calculated was 84.13 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that fish water-soluble protein could be used for obtaining anti-obesity hydrolysates. PMID:23377020

Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yanping; Peng, Chen; Wang, Jinju

2013-01-01

339

Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. METHODS Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time (90-180 min), and enzyme/substrate ratio [60-90 Anson-unit (AU)/kg protein] to achieve maximum antioxidant activity. Experiments were designed according to the central composite design. RESULTS Each of the studied variables had a significant effect on responses (P < 0.05). Optimal conditions to achieve antioxidant activity were, temperature (48.27 °C), time (158.78), min and enzyme/substrate ratio (83.35) Anson-unit/kg protein. Under these conditions, antioxidant activity was 68.21%, R2 for model was 0.983. The values indicated the high accuracy of the model to predict the reaction conditions considering different variables. The chemical analysis of protein hydrolysate showed high protein content (83.78%) and low fat content (0.34%). CONCLUSION Our results showed that protein hydrolysate of sheep visceral, can be used as a natural antioxidant with high nutritional value. PMID:25258632

Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

2014-01-01

340

Partial characterization of ultrafiltrated soy protein hydrolysates with antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.  

PubMed

Soy protein isolate (SPI) was hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme® (SHF) or chymotrypsin (SHC). Hydrolysates were sequencially fractionated by ultrafiltration using different membrane pore sizes (50, 10, and 3 kDa). The antioxidant ability of each hydrolysate protein fraction was tested in a liposome oxidizing system and their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) was evaluated with the DPPH method (diphenylpicrilhydrazine radical). Molecular weight (MW) distribution, solubility, surface hydrophobicity, and amino acid composition of each SPI hydrolysate fraction were measured and their effect on antioxidant and scavenging activities was established by multivariate correlation. The most active ultrafiltrated peptide fractions (P < 0.05), from SHF and SHC, had of MW of <3 kDa (F3 and C3, respectively). These fractions decreased liposome oxidation by 83.2% and 84.5%, respectively, and also showed the highest FRSA (F3: 21.3% and C3: 24.4%). In addition to molecular size, the antioxidant activity and FRSA of soy protein fractions were related to their amino acid composition, especially to an increased content of Phe and a lowered content of Lys. Also, hydrophobicity of ultrafiltrated peptide fractions was an important characteristic (P < 0.001) associated with their ability to trap free radicals. Ultrafiltered peptide fractions with low MW have a high potential to be used as natural alternatives to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23957400

Jiménez-Ruiz, Edgar I; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Arteaga-Mackinney, Guillermo E; Valenzuela-Melendez, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida

2013-08-01

341

Comparison of glucose/xylose cofermentation of poplar hydrolysates processed by different pretreatment technologies.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of furfural and acetic acid on the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol in YEPDX medium by a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (LNH-ST 424A) were investigated. Initial furfural concentrations below 5 g/L caused negligible inhibition to glucose and xylose consumption rates in batch fermentations with high inoculum (4.5-6.0 g/L). At higher initial furfural concentrations (10-15 g/L) the inhibition became significant with xylose consumption rates especially affected. Interactive inhibition between acetic acid and pH were observed and quantified, and the results suggested the importance of conditioning the pH of hydrolysates for optimal fermentation performance. Poplar biomass pretreated by various CAFI processes (dilute acid, AFEX, ARP, SO(2)-catalyzed steam explosion, and controlled-pH) under respective optimal conditions was enzymatically hydrolyzed, and the mixed sugar streams in the hydrolysates were fermented. The 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and furfural concentrations were low in all hydrolysates and did not pose negative effects on fermentation. Maximum ethanol productivity showed that 0-6.2 g/L initial acetic acid does not substantially affect the ethanol fermentation with proper pH adjustment, confirming the results from rich media fermentations with reagent grade sugars. PMID:19319980

Lu, Yulin; Warner, Ryan; Sedlak, Miroslav; Ho, Nancy; Mosier, Nathan S

2009-01-01

342

Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No other sustainable option for production of transportation fuels can match ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass with respect to its dramatic environmental, economic, strategic and infrastructure advantages. Substantial progress has been made in advancing biomass ethanol (bioethanol) production technology to the point that it now has commercial potential, and several firms are engaged in the demanding task of introducing first-of-a-kind technology into the marketplace to make bioethanol a reality in existing fuel-blending markets. In order to lower pollution India has a long-term goal to use biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel). Ethanol may be used either in pure form, or as a blend in petrol in different proportions. Since the cost of raw materials, which can account up to 50 % of the total production cost, is one of the most significant factors affecting the economy of alcohol, nowadays efforts are more concentrated on using cheap and abundant raw materials. Several forms of biomass resources exist (starch or sugar crops, weeds, oil plants, agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) but of all biomass cellulosic resources represent the most abundant global source. The lignocellulosic materials include agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (MSW), pulp mill refuse, switchgrass and lawn, garden wastes. Lignocellulosic materials contain two types of polysaccharides, cellulose and hemicellulose, bound together by a third component lignin. The principal elements of the lignocellulosic research include: i) evaluation and characterization of the waste feedstock; ii) pretreatment including initial clean up or dewatering of the feedstock; and iii) development of effective direct conversion bioprocessing to generate ethanol as an end product. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials is a step in which some of the hemicellulose dissolves in water, either as monomeric sugars or as oligomers and polymers. The cellulose cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

343

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

Fiechter, A.

1982-12-01

344

Synthetic Yeast Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

2010-03-01

345

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification of Yeasts Is Contingent on Robust Reference Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for yeast identification is limited by the requirement for protein extraction and for robust reference spectra across yeast species in databases. We evaluated its ability to identify a range of yeasts in comparison with phenotypic methods.MethodsMALDI-TOF MS was performed on 30 reference and 167 clinical isolates followed by prospective examination

Angie Pinto; Catriona Halliday; Melissa Zahra; Sebastian van Hal; Tom Olma; Krystyna Maszewska; Jonathan R. Iredell; Wieland Meyer; Sharon C.-A. Chen; Markus M. Heimesaat

2011-01-01

346

Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

Hedya Jemai; Mohamed Bouaziz; Ines Fki; Abdelfattah El Feki; Sami Sayadi

2008-01-01

347

Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes  

PubMed Central

Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

Enenkel, Cordula

2014-01-01

348

Evaluation of Brewer's spent yeast to produce flavor enhancer nucleotides: influence of serial repitching.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the influence of serial yeast repitching on nucleotide composition of brewer's spent yeast extracts produced without addition of exogenous enzymes. Two procedures for disrupting cell walls were compared, and the conditions for low-cost and efficient RNA hydrolysis were selected. A HILIC methodology was validated for the quantification of nucleotides and nucleosides in yeast extracts. Thirty-seven samples of brewer's spent yeast ( Saccharomyces pastorianus ) organized according to the number of serial repitchings were analyzed. Nucleotides accounted for 71.1-88.2% of the RNA products; 2'AMP was the most abundant (ranging between 0.08 and 2.89 g/100 g dry yeast). 5'GMP content ranged between 0.082 and 0.907 g/100 g dry yeast. The sum of 5'GMP, 5'IMP, and 5'AMP represented between 25 and 32% of total nucleotides. This works highlights for the first time that although serial repitching influences the content of monophosphate nucleotides and nucleosides, the profiles of these RNA hydrolysis products are not affected. PMID:24004163

Vieira, Elsa; Brandão, Tiago; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2013-09-18

349

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

2001-01-01

350

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia media of consistently high quality is essential for the genetic manipulation of yeast. Autoclaving coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

Winston, Fred

351

The intronome of budding yeasts.  

PubMed

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors. PMID:21819948

Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-01-01

352

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

353

Monitoring of quorum-sensing molecules during minifermentation studies in wine yeast.  

PubMed

At high cell density or under low nutrient conditions, yeasts collectively adapt their metabolism by secreting aromatic alcohols in what is known as quorum sensing. However, the mechanisms and role of quorum sensing in yeast are poorly understood, and the methodology behind this process is not well established. This paper describes an effective approach to study quorum sensing in yeast fermentations. The separation, detection, and quantification of the putative quorum-sensing molecules 2-phenylethanol, tryptophol, and tyrosol have been optimized on a simple HPLC-based system. With the use of a phenyl HPLC column and a fluorescence detector, the sensitivity of the system was significantly increased. This allowed extraction and concentration procedures to be eliminated and the process to be scaled down to 2 mL minifermentations. Additionally, an innovative method for rapid viable-cell counting is presented. This study forms the basis for detailed studies in kinetics and regulation of quorum sensing in yeast fermentation. PMID:23413824

Zupan, Jure; Avbelj, Martina; Butinar, Bojan; Kosel, Janez; Šergan, Matej; Raspor, Peter

2013-03-13

354

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent\\u000a a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25%\\u000a of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces.

Jose Manuel Ageitos; Juan Andres Vallejo; Patricia Veiga-Crespo; Tomas G. Villa

2011-01-01

355

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

356

Enhanced lipid production with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate by Rhodotorula glutinis using a high cell density culture strategy.  

PubMed

In recent years, energy crisis and environmental issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming, etc. has roused peoples' concern. Biodiesel, as renewable energy, has attracted much attention to deal with such problems. This work studied the lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate. The results indicated that R. glutinis had high tolerance to the inhibitors in corncob hydrolysate and it could utilize undetoxified corncob hydrolysate directly for lipid production. The cell grew well with undetoxified hydrolysate in the batch culture of 5L fermentor with the optimized C/N ratio of 75, lipid titer and lipid content reached 5.5g/L and 36.4%, respectively. High cell density culture with two-stage nitrogen feeding strategy was studied to enhance the lipid production, biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of 70.8, 33.5g/L and 47.2% were obtained. The results indicated the potential application for lipid production by R. glutinis with corncob hydrolysate directly. PMID:25585258

Liu, Yating; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an

2015-03-01

357

Protein hydrolysate from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla): optimization of hydrolysis conditions for a commercial neutral protease.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of an Indian freshwater major carp, Catla catla. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins using in situ pH of the visceral mass were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) by employing a factorial design. The regression coefficient close to 1.0, observed during both experimental and validation runs, indicated the validity of prediction model. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.25 % (v/w), temperature of 55 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 165 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis of >48% using multifect-neutral. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets. PMID:17933524

Bhaskar, N; Mahendrakar, N S

2008-07-01

358

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.5% (v/w), pH 8.5, temperature of 50 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 135 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis close to 50% using alcalase. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate can well be used to meet the amino acid requirements of juvenile common carp and hence has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets. PMID:17303414

Bhaskar, N; Benila, T; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

2008-01-01

359

Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

2013-01-01

360

Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.  

PubMed

ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media. PMID:24983690

Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

2014-09-01

361

Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

1992-01-01

362

Comparison of antioxidant activities of onion and garlic extracts by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and radical scavenging activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of selected varieties and parts of garlic and onion were determined by two methods: inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated rat hepatocytes and scavenging activity against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. The total phenolics and the main flavonoids of the hydrolysed onion and garlic samples were also analysed. The antioxidant activities obtained

Anna Maria Nuutila; Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä; Marjukka Aarni; Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey

2003-01-01

363

Rewiring yeast sugar transporter preference through modifying a conserved protein motif  

PubMed Central

Utilization of exogenous sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates, such as xylose, must be improved before yeast can serve as an efficient biofuel and biochemical production platform. In particular, the first step in this process, the molecular transport of xylose into the cell, can serve as a significant flux bottleneck and is highly inhibited by other sugars. Here we demonstrate that sugar transport preference and kinetics can be rewired through the programming of a sequence motif of the general form G-G/F-XXX-G found in the first transmembrane span. By evaluating 46 different heterologously expressed transporters, we find that this motif is conserved among functional transporters and highly enriched in transporters that confer growth on xylose. Through saturation mutagenesis and subsequent rational mutagenesis, four transporter mutants unable to confer growth on glucose but able to sustain growth on xylose were engineered. Specifically, Candida intermedia gxs1 Phe38Ile39Met40, Scheffersomyces stipitis rgt2 Phe38 and Met40, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hxt7 Ile39Met40Met340 all exhibit this phenotype. In these cases, primary hexose transporters were rewired into xylose transporters. These xylose transporters nevertheless remained inhibited by glucose. Furthermore, in the course of identifying this motif, novel wild-type transporters with superior monosaccharide growth profiles were discovered, namely S. stipitis RGT2 and Debaryomyces hansenii 2D01474. These findings build toward the engineering of efficient pentose utilization in yeast and provide a blueprint for reprogramming transporter properties. PMID:24344268

Young, Eric M.; Tong, Alice; Bui, Hang; Spofford, Caitlin; Alper, Hal S.

2014-01-01

364

Genetic Engineering of Enterobacter asburiae Strain JDR-1 for Efficient Production of Ethanol from Hemicellulose Hydrolysates?  

PubMed Central

Dilute acid pretreatment is an established method for hydrolyzing the methylglucuronoxylans of hemicellulose to release fermentable xylose. In addition to xylose, this process releases the aldouronate methylglucuronoxylose, which cannot be metabolized by current ethanologenic biocatalysts. Enterobacter asburiae JDR-1, isolated from colonized wood, was found to efficiently ferment both methylglucuronoxylose and xylose in acid hydrolysates of sweet gum xylan, producing predominantly ethanol and acetate. Transformation of E. asburiae JDR-1 with pLOI555 or pLOI297, each containing the PET operon containing pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase B (adhB) genes derived from Zymomonas mobilis, replaced mixed-acid fermentation with homoethanol fermentation. Deletion of the pyruvate formate lyase (pflB) gene further increased the ethanol yield, resulting in a stable E. asburiae E1(pLOI555) strain that efficiently utilized both xylose and methylglucuronoxylose in dilute acid hydrolysates of sweet gum xylan. Ethanol was produced from xylan hydrolysate by E. asburiae E1(pLOI555) with a yield that was 99% of the theoretical maximum yield and at a rate of 0.11 g ethanol/g (dry weight) cells/h, which was 1.57 times the yield and 1.48 times the rate obtained with the ethanologenic strain Escherichia coli KO11. This engineered derivative of E. asburiae JDR-1 that is able to ferment the predominant hexoses and pentoses derived from both hemicellulose and cellulose fractions is a promising subject for development as an ethanologenic biocatalyst for production of fuels and chemicals from agricultural residues and energy crops. PMID:19617386

Bi, Changhao; Zhang, Xueli; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Preston, James F.

2009-01-01

365

In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hemp Seed ( Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis of hemp seed proteins using pepsin and pancreatin followed by membrane ultrafiltration\\u000a fractionation yielded fractions with peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5, and 5–10 kDa. Analysis of in vitro antioxidant properties\\u000a showed that the hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) exhibited a significantly weaker (p < 0.05) scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals when compared to the fractionated peptides. Metal chelation\\u000a activity

Abraham T. Girgih; Chibuike C. Udenigwe; Rotimi E. Aluko

2011-01-01

366

Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary ?-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge. PMID:25290460

Liu, Chunhong; Liu, Wen; Feng, Zhibiao; Li, Dongmei

2014-01-01

367

Comparison of methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate for bacterial cellulose production  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. In order to decrease the production cost of bacterial cellulose, lignocellulose-based media have considerable potential as alternative cost-effective feedstocks. However, pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose to sugars also generate fermentation inhibitors. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is needed to achieve efficient production of BC. In this investigation, different methods for detoxification of spruce hydrolysate prior to production of BC were compared with respect to effects on potential inhibitors and fermentable sugars, sugar consumption, BC yield, and cell viability. The objectives were to identify efficient detoxification methods and to achieve a better understanding of the role played by different inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Results In a first series of experiments, the detoxification methods investigated included treatments with activated charcoal, alkali [sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide (overliming), and ammonium hydroxide], anion and cation ion-exchange resins, and reducing agents (sodium sulfite and sodium dithionite). A second series of detoxification experiments included enzymatic treatments (laccase and peroxidase). The potential inhibitors studied included aliphatic acids, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. The best effects in the first series of detoxification experiments were achieved with activated charcoal and anion exchanger. After detoxification with activated charcoal the BC yield was 8.2 g/L, while it was 7.5 g/L in a reference medium without inhibitors. Treatments with anion exchanger at pH 10 and pH 5.5 gave a BC yield of 7.9 g/L and 6.3 g/L, respectively. The first series of experiments suggested that there was a relationship between the BC yield and phenolic inhibitors. Therefore, the second series of detoxification experiments focused on treatments with phenol-oxidizing enzymes. The BC yield in the laccase-detoxified hydrolysate reached 5.0-5.5 g/L after 14 days cultivation, which demonstrated the important inhibitory role played by phenolic compounds. Conclusions The investigation shows that detoxification methods that efficiently remove phenolics benefit bacterial growth and BC production. Negative effects of salts could not be excluded and the osmotolerance of Gluconacetobacter xylinus needs to be further investigated in the future. Combinations of detoxification methods that efficiently decrease the concentration of inhibitors remain as an interesting option. PMID:24119691

2013-01-01

368

Enhancement of fermentable sugar yield by competitive adsorption of non-enzymatic substances from yeast and cellulase on lignin  

PubMed Central

Background Enhancement of enzymatic digestibility by some supplementations could reduce enzyme loading and cost, which is still too high to realize economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. A recent study indicates that yeast hydrolysates (YH) have improved the efficiency of cellulases on digestibility of furfural residues (FR). In the current work, the components of YH were separated by centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography and finally characterized in order to better understand this positive effect. Results A 60.8% of nitrogen of yeast cells was remained in the slurry (YHS) after hydrothermal treatment. In the supernatant of YH (YHL), substances of high molecular weight were identified as proteins and other UV-absorbing compounds, which showed close molecular weight to components of cellulases. Those substances attributed to a synergetic positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis of FR. The fraction of YHL ranged from 1.19 to 2.19 mL (elution volume) contained over 50% of proteins in YHL and had the best performance in stimulating the release of glucose. Experiment results proved the adsorption of proteins in YHL on lignin. Conclusions Supplementation of cellulases with YH enhances enzymatic digestibility of FR mainly by a competitive adsorption of non-enzymatic substances on lignin. The molecular weight of these substances has a significant impact on their performance. Different strategies can be used for a good utilization of yeast cells in terms of biorefinery concept. PMID:24650152

2014-01-01

369

The yeast enzyme Eht1 is an octanoyl-CoA:ethanol acyltransferase that also functions as a thioesterase  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid ethyl esters are secondary metabolites that are produced during microbial fermentation, in fruiting plants and in higher organisms during ethanol stress. In particular, volatile medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters are important flavour compounds that impart desirable fruit aromas to fermented beverages, including beer and wine. The biochemical synthesis of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters is poorly understood but likely involves acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferases. Here, we characterize the enzyme ethanol hexanoyl transferase 1 (Eht1) from the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Full-length Eht1 was successfully overexpressed from a recombinant yeast plasmid and purified at the milligram scale after detergent solubilization of sedimenting membranes. Recombinant Eht1 was functional as an acyltransferase and, unexpectedly, was optimally active toward octanoyl-CoA, with kcat?=?0.28?±?0.02/s and KM?=?1.9?±?0.6 ?m. Eht1 was also revealed to be active as a thioesterase but was not able to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acyl esters, in contrast to the findings of a previous study. Low-resolution structural data and site-directed mutagenesis provide experimental support for a predicted ?/?-hydrolase domain featuring a Ser–Asp–His catalytic triad. The S. cerevisiae gene YBR177C/EHT1 should thus be reannotated as coding for an octanoyl-CoA:ethanol acyltransferase that can also function as a thioesterase. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308280

Knight, Michael J; Bull, Ian D; Curnow, Paul

2014-01-01

370

Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.  

PubMed

In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate. PMID:25151068

Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-10-01

371

Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of roe protein hydrolysates of Channa striatus and Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Bioactive roe protein hydrolysates were prepared from Channa striatus (CRPH) and Labeo rohita (LRPH) and their functional and in vitro antioxidant properties evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis was 28.41% at 60min in channa and 18.85% in labeo roe concentrates at 90min. The yields of protein hydrolysates were 24.15% and 12.45% for channa and labeo roe protein concentrates, respectively. The protein content was identical (58%) in both roe protein hydrolysates. Protein solubility in channa was higher (90.48%) when compared to labeo (50.6%) at pH 12. Higher oil absorption capacity and foam stability were observed in CRPH and higher emulsifying capacity was found in LRPH. Smaller peptides of 12kDa were noted in both CRPH and LRPH. In vitro antioxidant activity was higher in CRPH than in LRPH as seen from DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. PMID:22953883

Galla, Narsing Rao; Pamidighantam, Prabhakara Rao; Akula, Satyanarayana; Karakala, Balaswamy

2012-12-01

372

Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus).  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2-11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in which the activity of more than 80% was retained. Protein hydrolysate solution with a concentration of 5 mg/ml significantly lowered TBA values of Croaker fish fillet and maintained yellowishness of skin colour compared to untreated control sample during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 4 °C. SWPH also restricted the increase of PV and FFA values in Croaker fish fillet within acceptable limit. PMID:24587519

Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

2014-03-01

373

Recombinant protein production in yeasts.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production is a multibillion-dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of a production host. While one single perfect host for every protein does not exist, several expression systems ranging from bacterial hosts to mammalian cells have been established. Among them, yeast cell factories combine the advantages of being single cells, such as fast growth and easy genetic manipulation, as well as eukaryotic features including a secretory pathway leading to correct protein processing and post-translational modifications. In this respect, especially the engineering of yeast glycosylation to produce glycoproteins of human-like glycan structures is of great interest. Additionally, different attempts of cellular engineering as well as the design of different production processes that are leading to improved productivities are presented. With the advent of cheaper next-generation sequencing techniques, systems biotechnology approaches focusing on genome scale analyses will advance and accelerate yeast cell factories and thus recombinant protein production processes in the near future. In this review we summarize advantages and limitations of the main and most promising yeast hosts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Hansenula polymorpha as those presently used in large scale production of heterologous proteins. PMID:22160907

Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola; Dato, Laura; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo

2012-01-01

374

Evaluation of Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Supercritical Fluid Extract of Leaves of Vitex negundo  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was tested for its antimicrobial potential and was compared with that of ethanol extract, ether extract and hydrodistilled oil of leaves. The chemical constituents of extracts were studied by chromatographic techniques. Extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Supercritical fluid extract exhibited good antibacterial potential. PMID:21695000

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2010-01-01

375

Industrial Robustness: Understanding the Mechanism of Tolerance for the Populus Hydrolysate-Tolerant Mutant Strain of Clostridium thermocellum  

PubMed Central

Background An industrially robust microorganism that can efficiently degrade and convert lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol and next-generation fuels is required to economically produce future sustainable liquid transportation fuels. The anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate microorganism for such conversions but it, like many bacteria, is sensitive to potential toxic inhibitors developed in the liquid hydrolysate produced during biomass processing. Microbial processes leading to tolerance of these inhibitory compounds found in the pretreated biomass hydrolysate are likely complex and involve multiple genes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed a 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum by directed evolution. The genome of the wild type strain, six intermediate population samples and seven single colony isolates were sequenced to elucidate the mechanism of tolerance. Analysis of the 224 putative mutations revealed 73 high confidence mutations. A longitudinal analysis of the intermediate population samples, a pan-genomic analysis of the isolates, and a hotspot analysis revealed 24 core genes common to all seven isolates and 8 hotspots. Genetic mutations were matched with the observed phenotype through comparison of RNA expression levels during fermentation by the wild type strain and mutant isolate 6 in various concentrations of Populus hydrolysate (0%, 10%, and 17.5% v/v). Conclusion/Significance The findings suggest that there are multiple mutations responsible for the Populus hydrolysate tolerant phenotype resulting in several simultaneous mechanisms of action, including increases in cellular repair, and altered energy metabolism. To date, this study provides the most comprehensive elucidation of the mechanism of tolerance to a pretreated biomass hydrolysate by C. thermocellum. These findings make important contributions to the development of industrially robust strains of consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms. PMID:24205326

Linville, Jessica L.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Land, Miriam; Syed, Mustafa H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Cox, Chris D.

2013-01-01

376

Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

2011-12-01

377

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

378

Supplementation requirements of brewery’s spent grain hydrolysate for biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nutrient supplementation of brewery’s spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates was evaluated with respect to biomass and xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. For optimal biomass production, supplementation of full-strength BSG hydrolysates required only phosphate (0.5 g l?1 KH2PO4), leading to a biomass yield and productivity of 0.60 g g?1 monosaccharides and 0.55 g l?1 h?1, respectively. Under the conditions studied, no metabolic products other than CO2

F. Carvalheiro; L. C. Duarte; S. Lopes; J. C. Parajó; H. Pereira; F. M. Gírio

2006-01-01

379

Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917 using only waste beer yeast as nutrient source.  

PubMed

In order to improve the use of waste beer yeast (WBY) for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917, a two-step pre-treatment was designed. First WBY was treated by 4 methods: 0.1M NaOH treatment, high speed homogenizer, ultrasonication and microwave treatment followed by hydrolysis (121°C, 20 min) under mild acid condition (pH 2). The optimal pre-treatment conditions were evaluated by the reducing sugar yield after hydrolysis. 15% WBY treated by ultrasonication for 40 min had the highest reducing sugar yield (29.19%), followed by NaOH treatment (28.98%), high speed homogenizer (13.33%) and microwaves (13.01%). Treated WBY hydrolysates were directly supplied as only nutrient source for BC production. A sugar concentration of 3% WBY hydrolysates treated by ultrasonication gave the highest BC yield (7.02 g/L), almost 6 times as that from untreated WBY (1.21 g/L). Furthermore, the properties of the BC were as good as those obtained from the conventional chemical media. PMID:24212131

Lin, Dehui; Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Li, Rui; Li, Zhixi

2014-01-01

380

Functional properties of autolysate and enzymatic hydrolysates from yam tsukuneimo (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) tuber mucilage tororo: antioxidative activity and antihypertensive activity.  

PubMed

Yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo hydrolysates were prepared by autolysis and three different peptic enzymes. Except for pepsin hydrolysate, tororo was perfectly digested. Each hydrolysate for 100 mg/ml significantly prolonged the induction period of auto-oxidation of linoleic acid, which was similar to 5 mM ascorbic acid. These hydrolysates also possessed high scavenging activities such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and DPPH radicals. Moreover, high antihypertensive activities were detected in these hydrolysates except for autolysate, which were similar to various fermented foods such as miso, natto, sake, cheese, and so on. Present findings suggest that yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo may be useful for preventing diseases associated with reactive oxygen species and blood pressure in the body system and it can fully absorb the useful components from it to digest using the gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25477651

Nagai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kai, Norihisa; Tanoue, Yasuhiro

2014-12-01

381

Targeted separation of antibacterial peptide from protein hydrolysate of anchovy cooking wastewater by equilibrium dialysis.  

PubMed

Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) cooking wastewater (ACWW) is a by-product resulted from the production of boiled-dried anchovies in the seafood processing industry. In this study, the protein hydrolysate of ACWW (ACWWPH) was found to have antimicrobial activity after enzymatic hydrolysis with Protamex. For the targeted screening of antibacterial peptides, liposomes constructed from Staphylococcus aureus membrane lipids were used in an equilibrium dialysis system. The hydrolysate was further purified by liposome equilibrium dialysis combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The purified antimicrobial peptide (ACWWP1) was determined to be GLSRLFTALK, with a molecular weight of 1104.6622Da. The peptide exhibited no haemolytic activity up to a concentration of 512?g/ml. It displayed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect in reconstituted milk. The change in cell surface hydrophobicity and membrane-permeable action of the purified ACWWP1 may have contributed to the antibacterial effect. This study suggests that liposome equilibrium dialysis can be used for the targeted screening of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25172690

Tang, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

2015-02-01

382

The effect of waxes, hydrolysed gelatin and moisture on the compression characteristics of paracetamol and phenacetin.  

PubMed

Stearic acid or hard paraffin added to crystals of paracetamol and phenacetin reduced capping of tablets prepared by direct compression but did not produce acceptable tablets because the inter-particular bonds were very weak. The pressure cycle that can be constructed form the measurement of the axial pressure and the corresponding die wall pressures offers information that is useful in the formulation of the tablets. The behaviour of paracetamol or phenacetin and their mixtures with gelatin hydrolysate or water or both shows a similarity to a Mohr body and it appears that the maximum die wall pressure is affected by the particle size of the material compressed and also by the additives present. Good transmission of radial force implies that the material can be initially consolidated, but alone it does not indicate that the tablet formed is physically stable. When the tablet formed remains coherent after the axial pressure is removed the residual die wall pressure remains high. Measurement of the residual die wall pressure might therefore be a useful indicator for identifying satisfactory formulations of substances that cap readily. Hydrolysed gelatin or water or both together produced paracetamol and phenacetin mixtures with satisfacotry compression characteristics. PMID:11312

Obiorah, B A; Shotton, E

1976-08-01

383

Characterization and potential use of cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared by different microbial proteases.  

PubMed

Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3-78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1-9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef; Souissi, Nabil

2014-01-01

384

Utilization of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate for Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this study, corncob acid hydrolysate was used as a substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. After 2 weeks' static fermentation, a BC yield of 4 g/L could be obtained. Both effects of medium composition and fermentation condition on the BC production were evaluated. Most extra substrates (carbon and nitrogen sources) except mannitol, butyric acid, and levulinic acid showed no effect on the improvement of BC yield. Fermentation condition including fermentation mode, inoculation concentration, and initial pH showed certain influence on the BC yield and thus should be well controlled. The analysis by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the BC sample had obvious nano-network structure, clear functional groups that were found in cellulose, and relatively high crystallinity and crystallinity index value. Moreover, the BC sample had great water-holding capacity. Overall, corncob acid hydrolysate could be one promising substrate for BC production. PMID:25422061

Huang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiong, Lian; Guo, Hai-Jun; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-11-26

385

Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases  

PubMed Central

Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

2014-01-01

386

Occurrence of a CGRP-like molecule in siki (Centroscymnus coelolepsis) hydrolysate of industrial origin.  

PubMed

Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) may have potential as bioactive components in functional foods as nutraceuticals. This study focused on the identification of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) molecules in FPH. CGRP is a neuropeptide belonging to the calcitonin/CGRP family and is known as potent arterial and venous vasodilator in humans. Hydrolysates of industrial origin were prepared from siki (Centroscymnus coelolepsis) heads and were analyzed for the presence of CGRP-like molecules using specific radioimmunoassays and radioreceptorassays. The biological activity of the CGRP-related molecules was assessed by their ability to stimulate the adenylate cyclase activity in rat liver membranes. They were finally purified using gel exclusion chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These molecules presented a molecular weight around 1500-2500 Da and were obtained with a purification factor of 79. The incorporation of FPH with CGRP-like molecules in functional foods could lead to the development of new useful products for health and nutrition markets. PMID:17579425

Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Guimas, Laurence; Delannoy, Charles; Fouchereau-Peron, Martine

2007-07-11

387

Morphology and structural properties of high-amylose rice starch residues hydrolysed by amyloglucosidase.  

PubMed

High-amylose starches are attracting considerable attention because of their potential health benefits and industrial uses. Enzyme hydrolysis of starch is involved in many biological and industrial processes. In this paper, starches were isolated from high-amylose transgenic rice (TRS) and its wild type rice, Te-qing (TQ). The morphological and structural changes of starch residues following Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase (AAG) hydrolysis were investigated. AAG hydrolysed TQ starch from the granule surface, and TRS starch from the granule interior. During AAG hydrolysis, the content of amorphous structure increased, the contents of ordered structure and single helix decreased, and gelatinisation enthalpy decreased in TQ and TRS starch residues. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolysed faster than the B-type polymorph. The short-range ordered structure and B-type polymorph in the peripheral region of the subgranule and the surrounding band of TRS starch increased the resistance of TRS starch to AAG hydrolysis. PMID:23497862

Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

2013-06-15

388

Purification and characterisation of a new antioxidant peptide from chickpea (Cicer arietium L.) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

An antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods from chickpea protein hydrolysates (CPH). This peptide was designated as Fra.7. It had a molecular weight of 717.37Da, and its amino acid sequence was identified as Asn-Arg-Tyr-His-Glu by an ABI 4700 proteomics analyser. This antioxidant peptide was identified for the first time from food-derived protein hydrolysates. The molar ratio of the five amino acids in the sequence was 1:1:1:1:1. This antioxidant peptide efficiently quenched the free radical sources 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals. The Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) chelating activities were 76.92% and 63.08% at the peptide concentration of 50?gmL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of the Fra.7 on lipid peroxidation was greater than that of ?-tocopherol. The inhibition ratio of the linoleic acid autooxidation was 88.81% at the eighth day of analysis. PMID:25214325

Zhang, Tao; Li, Yanhong; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo

2011-09-01

389

Development of silane-hydrolysate binder for UV-resistant thermal control coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed characterizaton and formulation studies were performed on a methyltriakoxysilane hydrolysate as a binder for thermal control coatings. The binder was optimized by varying hydrolysis temperature, time, catalyst type, and water concentration. The candidate coating formulations, based on this binder with TiO2 pigment, were optimized via a detailed series of sprayed test panels that included the parameters of binder/pigment ratio, ethanol content, pigment particle size, coating thickness and cure conditions. A typical optimized coating was prepared by acetic acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyltriethoxysilane with 3.25 mol-equivalents of water over a 24 hour period at room temperature. The resulting hydrolysate was directly mixed with pre-milled TiO2 (12 grams pigment/26 grams binder) to yield a sprayable consistency. Panels were sprayed to result in a nominal cure coating thickness of 2 mils. Cure was affected by air drying for 24 hr at room temperature plus 72 hr at 150 F. These coatings are typically extremely tough and abrasion-resistant, with an absorptance (alpha) of 0.20 and emittance (e) of 0.89. No significant coating damage was observed in the mandrel bend test, even after exposure to thermal cycling from -160 to 160 F. Vacuum exposure of the coatings for 930 hours at 1 equivalent UV sun resulted in no visible degradation and no significant increase in absorptance.

Patterson, W. J.

1981-01-01

390

Lipid accumulation by pelletized culture of Mucor circinelloides on corn stover hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Microbial oil accumulated by fungal cells is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and lignocellulosic materials can serve as the carbon source to support the fungal growth. The dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover can effectively break down its lignin structure, and this process generates a hydrolysate containing mostly xylose at very dilute concentration and numerous by-products that may significantly inhibit the cell growth. This study utilized corn stover hydrolysate as the culture media for the growth of Mucor circinelloides. The results showed that Mucor cells formed pellets during the cell growth, which facilitates the cell harvest from dilute solution. The results also showed that the inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid could be avoided if their concentration was low. In fact, all these by-products may be assimilated as carbon sources for the fungal growth. The results proved the feasibility to reuse the cultural broth water for acid pretreatment and then use for subsequent cell cultivation. The results will have a direct impact on the overall water usage of the process. PMID:25080382

Reis, Cristiano E R; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

2014-09-01

391

Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovalbumin and the functional properties of the hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Ovalbumin is the predominant protein in egg white and is widely used in cell culture. However, it also can be used to produce peptides with various functional properties. The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze ovalbumin using various enzyme, incubation time, and temperature combinations, and to compare the functional properties of the hydrolysates. Ovalbumin (20 mg/mL) was hydrolyzed with 1% of pepsin, trypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, papain, and alcalase, singly or in combination at 37°C, and then the enzymes were inactivated at 100°C for 15 min. Hydrolyzing ovalbumin with pepsin (OAPe), pepsin + papain (OAPePa), pepsin + alcalase (OAPeAl), alcalase + trypsin (OAAlTr), and ?-chymotrypsin (OACh) was also effective in producing peptides from ovalbumin, and the peptides produced had strong iron- and copper-binding capacities and antioxidant capability. However, the best treatment of all was the OAAlTr treatment, which showed the highest iron-chelating and antioxidant activities among the enzyme treatments (P < 0.05). Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified numerous peptides (<5 kDa) from the OAPe, OAPeAl, OACh, OAAlTr, and OAPePa hydrolysates of ovalbumin, but the number and size of peptides varied widely depending on the treatments. The enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased the functionality of ovalbumin, and the improvement depended upon the composition of peptides produced rather than the number of the peptides produced. PMID:25085935

Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

2014-10-01

392

Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic Acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

2015-01-28

393

Major amino acids in collagen hydrolysate regulate the differentiation of mouse embryoid bodies.  

PubMed

To take advantage of the therapeutic potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it is necessary to regulate their differentiation in response to defined factors. In this study, in order to explore novel molecules that regulate the differentiation of ESCs, we investigated whether collagen hydrolysate, collagen-characteristic amino acids, glycine (Gly), l-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (l-Hyp); or dipeptides, proline-hydroxyproline and hydroxyproline-glycine regulate the differentiation of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs). We identified that treatment with collagen hydrolysate or Gly repressed the expression of the mesendodermal markers, Brachyury and Foxa2 in EBs and maintained the undifferentiated state of mESCs in a feeder-free monolayer culture. In contrast, l-Hyp promoted the expression of Brachyury, Mixl1, Gsc and Foxa2 in EBs. And the treatment with l-Hyp promoted cardiac differentiation within EBs, which was proven by the spontaneous contraction of cardiomyocytes and the expression of the cardiac markers, ?-MHC, MLC-2v and Nkx2.5. Results suggest that l-Hyp is a promising new inducer for reproducible and efficient differentiation of mesendoderm lineages. PMID:23623897

Date, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Inoue, Yu; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

2013-09-01

394

Preparation of linear maltodextrins using a hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase with cyclodextrin- and starch-hydrolysing activities.  

PubMed

A novel method for the preparation of linear maltodextrins from cyclodextrins and starch was proposed. To accomplish this process, an amylopullulanase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu) was characterized and used. CMApu with an estimated molecular mass of 62.7kDa by SDS-PAGE had a maximal pullulan-hydrolysing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. It could also hydrolyse amylopectin (AP), starch, ?-CD and amylose (AM), in a decreasing order of relative activities from 88.96% to 57.17%. TLC and HPAEC analysis revealed that CMApu catalyzed the debranching and degrading reactions to produce linear malto-oligosaccharides (?G8-G1) from G8-?-CD and/or normal CDs, amylodextrins (DP6-96) from AM, and amylodextrins (DP1-76) from AP and potato starch. Our results showed that CMApu had a great potential for the industrial preparation of linear maltodextrins from normal starch instead of waxy starch, malto-oligosaccharides or sucrose. And the high optimal temperature of CMApu facilitated the simultaneous gelatinization and hydrolysis of cereal starch. PMID:25563953

Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan

2015-03-30

395

Bioethanol production from the nutrient stress-induced microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enzymatic hydrolysis and immobilized yeast fermentation.  

PubMed

The microalga Chlorella vulgaris is a potential feedstock for bioenergy due to its rapid growth, carbon dioxide fixation efficiency, and high accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates. In particular, the carbohydrates in microalgae make them a candidate for bioethanol feedstock. In this study, nutrient stress cultivation was employed to enhance the carbohydrate content of C. vulgaris. Nitrogen limitation increased the carbohydrate content to 22.4% from the normal content of 16.0% on dry weight basis. In addition, several pretreatment methods and enzymes were investigated to increase saccharification yields. Bead-beating pretreatment increased hydrolysis by 25% compared with the processes lacking pretreatment. In the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the pectinase enzyme group was superior for releasing fermentable sugars from carbohydrates in microalgae. In particular, pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus displayed a 79% saccharification yield after 72h at 50°C. Using continuous immobilized yeast fermentation, microalgal hydrolysate was converted into ethanol at a yield of 89%. PMID:24333701

Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Choi, In Seong; Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

2014-02-01

396

CPTC and NIST-sponsored Yeast Reference Material Now Publicly Available  

Cancer.gov

Posted on February 15, 2010 The yeast protein extract (RM8323) developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the auspices of NCI's CPTC initiative is currently available to the public at https://www-s.nist.gov/srmors/view_detail.cfm?srm=8323.

397

Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber  

E-print Network

Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber, including extractable antioxidant properties, protein contents, and soluble and insoluble fiber compositions treatments were able to significantly increase releasable antioxidant properties ranging from 28 to 65, from

Liu, Jian-Guo

398

Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined, 36 produced more than 1 g of ethanol liter/sup -1/ from 20 g of D-xylose liter/sup -1/, all under aerated conditions. Closer examination of the strains indicated that their time courses of D-xylose fermentation followed different patterns. Some strains produced more biomass than ethanol, and among these, ethanol may or may not be assimilated rapidly after depletion of D-xylose. Others produced more ethanol than biomass, but all catabolized ethanol after carbohydrate exhaustion. Ethanol production appeared best at low pH values and under mild aeration. Possible correlations between the nutritional profiles of the yeasts and their ability to produce ethanol from D-xylose were explored by multivariate analysis. D-Xylose appeared slightly better utilized by yeasts which rate poorly in terms of fermentation. The fermentation of D-glucose had no bearing on D-xylose fermentation. No specific nutritional trait could discriminate well between better D-xylose fermentors and other yeasts.

Nigam, J.N.; Ireland, R.S.; Margaritis, A.; Lachance, M.A.

1985-12-01

399

Antimicrobial effect of various combinations of plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined extracts of corni fructus, cinnamon and Chinese chive were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on common foodborne micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The combined extract (8:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) showed an entire antimicrobial spectrum and outstanding inhibitory effect. The combined extract was very stable under heat treatment. The inhibitory effect of the combined extract was greater with more

Pao-Chuan Hsieh; Jeng-Leun Mau; Shu-Hui Huang

2001-01-01

400

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

with 5 g yeast supplement (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biosafe) per day in a latin square design. Diets by yeast treatment. Supplementation of yeast in- creased acetate: propionate ratio, butyrate, isoacids, p number in the rumen fluid rapidly declined when dietary yeast was ceased. Further- more, yeast cells

Boyer, Edmond

401

Sterols in yeast subcellular fractions.  

PubMed

Yeast is the most primitive organism synthesizing substantial amounts of sterols. Because of this eucaryotic organism's versatility in growth conditions, ease of culture, well-defined genetic mechanism, and characteristic subcellar architecture, it is readily applied to studies of the role of sterols in the general economy of the cell. Sterols exist in two major forms, as the free sterol, or esterified with long chain fatty acids. The importance of sterols for this organism can be demonstrated using a naturally occurring antimycotic azasterol. This agent inhibits yeast growth. Three effects are seen on sterol synthesis: inhibition of the enzymes delta14-reductase, sterol methyltransferase, and methylene reductase. Cells cultured on respiratory substrates are more sensitive to inhibition than are cells growing on glucose. We have demonstrated a relationship between respiratory competency and sterol biosynthesis in this organism. Many mutants altered in sterol synthesis are respirationally defective and must grow fermentatively. One clone has temperature conditional respiration. Experiments with purified mitochondria, prepared from this mutant and its isogenic wildtype, show that the mutant organism is able to respire at the higher temperature but lacks the ability to couple respiration to phosphorylation. No similar loss is seen in the wild-type clones. Data are given which support the proposal that, for inclusion in mitochondrial structures, yeast cells may discriminate among sterols available from the total sterol pool in favor of ergosterol. PMID:364234

Parks, L W; McLean-Bowen, C; Taylor, F R; Hough, S

1978-10-01

402

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

403

Dosage de la lignine insoluble en milieu acide : influence du prtraitement par hydrolyse acide sur la lignine Kla-  

E-print Network

- nes (NORMAN & JENKINS, 1934a) ou de protéines (NORMAN & JENKINS, 1934b) ou consécutives aux conditions, hydrolyse par l'acide sulfurique dilué à reflux (COHEN & HARRIS, 1937), et à l'existence de lignine non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin i converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide from hydrolysates of Bigeye tuna dark muscle, Thunnus obesus.  

PubMed

Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide was isolated from tuna dark muscle hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, neutrase, pepsin, papain, alpha-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, respectively. Among hydrolysates, the pepsin-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE I inhibitory activity versus those of other enzyme hydrolysates. The structure of the peptide was identified to be Trp-Pro-Glu-Ala-Ala-Glu-Leu-Met-Met-Glu-Val-Asp-Pro (molecular weight 1581 Da) by time of flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, and the IC 50 value of the peptide was 21.6 microM. The Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the peptide acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor, and the inhibitor constant ( K i) was calculated as 26.6 microM using the secondary plots. The peptide had an antihypertensive effect according to the time-course measurement after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maximal reduction was detected 3 h after oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. These results suggest that the peptide derived from tuna dark muscle would be a beneficial ingredient for functional food or pharmaceuticals against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:17894458

Qian, Zhong-Ji; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

2007-10-17

405

Effect of pretreatment on lipid oxidation and fishy odour development in protein hydrolysates from the muscle of Indian mackerel.  

PubMed

Impact of different pretreatments on chemical compositions of Indian mackerel mince was studied. Mince prepared using washing/membrane removal/alkaline solubilisation process (W-MR-Al) contained the lowest remaining myoglobin and haem iron content and also showed the lowest total lipid and phospholipid contents. When mince and W-MR-Al were hydrolysed using Alcalase for up to 120 min, a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) was found in W-MR-Al after 30 min of hydrolysis. Furthermore, hydrolysate from W-MR-Al had lower peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-haem iron content throughout hydrolysis period (P<0.05). When hydrolysate powder produced from mince and W-MR-Al (0-0.3%w/v) were fortified in milk, the former resulted in the lower likeness score (P<0.05) at all levels used. The addition of the latter, for up to 0.2%, had no effect on likeness of all attributes, compared with milk without fortification (P>0.05). Therefore, the appropriate pretreatment of mince yielded hydrolysate with lower fishy odour. PMID:22980831

Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Maqsood, Sajid

2012-12-15

406

Analysis of hydrolysable neutral sugars in mineral soils: Improvement of alditol acetylation for gas chromatographic separation and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand plant–microbe relationships, a simple method is required for identification of the nature of soil polysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis, reduction of sugar monomers to the corresponding alcohols and subsequent derivatisation with acetic anhydride prior to gas chromatography has often been used for identification and quantification of hydrolysable sugars in plant and soil samples. In mineral soil samples, precipitation of iron

Elisabeth Eder; Sandra Spielvogel; Angelika Kölbl; Gabriele Albert; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

2010-01-01

407

Preparation of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) protein hydrolysates with high free radical-scavenging activity using endogenous and commercial enzymes.  

PubMed

Anchovy protein hydrolysates with high free radical-scavenging activity were prepared by endogenous and commercial enzymes. Various hydrolytic factors (commercial protease composition, protease concentration, temperature, and reaction time) were optimized. Using a single-factor experiment, three commercial proteases (Protamex, Flavourzyme 500?MG, and Alcalase 2.4?L) were selected for further optimization using a simplex lattice design. The optimum composition of Protamex:Flavourzyme 500?MG:Alcalase 2.4?L was found to be 1.1:1.0:0.9. The hydrolytic conditions (commercial protease concentration, temperature, and reaction time) for the optimum protease composition were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The optimum hydrolytic conditions were as follows: total commercial protease concentration of 3.27%, pH of 7.5, temperature of 55.4?, and reaction time of 2.7?h. Under these conditions, hydrolysate with a 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl scavenging activity of 84.7% was obtained. Meanwhile, a degree of hydrolysis of 33.2% and high protein nitrogen recovery of 87.5% were achieved. The amino acid composition of the hydrolysates demonstrated that they have high nutritional value, thereby suggesting that the hydrolysates have potential to be used as raw material for functional food. PMID:23922287

He, Silian; Wang, Fanghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

2014-12-01

408

Effect of spray drying on the sensory and physical properties of hydrolysed casein using gum arabic as the carrier.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at spray drying hydrolysed casein using gum Arabic as the carrier agent, in order to decrease the bitter taste. Three formulations with differing proportions of hydrolysed casein: gum Arabic (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70) were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility in water and in oil, particle size and distribution, particle morphology, thermal behaviour (DSC) and bitter taste by a trained sensory panel using a paired-comparison test (free samples vs. spray dried samples). The proportion of hydrolysed casein did not affect the morphology of the microspheres. The spray drying process increased product stability and modified the dissolution time, but had no effect on the ability of the material to dissolve in either water or oil. The sensory tests showed that the spray drying process using gum Arabic as the carrier was efficient in attenuating or masking the bitter taste of the hydrolysed casein. PMID:25190858

Subtil, S F; Rocha-Selmi, G A; Thomazini, M; Trindade, M A; Netto, F M; Favaro-Trindade, C S

2014-09-01

409

Novel Structural Features in Candida albicans Hyphal Glucan Provide a Basis for Differential Innate Immune Recognition of Hyphae Versus Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. 1H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1?3,1?6) ?-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or “closed chain” structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast ?-glucan. In addition to the expected (1?3), (1?6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1? processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae. PMID:24344127

Lowman, Douglas W.; Greene, Rachel R.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Kruppa, Michael D.; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Ensley, Harry E.; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G.; Williams, David L.

2014-01-01

410

Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.  

PubMed

The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

2014-12-01

411

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

412

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

413

Extracting yeast stress genes by dependencies between stress treatments  

E-print Network

where it is easier to pick a group of data sets than to specify a model for the biological process different sources (Gasch et al. 2000, Causton et al. 2001) Heat (3), acid, alkali, peroxide, Na only at this stage. In general: Select any collection of data sets that share a common property. Focus

Kaski, Samuel

414

Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

McGinnis, M. R.

1996-01-01

415

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe con- struction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier,

K. F. Lowes; C. A. Shearman; J. Payne; D. MacKenzie; D. B. Archer; R. J. Merry; M. J. Gasson

2000-01-01

416

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based model to study yeast population in batch cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based simulator, models the evolution of a yeast population by setting up rules of behaviour for each individual cell according to their own biological rules and characteristics. It takes into account the uptake, metabolism, budding reproduction and viability of the yeast cells, over a period of time in the bulk of a liquid medium, occupying a three dimensional

Marta Ginovart; Joan Xifré; Daniel López; Moises Silbert

417

Total solids content and degree of hydrolysis influence proteolytic inactivation kinetics following whey protein hydrolysate manufacture.  

PubMed

The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of Corolase PP in two different whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates with degree of hydrolysis (DH) values of ~10 and 21%, and at different total solids (TS) levels (from 5 to 30% w/v), were studied. Inactivation studies were performed in the temperature range from 60 to 75 °C, and residual enzyme activity was quantified using the azocasein assay. The inactivation kinetics followed a first-order model. Analysis of the activation energy, thermodynamic parameters, and D and z values, demonstrated that the inactivation of Corolase PP was dependent on solution TS. The intestinal enzyme preparation was more heat sensitive at low TS. Moreover, it was also found that the enzyme was more heat sensitive in solutions at higher DH. PMID:24047254

Conesa, Celia; FitzGerald, Richard J

2013-10-23

418

Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23548401

Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

2013-05-01

419

Biobutanol from sweet sorghum bagasse hydrolysate by a hybrid pervaporation process.  

PubMed

In this study, the pervaporation membrane was used not only for the detoxification of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) hydrolysate, but also for butanol separation from its fermentation broth. As a result of detoxification, about 94.5% furfural was reduced by the pervaporation method, and 138.25 g/L furfural was obtained in the permeate side. 87.5% phenolic compounds were degradated by further laccase detoxification. As for fermentation part, 12.3±0.1 g/L butanol, 6.1±0.05 g/L acetone and 2.5±0.07 g/L ethanol were obtained. And after 2h of pervaporation separation, 201.9 g/L butanol, 76.2g/L acetone and traces of ethanol were obtained in the permeate. The hybrid pervaporation process shows promising for the industrial production of biofuel butanol and biochemical furfural. PMID:23562566

Cai, Di; Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Jia; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Pei-yong; Tan, Tian-wei

2013-10-01

420

Death by a thousand cuts: the challenges and diverse landscape of lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) inhibitors are a large class of bioactive molecules that arise from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation of plant biomass. These diverse compounds reduce lignocellulosic biofuel yields by inhibiting cellular processes and diverting energy into cellular responses. LCH inhibitors present one of the most significant challenges to efficient biofuel production by microbes. Development of new strains that lessen the effects of LCH inhibitors is an economically favorable strategy relative to expensive detoxification methods that also can reduce sugar content in deconstructed biomass. Systems biology analyses and metabolic modeling combined with directed evolution and synthetic biology are successful strategies for biocatalyst development, and methods that leverage state-of-the-art tools are needed to overcome inhibitors more completely. This perspective considers the energetic costs of LCH inhibitors and technologies that can be used to overcome their drain on conversion efficiency. We suggest academic and commercial research groups could benefit by sharing data on LCH inhibitors and implementing “translational biofuel research.” PMID:24672514

Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Zhang, Yaoping; Bates, Donna M.; Keating, David H.; Sato, Trey K.; Ong, Irene M.; Landick, Robert

2014-01-01

421

Isolation of Filamentous Fungi Exhibiting High Endoxylanase Activity in Lignocellulose Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

For complete degradation of hemicellulose into its monomers from lignocellulose biomass, the synergistic action of a broad range of hydrolytic enzymes is needed. Therefore, production of enzymes from their natural producer is desirable. To obtain a powerful ?-1,4-endoxylanase producing fungus, 304 environmental samples were collected from various locations in Singapore, leading to 603 isolates. Among them, 71 exhibiting ?-1,4-endoxylanase activity were identified belonging mainly to the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Trichoderma. Further analysis revealed Aspergillus niger DSM 26641 as a potential and stable ?-1,4-endoxylanase producer, being able to grow in hydrothermal lignocellulose hydrolysate exhibiting its maximal ?-1,4-endoxylanase activity at pH 4 and 60 °C. This strain is thought to be very suitable for lactic acid production in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at pH values below 5. PMID:25432348

Ottenheim, Christoph; Meier, Kirstin; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Wu, Jin Chuan

2014-11-30

422

Improving energetics of triacylglyceride extraction from wet oleaginous microbes.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microbes can upgrade carbon to lipids, which can be used as a feedstock to produce renewable replacements for petroleum-based compounds. Efficient extraction of lipids from oleaginous microbes typically involves dewatering and drying of the biomass. Problematically, drying often requires an amount of energy approaching that available from the cells. Here, we report an approach for the high efficiency extraction of triacylglycerides (TAG) from wet oleaginous microbes, bypassing the drying process. Solvent candidates for extraction of wet oleaginous biomass were identified using ASPEN's databases to determine an activity based selectivity coefficient. Optimal extraction conditions were determined which resulted in >91% extraction of TAG from yeast, bacteria, and microalgae. Experimental data was integrated into system models to evaluate the energetics of the processes compared to traditional extraction methods. The net energy ratio (NER) of a traditional dry solvent extraction is 0.84, whereas the approach presented here has a NER of 0.34 for yeast. PMID:25000397

Willis, Robert M; McCurdy, Alex T; Ogborn, Mariah K; Wahlen, Bradley D; Quinn, Jason C; Pease, Leonard F; Seefeldt, Lance C

2014-09-01

423

Drosophila Regulate Yeast Density and Increase Yeast Community Similarity in a Natural Substrate  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster adults and larvae, but especially larvae, had profound effects on the densities and community structure of yeasts that developed in banana fruits. Pieces of fruit exposed to adult female flies previously fed fly-conditioned bananas developed higher yeast densities than pieces of the same fruits that were not exposed to flies, supporting previous suggestions that adult Drosophila vector yeasts to new substrates. However, larvae alone had dramatic effects on yeast density and species composition. When yeast densities were compared in pieces of the same fruits assigned to different treatments, fruits that developed low yeast densities in the absence of flies developed significantly higher yeast densities when exposed to larvae. Across all of the fruits, larvae regulated yeast densities within narrow limits, as compared to a much wider range of yeast densities that developed in pieces of the same fruits not exposed to flies. Larvae also affected yeast species composition, dramatically reducing species diversity across fruits, reducing variation in yeast communities from one fruit to the next (beta diversity), and encouraging the consistent development of a yeast community composed of three species of yeast (Candida californica, C. zemplinina, and Pichia kluvyeri), all of which were palatable to larvae. Larvae excreted viable cells of these three yeast species in their fecal pools, and discouraged the growth of filamentous fungi, processes which may have contributed to their effects on the yeast communities in banana fruits. These and other findings suggest that D. melanogaster adults and their larval offspring together engage in ‘niche construction’, facilitating a predictable microbial environment in the fruit substrates in which the larvae live and develop. PMID:22860093

Stamps, Judy A.; Yang, Louie H.; Morales, Vanessa M.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2012-01-01

424

Quantitative analysis of neutral and acidic sugars in whole bacterial cell hydrolysates using high-performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A procedure for analysis of a mixture of neutral and acidic sugars in bacterial whole cell hydrolysates using high-performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPAEC-ESI-MS-MS) is described. Certain bacteria (including bacilli), grown under phosphate-limited conditions, switch from producing a teichoic acid (containing ribitol) to a teichuronic acid (characterized by glucuronic acid content). Bacterial cells were hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid to release sugar monomers. The solution was neutralized by extraction with an organic base. Hydrophobic and cationic contaminants (including amino acids) were removed using C18 and SCX columns, respectively. HPAEC is well established as a high-resolution chromatographic technique, in conjunction with a pulsed amperometric detector. Alternatively, for more selective detection, sugars (as M-H- ions) were monitored using ESI-MS. In HPAEC, the mobile phase contains sodium hydroxide and sodium acetate, which are necessary for chromatographic separation of mixtures of neutral and acidic sugars. Elimination of this high ionic content prior to entry into the ESI ion source is vital to avoid compromising sensitivity. This was accomplished using an on-line suppressor and decreasing post-column flow-rates from 1 ml to 50 microliters/min. In the selected ion monitoring mode, background (from the complex sample matrix as well as the mobile phase) was eliminated, simplifying chromatograms. Sugar identification was achieved by MS-MS using collision-induced dissociation. PMID:9291597

Wunschel, D; Fox, K F; Fox, A; Nagpal, M L; Kim, K; Stewart, G C; Shahgholi, M

1997-08-01

425

YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database.  

PubMed

The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated 'metabolomic' database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

2012-01-01

426

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

PubMed Central

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

2000-01-01

427

Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.  

PubMed

The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required. PMID:16345154

Henry, N

1976-03-01

428

Degradation of tannic acid by cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T to degrade hydrolysable tannins was evaluated. Three commercial tannic acids were incubated in presence of cell-free extracts containing soluble proteins from L. plantarum. By HPLC analyses, almost a complete tannic acid degradation was observed in the three samples assayed. By using HPLC-DAD\\/ESI-MS, we partially determined the composition of tannic acid from Quercus infectoria

Héctor Rodríguez; Blanca de las Rivas; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; Rosario Muñoz

2008-01-01

429

Yeast flora of grape berries during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast flora associated with the surface of grapes during ripening was studied with regard to different sectors of the grape skin and the position in the bunch by means of traditional as well as more vigorous preisolation and precounting treatments. The yeast number per square centimeter of skin increases with ripening and is highest in the area immediately surrounding

Gianfranco Rosini; Federico Federici; Alessandro Martini

1982-01-01

430

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

431

Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability and advantages of using yeasts as popular and ideal model systems for studying and understanding eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Cites experimental tractability and the cooperative tradition of the research community of yeast biologists as reasons for this success. (RT)

Botstein, David; Fink, Gerald R.

1988-01-01

432

The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis  

PubMed Central

Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

2014-01-01

433

The yeast expression system for recombinant glycosyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases are increasingly being used for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides. Since these enzymes are difficult to purify from natural sources, expression systems for soluble forms of the recombinant enzymes have been developed. This review focuses on the current state of development of yeast expression systems. Two yeast species have mainly been used, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Safety

Martine Malissard; Steffen Zeng; Eric G. Berger

1999-01-01

434

Production of serpins using yeast expression systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serpins occupy a unique niche in the field of biology. As more of them are discovered, the need to produce sufficient quantities of each to aid experimental and therapeutic research increases. Yeast expression systems are well suited for the production of recombinant serpins. The genetics of many yeast species is well understood and readily manipulated to induce the targeted over-production

Philip A. Pemberton; Phillip I. Bird

2004-01-01

435

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically  

E-print Network

YEAST MEIOSIS Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast Krishna K Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I

Asbury, Chip

436

Chronological aging leads to apoptosis in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the past years, yeast has been successfully established as a model to study mechanisms of apoptotic regulation. However, the beneficial effects of such a cell suicide program for a unicellular organism remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that chronologi- cally aged yeast cultures die exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis, accumulate oxygen radicals, and show caspase activation. Age-induced cell death is

Eva Herker; Helmut Jungwirth; Katharina A. Lehmann; Corinna Maldener; Kai-Uwe Fröhlich; Silke Wissing; Sabrina Büttner; Markus Fehr; Stephan Sigrist; Frank Madeo

2004-01-01

437

Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This submission includes sections for the Preface, Use of this Book, Table of Contents and a chapter entitled Definition, classification and nomenclature of the yeasts, which are to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. This book has been prepared by a team of international ex...

438

Enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins.  

PubMed

Parietal yeast mannoproteins play a very important role in the overall vinification process. Their production and release, both during winemaking and aging on lees, depends on the specific yeast strain and the nutritional conditions. The following enological functions of parietal yeast mannoproteins have been described: (a) adsorption of ochratoxin A; (b) combination with phenolic compounds; (c) increased growth of malolactic bacteria; (d) inhibition of tartrate salt crystallization; (e) interaction with flor wines; (f) prevention of haze; (g) reinforcement of aromatic components; (h) wine enrichment during aging on fine lees; (i) yeast flocculation and autolysis in sparkling wines. Further discoveries related to their enological functions are foreseeable. Yeast-derived mannoproteins may well induce chemical, sensorial and health benefits, thus greatly improving wine quality. PMID:16622788

Caridi, Andrea

2006-01-01

439

Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.  

PubMed

Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

2014-05-20

440

Hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for the recovery of free fatty acids for use in advanced biofuel production.  

PubMed

Microbial oils hold great potential as a suitable feedstock for the renewable production of biofuels. Specifically, the use of oleaginous yeasts offers several advantages related to cultivation and quality of lipid products. However, one of the major bottlenecks for large-scale production of yeast oils is found in the lipid extraction process. This work investigated the hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for hydrolysis and lipid extraction resulting in fatty acids used for biofuel production. The oleaginous yeast, Cryptococcus curvatus, was grown in 5 L bioreactors and the biomass slurry with 53±4% lipid content (dry weight basis) was treated at 280 °C for 1h with an initial pressure of 500 psi in batch stainless steel reactors. The hydrolysis product was separated and each of the resulting streams was further characterized. The hexane soluble fraction contained fatty acids from the hydrolysis of yeast triacylglycerides, and was low in nitrogen and minerals and could be directly integrated as feedstock into pyrolysis processing to produce biofuels. The proposed hydrothermal treatment addresses some current technological bottlenecks associated with traditional methodologies such as dewatering, oil extraction and co-product utilization. It also enhances the feasibility of using microbial biomass for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:25034431

Espinosa-Gonzalez, Isabel; Parashar, Archana; Bressler, David C

2014-10-10