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1

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...

2013-07-01

2

Influence of yeast extract and casein hydrolysate on callus multiplication and somatic embryogenesis of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex organic additives are known to improve growth and differentiation of in vitro plant cultures. The present investigation was conducted to determine the effect of various concentrations of yeast extract (YE) and casein hydrolysate (CH) on callus growth and somatic embryogenesis in date palm cultivar Nabout Saif. Callus induced from shoot tip explants was grown on callus multiplication medium supplemented

Jameel M. Al-Khayri

2011-01-01

3

Physiological effects of yeast hydrolysate SCP20  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the yeast hydrolysate SCP-20 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ingested to the rat to identify the effect on anti-stress, SCP-20 have an potent effect on the weight of adrenal, spleen, kidney and thyroid, and the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GOT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminse (GPT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity recovered as much as the non-stress level. In addition, the swimming time was

K. W Yu; J. M Kim; S. H Oh; U. J Chang; H. J Suh

2002-01-01

4

Membrane extraction for detoxification of biomass hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment. PMID:22361069

Grzenia, David L; Schell, Daniel J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil

2012-05-01

5

Acute and subacute toxicity of yeast hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to obtain data on the safety-in-use of yeast hydrolysate in 10–30kDa molecular weight as a dietary supplement by assessing its acute and subacute oral toxicity in female and male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The single oral dose of the hydrolysate at 5000mg\\/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the general behavior and gross

Eun-Young Jung; Hyun-Sun Lee; Un Jae Chang; Song Hwan Bae; Ki Han Kwon; Hyung Joo Suh

2010-01-01

6

Combination of yeast hydrolysates to improve CHO cell growth and IgG production.  

PubMed

Many studies underlined the great benefits of hydrolysates used as additives in animal free media on cell culture performances. However, to precisely define hydrolysate supplementation strategies, a deeper understanding of their effect on cell growth and protein production is required. In the present study, the effect of addition of one yeast extract (YE) and two yeast peptones (named YP.A and YP.B) in a chemically defined medium was first assessed on cell culture performances. Interestingly, specific effects were found depending on the degree of degradation of yeast hydrolysates. The YE at 1 g L(-1) increased the maximal cell density by 70 %, while a mixture of YE (1 g L(-1)) and YP.A (4 g L(-1)) increased IgG production by 180 %. These conditions were then evaluated on the CHO cell kinetics all over cultures. Hydrolysates extended the cell growth phase in Erlenmeyer flask and increased the maximal growth rate in bioreactor up to 20 %. Cell growth stimulation induced by hydrolysates addition was linked with energetic metabolism improvement suggesting that they promote oxidative pathway. Furthermore, hydrolysates provided an additional source of substrate that supported cell growth despite glutamine limitation. PMID:23239488

Mosser, Mathilde; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Blanchard, Fabrice; Kapel, Romain; Oriol, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie

2013-08-01

7

SSF Study Using Yeast Cultivated On Salix Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this Master thesis was to cultivate regular yeast on hydrolysates from Salix to make it more resistant to the severe environment in the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of Steam pre-treated Salix. To do this some existing procedures was used and modified. Production of Bioethanol is today a large field of study. The raw material used in

Bahaa Mezher

8

Yeast and corn hydrolysates and other nutritious materials as attractants for onion and seed flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractancy of enzymatic yeast hydrolysate, a corn hydrolysate, brewers' yeast, honey, ammonia,n-dipropyl disulfide, and several combinations of these treatments was tested in an onion field containing onion flies,Hylemya antiqua (Meigen) and seedcorn flies,H. platura (Meigen). Enzymatic yeast hydrolysate (concentrated powder) proved to be highly attractive to both fly species; females were more responsive than males. Brewers' yeast and corn

James R. Miller; Brian K. Haarer

1981-01-01

9

Ethanol production from corn stover hemicellulosic hydrolysate using immobilized recombinant yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from corn stover hemicellulosic hydrolysate was investigated using immobilized recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Detoxification of hemicellulosic hydrolysate by roto-evaporation and lime neutralization was carried out to remove volatile fermentation inhibitors. All furfural and more than 50% acetic acid in the hydrolysate were removed, meanwhile the xylose concentration was enhanced to 71.8g\\/L. The fermentability of the detoxified hydrolysate

Jing Zhao; Liming Xia

2010-01-01

10

Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5g\\/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50g\\/l, with a glucose utilization

Ke-Quan Chen; Jian Li; Jiang-Feng Ma; Min Jiang; Ping Wei; Zhong-Min Liu; Han-Jie Ying

2011-01-01

11

Kinetic behavior of Candida guilliermondii yeast during xylitol production from highly concentrated hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing a high xylose concentration was used as fermentation medium to evaluate the kinetic behavior of Candida guilliermondii yeast (FTI 20037) during the bioconversion of xylose into xylitol. Assays were conducted first with detoxified and non-detoxified (raw) hydrolysates and semi-synthetic medium in agitated flasks, and second with detoxified hydrolysate in a stirred-tank bioreactor at a given

S. I Mussatto; I. C Roberto

2004-01-01

12

Biological detoxification of different hemicellulosic hydrolysates using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work had as its main objective to contribute to the development of a biological detoxification of hemicellulose hydrolysates\\u000a obtained from different biomass plants using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast. Tests with hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse in different concentrations were carried\\u000a out to evaluate the influence of the hydrolysate concentration on the inhibitory compounds removal from the sugarcane

Bruno Guedes Fonseca; Rondinele de Oliveira Moutta; Flavio de Oliveira Ferraz; Emílio Rosa Vieira; Andrei Santini Nogueira; Bruno Fernandes Baratella; Luiz Carlos Rodrigues; Zhang Hou-Rui; Sílvio Silvério da Silva

2011-01-01

13

Evaluation of an adapted inhibitor-tolerant yeast strain for ethanol production from combined hydrolysate of softwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the potential of an adapted inhibitor-tolerant yeast strain developed in our lab to produce ethanol from softwood, the effect of furfural and HMF presented in defined medium and pretreatment hydrolysate on cell growth was investigated. And the efficiency of ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysate mixed with pretreatment hydrolysate of softwood by bisulfite and sulfuric acid pretreatment

Shen Tian; Junyong Zhu; Xiushan Yang

2011-01-01

14

Yeast strains for ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates during in situ detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast strains Y1, Y4 and Y7 demonstrated high conversion efficiencies for sugars and high abilities to tolerate or metabolize inhibitors in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Strains Y1 and Y4 completely consumed the glucose within 24 h in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysate during in situ detoxification, and the maximum ethanol yields reached 0.49 g and 0.45 g ethanol\\/g glucose, equivalent to maximum theoretical values of 96%

Shen Tian; Guixiong Zhou; Fei Yan; Yong Yu; Xiushan Yang

2009-01-01

15

Xylitol production from rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate using different yeast strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty different yeast strains belonging to four different genera (Candida, Debaryomyces, Hansenula and Pichia) were evaluated\\u000a for xylitol production in rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate under two aeration levels. Candida guillier-mondii FTI-20037,\\u000a C. mogii NRRL Y-17032, C. parapsilosis IZ-1710 and C. veronae IZ-945 produced xylitol from rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a with high yields (>60%). The best performance was by C. mogii,

Zea D. V. L. Mayerhoff; Inês C. Roberto; Sílvio S. Silva

1997-01-01

16

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of six known xylitol-producing yeast strains were screened for production of xylitol from xylose.Candida sp. 11-2 proved to be the best producer. It was chosen to study its ability to produce xylitol from hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a derived from sugar cane bagasse. The hydrolysate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (2–3% [w\\/v]) hydrolysis, with a high-solid,\\u000a low-liquid ratio followed by

Jose M. Dominguez; Cheng S. Gong; George T. Tsao

1996-01-01

17

Analysis of condensed and hydrolysable tannins from commercial plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)\\/DAD and MS qualitative and quantitative analyses of polyphenols, hydrolysable and condensed tannins from Pinus maritima L. and tannic acid (TA) extracts were performed using normal and reverse phase.Normal-phase HPLC was more suitable for pine bark (PBE) and tannic acid extracts analysis. The chromatographic profile revealed that P. maritima L. extract was mainly composed by polymeric

A. Romani; F. Ieri; B. Turchetti; N. Mulinacci; F. F. Vincieri; P. Buzzini

2006-01-01

18

Succinic Acid Production by Actinobacillus succinogenes Using Spent Brewer's Yeast Hydrolysate as a Nitrogen Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a cost-effective fermentation medium, spent brewer's yeast hydrolysate was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic\\u000a acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 in glucose-containing media. Autolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis were used to hydrolyze the spent brewer's yeast cells\\u000a to release the nutrients. The results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis was a more effective method due to the higher succinic

Min Jiang; Kequan Chen; Zhongmin Liu; Ping Wei; Hanjie Ying; Honam Chang

2010-01-01

19

Production of yeast SCP from corn stover hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative ease with which the hemicellulose component present in agricultural residues are hydrolyzed makes these raw materials attractive sources of sugars for the production of SCP. Corn stover has been selected for this study as a representative of a wide variety of crop residues of potential interest. The hydrolysates obtained by treating this material with dilute acid solutions were

A. Gonzalez-Valdes; M. Moo-Young

1981-01-01

20

Enhancement of glycerol production with ram horn hydrolysate by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of ram horn hydrolysate (RHH) as a supplement for enhancement of glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. For this purpose, first, RHH was produced. Ram horns were hydrolyzed by treating with acid (6 N H2SO4), and the RHH was obtained. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars, total lipids and amino acids of

Esabi Basaran Kurbanoglu

2003-01-01

21

Yeast hydrolysate as a low-cost additive to serum-free medium for the production of human thrombopoietin in suspension cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the performance of a serum-free medium (SFM) for human thrombopoietin (hTPO) production in suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, several low-cost hydrolysates such as yeast hydrolysate (YH), soy hydrolysate, wheat gluten hydrolysate and rice hydrolysate were tested as medium additives. Among various hydrolysates tested, the positive effect of YH on hTPO production was most significant.

Y. H. Sung; S. W. Lim; J. Y. Chung; G. M. Lee

2004-01-01

22

Feeding on yeast hydrolysate enhances attraction to cue-lure in Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding on yeast hydrolysate (a source of nitrogen) has a strong influence on the physiology and behaviour of the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), affecting longevity, sexual maturation, oogenesis, and mating performance. In this study, we demonstrate that access to yeast hydrolysate also influences the development of attraction to cue-lure in Q-flies. We provided virgin Q-flies

Christopher W. Weldon; Diana Perez-Staples; Phillip W. Taylor

2008-01-01

23

Metabolic study of the adaptation of the yeast Candida guilliermondii to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Batch xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Candida guilliermondii was performed by progressively adapting the cells to the medium. Samples were analyzed to monitor sugar and acetic acid consumption, xylitol, arabitol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide production, as well as cell growth. Both xylitol yield and volumetric productivity remarkably increased with the number of adaptations, demonstrating that the more adapted the cells, the better the capacity of the yeast to reduce xylose to xylitol in hemicellulose hydrolysates. Substrate and product concentrations were used in carbon material balances to study in which way the different carbon sources were utilized by this yeast under microaerobic conditions, as well as to shed light on the effect of the progressive adaptation to the medium on its fermentative activity. Such a theoretical means allowed estimation for the first time of the relative contribution of each medium component to the formation of the main products of this fermentation system. PMID:11778887

Sene, L; Converti, A; Zilli, M; Felipe, M G; Silva, S S

2001-12-01

24

Anti-stress effects of chewing gum prepared with yeast hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the anti-stress effects of chewing gum prepared with yeast hydrolysate (SCP) in the general\\u000a Korean population using heart rate value (HRV) analysis and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory\\u000a (BAI). Four different kinds of chewing gum (weight 960 ± 2 mg) were designed: three with different concentrations of SCP (30,\\u000a 85, and 250 mg\\/piece) combined with

Hyung Joo Suh; Seong Yeong Kim; Un Jae Chang; Jin Man Kim

2008-01-01

25

Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack

Ingram; Lonnie O

2000-01-01

26

Protein concentrates from yeast cultured in wood hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida utilis NRRL Y-900 cells were cultured in glucose solutions generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Eucalyptus globulus wood. Yeast biomass was subjected to chemical treatments with NH4OH solutions in order to obtain protein concentrates with high nutritive value having low contents of nucleic acids and high digestibility. Under selected conditions, 95% of the initial nucleic acids were removed from

C. Alvarez

1995-01-01

27

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g\\/L) and hexoses (4.9g\\/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia

Xiaochen Yu; Yubin Zheng; Kathleen M. Dorgan; Shulin Chen

2011-01-01

28

Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This paper explores the use of the hydrolysate from the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of wheat straw for microbial oil production. The resulting hydrolysate was composed of pentoses (24.3g/L) and hexoses (4.9 g/L), along with some other degradation products, such as acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Five oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus curvatus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Yarrowia lipolytica, were evaluated by using this hydrolysate as substrates. The results showed that all of these strains could use the detoxified hydrolysate to produce lipids while except R. toruloides non-detoxified hydrolysate could also be used for the growth of all of the selective yeast strains. C. curvatus showed the highest lipid concentrations in medium on both the detoxified (4.2g/L) and non-detoxified (5.8 g/L) hydrolysates. And the inhibitory effect studies on C. curvatus indicated HMF had insignificant impacts at a concentration of up to 3g/L while furfural inhibited cell growth and lipid content by 72.0% and 62.0% at 1g/L, respectively. Our work demonstrates that lipid production is a promising alternative to utilize hemicellulosic sugars obtained during pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21463940

Yu, Xiaochen; Zheng, Yubin; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Chen, Shulin

2011-05-01

29

Citric acid production from Aspergillus niger MT-4 using hydrolysate extract of the insect Locusta migratoria.  

PubMed

Citric acid (CA) is the most important organic acid used in the food and other industries. Locusta migratoria is an insect species, which has rich nutritional composition (especially protein) and cultivated in some countries. Therefore, the present study investigated the usability of hydrolysate extract of L. migratoria biomass as substrate for the production of CA from Aspergillus niger MT-4. The insect extract (IE) was found to be rich in ash (34.9 g/100 g), protein (35.6 g/100 g) and mineral contents. Yeast extract was found to be the most favorable substrate for biomass production, whereas the maximum production of CA (41.8 g/L) was achieved in the medium containing IE. Besides, uniform pellets with the smallest size (4 mm) were observed in IE medium. It was thought that rich magnesium (6.78 g/100 g) and manganese (1.14 g/100 g) contents of IE increased the production of CA, resulting in the formation of small uniform pellets. This is the first report on the effect of protein-rich insect biomasses on the production of CA. In this regard, L. migratoria biomass was tested for the first time as a CA-production substrate. PMID:22323475

Taskin, Mesut; Tasar, Gani Erhan; Incekara, Umit

2013-06-01

30

Effects of hydrolysed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and yeast cell wall components on live performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune response of broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of enzymatically hydrolysed whole Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (HY) and the pellets of yeast cell wall (YCW) on production traits, the microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine, and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), of Ross 308 broilers were investigated.2. The control group received a maize-soyabean meal based basal diet for 42 days. In the

N. Muthusamy; S. Haldar; T. K. Ghosh; M. R. Bedford

2011-01-01

31

Development of a yeast strain for xylitol production without hydrolysate detoxification as part of the integration of co-product generation within the lignocellulosic ethanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study verified an applicable technology of xylitol bioconversion as part of the integration of co-product generation within second-generation bioethanol processes. A newly isolated yeast strain, Candida tropicalis JH030, was shown to have a capacity for xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate without detoxification. The yeast gives a promising xylitol yield of 0.71gpgs-1 from non-detoxified rice straw hydrolysate that had

Chiung-Fang Huang; Yi-Feng Jiang; Gia-Luen Guo; Wen-Song Hwang

2011-01-01

32

Dilute acid hemicellulose hydrolysates from corn cobs for xylitol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute acid hemicellulose hydrolysate, comprised mainly of xylose, was obtained from ground corn cobs after dilute hydrochloric acid (2%, wt) hydrolysis at 100°C for 2 h. Similar acid hydrolysate was also obtained after the corn cobs were treated with 10% ammonium hydroxide at 26°C for 24 h. Neutralized hydrolysates containing ca. 130 g\\/l xylose were used as the substrate for

Jose M. Dominguez; Ningjun Cao; C. S. Gong; G. T. Tsao

1997-01-01

33

Ethanol production from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF7  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol production process using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7 with acid hydrolysate of wood biomass as feed was investigated. Corn steep liquor (CSL) supplemented with KH2PO4, MgSO4, and CaCl2 was used as the source of nitrogen and mineral nutrients. Using a tower-type reactor (working volume (WV), 0.45L), continuous fermentation with a high ethanol productivity of over 20g\\/(Lh)

Yueqin Tang; Minzhe An; Kai Liu; Saki Nagai; Toru Shigematsu; Shigeru Morimura; Kenji Kida

2006-01-01

34

Novel strategies to improve co-fermentation of pentoses with D-glucose by recombinant yeast strains in lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Economically feasible production of second-generation biofuels requires efficient co-fermentation of pentose and hexose sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates under very harsh conditions. Baker’s yeast is an excellent, traditionally used ethanol producer but is naturally not able to utilize pentoses. This is due to the lack of pentose-specific transporter proteins and enzymatic reactions. Thus, natural yeast strains must be modified by genetic engineering. Although the construction of various recombinant yeast strains able to ferment pentose sugars has been described during the last two decades, their rates of pentose utilization is still significantly lower than D-glucose fermentation. Moreover, pentoses are only fermented after D-glucose is exhausted, resulting in an uneconomical increase in the fermentation time. In this addendum, we discuss novel approaches to improve utilization of pentoses by development of specific transporters and substrate channeling in enzyme cascades.

Oreb, Mislav; Dietz, Heiko; Farwick, Alexander; Boles, Eckhard

2012-01-01

35

Fed-batch production of baker's yeast using millet ( Pennisetum typhoides ) flour hydrolysate as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fermentation medium based on millet (Pennisetum typhoides) flour hydrolysate and a four-phase feeding strategy for fed-batch production of baker's yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are presented. Millet flour was prepared by dry-milling and sieving of whole grain. A 25% (w\\/v) flour mash was liquefied with a thermostable 1,4-a-d-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.1) in the presence of 100 ppm Ca2+, at 80°C, pH 6.1–6.3, for

A O Ejiofor; Y Chisti; M Moo-Young

1996-01-01

36

Preparation of extracts from yeast.  

PubMed

Because yeast is exceptionally well suited to genetic analysis, both classical and molecular, it is an attractive system for expressing recombinant animal proteins for purification purposes. Methods available for lysing yeast cells include autolysis, pressure cells (e.g., French press), abrasives (glass bead vortexing), and enzymatic lysis (e.g., zymolase). One of the simplest methods, discussed in this protocol, involves the abrasive action of well-agitated glass beads. This is a very effective method for both low volumes (e.g., <1 mL using a microcentrifuge tube) and many liters using a specialized DynoMill apparatus. Cell breakage is typically >95%, as assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. PMID:21205845

Simpson, Richard J

2011-01-01

37

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to...and âautolyzed yeast extractâ are examples...specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from...

2009-04-01

38

21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be specific to...and âautolyzed yeast extractâ are examples...specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from...

2010-04-01

39

Metabolic study of the adaptation of the yeast Candida guilliermondii to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Candida guilliermondii was performed by progressively adapting the cells to the medium. Samples were analyzed to monitor sugar and acetic acid consumption, xylitol, arabitol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide production, as well as cell growth. Both xylitol yield and volumetric productivity remarkably increased with the number of adaptations, demonstrating that the more

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. Zilli; M. G. A. Felipe; S. S. Silva

2001-01-01

40

Evaluation of Zymomonas-based ethanol production from a hydrolysed waste starch stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual starch from flour wet milling, supplemented with crushed wheat grains, was hydrolysed and evaluated for ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 and an industrial ethanol-producing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The feasibility of replacing yeast extract with ammonium sulphate or corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in the hydrolysed waste starch (HWS) media was confirmed. With glucose concentrations of

Linda Davis; Peter Rogers; John Pearce; Paul Peiris

2006-01-01

41

Growth Inhibition of Thermotolerant Yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, in Hydrolysates from Cassava Pulp.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the inhibition of Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925 growth and ethanol fermentation in the presence of furan derivatives and weak acids (acetic acid and lactic acid) at high temperatures. Cassava pulp, obtained as the waste from starch processing, was collected from 14 starch factories located in several provinces of Thailand. At a high temperature (42 °C), the cassava pulp hydrolysate from some starch factories strongly inhibited growth and ethanol production of both K. marxianus (strain TISTR5925) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain K3). HPLC detected high levels of lactic acid and acetic acid in the hydrolysates, suggesting that these weak acids impaired the growth of K. marxianus at high temperature. We isolated Trp-requiring mutants that had reduced tolerance to acetic acid compared to the wild-type. This sensitivity to acetic acid was suppressed by supplementation of the medium with tryptophan. PMID:24781978

Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Murata, Yoshinori; Machida, Masashi; Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Hirooka, Akiko; Thanapase, Warunee; Dangjarean, Hatairat; Ushiwaka, Satoru; Morimitsu, Kozo; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Vaithanomsat, Pilanee

2014-07-01

42

Use of immobilized Candida yeast cells for xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii cells were immobilized in Ca-alginate beads and used for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.\\u000a A full factorial design was employed to determine whether variations in the immobilization conditions would have any effects\\u000a on the beads, chemical stability and on the xylitol production rates. Duplicate fermentation runs were carried out in 125-mL\\u000a Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a

Walter Carvalho; Silvio S. Silva; Attilio Converti; Michele Vitolo; Maria G. A. Felipe; Ines C. Roberto; Messias B. Silva; Ismael M. Mancilha

2002-01-01

43

Liquid-liquid extraction of fermentation inhibiting compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Several compounds that are formed or released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass inhibit the fermentation of the hydrolysate. The use of a liquid extractive agent is suggested as a method for removal of these fermentation inhibitors. The method can be applied before or during the fermentation. For a series of alkanes and alcohols, partition coefficients were measured at low concentrations of the inhibiting compounds furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde, acetic acid, as well as for ethanol as the fermentation product. Carbon dioxide production was measured during fermentation in the presence of each organic solvent to indicate its biocompatibility. The feasibility of extractive fermentation of hydrolysate was investigated by ethanolic glucose fermentation in synthetic medium containing several concentrations of furfural and vanillin and in the presence of decanol, oleyl alcohol and oleic acid. Volumetric ethanol productivity with 6 g/L vanillin in the medium increased twofold with 30% volume oleyl alcohol. Decanol showed interesting extractive properties for most fermentation inhibiting compounds, but it is not suitable for in situ application due to its poor biocompatibility. PMID:19062184

Zautsen, R R M; Maugeri-Filho, F; Vaz-Rossell, C E; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M; de Bont, J A M

2009-04-01

44

Contribution to the Study of the Fermentation of Cellulose Hydrolysates by Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast phyla have been selected for the cellobiose and soluble cellodextrins fermentation. A study of the glucosidase of the Torulopsis Molischiana phylum is presented. Torulopsis M. glucosidase is exocellular with a glycoproteinic nature and its activity ...

P. Gonde

1984-01-01

45

Design and optimization of ethanol production from bagasse pith hydrolysate by a thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse pith hydrolysate by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was analyzed using response surface methodology. Variables such as Substrate Concentration, pH, fermentation time and Na2HPO4 concentration were found to influence ethanol production significantly. In a batch fermentation, optimization of key process variables resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 17.44 g/L which was 88% of the theoretical with specific productivity of 0.36 g/L/h. PMID:23710425

Dasgupta, Diptarka; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Pandey, Diwakar; Ghosh, Debashish; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Vadde, Vasanta Thakur; Adhikari, Dilip K

2013-12-01

46

Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in

Solange I. Mussatto

2012-01-01

47

Partial Improvement of Vitrification and Acclimation of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Tissue Cultures by Fish Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue culture based clonal propagation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), an important technique in generating elite clonal lines, is affected by vitrification (hyperhydricity). In this study, the ability of several protein hydrolysates, yeast extract, casein, and bactopeptone, in preventing vitrification in benzyladenine-induced shoot cultures of oregano was tested. Only supplements of fish protein hydrolysates at 1000 mg\\/l partially prevented vitrification

Yukiyo Eguchi; Michael C. Milazzo; Keiichiro Ueno; Kalidas Shetty

2000-01-01

48

Yeast hydrolysate protects cartilage via stimulation of type II collagen synthesis and suppression of MMP-13 production.  

PubMed

Type II collagen (COL II) is one of the primary components of hyaline cartilage and plays a key role in maintaining chondrocyte function. COL II is the principal target of destruction, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have a major role in arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the chondroctye protection effects of specific fraction of yeast hydrolysate ((10-30?kDa molecular weight peptides). The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly increased in the YH-treated group compared to the control at concentrations above 50?µg/ml, respectively. The 200?µg/ml YH-treated group (3.43?±?0.23?µg/ml) showed significantly reduced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation relative to that in the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-treated control group (4.72?±?0.05?µg/ml). In the YH-treated group, MMP-13 level was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the IL-1?-treated group without YH treatment. However, MMP-1 and MMP-3 level were not different from that of control. Under the same conditions, we also examined mRNA levels of COL II. The mRNA expression of COL II was significantly higher in the YH-treated group than in the IL-1?-treated control group at concentrations above 100?µg/ml. In conclusion, YH stimulated COL II synthesis and significantly inhibited MMP-13 and GAG degradation caused by IL-1? treatment. PMID:23070893

Lee, Hyun-Sun; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yooheon; Bae, Song Hwan; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-09-01

49

Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells by yeast hydrolysate.  

PubMed

In a previous study, it was reported that yeast hydrolysate (YH) was effective in promoting bone growth in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To further clarify the mechanism of YH, the effects of YH on proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in vitro were investigated using osteoblastic cell lines (MC3T3-E1). Cell proliferation increased significantly as much as 110% of the basal value when cells were treated with 100?µg/mL of YH. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased significantly with a YH concentration of 25-100?µg/mL, and the activity increased 152% that of the control at 100?µg/mL. The calcium content increased as much as 129% at 100?µg/mL YH. The gene expression levels of ALP and collagen type II (COL II) significantly increased approximately 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold of control, respectively, at 100?µg/mL. YH increased significantly the mRNA level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) but not in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, BMP-4, collagen type I (COL I) and osteonectin (ON) did not increase. In summary, YH increased the proliferation of osteoblasts and directly stimulated ALP and bone matrix proteins (e.g. BSP, COL II), and these increases trigger osteoblastic differentiation (e.g. mineralized nodule formation). PMID:21077261

Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun-Young; Bae, Song Hwan; Kwon, Ki Han; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-05-01

50

Oil production by the yeast Trichosporon dermatis cultured in enzymatic hydrolysates of corncobs.  

PubMed

Corncob was hydrolyzed with Trichoderma reesei cellulase and used as substrate for growth by the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis without detoxification or addition of a nitrogen source or trace elements. A total biomass of 24.4g/L with a lipid content of 40.1% (corresponding to a lipid yield of 9.8g/L), and a high lipid coefficient (lipid yield per mass of sugar, %g/g) of 16.7 could be achieved after cultivation for 7days. Therefore, T. dermatis is a promising strain for microbial oil production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:22366612

Huang, Chao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-de; Ma, Long-Long

2012-04-01

51

Bioconversion of water-hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate to motor fuel ethanol by xylose–fermenting yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate has been utilized as a substrate for ethanol production using Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Hydrolysate fermentability was considerable improved by boiling, and overliming up to pH 10.0 with solid Ca(OH)2 in combination with sodium sulfite. The percent total sugar utilized and ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) for the untreated hydrolysate were 20.15±0.17% and 0.19±0.003gpgs?1, respectively, compared

J. N. Nigam

2002-01-01

52

[Butanol production from corn stover hydrolysate with in-situ liquid-liquid extraction].  

PubMed

Butanol production from corn stover hydrolysates (CSH) with in-situ liquid-liquid extraction was studied to enhance the production and reduce the fermentation cost. Oleyl alcohol was selected as the suitable solvent and added at the initial fermentation time with the ratio of 1:1 (oleyl alcohol: fermentation broth, V/V). Under this condition, butanol and ABE from CSH with 32.1 g/L total sugars were 3.28 and 4.72 g/L, which were 958.1% and 742.9% higher than those of the controls, respectively. Butanol and ABE production from CSH of 49.7 g/L total sugars after detoxification by ion exchange resin D301 coupled with extraction fermentation were 10.34 g/L and 14.72 g/L with an ABE yield of 0.31 g/g (g ABE/g utilized sugar), which were equal to those of glucose and xylose mixture fermentation. The detoxification and extraction fermentation technology of cellulosic butanol production would provide a crucial technical support to the industrialized production of cellulosic butanol. PMID:24432666

Wang, Fengqin; Cheng, Xiang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Rui; Li, Chuanbin; Song, Andong

2013-10-01

53

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of...

2009-04-01

54

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent...

2013-04-01

55

Anti-stress effect and functionality of yeast hydrolysate SCP20  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCP-20, an SCP-carbon which is a treated SCP-20 with active carbon, and extracts of St John's wort (St-wort) were tested to compare their anti-stress effects. When the SCP-20, SCP-carbon and St-wort were ingested by the rats for 8 days prior to being subjected to a 48 h stress period, they showed anti-stress effects on their changes of weight for the adrenal

Jin Man Kim; Seog Won Lee; Kyung Mi Kim; Un Jae Chang; Jae Chul Song; Hyung Joo Suh

2003-01-01

56

Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates.  

PubMed

(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

Wang, Yuanzhen; Liu, Shijie

2014-01-01

57

Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production.

2014-01-01

58

Downstream process for the production of yeast extract using brewer's yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downstream process was developed for the production of yeast extract from brewer's yeast cells. Various downstream processing\\u000a conditions including clarification, debittering, and the Maillard reaction were considered in the development of the process.\\u000a This simple and economic clarification process used flocculating agents, specifically calcium chloride (1%). After the clarification\\u000a step, a Maillard reaction is initiated as a flavor-enhancing step.

Man-Jin In; Dong Chung Kim; Hee Jeong Chae

2005-01-01

59

Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii in brewery spent grain dilute-acid hydrolysate: effect of supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brewery spent-grain hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii. Addition of 6 g yeast extract\\/l increased the xylitol yield to 0.57 g\\/g, and productivity to 0.51 g\\/l h that were, respectively,\\u000a 1.4 -and 1.8-times higher than the values obtained with non-supplemented hydrolysate. When corn steep liquor was combined\\u000a with 3 g yeast extract\\/l, the highest xylitol yield, 0.58 g\\/g, was obtained with

Florbela Carvalheiro; Luís C. Duarte; Raquel Medeiros; Francisco M. Gírio

2007-01-01

60

Single cell oil production from hydrolysate of cassava starch by marine-derived yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a which was isolated from surface of marine fish could accumulate a large amount of lipid from hydrolysate of cassava starch. The cells contained 47.9% (w\\/w) oil during batch cultivation, whereas 52.9% (w\\/w) of lipid was obtained during the fed-batch cultivation. At the end of the fed-batch cultivation, all the starch were converted into reducing sugar and only

Mei Li; Guang-Lei Liu; Zhe Chi; Zhen-Ming Chi

2010-01-01

61

Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potentials of a complex nitrogen source, soybean, as an alternative to yeast extract for the economical production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. An enzyme-hydrolysate of soybean meal, Soytone, with an adequate supplementation of vitamins was found to be highly effective in supporting lactic acid production from glucose and lactose. The effects

Sunhoon Kwon; Pyung Cheon Lee; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang; Nam Chang

2000-01-01

62

A rapid and simple method for extracting yeast mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for the extraction of yeast mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is described. In comparison with previous methods, it simplifies several steps, does not require either the isolation of mitochondria or phenol treatment and is less time consuming. This protocol gives a high yield of pure mtDNA (50–120 µg from a 100-ml culture), which can be directly used in various

Ali Gargouri; M. Curie

1989-01-01

63

Production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass hydrolysates using genetically engineered saccharomyces yeast capable of cofermenting glucose and xylose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have proven ethanol to be the idael liquid fuel for transportation, and renewable ligno cellulosic materials\\u000a to be the attractive feed stocks for ethanol fuel production by fermentation. The major fermentable sugars from hydrolysis\\u000a of most cellulosic biomass are D-glucose and D-xylose. The naturally occurring Saccharomyces yeasts that are used by industry to produce ethanol from starches and

Miroslav Sedlak; Nancy W. Y. Ho

2004-01-01

64

Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde.

2014-01-01

65

Use of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activity of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) was studied. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 50°C, respectively, when toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle was used as a substrate. When viscera extract from hybrid catfish was used for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish muscle, extract concentration, reaction time, and fish muscle/buffer ratio affected the hydrolysis and nitrogen recovery (NR) (p<0.05). Optimum conditions for toothed ponyfish muscle hydrolysis were 3.5% hybrid catfish viscera extract, 15 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). High correlation between the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and NR (R(2)=0.974) was observed. Freeze-dried hydrolysate had a high protein content (89.02%, dry weight basis) and it was brownish yellow in colour (L(?)=63.67, a(?)=6.33, b(?)=22.41). The protein hydrolysate contained a high amount of essential amino acids (48.22%) and had arginine and lysine as the dominant amino acids. PMID:23122156

Klomklao, Sappasith; Kishimura, Hideki; Benjakul, Soottawat

2013-01-15

66

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:19802721

Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

2010-05-01

67

Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole

Mónica Herrero; Luis A. García; Mario Díaz

2003-01-01

68

Components of organic phosphorus in soil extracts that are hydrolysed by phytase and acid phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts were prepared from soil using water, 50?mM citric acid (pH??2.3) or 0.5?M NaHCO3 (pH?8.5), and were incubated with excess phytase from Aspergillus niger to determine the amounts of labile P. Two A. niger phytase preparations were used: (1) a purified form which exhibited a narrow substrate specificity and high specific activity\\u000a against phytate; and (2) a commercial preparation (Sigma)

J. E. Hayes; A. E. Richardson; R. J. Simpson

2000-01-01

69

The effects of different yeast extracts on secondary metabolite production in Fusarium.  

PubMed

Yeast extract is an important constituent in several media used for metabolite profiling of filamentous fungi. The nutrient composition can vary between brands and thereby influence production of secondary metabolites, which can be regulated in response to nitrogen, carbon and pH. In the present study we examined the production of known secondary metabolites in Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium fujikuroi and in each species we identified several secondary metabolites which are influenced by yeast extract brands. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were produced in high levels on some yeast extract by F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum, while absent on others. Chlamydosporol, 2-AOD-3-ol and enniatins were influenced by yeast extracts in F. avenaceum, while bikaverin, gibberellic acid, fumonisin and fusaric acid were affected in F. fujikuroi. Aurofusarin and fusarin C on the other hand were not affected by yeast extracts in all producing strains. The observed differences in production in metabolite profiles show the need to use the same yeast extract brand in repeating experiments. The study illustrates furthermore that it can be beneficial to use more than one yeast extract in metabolite profiling a species. PMID:24291181

Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

2014-01-17

70

Acidifying and yeast extract in diets for adults cats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of adding an acidifying agent based on phosphoric acid (A), a yeast extract from a specific strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Y) and the combination of these two additives in food for adult cats. A test was conducted with 24 animals (mean 3.5 years old), mixed breed, weighing 3.72 ± 0.74 kg, kept in individual metabolic cages and distributed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial design (with or without A 0.6% of dry matter, with or without Y 1.5% of dry matter) totalling four treatments and six replicates of each condition. The experimental period was 15 days. The A or the Y reduced (P< 0.01) the dry matter intake, but the effect was not observed when they were associated. The association improved (P<0.05) the digestibility of dry matter and ashes. The A reduced urine pH (P=0.05) regardless of the presence of the Y. There was no effect (P>0.09) on other parameters evaluated. Results of this study show that the isolated use of 0.6% A or 1.5% Y in diets for cats is not recommended. However, the association of these two additives was beneficial in increasing nutrient digestibility. PMID:24450338

Ogoshi, Rosana C S; Zangeronimo, Márcio G; Dos Reis, Jéssica S; França, Janine; Santos, João P F; Pires, Carolina P; Chizzotti, Ana F; Costa, Adriano C; Ferreira, Lívia G; Saad, Flávia M O B

2014-05-01

71

Construction of a flocculating yeast for fructose production from inulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of flocculating yeast lacking for fructose utilisation was realised by integration of the FLO1 flocculation gene in the ribosomal DNA of an hexokinase deficient (hxk1, hxk2) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (ATCC36859). Simultaneous production of ethanol and fructose was obtained from glucose\\/fructose mixtures or from hydrolysed Jerusalem artichoke extracts using the transformed yeast in batch fermentations and in a continuous reactor

F. Remize; S. Schorr-Galindo; J. P. Giraud; S. Dequin; B. Blondin

1998-01-01

72

Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded.

Armenante, P.M. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science; Fava, F. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science; Kafkewitz, D. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1995-07-20

73

Comparison of three buffers used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.  

PubMed

Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer. PMID:8308131

Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

1993-12-01

74

Ammonia production from yeast extract and its effect on growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of yeast extract and formation of byproduct metabolite were investigated for hyperthermophilic archaeonSulfolobus solfataricus (DSM 1617). In both batch and fed-batch cultivations ofS. solfataricus, maximal cell density, NH4\\u000a + ion production and pH change were highly dependent on the ratio of yeast extract to glucose in the medium. Variation of NH4\\u000a + ion level was identified as a major

Chan Beum Park; Sun Bok Lee

1998-01-01

75

Ethanol production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production was evaluated from wheat straw (WS) hemicellulose acid hydrolysate using an adapted and parent strain of Pichiastipitis. NRRL Y-7124. The treatment by boiling and overliming with Ca(OH)2 significantly improved the fermentability of the hydrolysate. Ethanol yield (Yp\\/s) and productivity (Qp av) were increased 2.4±0.10 and 5.7±0.24 folds, respectively, compared to neutralized hydrolysate. Adaptation of the yeast to the

J. N Nigam

2001-01-01

76

Utilization of sorghum bagasse hydrolysates for producing microbial lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º Lime assisted pretreatment is effective in disrupting structure of sorghum bagasse. â–º Cryptococcus curvatus grows well on hydrolysate derived after pretreatment and hydrolysis. â–º Nile red can quantify neutral lipid content in yeast cells and hydrolysate. â–º Sorghum bagasse can serve as an excellent feedstock for producing microbial lipids.

Yanna Liang; Tianyu Tang; Arosha Loku Umagiliyage; Thara Siddaramu; Matt McCarroll; Ruplal Choudhary

2012-01-01

77

Selection of yeasts for single cell protein production on media based on Jerusalem artichoke extracts.  

PubMed

Several yeast strains can grow with good yield (0.16 to 0.19 mg protein/mg carbohydrate) on nitrogen supplemented Jerusalem artichoke extract. The most promising strain is Lipomyces starkeyi. Including by-products (pulps, proteins of extract), protein production can reach 2 metric tons/ha. PMID:6613165

Apaire, V; Guiraud, J P; Galzy, P

1983-01-01

78

Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.  

PubMed

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

2007-08-01

79

Complex coacervation of collagen hydrolysate extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan for controlled release of lavender oil.  

PubMed

In the world, approximately 600,000 metric tonnes of chromium-containing solid wastes are generated by the leather industry each year. Environmental concerns and escalating landfill costs are becoming increasingly serious problems to the leather industry and seeking solutions to these problems is a prime concern in much research today. In this study, solid collagen-based protein hydrolysate was isolated from chromium-tanned leather wastes and its chemical properties were determined. Microcapsules of collagen hydrolysate (CH) - chitosan (C) crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) containing Lavender oil (LO) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The effects of various processing parameters, including the CH to C ratio, LO content, and GA, on the oil load (%), oil content (%), encapsulation efficiency (%) and release rate of LO from microcapsules were investigated. As the ratio of C present in the CH/C mixture and crosslinking density increased, the release rate of LO from microcapsules slowed down. Optical and scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that the LO microcapsules were spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed that there was no significant interaction between CH/C complex and LO. PMID:22361107

Ocak, Bu?ra

2012-06-15

80

Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

2007-01-01

81

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The viable microbial content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E....

2013-04-01

82

Separation of astaxanthin from red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) behavior was investigated to extract astaxanthin from the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, which was disrupted and dried by bead mill and spray dryer, respectively. The effects of extraction pressure (102–500bar), temperature (40, 60 and 80°C), CO2 flow rate (superficial velocities of 0.27 and 0.54cm\\/min) and the use of ethyl alcohol as a modifier (1, 5,

Gio-Bin Lim; Sang-Yun Lee; Eun-Kyu Lee; Seung-Joo Haam; Woo-Sik Kim

2002-01-01

83

Cottonseed extract versus pharmamedia for the in vitro mould-yeast conversion of Blastomyces dermatitidis.  

PubMed

A cottonseed medium, based on a 1% aqueous extract of seeds of any of the eight indigenously available varieties of cotton belonging to Gossypium hirsutum or Gossypium arboreum, was evaluated for the mould-yeast conversion of Blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro, and compared with pharmamedia agar as a control. The cottonseed agar was found to be as efficient as pharmamedia agar for the mould-yeast conversion of the 19 B. dermatitidis strains tested. Therefore, cottonseeds provide an adequate and inexpensive substitute for pharmamedia for the mould-yeast conversion of B. dermatitidis. It should be noted that the term 'cottonseed' medium has been used rather loosely in the literature and that this medium is based on pharmamedia and not on a cottonseed extract. The authors suggest that media based on pharmamedia should be referred to as pharmamedia agar and the use of the term 'cottonseed' should be restricted to media containing cottonseed extract. PMID:2380881

Chaturvedi, S; Randhawa, H S; Chaturvedi, V P; Khan, Z U

1990-01-01

84

Chromatin assembly in a yeast whole-cell extract  

PubMed Central

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

1997-01-01

85

Chromatin assembly in a yeast whole-cell extract.  

PubMed

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast. PMID:9256430

Schultz, M C; Hockman, D J; Harkness, T A; Garinther, W I; Altheim, B A

1997-08-19

86

Chromatin Assembly in a Yeast Whole-Cell Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

1997-08-01

87

Repeated fed-batch rapid fermentation using yeast cells and activated carbon extraction system  

SciTech Connect

The application of a repeated fed-batch rapid ethanol fermentation employing immobilized yeast cells accompanied by an activated carbon extraction system has been investigated in an attempt to increase product yield. Immobilized and free yeast cells were used to effect ethanol fermentations in a simplified nitrogen-free medium containing only glucose and mineral salts. Repeatedly, fermentation broth with a high ethanol concentration (80 to 100 g/L) was extracted using activated carbon beads (BACM) and the resulting broth of low ethanol content (< 50 g/L) was recycled back for further fermentations. The maximum ethanol productivity achieved in this system was 25 g/L/h. 7 figures, 1 table.

Lee, S.S.; Wang, H.Y.

1982-01-01

88

Comparison of different methods for extraction of mitochondrial DNA from human pathogenic yeasts.  

PubMed

Methods of rapidly extracting chromosomal DNA from human pathogenic yeasts were used in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies. This paper is concerned with rapid and reliable methods of extracting mtDNA for sequence analysis for species or strain identification, and epidemiological study of medically important fungi and fungal infections. To determine the optimal method of mtDNA extraction without isolating mitochondria, we examined three commonly used methods: 1). boiling, 2). glass bead disruption, and 3). a commercially available kit. We assessed the amount and quality of DNAs using a spectrophotometer and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The DNA yield depended on the extraction method used and the yeast species. An adequate amount of mtDNA was obtained with both glass beads and a commercially available kit to amplify the mitochondrial gene using PCR without isolating the mitochondria. These techniques are convenient for extracting DNA from a variety of small-scale samples. PMID:12403909

Yamada, Yohko; Makimura, Koichi; Merhendi, Hossain; Ueda, Kumiko; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Osumi, Masako

2002-08-01

89

The bioactivity and fractionation of peptide hydrolysates in cultures of CHO cells.  

PubMed

Peptide hydrolysate supplements in mammalian cell cultures provide enhanced growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to compare the bioactivity of ten different commercially available hydrolysates from plant, microbial, and animal sources. The peptide hydrolysates were tested as supplements to cultures of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that produce human beta interferon (?-IFN). A soy hydrolysate was shown to support high cell growth but not protein productivity compared to an animal component hydrolysate (Primatone RL). On the other hand, a yeast hydrolysate showed lower cell growth, but comparable productivity of the recombinant protein. Glycosylation analysis showed that the glycan profile of ?-IFN produced in yeast hydrolysate supplemented cultures was equivalent to that from Primatone RL-supplemented cultures. Fractionation of the yeast hydrolysate and Primatone RL produced a similar protein-assayed pattern except for one extra peak at around 1 kDa in the Primatone RL profile. A fraction taken at a molecular weight range of 1.5-1.7 kDa showed the highest growth promoting activity in both samples. However, four other fractions in yeast hydrolysate and two in Primatone RL at lower molecular weights showed some growth promoting activity. In conclusion, the yeast hydrolysates provided a good alternative to the animal sourced Primatone RL for high productivity of ?-IFN from CHO cells with equivalent glycosylation. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:584-593, 2014. PMID:24846804

Spearman, Maureen; Lodewyks, Carly; Richmond, Meika; Butler, Michael

2014-05-01

90

Effect of yeast extract on glucoamylase synthesis by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Glucoamylase synthesis is strongly affected by yeast extract concentration (CE). An eight fold increase in CE caused a two fold increase in the maximum glucoamylase activity value (Am) for the cultivations conducted with an initial glucose concentration (GO) of about 20 g\\/l, and a four fold increase in Am in the runs with a Go value of about 40

Maria Cândida R. Facciotti; Gerson H. Wuhstrack; Aldo Tonso; Miriam L. Chiquetto; Willibaldo Schmidell

1991-01-01

91

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress may provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed on a standard diet, or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (YE), to determine if YE would improve disease resistance in a stress model.2. At 16 weeks of age, half of the

G. R. Huff; V. Dutta; W. E. Huff; N. C. Rath

2011-01-01

92

Continuous fermentation of undetoxified dilute acid lignocellulose hydrolysate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581 using cell recirculation.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was cultivated in a chemostat reactor with undetoxified dilute acid softwood hydrolysate as the only carbon and energy source. The effects of nutrient addition, dilution rate, cell recirculation, and microaerobicity were investigated. Fermentation of unsupplemented dilute acid lignocellulose hydrolysate at D = 0.10 h(-1) in an anaerobic continuous reactor led to washout. Addition of ammonium sulfate or yeast extract was insufficient for obtaining steady state. In contrast, dilute acid lignocellulose hydrolysate supplemented with complete mineral medium, except for the carbon and energy source, was fermentable under anaerobic steady-state conditions at dilution rates up to 0.14 h(-1). Under these conditions, washout occurred at D = 0.15 h(-1). This was preceded by a drop in fermentative capacity and a very high specific ethanol production rate. Growth at all different dilution rates tested resulted in residual sugar in the chemostat. Cell recirculation (90%), achieved by cross-flow filtration, increased the sugar conversion rate from 92% to 99% at D = 0.10 h(-1). Nutrient addition clearly improved the long-term ethanol productivity in the recirculation cultures. Application of microaerobic conditions on the nutrient-supplemented recirculation cultures resulted in a higher production of biomass, a higher cellular protein content, and improved fermentative capacity, which further improves the robustness of fermentation of undetoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate. PMID:16080688

Brandberg, Tomas; Sanandaji, Nima; Gustafsson, Lena; Franzén, Carl Johan

2005-01-01

93

Yeast extract, brewer’s yeast and spirulina in diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted for 60days to study the immunomodulatory role of three different immunostimulants yeast extract (YE), brewer’s yeast (BY) and spirulina (SP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings (avg. wt 3.35±0.15g) were randomly distributed in ten treatments and fed with either of ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric semi-purified diets, prepared with three incremental levels (1%,

Simi Rose Andrews; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; S. C. Mukherjee; Shivendra Kumar

2011-01-01

94

Ethanol production by a new pentose-fermenting yeast strain, Scheffersomyces stipitis UFMG-IMH 43.2, isolated from the Brazilian forest.  

PubMed

The ability of a recently isolated Scheffersomyces stipitis strain (UFMG-IMH 43.2) to produce ethanol from xylose was evaluated. For the assays, a hemicellulosic hydrolysate produced by dilute acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was used as the fermentation medium. Initially, the necessity of adding nutrients (MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, yeast extract and/or urea) to this medium was verified, and the yeast extract supplementation favoured ethanol production by the yeast. Then, in a second stage, assays under different initial xylose and cell concentrations, supplemented or not with yeast extract, were performed. All these three variables showed significant (p < 0.05) influence on ethanol production. The best results (ethanol yield and productivity of 0.19 g/g and 0.13 g/l/h, respectively) were obtained using the hydrolysate containing an initial xylose concentration of 30 g/l, supplemented with 5.0 g/l yeast extract and inoculated with an initial cell concentration of 2.0 g/l. S. stipitis UFMG-IMH 43.2 was demonstrated to be a yeast strain with potential for use in xylose conversion to ethanol. The establishment of the best fermentation conditions was also proved to be of great importance to increasing the product formation by this yeast strain. These findings open up new perspectives for the establishment of a feasible technology for ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:21626536

Ferreira, Adriana D; Mussatto, Solange I; Cadete, Raquel M; Rosa, Carlos A; Silva, Silvio S

2011-07-01

95

Utilization of (15)N-labelled yeast hydrolysate in Lactococcus lactis IL1403 culture indicates co-consumption of peptide-bound and free amino acids with simultaneous efflux of free amino acids.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 was grown in medium containing unlabelled free amino acids and (15)N-labelled yeast hydrolysate to gain insight into the role of peptides as a source of amino acids under conditions where free amino acids are abundant. A mathematical model was composed to estimate the fluxes of free and peptide-derived amino acids into and out of the intracellular amino acid pool. We observed co-consumption of peptides and free amino acids and a considerable efflux of most free amino acids during growth. We did not observe significant differences between the peptide consumption patterns of essential and non-essential amino acids, which suggests that the incorporation of a particular amino acid is more dependent on its availability in a readily assimilated form than the organism's auxotrophy for it. For most amino acids the contribution of peptide-bound forms to the formation of biomass was initially between 30 and 60 % with the remainder originating from free amino acids. During the later stages of fermentation we observed a decrease in the utilization of peptide-bound amino acids, thus indicating that the more readily assimilated peptides are gradually exhausted from the medium during growth. PMID:24389760

Kevvai, Kaspar; Kütt, Mary-Liis; Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Paalme, Toomas

2014-03-01

96

Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.  

PubMed

Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0. PMID:17323142

Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

2007-05-01

97

Sequential extraction leading to improved proteomic analysis of the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.  

PubMed

The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi (L. starkeyi) is an excellent intracellular lipid producer. Thus, extraction of protein from lipid-rich L. starkeyi samples following conventional methods can be difficult, leading to poor data in terms of proteomic analysis. The presence of lipophilic components in those samples may also interfere with the extraction process and the downstream analysis. In this work, we developed a sequential extraction method for preparation and analysis of L. starkeyi proteome combining to an online multidimensional nano reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (microRPLC-MS/MS) strategy. Protein hits of high confidence reached 227 with false positive rate less than 0.1, twice of those identified from the one-buffer extraction preparation. Moreover, the protein hits related to primary metabolism was increased, which may be important to establish the molecular mechanism of lipid accumulation. The method should be valuable for protein extraction from oleaginous species. PMID:21847969

Liu, Hongwei; Zhao, Xin; Cheng, Kai; Zhao, Zongbao; Ye, Mingliang

2011-05-01

98

Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.  

PubMed

Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture. PMID:23196255

Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond

2013-01-01

99

The extraction of liquid, protein molecules and yeast cells from paper through surface acoustic wave atomization.  

PubMed

Paper has been proposed as an inexpensive and versatile carrier for microfluidics devices with abilities well beyond simple capillary action for pregnancy tests and the like. Unlike standard microfluidics devices, extracting a fluid from the paper is a challenge and a drawback to its broader use. Here, we extract fluid from narrow paper strips using surface acoustic wave (SAW) irradiation that subsequently atomizes the extracted fluid into a monodisperse aerosol for use in mass spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery applications. Two protein molecules, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been preserved in paper and then extracted using atomized mist through SAW excitation; protein electrophoresis shows there is less than 1% degradation of either protein molecule in this process. Finally, a solution of live yeast cells was infused into paper, which was subsequently dried for preservation then remoistened to extract the cells via SAW atomization, yielding live cells at the completion of the process. The successful preservation and extraction of fluids, proteins and yeast cells significantly expands the usefulness of paper in microfluidics. PMID:20126687

Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Ho, Jenny

2010-02-21

100

Effectiveness of modified yeast cell wall extracts to reduce aflatoxin B1 absorption in dairy ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of a modified yeast cell wall extract preparation (YCW) on the excretion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in feces, urine, and milk of dairy ewes fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Sixteen ewes in mid-lactation were assigned to 4 treatment groups: control, AF (60?g of AFB1\\/kg of feed), YCW (2g\\/kg of feed), and AF+YCW.

S. Firmin; D. P. Morgavi; A. Yiannikouris; H. Boudra

2011-01-01

101

Semiconservative replication in yeast nuclear extracts requires Dna2 helicase and supercoiled template1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the preparation of nuclear extracts from yeast cells synchro- nised in S-phase that support the aphidicolin-sensitive, semi-conservative replication of primer-free, supercoiled plasmid in vitro. This is monitored by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication intermedi- ates that have incorporated (a- 32 P)dATP, by the conversion of methylated template DNA into a hemi-methylated or DpnI-resistant form, and by

D. Braguglia; P. Heun; P. Pasero; B. P Duncker; S. M Gasser

1998-01-01

102

Induction of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures by yeast extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient increase in rosmarinic acid (RA) content in cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was observed after addition of yeast extract (YE) to the suspension cultures, reaching a maximum at 24 hr. The highest increase of the RA content (2.5-fold) was obtained when 6-day-old cells in the exponential growth phase were treated with YE. Preceding the induced RA accumulation, phenylalanine

Hajime Mizukami; Terumi Ogawa; Hiromu Ohashi; Brian E. Ellis

1992-01-01

103

On-line solid-phase extraction of ceramides from yeast with ceramide III imprinted monolith.  

PubMed

A molecularly imprinted polymeric monolith (MIPM) was prepared by in situ polymerization using styrene, glycidyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as monomers, divinylbenzene and triallyl isocyanurate as cross-linking agents, and ceramide III as print molecule. The texture, pore size distribution, mobile phase flow characteristic, and chromatographic performance of the MIPM and a control monolith synthesized without the print molecule were examined, respectively. The results showed that using ceramide III as print molecule significantly affected the pore structure and pore distribution of the monolith, and greatly improved the retention of ceramide III and its analogues used in cosmetics as well. The retention of ceramide III on the MIPM could be reduced by increasing the ratio of chloroform to hexane in eluting buffer. The workability of the MIPM was firstly demonstrated through the separation of a model lipid mixture containing ceramide III and ergosterol, the main sterol impurity in yeast lipid extracts. The application of the ceramide III imprinted monolith to the isolation of ceramides from yeast lipid extracts was attempted and resulted in a considerable enrichment of ceramides, as shown by FIIR analysis. This indicates the potential of ceramide III imprinted monolith synthesized in the present study in the on-line solid-phase extraction of ceramides from yeast. PMID:12564688

Zhang, Minlian; Xie, Jianping; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Guoqiang; Li, Zheng

2003-01-17

104

Producao de Etanol por Fermentacao Extractiva com Celulas de Levedura Imobilizadas (Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol by Immobilized Yeast Cells).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethanol Production by Extractive Fermentation of glucose in the presence of media saturated with DBBP (dibutylbutylphosphorate) was performed in a semi-fluidized bed reactor by immobilized yeast cells of Saccharomyces bayanus in Ca-alginate matrices with ...

S. M. M. Dias

1991-01-01

105

Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min

1997-01-01

106

Modification of collagen hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen hydrolysates prepared by alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome leather waste were characterized and their condensates with long-chain carboxylic acids and their chlorides were synthesised. The syntheses were carried out under atmospheric pressure; in some cases a catalyst was used. The collagen hydrolysate and its condensate with oleic acid were grafted with ethylene- and propylene oxide, respectively. The extent

V. Šemrl-Kosma?; A. Gantar

1995-01-01

107

Evaluation of corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate for xylitol production by adapted strain of Candida tropicalis.  

PubMed

A maximum xylose extraction of 21.98 g/L was obtained in hydrolysate with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:8 (w/v) at 1% H(2)SO(4) and treated for 30 min. The optimized and treated corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate medium supplemented with (g/L) yeast extract 5.0, KH(2)PO(4) 2.0, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 0.3 and methanol 10 mL whose pH was adjusted to 4.5 acts as production medium. Under this condition; the adapted strain of C. tropicalis resulted in 1.22-fold increase in xylitol yield and 1.70-fold enhancement in volumetric productivity was obtained as compared to parent strain of C. tropicalis. On concentrating the hydrolysate under vacuum using rotavapor proves to be efficient in terms of improved xylitol yield and productivity over microwave assisted concentration using adapted strain of C. tropicalis. The immobilized cells of C. tropicalis resulted in more than 70% efficiency up to third cycle. The xylitol production could be scaled up to 10 L fermentor. PMID:23399194

Misra, Swati; Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Saxena, R K

2013-02-15

108

Analysis of the dynamics of relaxation type oscillation in glycolysis of yeast extracts.  

PubMed

In yeasts, the glycolysis may display oscillations of its metabolites while it is converting glucose. The dynamics of the oscillations has been investigated in cytoplasmic extracts of yeast under relaxation type conditions by determining the time course of some of the glycolytic metabolites. The compounds of the nucleotide pool have been identified as fast variables and the glucose derivatives as slow variables of the relaxation type. The period of oscillation has been subdivided into four phases which represent prominent parts of the limit cycle in the phase plane of a slow versus a fast variable. From the reaction processes in these phases, a dynamical picture of the mechanisms of oscillations is suggested. Accordingly, the oscillation results from an alternating activity of the fructose bisphosphate and the polysaccharide synthesis, both of which are coupled to glycolysis via the nucleotide pool. The processes in the phases are analyzed by calculating the rates of the reaction steps in the biochemical pathway. PMID:1832975

Das, J; Busse, H G

1991-08-01

109

Analysis of the dynamics of relaxation type oscillation in glycolysis of yeast extracts.  

PubMed Central

In yeasts, the glycolysis may display oscillations of its metabolites while it is converting glucose. The dynamics of the oscillations has been investigated in cytoplasmic extracts of yeast under relaxation type conditions by determining the time course of some of the glycolytic metabolites. The compounds of the nucleotide pool have been identified as fast variables and the glucose derivatives as slow variables of the relaxation type. The period of oscillation has been subdivided into four phases which represent prominent parts of the limit cycle in the phase plane of a slow versus a fast variable. From the reaction processes in these phases, a dynamical picture of the mechanisms of oscillations is suggested. Accordingly, the oscillation results from an alternating activity of the fructose bisphosphate and the polysaccharide synthesis, both of which are coupled to glycolysis via the nucleotide pool. The processes in the phases are analyzed by calculating the rates of the reaction steps in the biochemical pathway.

Das, J; Busse, H G

1991-01-01

110

Adaptation of Candida shehatae and Pichia stipitis to wood hydrolysates for increased ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida shehatae ATCC 22984 and Pichiastipitis CBS 5776 were tested for ethanol production from xylose, glucose-xylose mixtures, and aspen wood total hydrolysates. Adaptation of these yeasts to wood hydrolysate solutions by recycling resulted in improved substrate utilization and ethanol production. Compared to the non-adapted cultures, recycled C.shehatae and P.stipitis in aspen hydrolysate increased g ethanol\\/g sugar consumed from 0.39 and

Sarad R. Parekh; Shiyuan Yu; Morris Wayman

1986-01-01

111

Effect of nutrient compositions in peat hydrolysate on protein and biomass yields of Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted to study the effect of nutrient compositions, at different levels, added in peat hydrolysates on biomass yields and protein of Candida tropicalis. Samples of Minnesota sphagnum peat were hydrolyzed by boiling at 100°C with 1-1 H2SO4 solutions to produce peat hydrolysates which can support the growth of yeast. Peat hydrolysates were adjusted to pH 5.5 and mixed

F.-H. Chang

1986-01-01

112

Improvement of functional properties of cod frame protein hydrolysates using ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymic hydrolysis was applied for the efficient recovery of the protein sources from the fish processing by-product, cod frame. The enzyme used for the hydrolysis was crude proteinase extracted from tuna pyloric caeca. The resultant hydrolysate, cod frame protein hydrolysate (CFPH), was separated based on the molecular weight of the peptides in the hydrolysate and several functional properties were examined,

You-Jin Jeon; Hee-Guk Byun; Se-Kwon Kim

1999-01-01

113

A Yeast Metabolite Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing call for the absolute quantification of time-resolved metabolite data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as metabolites being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt concentrations often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, metabolite yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised metabolite leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate metabolites to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously.

Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

2012-01-01

114

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of yeast extracts containing rotavirus-like particles: a potential veterinary vaccine.  

PubMed

Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in many animal species of economic interest. A simple, safe and cost-effective vaccine is required for the control and prevention of rotavirus in animals. In this study, we evaluated the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts containing rotavirus-like particles (RLP) as a vaccine candidate in an adult mice model. Two doses of 1mg of yeast extract containing rotavirus proteins (between 0.3 and 3 ?g) resulted in an immunological response capable of reducing the replication of rotavirus after infection. Viral shedding in all mice groups diminished in comparison with the control group when challenged with 100 50% diarrhea doses (DD50) of murine rotavirus strain EDIM. Interestingly, when immunizing intranasally protection against rotavirus infection was observed even when no increase in rotavirus-specific antibody titers was evident, suggesting that cellular responses were responsible of protection. Our results indicate that raw yeast extracts containing rotavirus proteins and RLP are a simple, cost-effective alternative for veterinary vaccines against rotavirus. PMID:24593996

Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Esquivel-Soto, Ernesto; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

2014-05-19

115

Buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for the isolation of brucellae.  

PubMed

A patient with chronic osteomyelitis caused by Brucella abortus had negative agglutination titers. Because of a superimposed staphylococcal infection that resulted in the overgrowth of this organism on nonselective media, brucellae were isolated only on a selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) agar. Sixteen strains of various Brucella species were inoculated on BCYE agar; selective BCYE agar with polymyxin, anisomycin, and cefamandole; and brucella blood agar. The growth and recovery rates on the three media tested were comparable for 14 strains. BCYE agar with polymyxin, anisomycin, and cefamandole may be useful as a selective medium for the isolation of brucellae. PMID:2116452

Raad, I; Rand, K; Gaskins, D

1990-07-01

116

Optimized extract preparation methods and reaction conditions for improved yeast cell-free protein synthesis.  

PubMed

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform technology to help satisfy the growing demand for simple, affordable, and efficient protein production. In this article, we describe a novel CFPS platform derived from the popular bio-manufacturing organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing the CFPS reaction conditions we were able to achieve active firefly luciferase synthesis yields of 7.7?±?0.5?µg?mL(-1) with batch reactions lasting up to 2?h. This duration of synthesis is the longest ever reported for a yeast CFPS batch reaction. Furthermore, by removing extraneous processing steps and eliminating expensive reagents from the cell-free reaction, we have increased relative product yield (µg protein synthesized per $ reagent cost) over an alternative commonly used method up to 2000-fold from ?2?×?10(-4) to ?4?×?10(-1) ?µg?$(-1) , which now puts the yeast CPFS platform on par with other eukaryotic CFPS platforms commercially available. Our results set the stage for developing a yeast CFPS platform that provides for high-yielding and cost-effective expression of a variety of protein therapeutics and protein libraries. PMID:23832321

Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

2013-10-01

117

Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

1980-01-01

118

Accessibility of DNA polymerases to repair synthesis during nucleotide excision repair in yeast cell-free extracts  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a variety of DNA lesions. Using a yeast cell-free repair system, we have analyzed the repair synthesis step of NER. NER was proficient in yeast mutant cell-free extracts lacking DNA polymerases (Pol) ?, ? or ?. Base excision repair was also proficient without Pol?. Repair synthesis of NER was not affected by thermal inactivation of the temperature-sensitive mutant Pol? (pol1-17), but was reduced after thermal inactivation of the temperature-sensitive mutant Pol? (pol3-1) or Pol? (pol2-18). Residual repair synthesis was observed in pol3-1 and pol2-18 mutant extracts, suggesting a repair deficiency rather than a complete repair defect. Deficient NER in pol3-1 and pol2-18 mutant extracts was specifically complemented by purified yeast Pol? and Pol?, respectively. Deleting the polymerase catalytic domain of Pol? (pol2-16) also led to a deficient repair synthesis during NER, which was complemented by purified yeast Pol?, but not by purified yeast Pol?. These results suggest that efficient repair synthesis of yeast NER requires both Pol? and Pol? in vitro, and that the low fidelity Pol? is not accessible to repair synthesis during NER.

Wu, Xiaohua; Guo, Dongyu; Yuan, Fenghua; Wang, Zhigang

2001-01-01

119

Foaming properties of enzymatically hydrolysed wheat gluten  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermally treated wheat gluten (TTG) was structurally modified by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis was carried out using a fungal protease. The solubility of hydrolysates having low, medium and high degrees of hydrolysis (DH) and the foaming properties of their extracts at each pH were determined. For comparison, a sample of TTG was used as a standard. The results showed that

S. R. Drago; R. J. González

2000-01-01

120

In vitro antifungal activities of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) against clinically important yeast species.  

PubMed

Introduction There are few studies reporting the antifungal activities of Lippia alba extracts. Methods A broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antifungal effects of Lippia alba extracts against seven yeast species of Candida and Cryptococcus. The butanol fraction was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The butanol fraction showed the highest activity against Candida glabrata. The fraction also acted synergistically with itraconazole and fluconazole against C. glabrata. The dominant compounds in the butanol fraction were 2,2,5-trimethyl-3,4-hexanedione, 3,5-dimethyl-4-octanone and hexadecane. Conclusions The butanol fraction may be a good candidate in the search for new drugs from natural products with antifungal activity. PMID:24861304

Oliveira, Graziela Teixeira de; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa de; Johann, Susana; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues Dos Santos

2014-04-01

121

Fermentation performance and physiology of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth in high gravity spruce hydrolysate and spent sulphite liquor  

PubMed Central

Background Lignocellulosic materials are a diverse group of substrates that are generally scarce in nutrients, which compromises the tolerance and fermentation performance of the fermenting organism. The problem is exacerbated by harsh pre-treatment, which introduces sugars and substances inhibitory to yeast metabolism. This study compares the fermentation behaviours of two yeast strains using different types of lignocellulosic substrates; high gravity dilute acid spruce hydrolysate (SH) and spent sulphite liquor (SSL), in the absence and presence of yeast extract. To this end, the fermentation performance, energy status and fermentation capacity of the strains were measured under different growth conditions. Results Nutrient supplementation with yeast extract increased sugar uptake, cell growth and ethanol production in all tested fermentation conditions, but had little or no effect on the energy status, irrespective of media. Nutrient-supplemented medium enhanced the fermentation capacity of harvested cells, indicating that cell viability and reusability was increased by nutrient addition. Conclusions Although both substrates belong to the lignocellulosic spruce hydrolysates, their differences offer specific challenges and the overall yields and productivities largely depend on choice of fermenting strain.

2014-01-01

122

Clinical demonstration of isolation of Nocardia asteroides on buffered charcoal-yeast extract media.  

PubMed

Nocardia asteroides was isolated only from sputum samples, obtained from three patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, that had been cultured onto buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) and selective BCYE media as part of laboratory workups for Legionella species. A decontamination procedure with low-pH pretreatment (KCl-HCl solution) had been performed on the sputa prior to culture onto the BCYE media because direct cultures on the media were overgrown with commensal microflora. Chalky white colonies, 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter, that were subsequently identified as N. asteroides grew well on the BCYE media. Thus, the techniques and the selective media used for Legionella species were useful for isolating Nocardia species from sputum. PMID:1734058

Vickers, R M; Rihs, J D; Yu, V L

1992-01-01

123

Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B  

SciTech Connect

Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

1992-02-01

124

Accelerated solvent extraction of monacolin K from red yeast rice and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

Monacolin K from red yeast rice was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The effects of various extraction parameters including extraction temperature, static extraction time and cycle index on yield were investigated using a DIONEX ASE 300 system to select the optimal conditions by an orthogonal test design L(9) (3)(3). The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature 120°C, static extraction time 7min, and cycle index 3. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of ASE extract and monacolin K was 5.35% and 9.26mg/g of dry red yeast rice, respectively. A separation and purification method of monacolin K was then established using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:2:5:5, v/v/v/v). From 300mg of crude extract, 51.2mg of monacolin K was obtained with the purity of 98.7%. The chemical structure of isolated compound was identified by UV, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:20869335

Liu, Yuqin; Guo, Xingfeng; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua

2010-10-15

125

Preliminary kinetic characterization of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase extracted from Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was cultured in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate supplemented with 2.0 g\\/L of (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 g\\/L of CaCl2·2H2O, and 20.0 g\\/L of rice bran at 35°C; pH 4.0; agitation of 300 rpm; and aeration of 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 vvm. The high xylitol\\u000a production (20.0 g\\/L) and xylose reductase (XR) activity (658.8 U\\/mg of protein) occurred at an

Luciane Sene; Maria G. A. Felipe; Silvio S. Silva; Michele Vitolo

2001-01-01

126

An improvement in Pichia stipitis fermentation of acid-hydrolysed hemicellulose achieved by overliming (calcium hydroxide treatment) and strain adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentability of a corn cob, acid-hydrolysed hemicellulose by Pichia stipitis was considerably improved by pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2. The total sugars utilized and ethanol yield for the untreated hydrolysate were 18% and 0.21 g\\/g, respectively, compared with 82% and 0.32 g\\/g respectively for the treated material. Adaptation of the yeast to the hydrolysate resulted in a significantly higher fermentation rate

S. Amartey

1996-01-01

127

In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

2014-01-01

128

Fermentation of galacturonic acid and other sugars in orange peel hydrolysates by the ethanologenic strain of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysates of orange peel contain relatively high levels of galacturonic acid and arabinose which are not fermentable to ethanol by yeasts. We observed complete utilization of both sugars during fermentation of peel hydrolysates by the ethanologenic construct of E. coli KO11. The bacterium exhibits a novel pattern of galacturonic acid fermentation producing equimolar amounts of acetate and ethanol accompanied

K. Grohmann; E. A. Baldwin; B. S. Buslig; L. O'Neal Ingram

1994-01-01

129

Peat Hydrolysate Medium Optimization for Pullulan Production  

PubMed Central

Peat hydrolysate, a diluted acid-autoclaved extract of peat, was used as a substrate for the production of the extracellular polysaccharide pullulan by three strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 140B, 142, and 2552. It was found that the addition of (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 as sources of nitrogen and phosphate, respectively, is not necessary for the polysaccharide production. The economically optimized culture medium for large-scale production of pullulan contains peat hydrolysate, 0.05% NaCl, 0.02% MgSO4, and 0.01% antifoam FG-10. The initial pH of peat hydrolysate medium is adjusted to its optimum value of 6.0 with Ca(OH)2. The total ingredient cost for the production of each kilogram of pullulan with optimized medium is only 1/10 of that with the nonoptimized medium. In this study, a zero cost for peat hydrolysate was assumed, since it is an effluent of the peat and peat processing industries.

Boa, Jacques M.; LeDuy, Anh

1984-01-01

130

Improving the robustness of a low-cost insect cell medium for baculovirus biopesticides production, via hydrolysate streamlining using a tube bioreactor-based statistical optimization routine.  

PubMed

A critical component of an in vitro production process for baculovirus biopesticides is a growth medium that is efficacious, robust, and inexpensive. An in-house low-cost serum-free medium, VPM3, has been shown to be very promising in supporting Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) production in H. zea insect cell suspension cultures, for use as a biopesticide against the Heliothine pest complex. However, VPM3 is composed of a significant number of undefined components, including five different protein hydrolysates, which introduce a challenging lot-to-lot variability to the production process. In this study, an intensive statistical optimization routine was employed to reduce the number of protein hydrolysates in VPM3 medium. Nearly 300 runs (including replicates) were conducted with great efficiency by using 50 mL TubeSpin® bioreactors to propagate insect cell suspension cultures. Fractional factorial experiments were first used to determine the most important of the five default protein hydrolysates, and to screen for seven potential substitutes for the default meat peptone, Primatone RL. Validation studies informed by the screening tests showed that promising alternative media could be formulated based on just two protein hydrolysates, in particular the YST-AMP (Yeast Extract and Amyl Meat Peptone) and YST-POT (Yeast Extract and Lucratone Potato Peptone) combinations. The YST-AMP (meat-based) and YST-POT (meat-free) variants of VPM3 were optimized using response surface methodology, and were shown to be just as good as the default VPM3 and the commercial Sf-900 II media in supporting baculovirus yields, hence providing a means toward a more reproducible and scalable production process for HaSNPV biopesticides. PMID:22323401

Huynh, Hoai T; Chan, Leslie C L; Tran, Trinh T B; Nielsen, Lars K; Reid, Steven

2012-01-01

131

Rapid Extraction of Genomic DNA from Medically Important Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi by High-Speed Cell Disruption  

PubMed Central

Current methods of DNA extraction from different fungal pathogens are often time-consuming and require the use of toxic chemicals. DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult due to cell walls or capsules that are not readily susceptible to lysis. We therefore investigated a new and rapid DNA isolation method using high-speed cell disruption (HSCD) incorporating chaotropic reagents and lysing matrices in comparison to standard phenol-chloroform (PC) extraction protocols for isolation of DNA from three medically important yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii) and two filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani). Additional extractions by HSCD were performed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudallescheria boydii, and Rhizopus arrhizus. Two different inocula (108 and 107 CFU) were compared for optimization of obtained yields. The entire extraction procedure was performed on as many as 12 samples within 1 h compared to 6 h for PC extraction. In comparison to the PC procedure, HSCD DNA extraction demonstrated significantly greater yields for 108 CFU of C. albicans, T. beigelii, A. fumigatus, and F. solani (P ? 0.005), 107 CFU of C. neoformans (P ? 0.05), and 107 CFU of A. fumigatus (P ? 0.01). Yields were within the same range for 108 CFU of C. neoformans and 107 CFU of C. albicans for both HSCD extraction and PC extraction. For 107 CFU of T. beigelii, PC extraction resulted in a greater yield than did HSCD (P ? 0.05). Yields obtained from 108 and 107 CFU were significantly greater for filamentous fungi than for yeasts by the HSCD extraction procedure (P < 0.0001). By the PC extraction procedure, differences were not significant. For all eight organisms, the rapid extraction procedure resulted in good yield, integrity, and quality of DNA as demonstrated by restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR, and random amplified polymorphic DNA. We conclude that mechanical disruption of fungal cells by HSCD is a safe, rapid, and efficient procedure for extracting genomic DNA from medically important yeasts and especially from filamentous fungi.

Muller, Frank-Michael C.; Werner, Katherine E.; Kasai, Miki; Francesconi, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Walsh, Thomas J.

1998-01-01

132

Silver toxicity to ferrous iron and pyrite oxidation and its alleviation by yeast extract in cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ferrous-ion oxidation byThiobacillusferrooxidans was inhibited by 10-6 M Ag+ while a slight inhibition of growth was apparent with 10-7 M Ag+. The threshold toxic concentration was the seme for four different test strains. While prolonged lag phases resulted from culture exposure to Ag+, Fe2+ oxidation rates after the onset of growth showed little variation under these conditions. Yeast extract

Olli H. Tuovinen; Jaakko Puhakka; Paula Hiltunen; Katherine M. Dolan

1985-01-01

133

Evaluation of the yeast-extract signaling pathway leading to silymarin biosynthesis in milk thistle hairy root culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of silymarin, a potent antihepatotoxic compound, from the dried fruits of Silybum marianum L. Gaertn in hairy root cultures can be stimulated by a yeast extract elicitor. These results correlated with culture time,\\u000a and the biosynthesis reached a maximum of 0.47 mg g?1 DW by 72 h after culture (2-fold higher than the control). Lipoxygenase activity and linoleic acid content were

Tahereh Hasanloo; Roshanak Sepehrifar; Hassan Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Shams

2009-01-01

134

Semiconservative replication in yeast nuclear extracts requires Dna2 helicase and supercoiled template 1 1 Edited by M. Yaniv  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the preparation of nuclear extracts from yeast cells synchronised in S-phase that support the aphidicolin-sensitive, semi-conservative replication of primer-free, supercoiled plasmid in vitro. This is monitored by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication intermediates that have incorporated [?-32P]dATP, by the conversion of methylated template DNA into a hemi-methylated or DpnI-resistant form, and by substitution of dTTP with

D Braguglia; P Heun; P Pasero; B. P Duncker; S. M Gasser

1998-01-01

135

Cell-Recycle Continuous Fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for Economical Production of Lactic Acid by Reduction of Yeast Extract Supplementation.  

PubMed

Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cellrecycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity. PMID:24561722

Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

2014-05-28

136

In VitroCulture of TrichogrammaSpp. on Artificial Diets Containing Yeast Extract and Ultracentrifuged Chicken Egg Yolk but Devoid of Insect Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma minutumRiley andTrichogramma brassicaeBezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were culturedin vitrofrom eggs to adults on artificial diets, which contained no insect components. The diets contained ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk, milk, Grace's insect medium, and yeast extract. The most important components were the yeast extract and ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk. Addition of the sediment of ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk to a diet containing

Zhong-Neng Xie; Zhi-Xin Wu; William C. Nettles; Guadalupe Saldaña; Donald A. Nordlund

1997-01-01

137

Yeast extract, brewer's yeast and spirulina in diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge.  

PubMed

A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to study the immunomodulatory role of three different immunostimulants yeast extract (YE), brewer's yeast (BY) and spirulina (SP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Four hundred and fifty fingerlings (avg. wt 3.35±0.15 g) were randomly distributed in ten treatments and fed with either of ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric semi-purified diets, prepared with three incremental levels (1%, 2% and 4%) of different immunostimulants except the control. Growth parameters did not vary significantly (p>0.05) among the experimental groups. Haematology and serum parameters was performed before Aeromonas hydrophila challenge whereas respiratory burst activity was analysed following challenge. The respiratory burst activity, total leucocyte count, serum total protein and globulin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in YE 1% supplemented group. The survival (%) after challenging with A. hydrophila was also highest in the YE fed groups. The results indicate that among the different sources and levels of immunostimulants, YE at lower inclusion level is more effective in promoting the immune status of L. rohita fingerlings. PMID:20825959

Andrews, Simi Rose; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Mukherjee, S C; Kumar, Shivendra

2011-08-01

138

Xanthan gum production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate with Xanthomonas campestris using alternative sources of nitrogen.  

PubMed

Cassava bagasse was hydrolyzed using HCl and the hydrolysate was used for the production of xanthan gum using a bacterial culture of Xanthomonas campestris. Cassava bagasse hydrolysate with an initial concentration of approx 20 g of glucose/L proved to be the best substrate concentration for xanthan gum production. Among the organic and inorganic nitrogen sources tested to supplement the medium-urea, yeast extract, peptone, potassium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate-potassium nitrate was most suitable. Ammonium sulfate was the least effective for xanthan gum production, and it affected sugar utilization by the bacterial culture. In media with an initial sugar concentration of 48.6 and 40.4 g/L, at the end of fermentation about 30 g/L of sugars was unused. Maximum xanthan gum (about 14 g/L) was produced when fermentation was carried out with a medium containing 19.8 g/L of initial reducing sugars supplemented with potassium nitrate and fermented for 72 h, and it remained almost the same until the end of fermentation (i.e., 96 h). PMID:15304758

Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Soccol, Carlos R; Rocha, Saul N; Pandey, Ashok

2004-01-01

139

Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of Candida guilliermondii as a function of different treatments of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate employing experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, which is rich in xylose, can be used as culture medium for Candida guilliermondii in xylitol production. However, the hydrolysate obtained from bagasse by acid hydrolysis at 120?C for 20 min has by-products\\u000a (acetic acid and furfural, among others), which are toxic to the yeast over certain concentrations. So, the hydrolysate must\\u000a be pretreated before using

Lourdes A. Alves; Michele Vitolo; Maria das Graças A. Felipe; João Batista de Almeida e Silva

2002-01-01

140

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sardinelle ( Sardinella aurita) by-products protein hydrolysates obtained by treatment with microbial and visceral fish serine proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from heads and viscera of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) by treatment with various proteases were investigated. Protein hydrolysates were obtained by treatment with Alcalase®, chymotrypsin, crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Aspergillus clavatus ES1, and crude enzyme extract from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera. All hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activity

Ali Bougatef; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Rozenn Ravallec-Plé; Yves Leroy; Didier Guillochon; Ahmed Barkia; Moncef Nasri

2008-01-01

141

Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods  

PubMed Central

Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

Tambellini, Nicolas P.; Zaremberg, Vanina; Turner, Raymond J.; Weljie, Aalim M.

2013-01-01

142

Simple method for the extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carotenoid pigments from red yeasts (Basidiomycota, Fungi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the extraction of carotenoid pigments from frozen wet cells of red yeasts (Basidiomycota) and their analysis by reversed-phase HPLC using a C18 column and a water\\/acetone solvent system is described. Typical red yeast carotenoids belonging to an oxidative series from the monocyclic ?-carotene to 2-hydroxytorularhodin and from the bicyclic ?-carotene to astaxanthin were separated. Pigment identity

Roland W. S. Weber; Heidrun Anke; Paolo Davoli

2007-01-01

143

Preparation of Fish Protein Hydrolysates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An innovative procedure for developing and building a laboratory digestion unit capable of handling and producing approximately 10 liters of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) is described. The unit consists of a pump, heat exchanger, and holding vat. Comminu...

D. L. Crawford

1973-01-01

144

Extractive biocatalysis: A powerful tool in selectivity control in yeast biotransformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of absorbing resins on the yeast reduction of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds is reported. Enantioselectivity, chemoselectivity and space-time yields of the biotransformation are impressively enhanced. The distribution of substrates and products between the resin and the water phase shows that the improved selectivity has to be attributed to the control of substrate concentration.The effect of absorbing resins on the

Paola D'Arrigo; Claudio Fuganti; Giuseppe Pedrocchi Fantoni; Stefano Servi

1998-01-01

145

Overcoming the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid extracts in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.  

PubMed

For nearly two decades, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) has been used as a valuable tool for determining the total estrogenic potency of various environmental samples, including influent and effluent streams at municipal wastewater plants. However, applying the YES assay to wastewater sludges and stabilized biosolids has been problematic. This is due to co-extracted compounds from the solids either proving toxic to the yeast or masking the presence of estrogenic substances. The present research describes the development and validation of sample preparation steps that mitigate the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid samples in the YES assay, while allowing for reliable dose-dependent expression of estrogenic activity. A copper work-up for sulfur removal and chromatographic cleanup with silica and alumina were required in addition to solid-phase extraction to adequately remove interfering compounds. Sample stabilization methods such as autoclaving, lyophilization and formaldehyde treatment were found to be detrimental to the assay. Hence, heat-drying is recommended to prevent cytotoxicity and the degradation of estrogenic substances. PMID:22277884

Citulski, Joel; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

2012-04-01

146

Ethanol production from selected lignocellulosic hydrolysates by genome shuffled strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis.  

PubMed

Two genome-shuffled Scheffersomyces stipitis strains, GS301 and GS302, exhibiting improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulphite liquor, were tested for growth and fermentation performance on three wood hydrolysates: (a) steam-pretreated enzymatically hydrolyzed poplar hydrolysate from Mascoma Canada, (b) steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate from University of British Columbia Forest Products Biotechnology Laboratory, and (c) mixed hardwoods pre-hydrolysate from FPInnovations (FPI). In the FPI hydrolysate, the wild type (WT) died off within 25 h, while GS301 and GS302 survived beyond 100 h. In fermentation tests, GS301 and GS302 completely utilized glucose and xylose in each hydrolysate and produced 0.39-1.4% (w/v) ethanol. In contrast, the WT did not utilize or poorly utilized glucose and xylose and produced non-detectable to trace amounts of ethanol. The results demonstrated cross tolerance of the mutants to inhibitors in three different wood hydrolysates and reinforced the utility of mating-based genome shuffling approach in industrial yeast strain improvement. PMID:21890342

Bajwa, Paramjit K; Phaenark, Chetsada; Grant, Nicola; Zhang, Xiao; Paice, Michael; Martin, Vincent J J; Trevors, Jack T; Lee, Hung

2011-11-01

147

Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4 °C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; LeDuc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh

2013-11-01

148

Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies on elastin hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The formation of reactive species and free radicals in water soluble elastin hydrolysates have been investigated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Elastin hydrolysates were obtained by hydrolysis of elastin extracted from aorta. An investigation of the photochemical properties of elastin hydrolysates in water was carried out using nanosecond laser irradiation. The transient spectra of elastin hydrolysates solution excited at 266 nm showed two bands. One of them with maximum at 295 nm and the second one with maximum at 400 nm. The reactions of hydrated electrons and ?OH radicals with elastin have been studied by pulse radiolysis. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of elastin with e(aq)(-) small maximum absorption in UV and visible light was observed. In the absorption spectra of products resulting from the reaction of the hydroxyl radicals with elastin two bands were observed. The first one at 320 nm and the second one at 410 nm. Reaction of OH radicals with elastin hydrolysates lead to formation of Tyr phenoxyl radicals with absorption at 410 nm. The influence of the addition of sodium azide NaN3 on the formation of the transients was evaluated. PMID:23702900

Sionkowska, Alina

2013-08-01

149

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori

2014-01-01

150

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes.

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

151

Evaluation of rice straw hemicellulose hydrolysate in the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rice straw was used as a lignocellulosic source to provide rich pentose media. By using a well characterized yeast strain,Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037, the hydrolysate obtained was converted to xylitol with an efficiency of 75% and production of 27 g of xylitol per liter in 48 hours. The satisfactory results reported here can be attributed to the low concentrations

I. C. Roberto; I. M. Mancilha; C. A. de Souza; M. G. A. Felipe; S. Sato; H. F. de Castro

1994-01-01

152

Detoxification of rice straw and olive tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolysates employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to metabolize a variety of aromatic compounds found in rice straw (RSHH) and olive tree pruning (OTHH) hemicellulosic hydrolysates, obtained by acid hydrolysis at different sugar and toxic compound concentrations. Initially, the hydrolysates were inoculated with S. cerevisiae (10 g L(-1)) and incubated at 30 °C under agitation at 200 rpm for 6 h. The results showed that this yeast was able to utilize phenolic and furan compounds in both hemicellulose hydrolysates. Next, the treated hydrolysates were inoculated with Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to evaluate the effect of biotransformation of aromatic compounds on ethanol production, and better fermentation results were obtained in this case compared to untreated ones. The untreated hemicellulose hydrolysates were not able to be fermented when they were incubated with Pichia stipitis. However, in RSHH treated hydrolysates, ethanol (Y(P/S)) and biomass (Y(X/S)) yields and volumetric ethanol productivity (Q(P)) were 0.17 g g(-1), 0.15 g g(-1) and 0.09 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The OTHH-treated hydrolysates showed less favorable results compared to RSHH, but the fermentation process was favored with regard to untreated hydrolysate. These results showed that the fermentation by P. stipitis in untreated hydrolysates was strongly inhibited by toxic compounds present in the media and that treatment with S. cerevisiae promoted a significant reduction in their toxicities. PMID:23992561

Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Puentes, Juan Gabriel; Mateo, Soledad; Sánchez, Sebastian; Moya, Alberto J; Roberto, Inês Conceição

2013-10-01

153

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

1984-01-01

154

Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.

Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

155

Production of defatted palm kernel cake protein hydrolysate as a valuable source of natural antioxidants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential. PMID:22942692

Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

156

Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

157

The sequential exposure to jasmonate, salicylic acid and yeast extract promotes sanguinarine accumulation in Argemone mexicana cell cultures.  

PubMed

The effects of the sequential application of methyl jasmonate (MeJa), salicylic acid (SA) and yeast extract (YE) to Argemone mexicana cell cultures were compared to either the sole application of each elicitor, or to the three-partite mixture. The highest sanguinarine accumulation occurred using the sequential treatment (ninefold over unexposed control cultures), followed by the single application of YE (fivefold). The elicitor mixture produced less sanguinarine than sole exposure to YE but higher than MeJa alone. SA did not produce any effect. Transcripts corresponding to tyrosine decarboxylase and berberine bridge enzyme accumulated in treated cells, but did not correlate with alkaloid accumulation. Discrete epifluorescence foci, surrounding the nucleus and scattered throughout the cytoplasm of elicited cells, suggested the presence of alkaloid-accumulating vesicles which could participate in a mechanism to avoid sanguinarine toxicity. PMID:22009570

Trujillo-Villanueva, Karen; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Monforte-González, Miriam; Ramírez-Benítez, Efraín; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

2012-02-01

158

Efficient production of l-lactic acid from hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke with immobilized cells of Lactococcus lactis in fibrous bed bioreactors.  

PubMed

Hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke was applied for the production of l-lactic acid by immobilized Lactococcus lactis cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor system. Preliminary experiments had indicated that the high quality hydrolysate, which was derived from the 40 min acid treatment at 95 °C and pH 1.8, was sufficient to support the cell growth and synthesis of l-lactic acid. With the addition of 5 g/l yeast extract, the fermentative performance of free cell system was evidently improved. After the basal settlement of hydrolysate based fermentation, the batch mode and the fed-batch mode fermentation were carried out in the free cell system and the fibrous bed bioreactor system, respectively. In all cases the immobilized cells presented the superior ability to produce l-lactic acid. The comparison of batch mode and fed-batch mode also indicated that the growth-limiting feeding strategy could reduce the lag phase of fermentation process and enhance the production of l-lactic acid. The achieved maximum concentration of l-lactic acid was 142 g/l in the fed-batch mode. Subsequent repeated-batch fermentation of the fibrous bed bioreactor system had further exhibited the persistence and stability of this system for the high production of l-lactic acid in a long term. Our work suggested the great potential of the fibrous bed bioreactor system and hydrolysate of J. artichoke in the economical production of l-lactic acid at industrial scale. PMID:22975123

Shi, Zhouming; Wei, Peilian; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

2012-10-10

159

RNase Treatment of Yeast and Mammalian Cell Extracts Affects in Vitro Substrate Methylation by Type I Protein Arginine N-Methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I protein arginine N-methyltransferases catalyze the formation of ?-NG-monomethylarginine and asymmetric ?-NG, NG-dimethylarginine residues using S-adenosyl-l-methionine as the methyl donor. In vitro these enzymes can modify a number of soluble methyl-accepting substrates in yeast and mammalian cell extracts including several species that interact with RNA. We treated normal and hypomethylated Saccharomyces cerevisiae and RAT1 cell extracts with RNase prior

Adam Frankel; Steven Clarke

1999-01-01

160

New protein hydrolysates from collagen wastes used as peptone for bacterial growth.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost procedure was developed for the effective processing of native calf skin and blood wastes to produce protein hydrolysates. The method includes extraction of high-molecular-weight protein from the raw material, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the extracted residue. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed by inexpensive commercial subtilisin DY, produced by Bacillus subtilis strain DY possessing high specific activity. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, and amino acids of the obtained hydrolysates were determined and compared with those of the commonly used commercial casein hydrolysate (Fluka Biochemica, Switzerland). The newly obtained calf skin hydrolysate, called Eladin, was found to be suitable as a low-cost alternative peptone in growth media of different microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella dublin, and Staphylococcus aureus. The method allows utilization of waste materials by converting them into valuable protein products that could find widespread application in microbiologic practice. PMID:17171464

Vasileva-Tonkova, E; Nustorova, M; Gushterova, A

2007-01-01

161

Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial bioconversion of photosynthetic biomass is a promising approach to the generation of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, rapid, high-yield, and simple processes are essential for successful applications. Here, biomass from the rapidly growing photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that pH was adjusted to the optimal value. The highest ethanol yield and concentration obtained was 0.27 g ethanol per g cell dry weight and 30 g ethanol L-1, respectively. About 90% of the glucose in the biomass was converted to ethanol. The cyanobacterial hydrolysate was rapidly fermented (up to 20 g ethanol L-1 day-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used for Saccharomyces fermentations.

2014-01-01

162

Comparison of ACE inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of fish muscle hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

To utilise Atlantic salmon, Coho salmon, Alaska pollack, and southern blue whiting as components of neutraceutical food and to clarify the potential physiological function of those fishes, their muscles were hydrolysed with pepsin, pancreatin or thermolysin. Methanolic extracts of fish muscle and their hydrolysates were prepared for analysis of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities.

Kazuki Nakajima; Yumiko Yoshie-Stark; Mariko Ogushi

2009-01-01

163

System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate  

DOEpatents

A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

2013-12-17

164

Increased recovery of Legionella micdadei and Legionella bozemanii on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar supplemented with albumin.  

PubMed

The recovery of Legionella micdadei and L. bozemanii serogroups 1 and 2 from infected guinea pig spleens was evaluated by using two culture media: buffered charcoal yeast extract agar with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate (BCYE alpha) and the same medium supplemented with 1% bovine serum albumin (ABCYE alpha). At the lowest dilution of spleen tissue (10(-1)), recovery of all strains of L. micdadei and L. bozemanii was more efficient on ABCYE alpha than on BCYE alpha. L. micdadei strains had higher recovery rates on ABCYE alpha after another 10-fold dilution, but recoveries of L. bozemanii were similar on both media. Recovery rates for most test strains were comparable on BCYE alpha and ABCYE alpha at the highest dilution (10(-3)) of tissue tested. The presence of albumin in BCYE alpha increased the recovery rate of L. micdadei more than that of L. bozemanii. The use of ABCYE alpha medium in place of BCYE alpha may improve the recovery of L. micdadei and L. bozemanii from clinical specimens. Preliminary studies indicate that this medium also enhances recovery of certain Legionella spp. from environmental samples. PMID:2324282

Morrill, W E; Barbaree, J M; Fields, B S; Sanden, G N; Martin, W T

1990-03-01

165

The evaluation of mixtures of yeast and potato extracts in growth media for biomass production of lactic cultures.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of yeast extracts (YE) and potato extracts (PE) to promote growth of seven lactic cultures was evaluated by automated spectrophotometry (AS). Two aspects of the growth curve were analysed: (1) maximum biomass obtained (using ODmax) and (2) highest specific growth rate mu(max)) Eleven lots from the same PE-manufacturing process were examined for lot-to-lot variability. The ODmax values of three of the seven strains were significantly affected by lot source, but mu(max) was not significantly affected. The growth of bacteria was systematically lower in base medium containing 100% PE than in base medium containing 100% YE for both ODmax or mu(max) data, which could be related to the lower content in nitrogen-based compounds in PE. In AS assays, highest OD values for Lactobacillus casei EQ28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus R-011, Lactobacillus plantarum EQ12, and Streptococcus thermophilus R-083 were obtained with a mixture of PE and YE. Fermentations (2 L) were also carried out to determine the accuracy of AS to predict biomass levels obtained under fermentation trials. In these fermentations, replacement of 50% YE with PE was shown to enable good growth of S. thermophilus. With L. rhamnosus R-011, a high correlation (R2 = 0.95) was found between ODmax data obtained in the AS assays and that of the 2-L bioreactor when the same growth medium was used for both series of fermentations. However, AS was not as efficient when industrial media were used for the bioreactor assays. The relationship was still good for ODmax between AS data and that of the bioreactor data with L. rhamnosus R-011 in industrial LBS medium (R2 = 0.87), but was very poor with the S. thermophilus R-083 on Rosell #43 industrial medium (R2 = 0.33). Since PE cost 40% less than YE, there are strong economic advantages in considering such a partial replacement of YE by PE. PMID:12224561

Gaudreau, H; Renard, N; Champagne, C P; Van Horn, D

2002-07-01

166

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ...

D. D. Spindler K. Grohmann C. E. Wyman

1991-01-01

167

Effects of yeast extract on the production and the quality of the exopolysaccharide, zooglan, produced by Z oogloea ramigera 115SLR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have examined the influence of culture conditions on the production and composition of polysaccharides,\\u000a little is known about the factors influencing the quality of exopolysaccharides (EPS). In this work we studied the effect\\u000a of yeast extract on the production, composition and molecular weight of the EPS zooglan produced by Zoogloea ramigera 115SLR. This bacterium was grown on

S. Guillouet; J. H. Choi; C. K. Rha; A. J. Sinskey

1999-01-01

168

Anaerobic degradation of azo dye Drimaren blue HFRL in UASB reactor in the presence of yeast extract a source of carbon and redox mediator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results on anaerobic degradation of the azo dye blue HFRL in a bench scale Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket\\u000a (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. The results show that the addition of yeast extract (500 mg\\/L) increased color\\u000a removal (P < 0.05) from 62 to 93% despite the low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (~35%) which happened due to volatile fatty

B. E. L. Baêta; S. F. Aquino; S. Q. Silva; C. A. Rabelo

169

Cyclic AMP and low molecular weight effector(s) present in yeast extract are involved in pectin lyase production by Penicillium griseoroseum cultured on sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin lyase (PL) induction by organic and inorganic components of yeast extract (YE) was evaluated in Penicillum griseoroseum, cultured in a mineral medium containing sucrose, by determining PL activity (A\\u000a 235) and mycelial growth (mycelial dry weight). The lowest YE concentration that promoted significant PL induction without acting\\u000a as a carbon source for the fungus corresponded to 0.0075%. Neither calcined

Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira; Jorge Luiz Cavalcante Coelho; Rosana Cristina Minussi; Virgínia Maria Chaves-Alves; Rogelio Lopes Brandão; Daison Olzany Silva

1999-01-01

170

Optimizing Conditions for the Growth ofLactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose Medium by Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth ofLactobacillus caseiYIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was

SEJONG OH; SUNGSUE RHEEM; JAEHUN SIM; SANGKYO KIM; ANDYOUNGJIN BAEK

1995-01-01

171

Effect of nutrient supplementation of crude or detoxified concentrated distilled grape marc hemicellulosic hydrolysates on the xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3 g/L, was achieved after 172 hr (Q ( xylitol ) = 0.066 g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC) = 0.21 g/g); meanwhile, using detoxified concentrated hydrolysates, the concentration increased up to 19.7 g/L after 72 hr (Q ( xylitol ) = 0.274 g/L-hr; Y ( xylitol ) (/SC) = 0.38 g/g). On the other hand, using crude or detoxified hydrolysates, the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion was strongly affected by the addition of nutrients, suggesting that these hydrolysates present essential nutrients favouring the growth of D. hansenii. PMID:22239704

Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

2012-01-01

172

[Comparative evaluation of protein hydrolysates in designing their based universal culture medium for the diagnosis of plague and cholera].  

PubMed

Various protein hydrolysates made in Russia and foreign countries were comparatively evaluated to use them to design a universal agarized culture medium for the diagnosis of plague and cholera. Pancreatic baker's yeast broth was found to be most effective among the test media. PMID:21851013

Mazrukho, A B; Kaminski?, D I; Lomov, Iu M; Telesmanich, N R; Rozhkov, K K; Kruglikov, V D

2011-06-01

173

Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant capacity of acid and alkali hydrolysed wheat bran fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acid concentrations, profiles and antioxidant capacity of acid and alkali hydrolysates from the bran of six wheat cultivars representing six Canadian market classes were determined. Aqueous ethanol was used to extract the free phenolics (FP) and diethyl ether to extract the insoluble bound phenolics released after acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the bran. Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) reagent was used to

B. Verma; P. Hucl; R. N. Chibbar

2009-01-01

174

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION OF CRUDE OR DETOXIFIED CONCENTRATED DISTILLED GRAPE MARC HEMICELLULOSIC HYDROLYSATES ON THE XYLITOL PRODUCTION BY Debaryomyces hansenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3 g\\/L, was achieved after

José Manuel Salgado; Noelia Rodríguez; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Domínguez

2012-01-01

175

Bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of rape stem in a surface-aerated fermentor.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of producing bioethanol from the hydrolysate of rape stem. Specifically, the most ideal yeast strain was screened, and the microaeration was performed by surface aeration on a liquid medium surface. Among the yeast strains examined, Pichia stipitis CBS 7126 displayed the best performance in bioethanol production during the surface-aerated fermentor culture. Pichia stipitis CBS 7126 produced maximally 9.56 g/l of bioethanol from the initial total reducing sugars (about 28 g/l). The bioethanol yield was 0.397 (by the DNS method). Furthermore, this controlled surface aeration method holds promise for use in the bioethanol production from the xylose-containing lignocellulosic hydrolysate of biomass. PMID:21301200

Yeon, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Eun; Choi, Woon Yong; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

2011-01-01

176

Carbon source utilization and inhibitor tolerance of 45 oleaginous yeast species.  

PubMed

Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to lipids using oleaginous (high lipid) yeasts requires alignment of the hydrolysate composition with the characteristics of the yeast strain, including ability to utilize certain nutrients, ability to grow independently of costly nutrients such as vitamins, and ability to tolerate inhibitors. Some combination of these characteristics may be present in wild strains. In this study, 48 oleaginous yeast strains belonging to 45 species were tested for ability to utilize carbon sources associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates, tolerate inhibitors, and grow in medium without supplemented vitamins. Some well-studied oleaginous yeast species, as well as some that have not been frequently utilized in research or industrial production, emerged as promising candidates for industrial use due to ability to utilize many carbon sources, including Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hannaella aff. zeae, Tremella encephala, and Trichosporon coremiiforme. Other species excelled in inhibitor tolerance, including Candida aff. tropicalis, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Wickerhamomyces ciferrii. No yeast tested could utilize all carbon sources and tolerate all inhibitors tested. These results indicate that yeast strains should be selected based on characteristics compatible with the composition of the targeted hydrolysate. Other factors to consider include the production of valuable co-products such as carotenoids, availability of genetic tools, biosafety level, and flocculation of the yeast strain. The data generated in this study will aid in aligning yeasts with compatible hydrolysates for conversion of carbohydrates to lipids to be used for biofuels and other oleochemicals. PMID:24818698

Sitepu, Irnayuli; Selby, Tylan; Lin, Ting; Zhu, Shirley; Boundy-Mills, Kyria

2014-07-01

177

Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of a plant-extractive compound on lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice have synergistic benefits on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. In this double-blinded study, adult subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive a plant-extractive compound or a placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Both total cholesterol (5.4 ± 0.8 to 4.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.4 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < .001) were significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extractives, and the magnitudes of reduction were significantly greater than in the placebo group (-1.0 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6mmol/L, P < .001; -0.7 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001). The reduction in the fasting triglycerides level was significantly greater in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs -0.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P = .039). There was also a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of subjects with hypertensive criteria in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (P = .040). In conclusion, the plant extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice were effective in reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plant extractives also showed potential for reducing triglyceride and normalizing blood pressure. PMID:22348456

Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Hsien-Tung; Sheu, Wayne H-H

2012-02-01

178

Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae : current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel ethanol production from plant biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great economic and environmental significance. This paper reviews the current status with respect to alcoholic fermentation of the main plant biomass-derived monosaccharides by this yeast. Wild-type S. cerevisiae strains readily ferment glucose, mannose and fructose via the Embden–Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, while galactose is fermented via the Leloir

Antonius J. A. van Maris; Derek A. Abbott; Eleonora Bellissimi; Joost van den Brink; Marko Kuyper; Marijke A. H. Luttik; H. Wouter Wisselink; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

2006-01-01

179

Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work substrate feeding rate to a fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysate for production of ethanol has been studied. During hydrolysis of lignocellulose inhibitors are formed that effect the microorganism (here Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that ferments the sugar to ethanol in a negative way. To make the hydrolysate fermentable the inhibitors are often removed by detoxification prior to fermentation, but an

Anneli Nilsson

1999-01-01

180

Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  

PubMed

In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-11-01

181

Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste  

PubMed Central

This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides.

Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

2014-01-01

182

Establishment of the optimum initial xylose concentration and nutritional supplementation of brewer's spent grain hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of initial xylose concentration and nutritional supplementation of brewer's spent grain hydrolysate on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii were evaluated using experimental design methodology. The hydrolysate containing 55, 75 or 95g\\/l xylose, supplemented or not with nutrients (calcium chloride, ammonium sulfate and rice bran extract), was used as fermentation medium. The increase in xylitol yield and productivity was

Solange I. Mussatto; Inês C. Roberto

2008-01-01

183

Fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates with xylose isomerases and yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Untreated spent sulphite liquor (SSL) was fermented with Canida tropicalis, Pichia stipitis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a co-culture of P. Tannophilus and A. cerevisiae, in the presence of xylose isomer...

T. Linden

1992-01-01

184

YEASTS ISOLATION AND SELECTION FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM INULIN HYDROLYSATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries bioethanol is already an alternative or a complement to gasoline. The bioalcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes has been studied since the end of XIX th century. The ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke consists in a saccharification and fermentation bioprocesses. In the saccharification step, the inulin, which is the most abundant carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke tubers, is hydrolyzed

Camelia BONCIU; Cristiana TABACARU; Gabriela BAHRIM

2010-01-01

185

Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 ?M to 1930 ?M and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 ?g/mL to 1.29 ?g/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

2012-08-01

186

Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

187

Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents.  

PubMed

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

188

Cyclin B-cdk1 kinase stimulates ORC- and Cdc6-independent steps of semiconservative plasmid replication in yeast nuclear extracts.  

PubMed

Nuclear extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells synchronized in S phase support the semiconservative replication of supercoiled plasmids in vitro. We examined the dependence of this reaction on the prereplicative complex that assembles at yeast origins and on S-phase kinases that trigger initiation in vivo. We found that replication in nuclear extracts initiates independently of the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) consensus. Nonetheless, quantitative density gradient analysis showed that S- and M-phase nuclear extracts consistently promote semiconservative DNA replication more efficiently than G1-phase extracts. The observed semiconservative replication is compromised in S-phase nuclear extracts deficient for the Cdk1 kinase (Cdc28p) but not in extracts deficient for the Cdc7p kinase. In a cdc4-1 G1-phase extract, which accumulates high levels of the specific Clb-Cdk1 inhibitor p40(SIC1), very low levels of semiconservative DNA replication were detected. Recombinant Clb5-Cdc28 restores replication in a cdc28-4 S-phase extract yet fails to do so in the cdc4-1 G1-phase extract. In contrast, the addition of recombinant Xenopus CycB-Cdc2, which is not sensitive to inhibition by p40(SIC1), restores efficient replication to both extracts. Our results suggest that in addition to its well-characterized role in regulating the origin-specific prereplication complex, the Clb-Cdk1 complex modulates the efficiency of the replication machinery itself. PMID:9891057

Duncker, B P; Pasero, P; Braguglia, D; Heun, P; Weinreich, M; Gasser, S M

1999-02-01

189

Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p < 0.05) than basic taste thresholds suggesting that aromatics and bitter taste are both crucial to control in WPH food applications. PMID:20415487

Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

2010-05-26

190

Characterisation of the substrate specificity of the nitrile hydrolyzing system of the acidotolerant black yeast Exophiala oligosperma R1  

PubMed Central

The `black yeast' Exophiala oligosperma R1 can utilise various organic nitriles under acidic conditions as nitrogen sources. The induction of a phenylacetonitrile converting activity was optimised by growing the strain in the presence of different nitriles and /or complex or inorganic nitrogen sources. The highest nitrile hydrolysing activity was observed with cells grown with 2-cyanopyridine and NaNO3. The cells metabolised the inducer and grew with 2-cyanopyridine as sole source of nitrogen. Cell extracts converted various (substituted) benzonitriles and phenylacetonitriles. They usually converted the isomers carrying a substituent in the meta-position with higher relative activities than the corresponding para- or ortho-substituted isomers. Aliphatic substrates such as acrylonitrile and 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile were also hydrolysed. The highest specific activity was detected with 4-cyanopyridine. Most nitriles were almost exclusively converted to the corresponding acids and no or only low amounts of the corresponding amides were formed. The cells hydrolysed amides only with extremely low activities. It was therefore concluded that the cells harboured a nitrilase activity. The specific activities of whole cells and cell extracts were compared for different nitriles and evidence obtained for limitation in the substrate-uptake by whole cells. The conversion of 2-hydroxy-3-butenenitrile to 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid at pH 4 demonstrated the unique ability of cells of E. oligosperma R1 to hydrolyse aliphatic ?-hydroxynitriles under acidic conditions. The organism could grow with phenylacetonitrile as sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen. The degradation of phenylacetonitrile presumably proceeds via phenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homogentisate), maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate.

Rustler, S.; Chmura, A.; Sheldon, R.A.; Stolz, A.

2008-01-01

191

Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. PMID:23710634

Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

2013-05-01

192

Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

1996-10-01

193

Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved\\u000a by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis – peptides, amino acids\\u000a and minerals present in the protein and acid\\/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable\\u000a side chains depending

Vijai K. Pasupuleti; Chris Holmes; Arnold L. Demain

194

Extraction and immobilization in one step of two ?-glucosidases released from a yeast strain of Debaryomyces hansenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular, constitutive, and nonglucose repressed ?-glucosidase from a yeast strain of Debaryomyces hansenii was purified and immobilized using a one-step procedure on hydroxyapatite (HTP). Analysis of purified enzyme gave two bands both on SDS gel electrophoresis, native gel electrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. The two bands on SDS gels were positive for carbohydrate staining. Their apparent molecular mass was estimated

Paolo Riccio; Rocco Rossano; Mara Vinella; Paola Domizio; Francesco Zito; Francesco Sansevrino; Assunta D’Elia; Iolanda Rosi

1999-01-01

195

In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.  

PubMed

This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm). PMID:20501040

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2010-05-01

196

Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

197

Hydrolysis and transformation of terpene glycosides from muscat must by different yeast species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to verify whether both wine yeasts belonging to different species (Metschnikowia pulcherrima (2), Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri) and a non-wine yeast (Candida molischiana), were able to hydrolyse the terpenoids, norisoprenoids and benzenoids glycosides occurring in Muscat must and transform the produced aglycons. The results obtained confirmed the

M Fernández-González; R Di Stefano; A Briones

2003-01-01

198

Hydrolysed wool: a novel chelating agent for metal chelant-assisted phytoextraction from soil.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction has revealed great potential, however it is limited by the fact that plants need time and nutrient supply and have a limited metal uptake capacity. Although the use of synthetic chelators, such as EDTA, enhances heavy metal extraction, it also produces the negative side effects of high phytotoxicity, as well as leaching of essential metals. The aim of this research was to investigate the application of wool, in mobilising metals and in improving the phytoextraction of metals-contaminated soil. We performed column experiments with 14 d and 7 d partially hydrolysed wool as chelating agent on a silty-loamy sand agricultural soil. In the column experiment the 14 d wool hydrolysate mobilised 68% of Cu in soil, whereas in the case of Cd it mobilised 5.5%. The model plant selected for the phytoextraction experiments was tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The plant uptake of Cd and Cu, assisted by the application of 6.6 g kg(-1) wool hydrolysate was increased by 30% in comparison to the control plants. The application of 13.3 g kg(-1) wool hydrolysate enhanced the Cu uptake by up to 850%. Moreover, high leaching probability frequently observed when applying chelating agents, such as EDTA or ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS), were not detected. The use of hydrolysed wool therefore merits further investigation. PMID:18486182

Evangelou, Michael W H; Ebel, Mathias; Koerner, Andrea; Schaeffer, Andreas

2008-06-01

199

Two-step process using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis for ethanol production from Ulva pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We established a two-step production process using immobilized S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis yeast to produce ethanol from seaweed (U. pertusa Kjellman) hydrolysate. The process was designed to completely consume both glucose and xylose. In particular, the yeasts were immobilized using DEAE-corncob and DEAE-cotton, respectively. The first step of the process included a continuous column reactor using immobilized S. cerevisiae, and the second step included a repeated-batch reactor using immobilized P. stipitis. It was verified that the glucose and xylose in 20 L of medium containing the U. pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate was converted completely to about 5.0 g/l ethanol through the two-step process, in which the overall ethanol yield from total reducing sugar was 0.37 and the volumetric ethanol productivity was 0.126 g/ l/h. The volumetric ethanol productivity of the two-step process was about 2.7 times greater than that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production from U. pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate. In addition, the overall ethanol yield from glucose and xylose was superior to that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production. This two-step process will not only contribute to the development of an integrated process for ethanol production from glucose and xylose-containing biomass hydrolysates, but could also be used as an alternative method for ethanol production. PMID:23851267

Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Yi-Ok; Choi, Woo Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

2013-10-28

200

The inhibitory effects of freshwater clam ( Corbicula fluminea, Muller) muscle protein hydrolysates on angiotensin I converting enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muscle of golden freshwater clam was extracted using hot water. The residual meat was freeze-dried then hydrolyzed at 50°C first by Protamex (PX) as primary hydrolysis followed by a secondary hydrolysis (Flavourzyme, F). The inhibitory effects of hot water extracts and hydrolysates against angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. The soluble protein content and peptide content of the

J. S. Tsai; T. C. Lin; J. L. Chen; B. S. Pan

2006-01-01

201

Measurement of the inhibitory potential and detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolysate for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

The Microtox assay represents a rapid, accurate, and reproducible method for determining general microbial toxicity. This assay was used to evaluate the relative toxicity of a variety of hydrolysate samples derived from dilute-acid and alkaline biomass pretreatment. Toxicity is elicited from biomass degradation products, such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetic acid, generated during pretreatment. Microtox results indicate that the pretreatment samples examined ranged from 9 to 71 toxicity units (TU). Correlations of TU and sample absorbance at several wavelengths were evaluated for all sample series. Sample TU values best agreed with absorbance at 230 nm, but the unsatisfactory fit suggests that absorbance should not be used as an absolute measure of sample toxicity. Microtox data for pretreatment hydrolysate samples were correlated with the inhibition experienced by the ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D{sub 5}A, during the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process of pretreated biomass. None of the alkaline pretreatment conditions produced inhibition during SSF. However, the acid pretreatment conditions did produce a wide range of inhibitory and noninhibitory hydrolysates. In general, fermentation was inhibited for acid-pretreated hydrolysate samples with values exceeding 45 TU. Preliminary studies that focused on reducing hydrolysate sample toxicity (detoxification) indicate that adding perlite and zeolite had little effect. However, the use of charcoal, a universal flocculent, or ion-exchange resins significantly reduced sample toxicity, holding promise for the efficient bioconversion of pretreated biomass to ethanol. Moreover, the developed toxicity measurement assay can quickly monitor the quality of the pretreatment process. In this way, biomass conversion operation processes can be reliably controlled at the pilot and commercial scales. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Rivard, C.J.; Engel, R.E.; Nagle, N.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

202

Fuel ethanol from hardwood hemicellulose hydrolysate by genetically engineered Escherichia coli B carrying genes from Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Escherichia coli B (ATCC 11303) carrying the PET operon on plasmid pLOI 297 converted hemicellulose hydrolysate to ethanol at an efficiency of 94% theoretical maximum, which is 15% better than the highest efficiency reported for pentose utilizing yeasts in a comparable system. Aspen prehydrolysate (APH), that had been produced by theBio-Hol Process using a Wenger extruder with SO2 as

Hugh G. Lawford; Joyce D. Rousseau

1991-01-01

203

Co-fermentation of glucose, xylose and/or cellobiose by yeast  

SciTech Connect

Provided herein are methods of using yeast cells to produce ethanol by contacting a mixture comprising xylose with a Spathaspora yeast cell under conditions suitable to allow the yeast to ferment at least a portion of the xylose to ethanol. The methods allow for efficient ethanol production from hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic material and sugar mixtures including at least xylose and glucose or xylose, glucose and cellobiose.

Jeffries, Thomas W.; Willis, Laura B.; Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai

2013-09-10

204

Diversity and Physiological Characterization of D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts Isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or

Raquel M. Cadete; Monaliza A. Melo; Kelly J. Dussán; Rita C. L. B. Rodrigues; Silvio S. Silva; Jerri E. Zilli; Marcos J. S. Vital; Fátima C. O. Gomes; Marc-André Lachance; Carlos A. Rosa

2012-01-01

205

Selection of Yarrowia lipolytica strains with high protein content from yeasts isolated from different marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 78 Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish, and marine algae were obtained. After the\\u000a crude protein of the yeasts was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that seven strains of the marine yeasts grown\\u000a in soy bean cake hydrolysate with 20 g L?1 of glucose for

Zhenming Chi; Fang Wang; Lin Wang; Jing Li; Xianghong Wang

2007-01-01

206

Enzymatic digestion of spent yeast cells for nutrient recycling in inulase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An enzyme complex capable of lysing yeast cells was produced byArthrobacter sp. in a medium containing live cells ofKluyveromyces fragilis as the sole source of nutrients. The enzyme complex caused a 90% reduction in the optical density of viable yeast cells in 6 h at 25°C. This yeast cell hydrolysate can be used as a source of nitrogen, vitamins

Kin Sing Lam; J. W. D. GrootWassink

1990-01-01

207

Use of an alkali-soluble water-soluble extract of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls and isoelectrically focused components in peripheral lymphocyte transformations.  

PubMed Central

An alkali-soluble water-soluble extract of Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast-phase cell walls was tested for its ability to elicit a response in lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of Blastomyces-infected guinea pigs. Sequential preparations of the antigen were reproducible and specific in the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. Cross-reactivity of the antigen was not evident in lymphocyte transformation assays on lymphocytes obtained from Histoplasma-infected guinea pigs or from animals sensitized with complete Freund adjuvant. Fractionation of the antigen was accomplished on an isoelectric-focusing column, using a sucrose density gradient support. Components were assayed for activity in skin testing and lymphocyte transformation. Comparison of column fractions to the whole antigen showed greater response to the whole antigen in in vivo and in vitro assays.

Hall, N K; Deighton, F; Larsh, H W

1978-01-01

208

Xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was used for batch xylitol production in stirred tank reactor with Candida guilliermondii cells entrapped in Ca-alginate beads. Experiments were carried out using five-fold concentrated hydrolysate, agitation speed of 300rpm, air flowrate of 1.3lmin?1, initial cell concentration of 1.4gDMl?1, and starting pH 6.0. Xylitol production reached 47.5gl?1 within 120h of fermentation, resulting in a bioconversion yield of

W. Carvalho; J. C. Santos; L. Canilha; S. S. Silva; P. Perego; A. Converti

2005-01-01

209

Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hydrolysates produced on a plant scale have antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity. PMID:20390104

Wang, Yu-Kai; He, Hai-Lun; Wang, Guo-Fan; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2010-01-01

210

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) muscle.  

PubMed

Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidative activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from muscle of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) were investigated. Sardinelle protein hydrolysates (SPH) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus pumilus A1 (SPHA1), Bacillus mojavensis A21 (SPHA21) and crude enzyme extract from sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) viscera (SPHEE). The protein hydrolysates SPHA1, SPHA21 and SPHEE contained high protein content 79.1%, 78.25% and 74.37%, respectively. The protein hydrolysates had an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by their concentrations. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, reducing power assay, chelating activity, ?-carotene bleaching and DNA nicking assay. All protein hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. SPHA21 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (89% at 6 mg/ml) and higher ability to prevent bleaching of ?-carotene than SPHA1 and SPHEE (p?

Ben Khaled, Hayet; Ktari, Naourez; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Moncef

2014-04-01

211

Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and enzymatic yeast extracts on the microbiological, biochemical and sensorial properties of Lben generic products.  

PubMed

In this study we identified Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis, Kluyveromices lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant microorganisms of traditional Moroccan acid-alcoholic fermented milk named Lben. The low pH (3·8±0·3), lactose (16·8±3·4 mg/l) and lactic acid (8·16±0·6 mg/l) content indicated that a strong fermentation occurred in the traditional product which was also characterised by the substantial presence of ethanol and typical volatile carbonyl compounds (i.e., acetoin, diacetyl and acetaldehyde). Microbiological analyses of experimental Lben manufactured with selected strains (isolated from the traditional product) of Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis alone (batch A) and in combination with enzymatic extract of a K. lactis strain (batch B) indicated a good effectiveness of the starters employed (?1010 CFU/g of lactococci after 8 h of incubation) and a significant effect of the yeast enzyme extract on lactococci viability. Despite slight changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the two Lben during the 15 d storage period, volatile compounds (i.e. ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acetoin) were consistently higher in batch B. Moreover, sensorial analysis performed after 15 d of storage, highlighted higher odour and flavour intensity, vegetable odour and viscosity in batch B while batch A displayed higher astringency. PMID:24642233

Mangia, Nicoletta P; Garau, Giovanni; Murgia, Marco A; Bennani, Abdelmajid; Deiana, Pietrino

2014-05-01

212

Mutations in the membrane anchor of yeast cytochrome c1 compensate for the absence of Oxa1p and generate carbonate-extractable forms of cytochrome c1.  

PubMed Central

Oxa1p is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is mainly required for the insertion/assembly of complex IV and ATP synthase and is functionally conserved in yeasts, humans, and plants. We have isolated several independent suppressors that compensate for the absence of Oxa1p. Molecular cloning and sequencing reveal that the suppressor mutations (CYT1-1 to -6) correspond to amino acid substitutions that are all located in the membrane anchor of cytochrome c1 and decrease the hydrophobicity of this anchor. Cytochrome c1 is a catalytic subunit of complex III, but the CYT1-1 mutation does not seem to affect the electron transfer activity. The double-mutant cyt1-1,164, which has a drastically reduced electron transfer activity, still retains the suppressor activity. Altogether, these results suggest that the suppressor function of cytochrome c1 is independent of its electron transfer activity. In addition to the membrane-bound cytochrome c1, carbonate-extractable forms accumulate in all the suppressor strains. We propose that these carbonate-extractable forms of cytochrome c1 are responsible for the suppressor function by preventing the degradation of the respiratory complex subunits that occur in the absence of Oxa1p.

Hamel, P; Lemaire, C; Bonnefoy, N; Brivet-Chevillotte, P; Dujardin, G

1998-01-01

213

Oil production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g using rice bran hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1-4% v/v), reaction times (1-8 h), and reaction temperatures (60-120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2012-01-01

214

Characteristic and antioxidant activity of retorted gelatin hydrolysates from cobia ( Rachycentron canadum) skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali-pretreated cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was extracted in a retort (121°C) for 30min to obtain a retorted skin gelatin hydrolysate (RSGH). The molecular mass distributions and antioxidant activities of cobia RSGH and enzyme-treated RSGHs (ET-RSGHs) derived from bromelain, papain, pancreatin, and trypsin digestion were then characterized. The molecular mass distribution of the RSGH ranged mainly between 20,000 and 700Da and

Jing-Iong Yang; Hsin-Yi Ho; Yuh-Jwo Chu; Chau-Jen Chow

2008-01-01

215

[Protein hydrolysate as a dietetic resource  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The central goal of this paper was to study the application of beef meat and poultry (turkey and chicken) hydrolysates to the preparations used in our Brazilian current feeding practices. METHODS: The various kinds of meat were hydrolyzed with fresh pineapple under similar conditions to those daily used at home. The selection of three types of preparation was dependent on whether their contents included starch or gelatin and liquid, like soup, mousse and fruit-shake. Hydrolysate were added to the preparations as part of the liquid content of their recipes. The acceptability of the preparations was checked out by employing the hedonic-scale affective test with untrained tasters. Variance analysis and the Tukeýs test were performed with a 5% level of significance for the results.RESULTS: The selected recipes were the following: bitterroot soup, fruit and vegetable-shakes and grape mousse, all of them containing starch or gelatin as an element to camouflage the bitter taste of the aminoacids. The preparations were well accepted: approximately 76% of the tasters reported having liked the soup at least somewhat; as to the shakes, more than 50% gave positive answers, and as to the mousse, approximately 88% reported having liked it. There were no statistically significant differences (p< 0.05) concerning the application of the three hydrolysates in all the preparations tested. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hydrolysed meat to replace liquid content of recipes is highly practicable, requiring only an adequate selection of recipes and their ingredients, that should include starch and gelatin in order to get fully satisfactory products. These preparations might serve as a basis for other ones, adapted to each diet. PMID:14685623

Silva, M E; Mazzilli, R N; Barbieri, D

1998-01-01

216

Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.  

PubMed

Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

2013-05-01

217

Comparison of the sequestering properties of yeast cell wall extract and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in three in vitro models accounting for the animal physiological bioavailability of zearalenone.  

PubMed

The sequestration/inactivation of the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) by two adsorbents--yeast cell wall extract (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS)--was studied in three laboratory models: (1) an in vitro model was adapted from referenced methods to test for the sequestrant sorption capabilities under buffer conditions at two pH values using liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector for toxin quantification; (2) a second in vitro model was used to evaluate the sequestrant sorption stability according to pH variations and using ³H-labelled ZEA at low toxin concentration; and (3) an original, ex vivo Ussing chamber model was developed to further understand the transfer of ZEA through intestinal tissue and the impact of each sequestrant on the mycotoxin bioavailability of ³H-labelled ZEA. YCW was a more efficient ZEA adsorbent than HSCAS in all three models, except under very acidic conditions (pH 2.5 or 3.0). The Ussing chamber model offered a novel, ex vivo, alternative method for understanding the effect of sequestrant on the bioavailability of ZEA. The results showed that compared with HSCAS, YCW was more efficient in sequestering ZEA and that it reduced the accumulation of ZEA in the intestinal tissue by 40% (p < 0.001). PMID:23844575

Yiannikouris, A; Kettunen, H; Apajalahti, J; Pennala, E; Moran, C A

2013-01-01

218

Comparison of a novel MPN method against the yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water.  

PubMed

This study compared the Quanti-Disc most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely by heterotrophic bacteria. The MPN of heterotrophic bacteria is calculated from the number of fluorescing reaction wells after incubation of a sample. Quanti-Disc and the YEA pour plate method were compared according to guidance on comparing methods given in United Kingdom national guidance and ISO 17994:2004. The two methods were also challenged with reference strains and isolates of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water. This indicated that heterotrophic bacteria commonly encountered in drinking water are detected by both the YEA pour plate method and Quanti-Disc. Analysis of data from split water samples (723 for 37 degrees C tests and 872 for 22 degrees C tests) from nine geographically diverse laboratories in England and Wales demonstrated that the Quanti-Disc method is equivalent to the YEA pour plate method for the analysis of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking and similar waters at 37 degrees C, and superior to YEA for the analysis at 22 degrees C. The Quanti-Disc method is a simple and efficient alternative method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water. PMID:18534656

Sartory, David P; Gu, Haoyi; Chen, Chun-Ming

2008-07-01

219

Sensory Characteristics of Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus japonicus) Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) spray-dried hydro-lysate was prepared using Alcalase at predetermined optimum hydrolysis conditions consisting of pH 8.5, 60°C, 2% enzyme, and 2 h hydrolysis. The hydrolysate was evaluated for its preferred concentration in rice porridge. Its acceptability was compared with sauces and enzyme-treated rice and vegetable hydrolysate. The preferred concentration in rice porridge was found to be 3%

I. Normah; B. Jamilah; N. Saari; Yaakob B. Che Man

2005-01-01

220

Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract\\/corn steep liquor\\/glucose medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled

Mi-Young Ha; Si-Wouk Kim; Yong-Woon Lee; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2003-01-01

221

Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 ?M TE·g?1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 ?M TE·g?1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP.

Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

2011-01-01

222

Bioethanol production from Ipomoea carnea biomass using a potential hybrid yeast strain.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the exploitation of Ipomoea carnea as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Dilute acid pretreatment under optimum conditions (3%H2SO4, 120 °C for 45 min) produced 17.68 g L(-1) sugars along with 1.02 g L(-1) phenolics and 1.13 g L(-1) furans. A combination of overliming and activated charcoal adsorption facilitated the removal of 91.9% furans and 94.7% phenolics from acid hydrolysate. The pretreated biomass was further treated with a mixture of sodium sulphite and sodium chlorite and, a maximum lignin removal of 81.6% was achieved. The enzymatic saccharification of delignified biomass resulted in 79.4% saccharification with a corresponding sugar yield of 753.21 mg g(-1). Equal volume of enzymatic hydrolysate and acid hydrolysate were mixed and used for fermentation with a hybrid yeast strain RPRT90. Fermentation of mixed detoxified hydrolysate at 30 °C for 28 h produced ethanol with a yield of 0.461 g g(-1). A comparable ethanol yield (0.414 g g(-1)) was achieved using a mixture of enzymatic hydrolysate and undetoxified acid hydrolysate. Thus, I. carnea biomass has been demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production, and the use of hybrid yeast may pave the way to produce bioethanol from this biomass. PMID:23892623

Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, Krishna

2013-10-01

223

Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

2013-01-01

224

Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2013-04-01

225

Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and

Samir Jawhara; Khalid Habib; François Maggiotto; Georges Pignede; Pascal Vandekerckove; Emmanuel Maes; Laurent Dubuquoy; Thierry Fontaine; Yann Guerardel; Daniel Poulain

2012-01-01

226

A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence.

Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

2012-01-01

227

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-l-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20gL(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6±0.5gL(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2±0.6gL(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

228

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation.

2013-01-01

229

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte K

2013-01-01

230

Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.  

PubMed

Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

2012-08-01

231

Glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast: oral insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating agent: in vivo and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

In search for an effective oral treatment for diabetes, we examined the capacity of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) extracted from yeast and administered orally to reduce hyperglycaemia in rat models exhibiting insulin deficiency. The cellular effect of GTF on the insulin signalling pathway was investigated in vitro. GTF (oral bolus), insulin (intraperitoneal) or their combination was administered to streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or hyperglycaemic Cohen diabetic-sensitive (hyp-CDs) rats. Blood glucose (BG) and insulin levels were measured in the postprandial (PP) state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Deoxy-glucose transport and insulin signal transduction were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and myoblasts incubated with the GTF. Low dose of insulin produced a 34 and 12·5 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. GTF induced a 33 and 17 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. When combined with insulin, a respective decrease (58 and 42 %) in BG levels was observed, suggesting a partially additive (hyp-CDs) or synergistic (STZ rats) effect of the GTF and insulin. GTF did not induce insulin secretion in hyp-CDs rats, yet it lowered their BG levels, proposing an effect on glucose clearance by peripheral tissues. GTF induced a dose-dependent increase in deoxy-glucose transport into myoblasts and fat cells similar to insulin, while the combined treatment resulted in augmented transport rate. GTF induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of insulin receptor phosphorylation. GTF exerts remarkable insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating effects, both in vivo and in vitro. It produces an insulin-like effect by acting on cellular signals downstream of the insulin receptor. These results demonstrate a potential source for a novel oral medication for diabetes. PMID:22172158

Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Mizrahi, Tal; Raz, Itamar; Mirsky, Nitsa

2012-09-01

232

Production of Single-Cell Protein from Ram Horn Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida utilis NRRL Y-900 was grown on horn hydrolysate for single-cell protein production. First, ram horns obtained from slaughterhouse in Erzurum were hydrolyzed by physical and chemical methods and crude horn hydrolysate (CHH) was obtained. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars and amino acids of CHH were determined and it was seen that it has sufficient

233

Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the current status of collagen hydrolysate in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Methods: Review of past and current literature relative to collagen hydrolysate metabolism, and assessment of clinical investigations of therapeutic trials in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Results: Hydrolyzed gelatin products have long been used in pharmaceuticals and foods; these products are generally recognized as safe food

Roland W. Moskowitz

2000-01-01

234

Physicochemical characterisation of enzymatically hydrolysed derivatives of acetylated starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato starch modified to different degrees by substitution with acetyl groups was the subject of this study undertaken to determine the influence of conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis on the surface-active properties of hydrolysates of acetylated starch. The effect of acetylation of starch preparation on its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis in the membrane reactor was also considered. All hydrolysates of acetylated

Emilia Konowa?; Gra?yna Lewandowicz; Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz; Krystyna Prochaska

235

Secretagogues and Growth Factors in Fish and Crustacean Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The search for new molecules in fish protein hydrolysates is of great interest in animal feeding as it is in aquaculture,\\u000a fertilizer, cosmetic, and pharmacologic domains. Different sources of hydrolysates such as shrimp waste (Pandalus borealis), cod (Gadus morhua) head, and head and viscera of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), obtained after hydrolysis or autolysis, were tested on fibroblast cell cultures

Isabelle Cancre; Rozenn Ravallec; Alain Van Wormhoudt; Even Stenberg; Asbjoern Gildberg; Yves Le Gal

1999-01-01

236

Bitterness in Fish Protein Hydrolysates and Methods for Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysis is a processing method for recovering protein from under utilized fish biomass and fish by-products. However, the hydrolysis process often creates bitter taste in the product. The bitterness restricts the practical uses of these hydrolysates. The presence of bile in whole fish and fish viscera is shown to cause bitterness in fish protein hydrolysates. The fat and ash

Egidijus Dauksas; Rasa Slizyte; Turid Rustad; Ivar Storro

2004-01-01

237

Combined effects of dietary yeast supplementation and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of Queensland fruit fly.  

PubMed

Yeast hydrolysate supplements promote maturation of many tephritid flies targeted for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT), including Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; 'Q-fly'). Recently, application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene has been demonstrated to further promote maturation in some species. We here investigate the separate and combined effects of yeast hydrolysate and methoprene treatment on sexual maturation of sterile male and female Q-flies. Two methods of applying methoprene solution were used; topical application to adults and dipping of pupae. Consistent with previous studies, access to yeast hydrolysate greatly increased maturation of both male and female Q-flies. Maturation was further promoted by methoprene treatment, with similar effects evident for males and females and for both application methods. For flies provided access to yeast hydrolysate supplements, methoprene treatment advanced maturation by approximately 2days. No effects of diet or methoprene treatment were found on timing of copulation or copula duration. Countering the positive effects on sexual maturation, dipping of pupae in methoprene/acetone solution did diminish emergence rates and flight ability indices, and increased rates of wing deformity. Promising results of the present study encourage further investigation of treatment methods that maximise maturation while minimising detrimental effects on other aspects of fly quality. PMID:24424344

Collins, Samuel R; Reynolds, Olivia L; Taylor, Phillip W

2014-02-01

238

Red yeast  

MedlinePLUS

... with this combination.Talk with your health provider.Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)Red yeast might affect the muscles. Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might also affect the muscles. Taking ...

239

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

240

Counting Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

1998-01-01

241

Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0?mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6??mol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5??mol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg.

Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

2014-01-01

242

[Using rice straw hydrolysate for microbial oil production by Trichosporon fermentans HWZ004].  

PubMed

To efficiently use both cellulose and hemicellulose for lipid production, rice straw was hydrolyzed by a two-step process including dilute acid pretreatment and then enzymatic hydrolysis, and the hydrolysate was used as carbon source for lipid fermentation by Trichosporon fermentans HWZ004. After a simple overliming, the concentrations of acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural were 0.4 g/L, 0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively. The hydrolysate could be used for lipid fermentation with T. fermentans HWZ004 without adding other nutrients except for a small amount of nitrogen source and trace CuSO4.5H2O. The optimum inoculum size, initial pH and temperature were 5.0%, 7.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively. A total biomass of 26.4 g/L with a lipid content of 52.2% (corresponding to a lipid yield of 13.8 g/L) was achieved after cultivation of T. fermentans HWZ004 under the above-mentioned conditions for 7 days. The lipid coefficient (lipid yield on substrate consumed) is 17.0, which is much higher than the corresponding one (11.9) obtained on detoxified rice straw hemicullulose hydrolysate by original yeast T. fermentans CICC 1368. The fatty acid composition of the lipid was found to be similar to that of vegetable oil and its unsaturated fatty acid content was over 70%, thus the lipid is a promising material for biodiesel production. PMID:22117514

Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Hong; Huang, Chao; Zong, Minhua

2011-09-01

243

Pectinolytic enzymes secreted by yeasts from tropical fruits.  

PubMed

Three hundred yeasts isolated from tropical fruits were screened in relation to secretion of pectinases. Twenty-one isolates were able to produce polygalacturonase and among them seven isolates could secrete pectin lyase. None of the isolates was able to secrete pectin methylesterase. The pectinolytic yeasts identified belonged to six different genera. Kluyveromyces wickerhamii isolated from the fruit mangaba (Hancornia speciosa) secreted the highest amount of polygalacturonase, followed by K. marxianus and Stephanoascus smithiae. The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii produced the greatest decrease in viscosity while only 3% of the glycosidic linkages were hydrolysed, indicating that the enzyme secreted was an endo-polygalacturonase. The hydrolysis of pectin by polygalacturonase secreted by S. smithiae suggested an exo-splitting mechanism. The other yeast species studied showed low polygalacturonase activity. PMID:15925314

da Silva, Evânia Geralda; de Fátima Borges, Maria; Medina, Clara; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2005-06-01

244

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides obtained from chicken collagen hydrolysate.  

PubMed

In this study, collagen extracted from chicken legs (which are the yellow keratin parts containing a nail) was hydrolyzed with various enzymes, and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of each hydrolysate was determined. The hydrolysate by treatment with an Aspergillus species-derived enzyme had the highest activity (IC 50 = 260 microg/mL). The fraction of this hydrolysate obtained by ultrafiltration with a molecular-weight cutoff of 3000 Da (low fraction) had a stronger activity (IC 50 = 130 microg/mL) than the fractionated one. This fraction was further fractionated by HPLC, and the peptides in the fraction with high ACE-inhibitory activity were identified. The amino acid sequences of the four peptides were identified using a protein sequencer. These peptides were synthesized to confirm their ACE-inhibitory activities; this showed that peptides with a Gly-Ala-Hyp-Gly-Leu-Hyp-Gly-Pro sequence had the highest activity (IC 50 = 29 microM). When the low fraction was administered to spontaneous hypertensive rats, a decrease in their blood pressure was observed after 2 h of administration, and a significant decrease in blood pressure (-50 mmHg) was observed after 6 h. Moreover, long-term administration studies indicated that the low fraction showed a significant suppression of increased blood pressure. PMID:18808143

Saiga, Ai; Iwai, Koji; Hayakawa, Toru; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Shiniich; Nishimura, Toshihide; Morimatsu, Fumiki

2008-10-22

245

FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties of hydrolysates. Principal component analysis revealed that hydrolysates prepared from different protein sources

Cornelly van der Ven; Sorel Muresan; Harry Gruppen; Dries B. A. de Bont; Karin B. Merck; Alphons G. J. Voragen

2002-01-01

246

Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.  

PubMed

The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)?m)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved. PMID:24188847

Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2014-01-16

247

Preparation and characterization of ?-lactoglobulin hydrolysate-iron complexes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the best preparation condition of ?-lactoglobulin hydrolysate-iron complexes and characterize its structural transformation both before and after binding using the UV-visible absorption spectrum, Fluorescence spectrum, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that ?-lactoglobulin hydrolysates obtained with alcalase after hydrolysis for 6h possessed the highest iron-binding capacity. The highest yield of complexes was obtained when the mass ratio between ?-lactoglobulin hydrolysate and Fe(3+) reached 40:1, with the optimal pH value of 7.0. All of the spectra indicated that some sites such as amido bonds transformed during chelation, and nitrogen atoms could chelate with Fe(3+) to form coordinate bonds by offering electron pairs. Therefore, ?-lactoglobulin hydrolysate-iron complexes may be good carriers for iron and possess great potential to be used as iron supplements. PMID:22818436

Zhou, J; Wang, X; Ai, T; Cheng, X; Guo, H Y; Teng, G X; Mao, X Y

2012-08-01

248

[Nitrogen-containing fractions of Soviet hydrolysates for parenteral feeding].  

PubMed

The content of free amino acids, non-precipitable and precipitable trichloro-acetic acid peptides in Soviet-made hydrolysates for parenteral alimentation was determined. As shown, it is aminopeptide and aminosol that contain the greatest amounts of amino acids, fibrinosol and caseine hydrolysate carrying their least quantities, with aminocrovine and hydrolysine occupying an intermediate place in this respect. The quality of hydrolysates was assessed according to their biological value and to do so chemical numbers of essential amino acids were calculated and limiting factors determined. Fibrinosol and aminosol and to a somewhat lesser degree--casein hydrolysate were found to be best balanced as concerns their amino acids composition. Aminopeptide, hydrolysine and especially aminocrovine were manifestly inadequate by their biological value, since they contain limiting amino acids (isoleucine, cystine and methionine). PMID:96598

Pokrovski?, A A; Somin, V I; Ekimovski?, A P

1978-01-01

249

Efficacy of a Fish Protein Hydrolysate in Malnourished Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates are good nutritional supplements as their bioactive ingredients can be easily absorbed and utilized for\\u000a various metabolic activities. A fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate), prepared by a unique process of hydrolysis has the advantage\\u000a of high di\\/tri peptide content (<10 kDa) along with essential and non essential amino acids, micronutrients and vitamins.\\u000a The effect of Amizate on malnourished children (6–8 years,

Knut Olav Nesse; A. P. Nagalakshmi; P. Marimuthu; Mamta Singh

250

Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice

Yu-Guo Zheng; Xiao-Long Chen; Zhao Wang

2005-01-01

251

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

252

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

2014-01-01

253

Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

2014-04-01

254

Collagen hydrolysate inhibits zymosan-induced inflammation.  

PubMed

During the past years, evidence accumulated showing that glycine comprises anti-inflammatory activities. These effects occur, at least in part, via the activation of glycine-gated chloride channels (GlyR). Glycine is one of the major structural units of collagen, making up about 30% of the amino acids. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of collagen hydrolysate (CH) using the zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation mouse model. After oral intake of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg CH the plasma levels of glycine increased in a concentration-dependent manner. CH was able to counteract zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation locally (ear swelling) as well as systemically (IL-6 production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cells). The LPS-stimulated IL-6 production in whole blood correlated positively with the ear swelling response. This correlation was abolished by strychnine (a glycine receptor antagonist), indicating the involvement of GlyR. Collectively, these data show that CH is able to modulate inflammatory responses both locally as well as systemically. This effect might be constituted by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production via GlyR. PMID:23788175

Hartog, Anita; Cozijnsen, Miranda; de Vrij, Gerrit; Garssen, Johan

2013-07-01

255

Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions  

PubMed Central

Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and ?-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified ?-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNF? and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas ?-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified ?-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that ?-glucan fractions or pure ?-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model.

Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, Francois; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

2012-01-01

256

Single-cell protein production from Jerusalem artichoke extract by a recently isolated marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After crude protein of the marine yeast strains maintained in this laboratory was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we\\u000a found that the G7a strain which was identified to be a strain of Cryptococcus aureus according to the routine identification and molecular methods contained high level of protein and could grow on a wide range\\u000a of carbon sources. The optimal

Lingmei Gao; Zhenming Chi; Jun Sheng; Xiumei Ni; Lin Wang

2007-01-01

257

Production of ethanol from soybean hull hydrolysate by osmotolerant Candida guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075.  

PubMed

In this research, we studied the use of soybean hull hydrolysate (SHH) as a substrate for ethanol and xylitol production using an osmotolerant strain of Candida guilliermondii. The best acid hydrolysis of soybean hull achieved a recovery of 85 and 62% of xylose and mannose, respectively. Among detoxification treatments, activated charcoal 10% (w/v) showed the best results. Kinetic parameters obtained from the cultivation on four-fold concentrated SHH have shown that the osmotic pressure of this medium is higher than that supported by most osmophilic yeasts, revealing the osmotolerant characteristic of C. guilliermondii NRRL Y-2075. When cultivations were carried out on two times concentrated SHH, we obtained high yields of ethanol production, showing the prospect of SHH as a candidate for this biofuel production. Although xylose was present in high concentrations, no xylitol was produced, probably due to the presence of furfural acting as external electron acceptor or some varying cofactor preference of xylose reductase in this yeast strain. PMID:17706417

Schirmer-Michel, Angela Cristina; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Hertz, Plinho Francisco; Matos, Gilvane Souza; Ayub, Marco Antonio Záchia

2008-05-01

258

Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

2009-01-01

259

Spinal cord hydrolysate ameliorate immunological reaction in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use the hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins to induce oral tolerance in the animal model of sclerosis multiplex - experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. The female Lewis rats were fed with hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins in two doses for one week before immunization, which was induced by injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate. At the peak of clinical symptoms (the 13th day post immunization) the rats were sacrificed and the spleen removed. Splenocytes were suspended in a culture medium and placed in microculture plates. The cells were stimulated with homogenate. The cells were cultured for seven days. Proliferation of splenocytes was estimated by means of methyl-3H thymidine incorporation. In supernatants of cultures of splenocytes the level of cytokines INF-gamma, IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-gamma was measured. It was demonstrated that homogenate-induced splenocytes of hydrolysate-fed rats gave rise to low proliferation as compared to the controls used. The IFN-gamma was inhibited in hydrolysate-fed animals. The hydrolysate of pig spinal cord proteins has a modulatory effect on the immune reaction, particularly on the orally-induced antigen-specific modulation of autoimmune response. PMID:19325643

Kwiatkowska-Patzer, Barbara; Micha?kiewicz, Jacek; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Zieli?ska, Joanna; Kasarello, Kaja; Kurzepa, Katarzyna; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

2009-01-01

260

Microbial utilization and biopolyester synthesis of bagasse hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Cellulosic biomass is a potentially inexpensive renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials. Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in dilute acid solution under moderately severe conditions, releasing sugars and other hydrolysates including volatile organic acids, furfurals and acid soluble lignin. Utilization of the hydrolysates by an aerobic bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha, was investigated to determine if the organic inhibitors can be removed for potential recycling and reuse of the process water. Simultaneous biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) for the production of value-added bioplastics was also investigated. An inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on microbial activity was observed, but it could be effectively relieved by using (a) a large inoculum, (b) a diluted hydrolysate solution, and (c) a tolerant strain, or a combination of the three. The major organic inhibitors including formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and acid soluble lignin were effectively utilized and removed to low concentration levels (less than 100ppm) while at the same time, PHA biopolyesters were synthesized and accumulated to 57wt% of cell mass under appropriate C/N ratios. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) was the predominant biopolyester formed on the hydrolysates, but the cells could also synthesize co-polyesters that exhibit high ductility. PMID:18474421

Yu, Jian; Stahl, Heiko

2008-11-01

261

Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

262

Ras Signaling in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Since the study of yeast RAS and adenylate cyclase in the early 1980s, yeasts including budding and fission yeasts contributed significantly to the study of Ras signaling. First, yeast studies provided insights into how Ras activates downstream signaling pathways. Second, yeast studies contributed to the identification and characterization of GAP and GEF proteins, key regulators of Ras. Finally, the study of yeast provided many important insights into the understanding of C-terminal processing and membrane association of Ras proteins.

Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

2011-01-01

263

Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).  

PubMed

Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%. PMID:21909671

Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

2012-01-01

264

Ethanol production from selected lignocellulosic hydrolysates by genome shuffled strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genome-shuffled Scheffersomyces stipitis strains, GS301 and GS302, exhibiting improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulphite liquor, were tested for growth and fermentation performance on three wood hydrolysates: (a) steam-pretreated enzymatically hydrolyzed poplar hydrolysate from Mascoma Canada, (b) steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate from University of British Columbia Forest Products Biotechnology Laboratory, and (c) mixed hardwoods pre-hydrolysate from FPInnovations (FPI). In the

Paramjit K. Bajwa; Chetsada Phaenark; Nicola Grant; Xiao Zhang; Michael Paice; Vincent J. J. Martin; Jack T. Trevors; Hung Lee

2011-01-01

265

Assessment of extracts from red yeast rice for herb-drug interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions ("untreated" preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed ("treated" preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

2012-01-01

266

Concentrations of Trace Elements in Extensively Hydrolysed Infant Formulae and Their Estimated Daily Intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 18 trace elements Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, and Zn were determined in three extensively hydrolysed formulae by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Two formulae were whey hydrolysates, whereas one was based on soy-bovine collagen hydrolysate. Two skim milk powder reference materials, analyzed to ensure the analytical

M. Krachler; E. Rossipal; G. Chan; J. Kerner; S. Kharb; R. Kakkar

2000-01-01

267

Evaluation of sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate for biotechnological production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

PubMed Central

A preliminary study on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii in sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed. Hydrolysate had high xylose content and inhibitors concentrations did not exceed the commonly found values in other hemicellulosic hydrolysates. The highest xylitol yield (0.44 g/g) and productivity (0.19 g/Lh) were verified after 72 hours.

Sene, L.; Arruda, P.V.; Oliveira, S.M.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.

2011-01-01

268

Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates derived from threadfin bream surimi byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from threadfin bream surimi wastes, including frame, bone and skin (FBS) and refiner discharge (RD), were investigated. FBS and RD were rich in Lys, Glu, Gly, Pro, Asp, Leu, His, Tyr and Phe. FBS was hydrolysed to a greater extent than RD regardless of proteinases tested (Virgibacillus sp. SK33 proteinase, Alcalase, pepsin and trypsin). Pepsin-hydrolysed

Chompoonuch Wiriyaphan; Benjamart Chitsomboon; Jirawat Yongsawadigul

269

Short communication Antiproliferative activity of fish protein hydrolysates on human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiproliferative activity of 18 fish protein hydrolysates was measured on 2 human breast cancer cell lines grown in vitro. Three blue whiting, three cod, three plaice and one salmon hydrolysates were identified as significant growth inhibitors on the two cancer cell lines. Preliminary analysis of hydrolysates composition evidenced they contained a complex mixture of free amino acids, peptides with various

L. Picot; S. Bordenave; S. Didelot; I. Fruitier-Arnaudin; F. Sannier; G. Thorkelsson; F. Guerard; A. Chabeaud; J. M. Piot

270

Effect of water content on the glass transition, caking and stickiness of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates play an important function in many special dietary foods, e.g. for infants, those with genetic disorders, athletes and geriatrics. Because of hydrolysis these materials are more hygroscopic than the initial intact protein. In this reset the moisture sorption isotherms and the glass transition profile as a function of moisture content for fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), whey protein hydrolysates

F. M. Netto; S. A. Desobry; T. P. Labuza

1998-01-01

271

Inclusion of size fractionated fish hydrolysate in high plant protein diets for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish hydrolysate was evaluated as feed ingredient in high plant protein diets in an 89 days feed experiment with Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish hydrolysate was size fractionated by ultra- and nano-filtration and the various fractions were tested specifically as feed ingredients to trace any effect observed with the hydrolysate. All diets contained 68% of total protein as plant protein,

Anders Aksnes; Britt Hope; Øistein Høstmark; Sissel Albrektsen

2006-01-01

272

Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen*  

PubMed Central

To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 °C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

2009-01-01

273

Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: Partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-12-15

274

Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation\\u000a in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in\\u000a 30.0 gl?1 xylose, 30.0 gl?1 glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl?1 xylose and 2.0 gl?1 glucose). The vacuum

Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla Rodrigues; Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

2011-01-01

275

Comparative study on the proteases from fish pyloric caeca and the use for production of gelatin hydrolysate with antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Proteases from pyloric caeca extract of three fish species including brownstripe red snapper (Lutjanus vitta), bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus) and threadfin bream (Nemipterus marginatus) were comparatively studied. The extracts from bigeye snapper and threadfin bream exhibited the highest hydrolytic activities toward casein, alpha-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide and alpha-N-rho-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C and pH 8.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The extract of brownstripe red snapper showed the optimal pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 degrees C with all substrates used except the optimal temperature was 65 degrees C when casein was used. All proteases were strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) and N-rho-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK) and partially inhibited by N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone for all substrates tested, suggesting that trypsin-like proteases were the major enzymes. Substrate-gel activity staining of 40-60% ammonium sulfate (AS) fraction revealed that major activity bands were observed with molecular mass of 24, 22 and 20 kDa for brownstripe red snapper, bigeye snapper and threadfin bream, respectively. Those activity bands were partially inhibited by SBTI and TLCK. AS fraction was further used to produce gelatin hydrolysate from the skin of brownstripe red snapper with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Hydrolysate with DH of 15% exhibited the highest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (p<0.05). Therefore, the extract from pyloric caeca could be used to produce the gelatin hydrolysates possessing antioxidative activities. PMID:18793744

Khantaphant, Sutheera; Benjakul, Soottawat

2008-12-01

276

Milk protein hydrolysates activate 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptors: influence of the starting substrate and isolation of bioactive fractions.  

PubMed

Milk protein hydrolysates generated with different starting substrates, including sodium caseinate (NaCN), acid casein (Acid CN), skim milk powder (SMP) and glycomacropeptide (GMP) were demonstrated to behave as serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor agonists. The 5-HT(2C) receptor activating potential of NaCN hydrolysates correlated with an increased protein hydrolysis, most likely due to enhanced release of bioactive peptides over the time course of hydrolysis. In its unhydrolysed form, GMP was the only starting substrate showing 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor agonist activity. The 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor agonist activity of its corresponding hydrolysate (GMPH-240 min) was significantly higher (P < 0.05). Fractionation of the 240 min NaCNH using ultrafiltration (UF), solid-phase extraction (SPE), semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) was carried out. Characterisation of the fractions obtained shows that the bioactive peptides had a relatively low molecular mass (<1 kDa), were hydrophobic in nature and had a pI between 8.6 and 13.2. These different physicochemical characteristics together with the stability of NaCNH-240 min to simulated intestinal digestion, allow prediction of a favourable outcome regarding the bioavailability of the bioactive peptides therein. These results reinforce the potential of milk-derived bioactive peptides to be developed into functional foods targeted at 5-HT(2C) receptor modulation. PMID:23435627

Nongonierma, Alice B; Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; FitzGerald, Richard J

2013-04-30

277

The Influence of Exogenous Nutrients on the Abundance of Yeasts on the Phylloplane of Turfgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted to assess the effect of foliar applications of various nutrient solutions on the phylloplane\\u000a yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In the first three experiments, increasing concentrations of sucrose (2–16%), yeast extract (0.5–2.5%), and sucrose\\u000a plus yeast extract (2.5–18.5% total) were applied and the yeast colony forming units (cfu) enumerated 14 h later by dilution

Shannon Nix-Stohr; Leon L. Burpee; James W. Buck

2008-01-01

278

Properties of protein concentrates and hydrolysates from Amaranthus and Buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein concentrates and pepsin hydrolysates were made after isoelectric precipitation of the proteinaceous liquor from wet-milling of grain of five Amaranthus and one buckwheat genotype. The Amaranthus protein concentrates exhibited better solubility, foaming, and emulsification than two commercial soy protein controls. Many protein properties depend on solubility, and Amaranthus protein concentrates were more soluble than soy protein isolate. The buckwheat

Feliciano P. Bejosano; Harold Corke

1999-01-01

279

Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

Patterson, W. J.

1983-01-01

280

Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic

Tilak W. Nagodawithana; Lynn Nelles; Nayan B. Trivedi

2010-01-01

281

Detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates with ion-exchange resins.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose hydrolysates contain fermentation inhibitors causing decreased ethanol production. The inhibitors include phenolic compounds, furan aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds prior to fermentation is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. The performance and detoxification mechanism of three different resins were examined: an anion exchanger, a cation exchanger, and a resin without charged groups (XAD-8). A dilute acid hydrolysate of spruce was treated with the resins at pH 5.5 and 10.0 prior to ethanolic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to the experiments with hydrolysate, the effect of the resins on selected model compounds, three phenolics (vanillin, guaiacol, and coniferyl aldehyde) and two furan aldehydes (furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural), was determined. The cation exchanger increased ethanol production, but to a lesser extent than XAD-8, which in turn was less effective than the anion exchanger. Treatment at pH 10.0 was more effective than at pH 5.5. At pH 10.0, the anion exchanger efficiently removed both anionic and uncharged inhibitors, the latter by hydrophobic interactions. The importance of hydrophobic interactions was further indicated by a substantial decrease in the concentration of model compounds, such as guaiacol and furfural, after treatment with XAD-8. PMID:11963864

Nilvebrant, N O; Reimann, A; Larsson, S; Jönsson, L J

2001-01-01

282

Intestinal protective effect of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesA partially hydrolysed, dried, product of pacific whiting fish is marketed as a health food supplement supporting ‘intestinal health’. Scientific data supporting these claims are severely limited. We, therefore, examined if it influenced intestinal injury caused by the NSAID, indomethacin.

Tania Marchbank; George Elia; Raymond J. Playford

2009-01-01

283

Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle.  

PubMed

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power and metal chelating activity of protein hydrolysates increased with increase in concentration. Lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by 64% by protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin. The results revealed that the functional properties and antioxidant activities of pink perch were greatly affected by the enzymes used. PMID:24426005

Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A

2013-10-01

284

Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides  

PubMed Central

Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41?mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24?mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28?mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48?mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21?mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38?mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20?kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits.

Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

285

Effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by continuous stirred-tank reactor fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on the production of xylitol by bioconversion of xylose present in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate using the yeast Candida guilliermondii was investigated. Continuous cultivation was carried out in a 1.25-L fermentor at 30 degrees C, pH 5.5, 300 rpm, and a dilution rate of 0.03/h, using oxygen transfer coefficients of 10, 20, and 30/h. The results showed that the microbial xylitol production (11 g/L) increased by 108% with the decrease in the oxygen volumetric transfer coefficient from 30 to 20/h. The maximum values of xylitol productivity (0.7 g/[L.h]) and yield (0.58 g/g) were obtained akLa 20/h. PMID:10849823

Martínez, E A; Silva, S S; Felipe, M G

2000-01-01

286

Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in 30.0 gl(-1) xylose, 30.0 gl(-1) glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl(-1) xylose and 2.0 gl(-1) glucose). The vacuum evaporated hydrolysate (80 gl(-1)) was detoxificated by ion exchange resin (A-860S; A500PS and C-150-Purolite®). The total phenolic compounds and acetic acid were 93.0 and 64.9%, respectively, removed by the resin hydrolysate treatment. All experiments were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks at 200 rpm, 30°C. The maximum XR (0.618 Umg (Prot) (-1)) and XDH (0.783 Umg (Prot) (-1)) enzymes activities was obtained using inoculum previously growth in both sugars mixture. The highest cell concentration (10.6 gl(-1)) was obtained with inoculum pre-cultivated in the glucose. However, the xylitol yield and xylitol volumetric productivity were favored using the xylose as carbon source. In this case, it was observed maximum xylose (81%) and acetic acid (100%) consumption. It is very important to point out that maximum enzymatic activities were obtained when the mixture of sugars was used as carbon source of inoculum, while the highest fermentative parameters were obtained when xylose was used. PMID:20683763

de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla; da Silva, Débora Danielle Virgínio; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2011-07-01

287

Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: wet oxidation and fermentation by yeast.  

PubMed

Alkaline wet oxidation (WO) (using water, 6.5 g/L sodium carbonate and 12 bar oxygen at 195 degrees C) was used as pretreatment method for wheat straw (60 g/L), resulting in a hydrolysate and a cellulosic solid fraction. The hydrolysate consisted of soluble hemicellulose (8 g/L), low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (3.9 g/L), phenols (0.27 g/L = 1.7 mM) and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/L). The wet oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present in the hydrolysate, were each tested in concentrations of 50-100 times the concentration found in the hydrolysate for their effect on fermentation by yeast. At these high concentrations (10 mM), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and acetovanillone caused a 53-67% decrease in the volumetric ethanol productivity in S. cerevisiae compared to controls with an ethanol productivity of 3.8 g/L. The phenol acids (4-hydroxy, vanillic and syringic acid), 2-furoic acid, syringaldehyde and acetosyringone were less inhibitory, causing a 5-16% decrease in ethanol productivity. By adding the same aromatic compounds to hydrolysate (10 mM), it was shown that syringaldehyde and acetovanillone interacted negatively with hydrolysate components on the ethanol productivity. Fermentation in WO hydrolysate, that had been concentrated 6 times by freeze-drying, lasted 4 hours longer than in regular hydrolysate; however, the ethanol yield was the same. The longer fermentation time could not be explained by an inhibitory action of phenols alone, but was more likely caused by inhibitory interactions of phenols with carboxylic acids, such as acetic and formic acid. PMID:12529889

Klinke, H B; Olsson, L; Thomsen, A B; Ahring, B K

2003-03-20

288

A complete industrial system for economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial fermentation system using lignocellulosic hydrolysate, waste yeast hydrolysate, and mixed alkali to achieve high-yield, economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes was developed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate and waste yeast hydrolysate were used efficiently as carbon sources and nitrogen source instead of the expensive glucose and yeast extract. Moreover, as a novel method for regulating pH mixed alkalis (Mg(OH)2 and

Jian Li; Xiao-Yu Zheng; Xiao-Jiang Fang; Shu-Wen Liu; Ke-Quan Chen; Min Jiang; Ping Wei; Ping-Kai Ouyang

2011-01-01

289

Bioethanol production from hydrolysates of inulin and the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke by Saccharomyces sp. W0.  

PubMed

It has been confirmed that Saccharomyces sp. W0 can produce high concentration of ethanol. However, this yeast strain cannot secrete inulinase. Therefore, in this study, inulin was hydrolyzed into reducing sugar by the recombinant inulinase produced by Pichia pastoris X-33/pPICZaA-INU1. It was found that 38.2U of the recombinant inulinase per gram of inulin was suitable for the inulin hydrolysis and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0 and the fermentation period was 120 h. At the end of the fermentation, over 14.6 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was produced, the ethanol productivity was over 0.384 g of ethanol/g of inulin and over 98.8% of total sugar was utilized. When the Saccharomyces sp. W0 was grown in the mixture of 4.0% hydrolysate of soybean meal and 20.0% of the hydrolysate of inulin for 120 h, over 14.9 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was over 0.393 g of ethanol/g of inulin and 98.9% of total sugar was used by the yeast strain. When Saccharomyces sp. W0 carrying the same inulinase gene was grown in the medium containing 50 g of the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke per 100ml for 144 h, over 12.1+/-0.35%ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was 0.319+/-0.9 g of ethanol/g of sugar and 3.7% (w/v) of total sugar and 0.5% (w/v) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented media. PMID:20598527

Zhang, T; Chi, Z; Zhao, C H; Chi, Z M; Gong, F

2010-11-01

290

[Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].  

PubMed

Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition. PMID:24941752

Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

2014-02-01

291

Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 ?g mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

2010-03-01

292

Isolation and identification of two novel umami and umami-enhancing peptides from peanut hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS.  

PubMed

Peanut hydrolysate produced by crude protease extract from Aspergillus oryzae HN 3.042 was found to elicit intense umami and umami-enhancing effect. Taste profiles, amino acid and organic acid composition of peanut hydrolysate and its separation fractions by ultrafiltration were evaluated. The results revealed that peanut hydrolysate was mainly low molecular weight compounds. Fractions of 1-3 kDa and below 1 kDa prominently contributed to the umami taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peanut hydrolysate. The two fractions were further purified, using gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), in combination with sensory evaluation, to obtain a umami peptide and umami-enhancing peptide. The active peptides were identified as Ser-Ser-Arg-Asn-Glu-Gln-Ser-Arg (SSRNEQSR, 963.9 Da) and Glu-Gly-Ser-Glu-Ala-Pro-Asp-Gly-Ser-Ser-Arg (EGSEAPDGSSR, 1091.1 Da), by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, respectively. PMID:22868117

Su, Guowan; Cui, Chun; Zheng, Lin; Yang, Bao; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Mouming

2012-11-15

293

Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.  

PubMed

The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of pectinolytic activity was found in mangaba frozen pulp communities. Around 30% of all isolates produced pectinases. The ability to split arbutin was observed in all communities ranging from 8% in yeasts from pitanga frozen pulps to 40.6% in acerola ripe fruit communities. Among 432 species tested, 125 were active for beta-glucosidase production, and Kloeckera apis, P. antarctica, C. sorbosivorans, and C. spandovensis-like were the most active species. PMID:12353886

Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

2002-08-01

294

Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) hydrolysates as cryoprotective agents in frozen pacific cod fillet mince.  

PubMed

Fish protein hydrolysates produced by proteolysis of Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) with Alcalase (FPH-A) or Flavourzyme (FPH-F) were investigated as a potential alternative to the 1 : 1 blend of sucrose-sorbitol (SuSo) commonly used for cryoprotection of frozen fish mince. The physicochemical properties of cod mince samples in the absence (control) or presence of 8% FPH-A, FPH-F, or SuSo were evaluated before and after 6 freeze-thaw cycles, with differences noted at the 5% significance level. Freeze-thawing of control sample increased expressible moisture (from 22% to 33%) and cook loss (from 3% to 16%). These poor water retention properties were improved in samples containing FPH or SuSo. Differential scanning calorimetry showed higher proportion of unfrozen water in freeze-thawed samples containing FPH-F or FPH-A (0.36 g/g) compared to SuSo (0.33 g/g) and control (0.24 g/g) samples. Textural analysis of cooked mince from unfrozen samples indicated greater hardness for FPH than SuSo and control samples, while freeze-thawing resulted in decreased hardness for FPH and SuSo samples. Content and surface hydrophobicity of extractable natural actomyosin (NAM) were maintained after freeze-thawing of samples containing FPH-F or SuSo, compared to 50% decrease in extractable NAM and a significant increase in surface hydrophobicity for the control. The presence of oligopeptides in both hydrolysates and the high levels of free amino acids including Asp, Glu, Arg, and Lys in FPH-F might be responsible for their cryoprotective action. This study provides strong evidence to support development of FPH as a new generation cryoprotectant to maintain quality of frozen fish. PMID:19799654

Cheung, Imelda W Y; Liceaga, Andrea M; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

2009-10-01

295

Production of the Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)Inhibitory Peptide from Hydrolysates of Jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum ) Collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen extracted from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) was hydrolyzed with alcalase to prepare the ACE-inhibitory peptide. The optimal hydrolyzing conditions were determined using\\u000a response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal conditions were temperature of 52.7 °C, pH of 8.63 and enzyme-to-substrate\\u000a ratio (E\\/S) of 3.46%, and the ACE-inhibitory activity of the obtained hydrolysates could reach 81.7%. Jellyfish collagen peptide, UF3-B2,

Yongliang Zhuang; Liping Sun; Bafang Li

296

Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated\\u000a both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 °C). After the mutant was grown in the\\u000a yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over\\u000a 61% of the

Chun-Hai Zhao; Tong Zhang; Zhen-Ming Chi; Zhe Chi; Jing Li; Xiang-Hong Wang

2010-01-01

297

Ethanol production from macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) presscake hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Candida boidinii UFMG14.  

PubMed

Yeasts capable of growth on xylose were isolated from macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) fruit, a Brazilian palm tree with great potential for use as biodiesel feedstock production. Candida boidinii UFMG14 strain achieved the highest ethanol production (5 g/L) and was chosen to ferment macaúba presscake hemicellulosic hydrolysate (MPHH). The MPHH was produced by the first time in this work and the resultant fivefold concentrate showed considerable sugar content (52.3 and 34.2 g/L xylose and glucose, respectively) and low furfural (0.01 g/L) and hydroxymethylfurfural (0.15 g/L) concentrations. C. boidinii UFMG14 fermentation was evaluated in supplemented and non-supplemented MPHH containing either 10 or 25 g/L of xylose. The maximum ethanol production (12 g/L) was observed after 48 h of fermentation. The ethanol yield was significantly affected by supplementation and concentration of MPHH while ethanol productivity was affected only by MPHH concentration. This is the first study demonstrating theC. boidinii potential for ethanol production from hemicellulose byproducts. PMID:23941709

Gonçalves, D B; Batista, A F; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Nogueira, K M V; Santos, V L

2013-10-01

298

Adaptation of a recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate with high content of fermentation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Adaptation of a xylose-utilizing genetically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by cultivation during 353h using medium with increasing concentrations of inhibitors, including phenolic compounds, furaldehydes and aliphatic acids, led to improved performance with respect to ethanol production. The remaining xylose concentration in the medium at the end of the cultivation was 5.2g l(-1), while it was 11gl(-1) in the feed, indicating that approximately half of the xylose was consumed. The performance of the adapted strain was compared with the parental strain with respect to its ability to ferment three bagasse hydrolysates with different inhibitor concentration. The ethanol yield after 24h of fermentation of the bagasse hydrolysate with lowest inhibitor concentration increased from 0.18gg(-1) of total sugar with the non-adapted strain to 0.38gg(-1) with the adapted strain. The specific ethanol productivity increased from 1.15g ethanol per g initial biomass per h with the non-adapted strain to 2.55gg(-1) h(-1) with the adapted strain. The adapted strain performed better than the non-adapted also in the two bagasse hydrolysates containing higher concentrations of inhibitors. The adapted strain converted the inhibitory furaldehydes 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) at a faster rate than the non-adapted strain. The xylose-utilizing ability of the yeast strain did not seem to be affected by the adaptation and the results suggest that ethanol rather than xylitol was formed from the consumed xylose. PMID:16934451

Martín, Carlos; Marcet, Marcelo; Almazán, Oscar; Jönsson, Leif J

2007-07-01

299

Simple and sensitive method for quantification of fluorescent enzymatic mature and senescent crosslinks of collagen in bone hydrolysate using single-column high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed including an internal standard for the measurement of mature and senescent crosslinks concentration in non-demineralized bone hydrolysates. To avoid the demineralization which is a tedious step, we developed a method based on the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure to clean-up the samples. It resulted in sensitive and accurate measurements: the

S. Viguet-Carrin; E. Gineyts; C. Bertholon; P. D. Delmas

2009-01-01

300

Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.  

PubMed

Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

Lachance, M A

1995-08-01

301

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

... for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the ... infection with the common yeast (or fungus) organism, Candida albicans, which is commonly found in the environment. ...

302

Phenoptosis in yeasts.  

PubMed

The current view on phenoptosis and apoptosis as genetic programs aimed at eliminating potentially dangerous organisms and cells, respectively, is given. Special emphasis is placed on apoptosis (phenoptosis) in yeasts: intracellular defects and a plethora of external stimuli inducing apoptosis in yeasts; distinctive morphological and biochemical hallmarks accompanying apoptosis in yeasts; pro- and antiapoptotic factors involved in yeast apoptosis signaling; consecutive stages of apoptosis from external stimulus to the cell death; a prominent role of mitochondria and other organelles in yeast apoptosis; possible pathways for release of apoptotic factors from the intermembrane mitochondrial space into the cytosol are described. Using some concrete examples, the obvious physiological importance and expediency of altruistic death of yeast cells is shown. Poorly known aspects of yeast apoptosis and prospects for yeast apoptosis study are defined. PMID:22817540

Sukhanova, E I; Rogov, A G; Severin, F F; Zvyagilskaya, R A

2012-07-01

303

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

304

Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysates of waste collagen proteins (H), from current industrial manufacture (leather, edible meat product casings, etc.) of mean molecular mass 20-30 kDa by a reaction with dialdehyde starch (DAS), produces hydrogels applicable as biodegradable (or even edible) packaging materials for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Thermo-reversibility of prepared hydrogels is given by concentrations of H and DAS in a reaction mixture. At concentrations of H 25-30% (w/w) and that of DAS 15-20% (related to weight of hydrolysate), thermo-reversible hydrogels arise, which can be processed into packaging materials by a technique similar to that of soft gelatin capsules (SGC). Exceeding the limit of 20% DAS leads to hydrogels that are thermo-reversible only in part, a further increase in DAS concentration then leads to thermo-irreversible gels whose processing into biodegradable packaging materials necessitates employment of other procedures. PMID:17376664

Langmaier, F; Mokrejs, P; Kolomaznik, K; Mladek, M

2008-01-01

305

Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

306

Determination of Sugars in Starch Hydrolysates by IR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar syrups are industrially obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and from aqueous mixtures of glucose, maltose (Dp2), maltotriose (Dp3), and other higher sugars (Dpn). In this work, new methods based on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for analyzing starch hydrolysates were developed. Calibration models for the parameters of interest (viz. dextrose equivalent, dry matter, and individual sugars) were

M. Blanco; R. González Bañó

2003-01-01

307

Formation of films in hydrolysing ferric chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRYER et al.1,2 have postulated that two-dimensional polymeric structures may be formed in solution when metal-ion salts undergo self-hydrolysis before the precipitation of some hydrated crystalline oxides such as alpha FeO.OH, beta; FeO.OH, and V2O5.H2O. They reported that these structures or films can only be seen by spraying a hydrolysing solution onto a mesh of asbestos fibres when the film

T. M. Armitage; A. M. Posner

1978-01-01

308

Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji

2012-06-01

309

Short peptide fragments with antiulcer activity from a collagen hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide acidic hydrolysate of collagen (PHC) was obtained under conditions (4 N HCl) ensuring the predominant formation\\u000a of short peptides, glyprolines. They were separated and their antiulcer activity was studied. Thirty individual peptides with\\u000a molecular masses of 174–420 amu were isolated from the PHC by HPLC. The PHC was shown to predominantly contain 2-to 4-aa peptides,\\u000a including PG, GP,

Yu. A. Zolotarev; K. E. Badmaeva; Z. V. Bakaeva; G. E. Samonina; G. N. Kopylova; A. K. Dadayan; Yu. B. Zverkov; S. K. Garanin; B. V. Vaskovsky; I. P. Ashmarin; N. F. Myasoedov

2006-01-01

310

Hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate cross-linked with dialdehyde starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing hydrogels of collagen hydrolysate (H) cross-linked with dialdehyde starch (DAS) by dipping or casting into biodegradable\\u000a materials for various applications, is complicated by their marked tendency to aging. One-hour action by temperatures at 60–90 °C\\u000a reduces sorbed water content in hydrogels by approx. 12%; dependence of the extent of this reduction on temperature (within\\u000a the mentioned range) was not detected.

F. Langmaier; M. Mládek; P. Mokrejš

2009-01-01

311

Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery\\u000a of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability\\u000a of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic

Tilak W. Nagodawithana; Lynn Nelles; Nayan B. Trivedi

312

Production and characteristics of protein hydrolysates from capelin ( Mallotus villosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates were prepared from male and spent capelin (Mallotus villosus) using commercially available Alcalase, Neutrase and papain. Short-time autolysis of proteins by endogenous enzymes in fish viscera was also investigated and compared to procedures of accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis. While protein recovery varied from 51.6 to 70.6% for commercial enzymes, a yield of 22.9% was obtained for autolyzed products. All

Fereidoon Shahidi; Xiao-Qing Han; Jozef Synowiecki

1995-01-01

313

Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support “intestinal health”. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity.Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair.Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [3H] thymidine incorporation

A J Fitzgerald; P S Rai; T Marchbank; G W Taylor; S Ghosh; B W Ritz; R J Playford

2005-01-01

314

Lager brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lager brewing yeast is a group of closely related strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus\\/S. carlsbergensis used for lager beer production all over the world, making it one of the most important industrial yeasts. The pure cultivation\\u000a of yeast was established in the early 1880’s with immediate practical success for lager brewing yeast. However, almost a century\\u000a would elapse before its genetics

Yukiko Kodama; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jørgen Hansen

315

Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Accepted 17 March 1997? The allergy preventive effect of extensively (N) and partially (PH) hydrolysed cows' milk formulas compared with a regular formula (RM) was assessed in 155 infants with a family history of allergy. No cows' milk was given during the first nine months of life and no egg and fish up to 12 months of age. Breast feeding mothers avoided the same foods. At weaning the infants were randomised to one of the formula groups. The cumulative incidence of atopic symptoms at 18 months was 51, 64, and 84% in the N, PH, and RM groups, respectively. From 6 to 18 months there were significantly less cumulative atopic symptoms in the N group compared with the RM group, and significantly less than the PH group up to 6 (N= 25%; PH = 46%) and 9 months (N = 34%, PH = 58%). At 9 months significantly fewer infants in the N group (10%) than in the PH group (33%) had a positive skin prick test to eggs. The findings support an allergy preventive effect of an extensively hydrolysed formula, but not of a partially hydrolysed formula, during the first 18 months of life of high risk infants.??

Oldaeus, G; Anjou, K; Bjorksten, B; Moran, J; Kjellman, N

1997-01-01

316

The Use of Protein Hydrolysates for Weed Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn gluten meal, the protein fraction of corn (Zea mays L.) grain, is commercially used as a natural weed control agent and nitrogen source in horticultural crops and in the turf and ornamental markets. Corn gluten hydrolysate, a water soluble form of gluten meal, has also been proposed for the same purpose, although it could be sprayed on the soil rather than applied in the granular form. Five depeptides, glutaminyl-glutamine (Gln-Gln), glycinyl-alanine (Gly-Ala), alanyl-­glutamine (Ala-Glu), alanyl-asparagine (Ala-Asp), and alaninyl-alanine (Ala-Ala) and a pentapeptide leucine-serine-proline-alanine-glutamine (Leu-Ser-Pro-Ala-Gln) were identified as the active components of the hydrolysate. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ala-Ala acted on some metabolic process rather than directly on the mitotic apparatus. Similar to the chloracetamides and sulfonyl-urea hebicides, Ala-Ala inhibits cell division rather than disrupting of cell division processes. Cellular ultrastructure changes caused by exposure to Ala-Ala implicate Ala-Ala as having membrane-disrupting characteristics similar to several synthetic herbicides. The potential use of the hydrolysate and the peptides as weed controls is discussed.

Christians, Nick; Liu, Dianna; Unruh, Jay Bryan

317

Pelagic fish hydrolysates as peptones for bacterial culture media.  

PubMed

For several years in the Quebec fisheries' industry, landings of pelagic fish have been calculated at over 4000 tons. These under-exploited species, rich in lipids and proteins, could be used in valuable new products. In the present study, hydrolysates of mackerel and herring were produced and utilized as sources of peptones in the formulation of new bacterial culture media. The molecular weight distribution analysis showed that molecules present in the hydrolysates were lower than 1300 Da for herring, and lower than 930 Da for mackerel. The formulated media were compared with reference media using 6 bacterial strains (3 lactic acid (LAB) and 3 non-lactic). The absorbance (OD) and carbohydrate measurements revealed that the formulated media possessed similar yields in comparison with the reference media. Finally, the inhibition of Listeria innocua by LAB bacteriocins was evaluated. Results obtained for Pediococcus acidilactici demonstrated high activities for each medium studied. Thus, the medium containing herring peptones generated the highest bacteriocin titre (32768 AU/mL), followed by both the medium containing mackerel peptones and the MRS7 medium (16384 AU/mL). Each medium containing the fish hydrolysates efficiently supported the growth of the bacterial strains. Pelagic fish peptones are promising as a novel bacterial culture media. PMID:19940932

Beaulieu, Lucie; Desbiens, Michel; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Thibault, Sharon

2009-11-01

318

Rheological and functional properties of catfish skin protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin protein hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to isolate soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin, study the rheological and functional properties of the protein hydrolysates, and evaluate the properties of emulsions made from the protein powders. Freeze-dried catfish skin soluble (CSSH) and insoluble hydrolysate (CSISH) powders were analyzed for proximate analysis, emulsion stability, fat absorption, amino acids, color, and rheological properties. CSSH had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, ash, and moisture content but lower fat content than that of CSISH. The yield of CSSH (21.5%+/- 2.2%) was higher than that of CSISH (3%+/- 0.3%). CSISH had higher emulsion stability than CSSH. CSSH was light yellow in color and CSISH was darker. The mean flow index values for emulsion containing CSSH (ECSSH) and CSISH (ECSISH) were both less than 1, indicating that they were both pseudoplastic fluid. The G' and G'' values for the ECSISH were higher than that of ECSSH, indicating that the viscoelastic characteristic of the emulsion containing CSISH was greater than that of the emulsion containing CSSH. The study demonstrated the CSSH and CSISH had good functional and rheological properties. They have potential uses as functional food ingredients. PMID:20492160

Yin, Huaixia; Pu, Jianing; Wan, Yuting; Xiang, Bob; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

2010-01-01

319

FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties.  

PubMed

Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties of hydrolysates. Principal component analysis revealed that hydrolysates prepared from different protein sources or with different classes of proteolytic enzymes are distinguished effectively on basis of their FTIR spectra. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis showed satisfactory to good prediction of functional parameters; the coefficient of determination (R(2)) varied from 0.60 to 0.92. The accurate prediction of bitterness and emulsion forming ability of hydrolysates by using only one uncomplicated and rapid analytical method has not been reported before. FTIR spectra in combination with multivariate data analysis proved to be valuable in protein hydrolysate fingerprinting and can be used as an alternative for laborious functionality measurements. PMID:12428941

Van Der Ven, Cornelly; Muresan, Sorel; Gruppen, Harry; De Bont, Dries B A; Merck, Karin B; Voragen, Alphons G J

2002-11-20

320

Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Walnut proteins were hydrolyzed separately using three different proteases to obtain antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Among hydrolysates, pepsin hydrolysate obtained by 3h exhibited the highest antioxidant activities, which could also quench the hydroxyl radical, chelate ferrous ion, exhibit reducing power and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Then, 3-h pepsin hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The sequence of the peptide with the highest antioxidative activity was identified to be Ala-Asp-Ala-Phe (423.23 Da) using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which was identified for the first time from walnut protein hydrolysates. Last, the inhibition of the peptide on lipid peroxidation was similar with that of reduced glutathione (GSH). These results indicate that the protein hydrolysates and/or its isolated peptides may be effectively used as food additives. PMID:23022588

Chen, Ning; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yi; Niu, Jun; Liu, Shuying

2012-12-01

321

Comparison of ten media for the enumeration of yeasts in dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten selective mycological media were evaluated for their suitability to enumerate yeasts in six different dairy products. Although variability was observed in counts obtained for individual dairy products, no significant overall differences (p > 0.05) were observed among the 10 selective plating media. Antibiotic-supplemented media such as oxytetracycline glucose yeast agar (OGY), yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGC), rose bengal

J. J. Welthagen; B. C. Viljoen

1997-01-01

322

Chemical and thermal cross-linking of collagen and elastin hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and thermal cross-linking of collagen soluble in acetic acid and elastin hydrolysates soluble in water have been studied. Solutions of collagen and elastin hydrolysates were treated using variable concentrations of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Moreover, diepoxypropylether (DEPE) has been used as cross-linking agent. Films made of collagen and elastin hydrolysates were also treated with temperature at

A. Sionkowska; J. Skopinska-Wisniewska; M. Gawron; J. Kozlowska; A. Planecka

2010-01-01

323

Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated. The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS). Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by

Jian-xin HUO; Zheng ZHAO

2009-01-01

324

Sunflower protein hydrolysates for dietary treatment of patients with liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described to obtain hydrolysates with defined characteristics and a high Fischer ratio for patients with liver\\u000a failure, using sunflower proteins (globulin fraction-II) as starting material. Protein with a branched chain amino acid (BCAA)\\u000a concentration of 29.7±1.7% is treated in a first step with immobilized chymotrypsin (raw hydrolysate-1). Subsequent ultrafiltration\\u000a (cut-off 3 kDa) of the hydrolysate gives sunflower

Juan Bautista; Raquel Corpas; Olga Cremades; Inmaculada Hernández-Pinzón; Rosa Ramos; Alvaro Villanueva; Raul Sánchez-Vioque; Alfonso Clemente; Justo Pedroche; Javier Vioque; Juan Parrado; Francisco Millán

2000-01-01

325

[Effect of parenterally administered protein hydrolysates on the motor function of the stomach and small intestine].  

PubMed

Intravenous administration of proteinic hydrolysates (caseine and aminopeptide hydrolysates) to dogs for a duration of 2 hours debars on active period in the fasting periodic activity of the stomach, this being attended by the stimulation of gastric secretion with pH changing from alkaline or neutral to acid reaction. Introduction of the caseine and aminopeptide hydrolysate did not cancell out the active period of the duodenal motoricity, though the frequency of contractions was somewhat below that in controls. PMID:982940

Vasilevskaia, L S; Klimashina, T A

1976-01-01

326

Effects of the Extent of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Functional Properties of Shark Protein Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish protein hydrolysates from dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were produced enzymatically using a bacterial endopeptidase. Protein hydrolysates of different degrees of proteolysis (6.5, 13.0 and 18.8% hydrolysis) were obtained by varying the time of hydrolysis. Physical and functional properties, including the rheological characteristics of aqueous dispersions of the protein hydrolysates, were compared with those of the product from autolytic degradation (endogenous

F. M. Diniz; A. M. Martin

1997-01-01

327

Protein hydrolysates from meriga ( Cirrhinus mrigala) egg and evaluation of their functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates from underutilised meriga (Cirrhinus mrigala) fish egg were prepared by using commercial Alcalase and papain enzymes. The degree of hydrolysis was 62% for Alcalase and 17.1% for papain, after 90min digestion at 50–55 and 60–65°C, respectively. The protein content of Alcalase-produced hydrolysate was higher (85%) than that of papain hydrolysate (70%) (p<0.05). Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein

M. Chalamaiah; G. Narsing Rao; D. G. Rao; T. Jyothirmayi

2010-01-01

328

Oxidative stability of mahi mahi red muscle dipped in tilapia protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stability of mahi mahi red muscle dipped in tilapia protein hydrolysates was evaluated. Alkali solubilised tilapia protein isolate was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme to 13% degree of hydrolysis. Whole tilapia protein hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fraction <10kDa were used as dip solutions. Mahi mahi red muscle was dip treated either for 2 or 4min and stored at 4°C. Lipid hydroperoxides

Evelien Dekkers; Sivakumar Raghavan; Hordur G. Kristinsson; Maurice R. Marshall

2011-01-01

329

Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from pink perch ( Nemipterus japonicus ) muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced\\u000a by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying\\u000a activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power

Shabeena Yousuf Naqash; R. A. Nazeer

330

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43g\\/g and 0.45g\\/g of

R. Sreenivas Rao; Ch. Pavana Jyothi; R. S. Prakasham; P. N. Sarma; L. Venkateswar Rao

2006-01-01

331

Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of germinated and hydrolysed Brazilian soybean flours.  

PubMed

The effect of germination in combination with Alcalase hydrolysis of Brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 133 on the production of soybean flours with bioactive peptides as modulators of oxidative stress and markers of inflammation was monitored. The electrophoretic profile showed a weak protein breakdown during germination. However, a strong breakdown of the proteins can be observed after the first hour of hydrolysis with Alcalase. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the protein extracts showed differences in the intensity and profile of peptide mass fingerprint due to germination and hydrolysis. Germinated flour showed higher soluble protein concentration and antioxidant capacity. All soybean protein extracts and protein hydrolysates produced (G0, G18 and G72) showed a significant (p<0.05) inhibition on inflammatory markers such as nitric oxide (20.5-69.3%), iNOS (22.8-93.6%), PGE(2) (64.0-88.3%), COX-2 (36.2-76.7%), and TNF-? (93.9-99.5%) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, protein extracts of flours with 18 h of germination were more potent in inhibiting pro-inflammatory responses when compared to 72 h. It can be concluded that a combination of 72 h of soybean BRS 133 germination and 1h Alcalase hydrolysis resulted in the formation of bioactive compounds with more potent antioxidant activity, and improvement in the reduction of some of the markers of inflammation. PMID:23442677

Vernaza, Maria Gabriela; Dia, Vermont P; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Chang, Yoon Kil

2012-10-15

332

Dekkera \\/ Brettanomyces yeasts for ethanol production from renewable sources under oxygen-limited and low-pH conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol requires microorganisms able to utilise a broad range of\\u000a carbon sources and generate ethanol at high yield and productivity. D. bruxellensis has recently been reported to contaminate commercial ethanol processes, where it competes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4, 26]. In this work Brettanomyces\\/Dekkera yeasts were studied to explore their potential to produce ethanol from renewable

Silvia Galafassi; Annamaria Merico; Francesca Pizza; Linda Hellborg; Francesco Molinari; Jure Piškur; Concetta Compagno

333

Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.  

PubMed

Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths. PMID:9105918

Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

1997-04-01

334

High-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of aliphatic acid, aromatic acid and neutral degradation products in biomass pretreatment hydrolysates.  

PubMed

A variety of degradation products are produced upon dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Within this larger construct, organic acids, phenols and aromatic aldehydes represent important compound classes to investigate due to increasing evidence of their inhibitory effect on fermentative microorganisms. An analytical extraction procedure is presented, enabling isolation of potential analytes away from alternative products in biomass hydrolysates. Additionally, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated, affording simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of 32 potential analytes in water with UV detection at 210 nm. The method was subsequently employed to quantify a variety of aliphatic acid, aromatic acid, aldehyde and phenolic degradation products in a corn-stover hydrolysate at concentration levels ranging from 0.02 to 41 mM. PMID:16376896

Chen, Shou-Feng; Mowery, Richard A; Castleberry, Vanessa A; van Walsum, G Peter; Chambliss, C Kevin

2006-02-01

335

Heterologous Protein Secretion from Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of calf prochymosin from yeast yields fully activable zymogen while production in the yeast cytoplasm yields insoluble, unactivable enzyme with aberrant disulfide bonding. Factors that increase the efficiency of secretion of prochymosin from yeast are use of a yeast secretion signal sequence, integration of the transcriptional unit into the yeast genome, and specific mutations in a number of host

Robert A. Smith; Margaret J. Duncan; Donald T. Moir

1985-01-01

336

ACE inhibitory and antihypertensive properties of apricot almond meal hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apricot almond meal was hydrolyzed simultaneously with Neutrase and N120P proteases. The hydrolysate almond peptide (AP) was\\u000a fractionated into three ranges of molecular weight (AP-I, >5 kDa; AP-II, 1–5 kDa; AP-III, <1 kDa) using an ultrafiltration\\u000a membrane bioreactor system. The AP-III brought about a high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with\\u000a IC50 value of 0.138 mg mL?1 and the content of hydrophobic amino acid of

Chunyan WangJinqiang; Jinqiang Tian; Qiang Wang

2011-01-01

337

[Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

2010-03-01

338

Industrial robust yeast isolates with great potential for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

The search of robust microorganisms is essential to design sustainable processes of second generation bioethanol. Yeast strains isolated from industrial environments are generally recognised to present an increased stress tolerance but no specific information is available on their tolerance towards inhibitors that come from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. In this work, a strategy for the selection of different yeasts using hydrothermal hydrolysate from Eucalyptus globulus wood, containing different concentrations of inhibitors, was developed. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae and four Kluyveromyces marxianus strains isolated from industrial environments and four laboratory background strains were evaluated. Interestingly, a correlation between final ethanol titer and percentage of furfural detoxification was observed. The results presented here highlight industrial distillery environments as a remarkable source of efficient yeast strains for lignocellulosic fermentation processes. Selected strains were able to resourcefully degrade furfural and HMF inhibitors, producing 0.8g ethanol/Lh corresponding to 94% of the theoretical yield. PMID:24704884

Pereira, Francisco B; Romaní, Aloia; Ruiz, Héctor A; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

2014-06-01

339

Selection of Yarrowia lipolytica strains with high protein content from yeasts isolated from different marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 78 Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish, and marine algae were obtained. After the crude protein of the yeasts was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that seven strains of the marine yeasts grown in soy bean cake hydrolysate with 20 g L-1 of glucose for 48 h at 28°C contained more than 41.0 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight and the cell dry weight was more than 4.4 g per L of the culture. Among them, strain SWJ-1b contained the highest crude protein. The results of Biolog identification and molecular methods further confirmed that they indeed belonged to Y. lipolytica.

Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Xianghong

2007-10-01

340

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, in this lesson students work in small groups to design experiments that will determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

341

Enzymatic hydrolysis of recovered protein from frozen small croaker and functional properties of its hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Fish protein isolate were recovered from frozen small croaker using pH shift. The partial enzymatic hydrolysates were fractionated as soluble and insoluble parts. They were dried using the drum dryer and their functional properties were examined. The total nitrogen content of the enzymatic hydrolysates ranged from 12.9% to 13.7%. The degree of hydrolysis of precipitates was 18.2% and 12.2% for croaker hydrolysates treated with Protamex 1.5 MG (Bacilllus protease complex) and Flavourzyme 500 MG (endoproteases and exoproteases, Aspergillus oryzae), respectively. The TCA supernatant, after centrifugation of hydrolysates, contained numerous peptides ranging from 100 to 4000 daltons. The solubility of the supernatants was higher than that of the precipitates at 0% to 3% NaCl and pH 2 to 10. The precipitate of Flavourzyme- and Protamex-treated hydrolysates showed a high emulsion activity index value compared to egg white and bovine plasma protein. In addition, the highest emulsion stability was observed for Protamex-treated precipitate hydrolysates. Emulsion stability of Protamex-treated precipitate hydrolysates was comparable to those of protein additives (egg white, bovine plasma protein, and soy protein concentrate). Water and fat binding capacity of precipitates were higher than those of supernatant. The results indicate that precipitate hydrolysate from undersized croaker can be used in processed muscle foods as a functional and nutritional ingredient. PMID:19200081

Choi, Yeung Joon; Hur, Sungik; Choi, Byeong-Dae; Konno, Kunihiko; Park, Jae W

2009-01-01

342

Production of lactic acid from soybean stalk hydrolysate with Lactobacillus sake and Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make full use of soybean stalk produced in large quantity annually in China, a process is proposed for production of lactic acid from soybean stalk hydrolysate with Lactobacillus sake and Lactobacillus casei. Experiments were conducted using the proposed process and experimental results indicate that the potential of 242mg(gstalk)?1 fermentable sugar is released from hydrolysate through enzymatic saccharication

Zhong Xu; Qunhui Wang; Peng Wang; Guishi Cheng; Yongzhen Ji; Zhaohua Jiang

2007-01-01

343

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties of milk protein-derived dipeptides and hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. Trp-Val inhibited DPP-IV, however, inhibition was not observed with the reverse peptide Val-Trp. The most potent hydrolysate inhibitors were generated from casein (CasH2) and lactoferrin (LFH1). Two Trp containing dipeptides, Trp-Val and Val-Trp, and three lactoferrin hydrolysates scavenged DPPH. The dipeptides had higher SO EC(50) values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). Higher molecular mass fractions of the milk protein hydrolysates were associated with the SO scavenging activity. Trp-Val and one lactoferrin hydrolysate (LFH1) were multifunctional displaying both DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant (SO and DPPH scavenging) activities. These compounds may have potential as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes by virtue of their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to extend the half-life of incretin molecules. PMID:23219487

Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

2013-01-01

344

Anti-oxidative and anti-aging activities of collagen hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen is a family of fibrous proteins present in skin, bone, tendon, teeth, cartilage of multicellular organisms. Collagen and its hydrolysate were prepared from squid skin hydrolyzed with proteases. The collagen hydrolysate obtained could remarkably extend the lifespan of fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. The maximum lifespan fruit flies increased from 60 days (control groups), to 80 to 84 days (treated

Chengchu Liu; Dexiang Peng; Jingya Yang; Yingsen Li; Jiale Li

2010-01-01

345

First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 °C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot

1997-01-01

346

Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse using recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated by steam explosion at 205 and 215°C and hydrolysed with cellulolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were subjected to enzymatic detoxification by treatment with the phenoloxidase laccase and to chemical detoxification by overliming. Approximately 80% of the phenolic compounds were specifically removed by the laccase treatment. Overliming partially removed the phenolic compounds, but also other fermentation inhibitors such

Carlos Mart??n; Mats Galbe; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Leif J Jönsson

2002-01-01

347

Sorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of fish protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was the determination of the sorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of five protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysates were obtained by proteolysis of concentrated myofibrillar proteins obtained from Nile tilapia (Oreochromus niloticus) using the enzyme Flavourzyme™. There was no significant difference between the different isotherms. Agglomeration and\\/or compactation was observed

D. C. P. Jardim; L. M. B. Candido; F. M. Netto

1999-01-01

348

Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment to determine the chemi- cal composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets.

J. F. Folador; L. K. Karr-Lilienthal; C. M. Parsons; L. L. Bauer; P. L. Utterback; C. S. Schasteen; P. J. Bechtel; G. C. Fahey Jr

2010-01-01

349

Production of enzymatic hydrolysates with antioxidant and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity from pumpkin oil cake protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein isolate from pumpkin oil cake (PuOC PI) was hydrolysed by alcalase, flavourzyme and by sequential use of these enzymes, respectively, and the antioxidant properties and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of hydrolysates were evaluated. Under the same reaction conditions, alcalase hydrolysates showed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than did flavourzyme hydrolysates. The highest DH’s by individual enzymes

Žužana Vaštag; Ljiljana Popovi?; Senka Popovi?; Vera Krimer; Draginja Peri?in

2011-01-01

350

Positron lifetime reveals the nano level packing in complex polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate matrixes.  

PubMed

Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to quantify the free volume and molecular packing in hydrolysate and hemicellulose-based barriers films, derived from process streams during wood processing operations. These hydrolysate films, comprising a fair share of lignin coexisting with poly- and oligo-saccharides, have very low but variable oxygen permeability but differ among themselves with respect to barrier performance as well as molecular weight, degree of branching, and monosaccharide residue main chain composition. From PALS measurements on hydrolysates, the free volume hole radius (r(h)), radius distributions (n(r(h))), volume-weighted hole sizes ((v)), and hole volume distributions (g(v(h))) were calculated showing that the hydrolysate matrixes are very densely packed with small holes. The results show a clear relationship between hydrolysate molecular architecture and composition, the nanolevel molecular packing, and the ability of suppressing the diffusion of oxygen through the film. PMID:22455471

Edlund, Ulrica; Yu, Yang; Ryberg, Yingzhi Zhu; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2012-04-17

351

Efficient production of pullulan using rice hull hydrolysate by adaptive laboratory evolution of Aureobasidium pullulans.  

PubMed

Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 using rice hull hydrolysate as the carbon source was conducted. The acetic acid in the hydrolysate was demonstrated to exert a negative effect on pullulan biosynthesis. Instead of employing expensive methods to remove acetic acid from the hydrolysate, a mutant A. pullulans ARH-1 was isolated following 20 cycles of adaptive laboratory evolution of the parental strain on medium containing acetic acid. The maximum pullulan production achieved by the adapted mutant at 48h using the hydrolysate of untreated rice hull was 22.2gL(-1), while that obtained by the parental strain at 60h was 15.6gL(-1). The assay of key enzymes associated with pullulan biosynthesis revealed that acetic acid inhibited enzyme activity rather than suppressing enzyme synthesis. These results demonstrated that adaptive evolution highly improved the efficiency of pullulan production by A. pullulans using the hydrolysate of untreated rice hull. PMID:24835913

Wang, Dahui; Ju, Xiaomin; Zhou, Donghai; Wei, Gongyuan

2014-07-01

352

Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of collagen and protective effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR spectra of collagen (PC) and partially hydrolysed fucoidan (PHF) incorporated into collagen films were investigated at different temperatures between 20 °C and 100 °C. Changes within the bands of amide I, amide II and amide III may indicate stabilization of collagen by hydrogen bonds during its interaction with partially hydrolysed fucoidan. Spectroscopic studies revealed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan was bound to the collagen without affecting its triple helicity. Interactions of fucoidan with H2SO4 (mild acid hydrolysis), leading to changes of the sulphated band positions in the 800-590 cm-1 region of IR spectra were observed. The effect of partially hydrolysed fucoidan on glucose-mediated collagen glycation and cross-linking of proteins in vitro was evaluated. It was observed that partially hydrolysed fucoidan incorporated into collagen films can be used as therapeutically active biomaterials that speed up the process of wound healing and may increase the anticancer activity of fucoidan.

Pielesz, Anna

2014-01-01

353

Detoxification of actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate using activated carbon powder.  

PubMed

A technique for the removal of acetic acid from an actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate was investigated. A powdered form of activated carbon previously shown to be effective in the removal of acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolysate was utilized. The method proved to be effective at lowering acetic acid levels while exhibiting minimal adsorption of the desired sugars from the hydrolysate, although at a lower efficiency in the actual hydrolysate than in the synthetic hydrolysate. Results are obtained for temperatures between 25 and 35 degrees C and agitation rates between 150 and 350 rpm in shake flasks. Adsorption isotherm and kinetic rate data are presented. Temperature differences over this range did not have an effect on adsorption characteristics. Five stages of detoxification were necessary to lower acetic acid concentration to the maximum 2 g/L desired for fermentation. PMID:15930571

Berson, R Eric; Young, John S; Kamer, Sarah N; Hanley, Thomas R

2005-01-01

354

[Nature of the stimulating action of parenterally administered casein hydrolysate on gastric secretory function].  

PubMed

Experiments on 4 gastric fistula dogs kept on full-value diet were made in an effort to specify the character of the stimulatory action of parenteral caseine hydrolysate (TSOLIPK) on the gastric fundal glands. In the course of administering the solutions similar to individual components of casein hydrolysate into the blood it was established that the secretory effect of the protein hydrolysate is not a consequence of the presence of ammonia contained by the hydrolysate or depends on the humic substances. It is assumed that the stimulatory action of parenteral casein hydrolysate on the gastric fundal glands is determined by the main protein break down products, i.e. by amino acids and peptides that are capable of acting on the nerve structures and of stimulating gastric secretion via excitation of the centres responsible for gastric function control. PMID:6806982

Sysoev, Iu A; Kremer, Iu N; Shlygin, G K

1982-01-01

355

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

PubMed

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

356

Functionalities and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates from the muscle of ornate threadfin bream treated with pepsin from skipjack tuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional properties and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) muscle, using skipjack tuna pepsin, with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH: 10%, 20% and 30%), were evaluated. Emulsifying and foaming properties of hydrolysates were governed by their DH and concentrations used. Hydrolysates with 20% DH had the highest scavenging activities for ABTS and DPPH radicals.

Sitthipong Nalinanon; Soottawat Benjakul; Hideki Kishimura; Fereidoon Shahidi

2011-01-01

357

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILING OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES FROM SKIN OF SPHYRAENA BARRACUDA AND LEPTURACANTHUS SAVALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from the skin of Sphyraena barracuda (Seela fish) and Lepturacanthus savala (Ribbon fish), using the commercial enzymes (pepsin, trypsin and papain) were determined. The protein hydrolysate showed high antioxidant activity in which, trypsin hydrolysate of the skin of both seela and ribbon fishes proved good DPPH scavenging activity with 66% and 60% (p<0.05)

R. A. Nazeer; R. Deeptha

2011-01-01

358

In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of hydrolysed proteins of delimed tannery fleshings: comparison of acid hydrolysis and fermentation methods.  

PubMed

Proteins in delimed tannery fleshings were fermentatively hydrolysed using Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and also hydrolysed using mild organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid). The liquor portion containing hydrolysed proteins was spray dried, in both the cases, to obtain a powder. The spray dried powder was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activities with respect to scavenging different free radicals and antibacterial properties against nine different pathogens. Fermentation and acid hydrolysates scavenged 83 and 75.3% of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at a protein concentration of 0.25 mg. Further, fermentation hydrolysate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 59% as compared to 56% scavenging by acid hydrolysate at a protein concentration of 5 mg. Acid hydrolysate exhibited lesser (82.3%) peroxy radical scavenging compared to hydrolysate from fermentation (88.2%) at a protein concentration of 10 mg. However, acid hydrolysate exhibited higher (89.2%) superoxide anion scavenging while its fermentation counterpart showed lower activity (85.4%) at 2.5 mg hydrolysate protein. Well as superoxide anion scavenging properties. All the in vitro antioxidant properties exhibited dose dependency. Fermentation hydrolysate exhibited maximum antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhi FB231, from among host of pathogens evaluated. Both the hydrolysates have potential to be ingredients in animal feeds and can help reduce oxidative stress in the animals. PMID:20680665

Balakrishnan, Bijinu; Prasad, Binod; Rai, Amit Kumar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Subbanna, Mahendrakar Namadev; Narayan, Bhaskar

2011-04-01

359

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism.

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

360

Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPAR?, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

2011-10-26

361

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

1986-03-01

362

Fermentation of reactive-membrane-extracted and ammonium-hydroxide-conditioned dilute-acid-pretreated corn stover.  

PubMed

Acid-pretreated biomass contains various compounds (acetic acid, etc.) that are inhibitory to fermentative microorganisms. Removing or deactivating these compounds using detoxification methods such as overliming or ammonium hydroxide conditioning (AHC) improves sugar-to-ethanol yields. In this study, we treated the liquor fraction of dilute-acid-pretreated corn stover using AHC and a new reactive membrane extraction technique, both separately and in combination, and then the sugars in the treated liquors were fermented to ethanol with the glucose-xylose-fermenting bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. We performed reactive extraction with mixtures of octanol/Alamine 336 or oleyl alcohol/Alamine 336. The best ethanol yields and rates were achieved for oleyl alcohol-extracted hydrolysates followed by AHC hydrolysates, while octanol-extracted hydrolysates were unfermentable because highly toxic octanol was found in the hydrolysate. Adding olive oil significantly improved yields for octanol-extracted hydrolysate. Additional work is underway to determine if this technology is a cost-effective alternative to traditional hydrolysate conditioning processes. PMID:22161211

Grzenia, David L; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Schell, Daniel J

2012-01-01

363

Pilot-scale ethanol production from rice straw hydrolysates using xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

Ethanol was produced at pilot scale from rice straw hydrolysates using a Pichia stipitis strain previously adapted to NaOH-neutralized hydrolysates. The highest ethanol yield was 0.44 ± 0.02 g(p)/g(s) at an aeration rate of 0.05 vvm using overliming-detoxified hydrolysates. The yield with hydrolysates conditioned by ammonia and NaOH was 0.39 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.01 g(p)/g(s), respectively, were achieved at the same aeration rate. The actual ethanol yield from hydrolysate fermentation with ammonia neutralization was similar to that with overliming hydrolysate after taking into account the xylose loss resulting from these conditioning processes. Moreover, the ethanol yield from ammonia-neutralized hydrolysates could be further enhanced by increasing the initial cell density by two-fold or reducing the combined concentration of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural to 0.6g/L by reducing the severity of operational conditions in pretreatment. This study demonstrated the potential for commercial ethanol production from rice straw via xylose fermentation. PMID:22537402

Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song; Huang, Shir-Ly

2012-07-01

364

Factors causing compositional changes in soy protein hydrolysates and effects on cell culture functionality.  

PubMed

Soy protein hydrolysates significantly enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in cell cultures. The extent of this enhancement in cell growth and IgG production is known to vary from batch to batch. This can be due to differences in the abundance of different classes of compounds (e.g., peptide content), the quality of these compounds (e.g., glycated peptides), or the presence of specific compounds (e.g., furosine). These quantitative and qualitative differences between batches of hydrolysates result from variation in the seed composition and seed/meal processing. Although a considerable amount of literature is available that describes these factors, this knowledge has not been combined in an overview yet. The aim of this review is to identify the most dominant factors that affect hydrolysate composition and functionality. Although there is a limited influence of variation in the seed composition, the overview shows that the qualitative changes in hydrolysate composition result in the formation of minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products). In pure systems, these compounds have a profound effect on the cell culture functionality. This suggests that the presence of these compounds in soy protein hydrolysates may affect hydrolysate functionality as well. This influence on the functionality can be of direct or indirect nature. For instance, some minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products) are cytotoxic, whereas other compounds (e.g., phytates) suppress protein hydrolysis during hydrolysate production, resulting in altered peptide composition, and, thus, affect the functionality. PMID:24117369

Gupta, Abhishek J; Gruppen, Harry; Maes, Dominick; Boots, Jan-Willem; Wierenga, Peter A

2013-11-13

365

Evaluating the effect of medium composition and fermentation condition on the microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum on corncob acid hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The effect of medium composition and cultural condition on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on corncob acid hydrolysate was systematically investigated. Glucose, xylose, and cellobiose were shown to be promising sugar for lipid production by T. cutaneum. Adding other nitrogen sources into the hydrolysate was not beneficial for the lipid production possibly due to the existence of other nitrogen sources in it. Interestingly, adding MgSO4·7H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, MnSO4·H2O, and KCl (optimal concentration were 0.3, 3.0×10(-3), 3.0×10(-3), and 0.4 g/L, respectively) could stimulate the lipid production by T. cutaneum. Additionally, inoculum concentration, temperature, and initial pH (optimal value were 5%, 28 °C, and 6.0, respectively) showed influence on the lipid production of T. cutaneum. Under the optimum conditions, the biomass (22.9 g/L) had a weak increase (3.6%), while the lipid content (45.4%) and lipid coefficient (22.9%) increased obviously (about 26.5% and 31.6%) compared with the initial conditions. PMID:23774292

Chen, Xue-Fang; Huang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-De; Ma, Long-Long

2013-09-01

366

Collagen metabolism of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage as modulated by bovine collagen hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE(2), MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n?=?5-12). The significance was set to p?0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE(2) levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA. PMID:23342047

Schadow, Saskia; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Lochnit, Günter; Kordelle, Jens; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen

2013-01-01

367

Collagen Metabolism of Human Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage as Modulated by Bovine Collagen Hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0–10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO, PGE2, MMP-1, -3, -13, TIMP-1, collagen type II, and cell viability were determined in explant cultures. Groups of data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Friedman test (n?=?5–12). The significance was set to p?0.05. We found that collagen hydrolysates obtained from different sources varied with respect to the width of molecular weight distribution, average molecular weight, and aggregation behavior. None of the collagen hydrolysates tested stimulated the biosynthesis of collagen. Peptan™ B 5000 elevated NO and PGE2 levels significantly but had no effect on collagen or proteoglycan loss. All collagen hydrolysates tested proved not to be cytotoxic. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that various collagen hydrolysates differ with respect to their chemical composition of collagen fragments as well as by their pharmacological efficacy on human chondrocytes. Our study underscores the importance that each collagen hydrolysate preparation should first demonstrate its pharmacological potential both in vitro and in vivo before being used for both regenerative medicine and prophylaxis of OA.

Schadow, Saskia; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Lochnit, Gunter; Kordelle, Jens; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jurgen

2013-01-01

368

[Short peptide fragments with antiulcer activity from a collagen hydrolysate].  

PubMed

A peptide acidic hydrolysate of collagen (PHC) was obtained under conditions (4 N HCl) ensuring the predominant formation of short peptides, glyprolines. They were separated and their antiulcer activity was studied. Thirty individual peptides with molecular masses of 174-420 amu were isolated from the PHC by HPLC. The PHC was shown to predominantly contain 2- to 4-aa peptides, including PG, GP, and PGP. Experiments on rats demonstrated that, on intragastric administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg, PHC enhances the stability of the gastric mucosa to the action of ulcerogenic factors, such as ethanol and stress, and exhibits a protecting antiulcer effect. Even a lesser dose (0.1 mg/kg), which reduced ulcer area twofold, was effective in the stress model of ulcer formation. The intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of PHC at a dose of 1 mg/kg was found to exhibit a therapeutic effect in the acetate model of ulcer formation. PMID:16637291

Zolotarev, Iu A; Badmaeva, K E; Bakaeva, Z V; Samonina, G E; Kopylova, G N; Dadaian, A K; Zverkov, Iu B; Garanin, S K; Vas'kovski?, B V; Ashmarin, I P; Miasoedov, N F

2006-01-01

369

In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 ?g/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry.

Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

2014-01-01

370

Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and ?-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution. PMID:23998904

Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

2014-06-25

371

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Protein Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li

2012-01-01

372

Comparative study of the physiological properties of collagen, gelatin and collagen hydrolysate as cosmetic materials.  

PubMed

The cell biological properties of collagen, gelatin and collagen hydrolysate (<15 000 Da) were studied using murine keratinocytes. Keratinocyte culture experiments demonstrated that only collagen had significant effects on cell attachment and proliferation, but the results of cells cultured on gelatin and collagen hydrolysate showed the rates of adhesion and proliferation were similar to those of cells cultured on plastic as a control. It is concluded that collagen has better physiological effects than those of gelatin and collagen hydrolysate as skin-care cosmetic materials. PMID:18492159

Li, G Y; Fukunaga, S; Takenouchi, K; Nakamura, F

2005-04-01

373

[Morphological changes in the liver due to the parenteral administration of casein hydrolysate and aminopeptide].  

PubMed

In experiments set up on 30 mongrel rats kept for 10 days on a protein-free diet the influence of an intraperitoneal introduction of caseine hydrolysate or aminopeptide on the morphological structure of the liver was studied. It was found that introduction to rats of aminopeptide or caseine hydrolysate caused stabilization of morphological changes in the liver produced by protein fasting. However, with aminopeptide introduced after protein fasting positive morphological changes proved greater than with an analogous utilization of caseine hydrolysate. PMID:414446

Koval', A I; Kryshevich, L P

1977-01-01

374

[Effectiveness of parenteral feeding with various hydrolysates in alloxan diabetes in white rats].  

PubMed

The effect of applying various hydrolysates for parenteral feeding (caseine hydrolysate, hydrolysin L-103, aminosol, moriamine S-2) in albino rats with alloxan-induced diabetes was investigated. The assimilation of the hydrolysates introduced was found in these animals to be down by comparison with intact ones. It was only administration of nitrogenous media containing a sufficient amount of aminic nitrogen (moriamine S-2) that helped establish a positive nitrogenous balance and to prevent a loss of weight and the dry weight of the tissues. PMID:808036

Glants, R M; Skovronskaia, E V; Vovk, G P

1975-01-01

375

Nutritional quality of spray dried protein hydrolysate from Black Tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional quality of spray-dried protein hydrolysate from black tilapia, a fresh water fish, was evaluated. Hydrolysed protein from Oreochromis mossambicus was spray-dried at two different temperatures of 150 °C\\/76 °C (inlet\\/outlet temp) and 180 °C\\/90 °C. Proximate analyses revealed that the dried hydrolysates consisted of 37.7–49.6% protein, 2.6–2.8% fat, 1.6–4.0% moisture and 8.6–8.7% ash. The higher drying temperature used was found to significantly

Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Jamilah Bakar; Gan Hock Bee

2002-01-01

376

Effect of hydrolysed egg protein on brain tryptophan availability.  

PubMed

Serotonin synthesis critically depends on plasma levels of tryptophan (TRP). Earlier studies have shown that for mood and cognitive benefits to occur, the ratio between TRP and other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) has to be increased by approximately 40 %. The present study investigated the dose-dependent effects of a TRP-rich hydrolysed protein (egg-protein hydrolysate, EPH) on the plasma TRP:LNAA. Moreover, it was investigated whether EPH could increase TRP:LNAA in the presence of 2 g of milk protein (MP). In a randomised double-blind crossover design, plasma amino acids were measured every 30 min for 3·5 h after ingestion of a drink containing either three different doses of 4, 8 and 12 g EPH containing 270, 560 or 800 mg of TRP, respectively, the combination of 4 g EPH and 2 g MP (74 mg TRP), or 4 g MP (148 mg TRP) in twenty healthy subjects with a mean age of 52 years. All three EPH doses caused significant increases of TRP:LNAA above 40 % at 30, 60 and 90 min after consumption in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the 4 g EPH, the increase in TRP:LNAA in the 4 g EPH with 2 g MP condition was significantly lower at 60 min (63 v. 44 %, P < 0·001) and did not differ significantly at 90 min (58 v. 53 %, P>0·05). The present study showed that a low dose of 4 g EPH with even the addition of 2 g MP was sufficient to increase the ratio of TRP:LNAA above 40 %. Thus, EPH offers a viable ingredient to increase TRP availability. PMID:21269547

Mitchell, E Siobhan; Slettenaar, Marieke; Quadt, Frits; Giesbrecht, Timo; Kloek, Joris; Gerhardt, Cindy; Bot, Arjen; Eilander, Ans; Wiseman, Sheila

2011-02-01

377

Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

2001-01-01

378

Collagen hydrolysate intake increases skin collagen expression and suppresses matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity.  

PubMed

The effect of daily ingestion of collagen hydrolysate (CH) on skin extracellular matrix proteins was investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet containing 12% casein as the reference group or CH as the treatment group. A control group was established in which animals were fed a non-protein-modified AIN-93 diet. The diets were administered continuously for 4 weeks when six fresh skin samples from each group were assembled and subjected to extraction of protein. Type I and IV collagens were studied by immunoblot, and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 were assessed by zymography. The relative amount of type I and IV collagens was significantly (P?

Zague, Vivian; de Freitas, Vanessa; da Costa Rosa, Marina; de Castro, Geórgia Álvares; Jaeger, Ruy G; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M

2011-06-01

379

Effect of agitation rate on ethanol production from sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

Concentrated dilute acid hydrolysate was obtained from hot water extracts of Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and was fermented to ethanol by Pichia stipitis in a 1.3-L-benchtop bioreactor. The conditions under which the highest ethanol yield was achieved were when the air flow rate was set to 100 cm(3) and the agitation rate was set to 150 rpm resulting in an overall mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) of 0.108 min(-1). A maximum ethanol concentration of 29.7 g/L was achieved after 120 h of fermentation; however, after 90 h of fermentation, the ethanol concentration was only slightly lower at 29.1 g/L with a yield of 0.39 g ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Using the same air flow rate and adjusting the agitation rate resulted in lower ethanol yields of 0.25 g/g at 50 rpm and 0.30 g/g at 300 rpm. The time it takes to reach the maximum ethanol concentration was also affected by the agitation rate. The ethanol concentration continued to increase even after 130 h of fermentation when the agitation rate was set at 50 rpm, whereas the maximum ethanol concentration was reached after only 68.5 h at 300 rpm. PMID:21603950

Shupe, Alan M; Liu, Shijie

2012-09-01

380

Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish umbrella on histological and immunity changes of mice photoaging.  

PubMed

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:23344251

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

381

Effects of collagen and collagen hydrolysate from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) on mice skin photoaging induced by UV irradiation.  

PubMed

Collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) and hydrolyzed to prepare collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The protective effects of JC and JCH against UV-induced damages to mice skin were evaluated and compared in this article. JC and JCH could alleviate the UV-induced abnormal changes of antioxidative indicators, including the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondiaidehyde (MDA). JC and JCH could protect skin lipid and collagen from the UV radiation damages. Furthermore, the changes of total ceramide and glycosaminoglycan in skin were recovered significantly by JC and JCH. The action mechanisms mainly involved the antioxidative properties and the repairing to endogenous collagen synthesis of JC and JCH in vivo. JCH with the lower molecular weight showed much higher effects than JC. The results indicated that JCH was a novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. PMID:19723203

Zhuang, Yongliang; Hou, Hu; Zhao, Xue; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

2009-08-01

382

Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging  

PubMed Central

Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources.

Fan, Jian; Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang

2013-01-01

383

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

384

Hydrolysis of grape glycosides by enological yeast ?-glucosidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three enological yeast strains, belonging to the speciesDebaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae, characterized by an exocellular ?-glucosidase activity, were examined for their ability to hydrolize a glycosidic extract from grape juice. The enzymatic preparations (culture supernant fluid) of the different yeasts released different amounts of terpenols such as linalol, ?-terpineol, geraniol, nerol, citronellol and benzyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohol. The

I. Rosi; P. Domizio; M. Vinella; M. Salicone

1995-01-01

385

RNAi in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

RNAi, a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi is present in other budding-yeast species, including Saccharomyces castellii and Candida albicans. These species use noncanonical Dicer proteins to generate siRNAs, which mostly correspond to transposable elements and Y’ subtelomeric repeats. In S. castellii, RNAi mutants are viable but have excess Y’ mRNA levels. In S. cerevisiae, introducing Dicer and Argonaute of S. castellii restores RNAi, and the reconstituted pathway silences endogenous retrotransposons. These results identify a novel class of Dicer proteins, bring the tool of RNAi to the study of budding yeasts, and bring the tools of budding yeast to the study of RNAi.

Mower, Jeffrey P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Fink, Gerald R.; Bartel, David P.

2013-01-01

386

Simple and sensitive method for quantification of fluorescent enzymatic mature and senescent crosslinks of collagen in bone hydrolysate using single-column high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed including an internal standard for the measurement of mature and senescent crosslinks concentration in non-demineralized bone hydrolysates. To avoid the demineralization which is a tedious step, we developed a method based on the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure to clean-up the samples. It resulted in sensitive and accurate measurements: the detection limits as low as 0.2 pmol for the pyridimium crosslinks and 0.02 pmol for the pentosidine. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were as low as 5% and 2%, respectively, for all crosslinks. PMID:19027371

Viguet-Carrin, S; Gineyts, E; Bertholon, C; Delmas, P D

2009-01-01

387

Effects of nitrogen composition on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the absorption of peptides with different molecular weights.  

PubMed

Four kinds of worts with different nitrogen compositions were used to examine their effects on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast. The absorption pattern of peptides with different molecular weights (Mw) in yeast cells during wort fermentation was also investigated. Results showed that both the nitrogen composition and level had significant impacts on the yeast biomass accumulation, ethanol production, and free amino nitrogen and sugars consumption rates. Worts supplemented with wheat gluten hydrolysates increased 11.5% of the biomass, 5.9% of fermentability, and 0.6% of ethanol content and decreased 25.6% of residual sugar content during wort fermentation. Moreover, yeast cells assimilated peptides with various Mw differently during fermentation. Peptides with Mw below 1 kDa decreased quickly, and the rate of assimilation was more than 50% at the end of fermentation, while those with Mw above 10 kDa almost could not be assimilated by yeast. All these results further indicated that the level and composition of wort nitrogen had significant impacts on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer's yeast, and peptides with Mw below 1 kDa were one of preferred nitrogen sources for brewer's yeast. PMID:23955296

Mo, Fen; Zhao, Haifeng; Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Mouming

2013-11-01

388

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

389

An integrated detoxification process with electrodialysis and adsorption from the hemicellulose hydrolysates of yellow poplars.  

PubMed

An integrated detoxification process with electrodialysis (ED) followed by adsorption was performed to remove fermentation inhibitors from hemicellulose hydrolysates. The hydrolysates were prepared by oxalic acid pretreatment of yellow poplars at different temperatures. Of fermentation inhibitors, acetic acid showed high removal efficiency of about 90% and high transport rate during the ED process without membrane fouling. The integration of the detoxification processes increased up to the ethanol yield of 0.33g/g sugar, the ethanol production of about 9g/L, and the productivity of 0.12g/Lh, while the fermentation of non-detoxified hydrolysates did not produce bioethanol. The influence of inhibitor concentration on the fermentability showed that HMF had the highest inhibition effect. The results clearly showed that an integrated detoxification process with ED followed by adsorption removed fermentation inhibitors with high efficiency and increased the fermentability of the oxalic acid pretreated hemicellulose hydrolysates. PMID:24713602

Trinh, Ly Thi Phi; Kundu, Chandan; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Hong-Joo

2014-06-01

390

Aquatic Toxicity Screening of an ACWA Secondary Waste, GB-Hydrolysate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Program has been tasked to demonstrate alternative technologies to incineration that will safely dispose of assembled chemical munitions. The ACWA program is currently investigating GB-hydrolysate as a se...

M. V. Haley R. G. Kuperman R. T. Checkai

2009-01-01

391

Pichia anomala 29X: a resistant strain for lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate fermentation.  

PubMed

To efficiently use lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media for bioethanol production, besides being capable of producing significant amount of ethanol, the fermenting host should also meet the following two requirements: (1) resistant to the inhibitory compounds formed during biomass pretreatment process, (2) capable of utilizing C5 sugars, such as xylose, as carbon source. In our laboratory, a screening was conducted on microorganisms collected from environmental sources for their tolerance to hydrolysate inhibitors. A unique resistant strain was selected and identified as Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus), deposited as CBS 132101. The strain is able to produce ethanol in various biomass hydrolysates, both with and without oxygen. Besides, the strain could assimilate xylose and use nitrate as N source. These physiological characteristics make P. anomala an interesting strain for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. PMID:23826802

Zha, Ying; Hossain, Abeer H; Tobola, Felix; Sedee, Norbert; Havekes, Mieke; Punt, Peter J

2013-11-01

392

Single-cell protein production by the acid-tolerant fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from acid hydrolysates of waste paper  

SciTech Connect

The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH less than 1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 4 degrees C was diluted with water to a pH of less than 0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. (Refs. 30).

Ivarson, K.C.; Morita, H.

1982-03-01

393

Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper.  

PubMed

The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH <1 by Scytalidium acidophilum is described. Waste paper pretreated with 72% H(2)SO(4) at 4 degrees C was diluted with water to a pH of <0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. Microbial contamination was not observed. Based on the sugars consumed, S. acidophilum produced higher yields in shake cultures than many other Fungi Imperfecti. In aerated cultures, productivity increased, and yields of 43 to 46% containing 44 to 47% crude protein were obtained. This compares favorably with Candida utilis, a yeast used commercially to produce single-cell protein. The chemical constituents and the essential amino acids of the fungal cells were similar to those of other fungi. The nucleic acid content was characteristic of microbes containing low levels of nucleic acid. The advantages of using S. acidophilum for single-cell protein production are discussed. PMID:16345970

Ivarson, K C; Morita, H

1982-03-01

394

Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysate against mastitis pathogens and its effect on superoxide production of bovine neutrophils.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysates (LFH) on microorganisms isolated from bovine mastitis, and superoxide (O(2)(-)) production of bovine neutrophils were evaluated. Antibacterial effects of LFH were measured in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, yeast-like fungi and Prototheca zopfii isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis. To compare susceptibilities against LFH, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by a micro-plate assay method. Most organisms were sensitive to LFH. Prototheca zopfii was highly sensitive to LFH; the growth of the microorganism was inhibited completely even at 1 mug/ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were resistant to LFH. The production of O(2)(-) by bovine neutrophils was used to evaluate the effect of LFH administration on functional activity. Increase in O(2)(-) production by bovine neutrophils occurred upon addition of LFH to neutrophils. These results demonstrate that LFH possesses antibacterial activity against pathogens that cause mastitis and activates neutrophil superoxide production. PMID:17456148

Kawai, K; Shimazaki, K; Higuchi, H; Nagahata, H

2007-01-01

395

Viral induced yeast apoptosis.  

PubMed

In an analogous system to mammals, induction of an apoptotic cell death programme (PCD) in yeast is not only restricted to various exogenous factors and stimuli, but can also be triggered by viral killer toxins and viral pathogens. In yeast, toxin secreting killer strains are frequently infected with double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses that are responsible for killer phenotype expression and toxin secretion in the infected host. In most cases, the viral toxins are either pore-forming proteins (such as K1, K2, and zygocin) that kill non-infected and sensitive yeast cells by disrupting cytoplasmic membrane function, or protein toxins (such as K28) that act in the nucleus by blocking DNA synthesis and subsequently causing a G1/S cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, while all these virus toxins cause necrotic cell death at high concentration, they trigger caspase- and ROS-mediated apoptosis at low-to-moderate concentration, indicating that even low toxin doses are deadly by triggering PCD in enemy cells. Remarkably, viral toxins are not solely responsible for cell death induction in vivo, as killer viruses themselves were shown to trigger apoptosis in non-infected yeast. Thus, as killer virus-infected and toxin secreting yeasts are effectively protected and immune to their own toxin, killer yeasts bear the intrinsic potential to dominate over time in their natural habitat. PMID:18291112

Schmitt, Manfred J; Reiter, Jochen

2008-07-01

396

An In-vitro Investigation of Selected Biological Activities of Hydrolysed Flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine bioactivities of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; variety: Valour) proteins and their hydrolysates. Isolated flaxseed proteins were treated with Flavourzyme® at different levels of enzyme to substrate ratio (E\\/S) and hydrolysis time. The unhydrolysed proteins and hydrolysates were\\u000a studied for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibiting (ACEI) activity, hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging activity and bile\\u000a acid binding

P. W. M. L. H. K. Marambe; P. J. Shand; J. P. D. Wanasundara

2008-01-01

397

Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus ) collagen hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional\\u000a properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion\\u000a activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates

Zunying Liu; Yicheng Su; Mingyong Zeng

2011-01-01

398

Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

399

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to remove or reduce the concentrations of toxic substances present in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a for xyloseto-xylitol bioconversion, the hydrolysate was pretreated by changing the initial pH level through the combination\\u000a of different bases and acids with or without the subsequent addition of activated charcoal. Attention was given to the influence\\u000a of the fermentation time as well.

Lourdes A. Alves; Maria G. A. Felipe; JoÃo B. Almeida E. Silva; Silvio S. Silva; Arnaldo M. R. Prata

1998-01-01

400

Human insulinotropic response to oral ingestion of native and hydrolysed whey protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysate, independent of carbohydrate, is\\u000a not known. This study examined the effect of protein hydrolysis on the insulinotropic response to the ingestion of whey protein.\\u000a Sixteen healthy males ingested a 500 mL solution containing either 45 g of whey protein (WPI) or whey protein hydrolysate\\u000a (WPH). The estimated

O. Power; A. Hallihan; P. Jakeman

2009-01-01

401

Detoxification of Actual Pretreated Corn Stover Hydrolysate Using Activated Carbon Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the removal of acetic acid from an actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate was investigated. A powdered\\u000a form of activated carbon previously shown to be effective in the removal of acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolysate was utilized.\\u000a The method proved to be effective at lowering acetic acid levels while exhibiting minimal adsorption of the desired sugars\\u000a from

R. Eric Berson; John S. Young; Sarah N. Kamer; Thomas R. Hanley

402

Detoxification of actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate using activated carbon powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the removal of acetic acid from an actual pretreated corn stover hydrolysate was investigated. A powdered\\u000a form of activated carbon previously shown to be effective in the removal of acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolysate was utilized.\\u000a The method proved to be effective at lowering acetic acid levels while exhibiting minimal adsorption of the desired sugars\\u000a from

R. Eric Berson; John S. Young; Sarah N. Kamer; Thomas R. Hanley

2005-01-01

403

Radical Scavenging Activity of Seela ( Sphyraena barracuda) and Ribbon Fish ( Lepturacanthus savala) Backbone Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from backbones of two commercially important\\u000a fishes; seela (Sphyraena barracuda) and ribbon fish (Lepturacanthus savala). Pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates were found more potent to inhibit lipid peroxidation in case of ribbon and seela fish respectively\\u000a and were further purified by using fast protein liquid chromatography on anion exchange and gel

R. A. NazeerR; R. Deeptha; R. Jaiganesh; N. S. Sampathkumar; Shabeena Yousuf Naqash

2011-01-01

404

[Role of metabolic regulators in casein hydrolysate assimilation in alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted on rats with alloxan diarbetes. It appeared that the use of metabolic regulators (inssulin, vitamin C, vitamins of group B and nerobolyl) increased the assimilation of caseine hydrolysate; this was indicated by a positive nitrogen balance, retention of body weight and an increase in the tissue dry residue. The data obtained served as a further experimental foundation of-combination of hydrolysates with vitamins and hormones for the purpose of increasing the efficacy of parenteral nutrition. PMID:820385

Glants, R N; Skovronskaia, E V; Vovk, G P; Mikolishin, L I

1976-05-01

405

Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber ( Paracaudina chinens var. ) gelatin hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate\\u000a was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa)\\u000a was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for

Mingyong Zeng; Feng Xiao; Yuanhui Zhao; Zunying Liu; Bafang Li; Shiyuan Dong

2007-01-01

406

Purification and identification of novel angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from shark meat hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins, especially the proteins of marine origin, are potential resources of natural drugs and food additives. Our previous results showed that shark meat hydrolysate obtained with protease SM98011 digestion showed high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 0.4mg\\/mL. In this article, ACE inhibitory peptides were separated from shark meat hydrolysate and identified. By ultrafiltration, gel filtration

Hao Wu; Hai-Lun He; Xiu-Lan Chen; Cai-Yun Sun; Yu-Zhong Zhang; Bai-Cheng Zhou

2008-01-01

407

Effect of defatting and enzyme type on antioxidative activity of shrimp processing byproducts hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp processing byproducts (SPB) was digested by 6 proteases (trypsin, pepsin, neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase)\\u000a to produce antioxidative peptides. Both degree of hydrolysis (DH) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DSA) of the Alcalase\\u000a hydrolysate were the highest of all. The effect of defatting on DH and DSA of the Alcalase hydrolysate was significant. The\\u000a DH decreased while the DSA

Guang-Rong Huang; Jing Zhao; Jia-Xin Jiang

2011-01-01

408

HPLC PREPARATION OF FISH WASTE HYDROLYSATE FRACTIONS. EFFECT ON GUINEA PIG ILEUM AND ACE ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of RP-HPLC-purified fractions of fish waste hydrolysates issued from three fish industries was tested on guinea pig ileum in order to examine the presence of opioid molecules. The evaluation of anti-hypertensive activities of whole hydrolysates and fractions were also tested, monitoring the ability of the fraction to inhibit the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme involved in hypertension regulation.Sardine

Stephanie Bordenave; Ingrid Fruitier; Isabelle Ballandier; Frederic Sannier; Asbjorn Gildberg; Irineu Batista; Jean-Marie Piot

2002-01-01

409

Succinic acid production from corn cob hydrolysates by genetically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the xylose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In the present work, we constructed a xylose metabolic pathway in C. glutamicum by heterologous expression of the xylA and xylB genes coming from Escherichia coli. Dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs containing xylose and glucose were used as a substrate for succinic acid production by recombinant C. glutamicum NC-2. The results indicated that the available activated charcoal pretreatment in dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs could be able to overcome the inhibitory effect in succinic acid production. Succinic acid was shown to be efficiently produced from corn cob hydrolysates (55 g l(-1) xylose and 4 g l(-1) glucose) under oxygen deprivation with addition of sodium carbonate. Succinic acid concentration reached 40.8 g l(-1) with a yield of 0.69 g g(-1) total sugars within 48 h. It was the first report of succinic acid production from corn cob hydrolysates by metabolically engineered C. glutamicum. This study suggested that dilute-acid hydrolysates of corn cobs may be an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by C. glutamicum. PMID:24078255

Wang, Chen; Zhang, Hengli; Cai, Heng; Zhou, Zhihui; Chen, Yilu; Chen, Yali; Ouyang, Pingkai

2014-01-01

410

Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe.  

PubMed

Antioxidative and functional properties of protein hydrolysate from defatted skipjack (Katsuwonous pelamis) roe, hydrolysed by Alcalase 2.4 L (RPH) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) at various concentrations were examined. As DH increased, the reduction of DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and reducing power were noticeable (p<0.05). The increases in metal chelating activity and superoxide scavenging activity were attained with increasing DH (p<0.05). However, chelating activity gradually decreased at DH above 30%. All activities except superoxide anion radical scavenging activity increased as the concentration of hydrolysate increased (p<0.05). Hydrolysis using Alcalase could increase protein solubility to above 80% over a wide pH range (2-10). The highest emulsion ability index (EAI) and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were observed at low DH (5%) (p<0.05). Concentrations of hydrolysates determined interfacial properties differently, depending on DH. The molecular weight distribution of RPH with 5%DH (RPH5) was determined using Sephadex G-75 column. Two major peaks with the molecular weight of 57.8 and 5.5kDa were obtained. Fraction with MW of 5.5 had the strongest metal chelating activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results reveal that protein hydrolysates from defatted skipjack roe could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:22980906

Intarasirisawat, Rossawan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Wu, Jianping

2012-12-15

411

Characterization of volatile fraction of typical Irpinian wines fermented with a new starter yeast.  

PubMed

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are microorganisms that play an important role in the fermentation dynamics, compositions and flavour of wine. The aromatic compounds responsible for varietal aroma in wine are mainly terpenes, of which the most important group are the monoterpenes because of their volatility and odour if present in a free form. In fact, some terpenyl-glycosides do not contribute to the aroma unless they are hydrolysed. The glycosylated form of terpenes can be converted by hydrolysis with ?-glycosidases produced by yeasts during the winemaking process, into aromatic compounds. In this study we utilized a non-Saccharomyces yeast, with a high extra-cellular glycosidase activity, isolated from grapes of cultivars typical of Irpinia region. This strain, identified as a Rhodotorula mucillaginosa (strain WLR12), was used to carry out an experimental winemaking process and the results were compared with those obtained with a commercial yeast starter. Chemical and sensorial analysis demonstrated that the wines produced with WLR12 strain had a more floral aroma and some sweet and ripened fruit notes compared to those obtained with commercial yeast. The data also showed an increasing of the free terpenes fraction that, however, did not significatively modify the bouquet of the wines. PMID:22805924

Calabretti, A; La Cara, F; Sorrentino, A; Di Stasio, M; Santomauro, F; Rastrelli, L; Gabrielli, L; Limone, F; Volpe, M G

2012-04-01

412

Effects of Pro-Hyp, a collagen hydrolysate-derived peptide, on hyaluronic acid synthesis using in vitro cultured synovium cells and oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates in a guinea pig model of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Proline-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) stimulated hyaluronic acid production in cultured synovium cells. It was detected in guinea pig blood after oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates. Oral administration of collagen hydrolysates increased the amount of proteoglycans in the epiphyses. It also reduced the morphological changes associated with osteoarthritic cartilage destruction of the knee joint. The results suggest that collagen hydrolysates have therapeutic potential for treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:20944430

Ohara, Hiroki; Iida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nomura, Yoshihiro

2010-01-01

413

Lipid production for second generation biodiesel by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula graminis.  

PubMed

The increasing cost of vegetable oils is turning the use of microbial lipids into a competitive alternative for the production of biodiesel fuel. The oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula graminis is able to use a broad range of carbon sources for lipid production, and is able to resist some of the inhibitors commonly released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Using undetoxified corn stover hydrolysate as substrate, the yeast achieved a lipid productivity and lipid content of 0.21 g/L/h and 34%w/w, respectively. The corresponding results with crude glycerol as carbon source were 0.15 g/L/h and 54%w/w, respectively. Therefore, R. graminis appears to be a suitable candidate for fermentation processes involving renewable resources. PMID:22366600

Galafassi, Silvia; Cucchetti, Daniela; Pizza, Francesca; Franzosi, Giuliana; Bianchi, Daniele; Compagno, Concetta

2012-05-01

414

Glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate after dilute acid pretreatment is affected by the starch content in rice straw.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as rice straw, is often utilized as a bioresource after being hydrolyzed using dilute acid and separated into liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue. However, the biomass component that determines the distribution between liquid hydrolysate and acid-insoluble residue has not yet been clarified. In this study, the glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate and weight of acid-insoluble residue of 13 rice cultivars were analyzed. Starch content was positively correlated with glucose content in the liquid hydrolysate, and negatively correlated with acid-insoluble residue weight. These results indicate that the glucose in the liquid hydrolysate is mainly liberated from starch rather than cellulose in the rice straw. These observations suggest that starch content is a good indicator of the glucose distribution between the liquid hydrolysate and insoluble residue. PMID:24140898

Teramura, Hiroshi; Oshima, Tomoko; Matsuda, Fumio; Sasaki, Kengo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kondo, Akihiko

2013-12-01

415

Effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and ACE inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate hydrolysates incorporated into expanded maize products.  

PubMed

Extrusion process has been widely used for the development of many functional foods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC) hydrolysates (P, FC, PF and FCF). Extrusion was carried out with a Brabender single screw extruder. The ACE inhibition and the antioxidant capacity (AC) were estimated by the inhibition of the ACE and ABTS+? radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The ACE inhibition and TEAC values from hydrolysates were significantly higher than that from BHC. The highest ACE inhibition corresponded to P hydrolysate and the highest TEAC corresponded to PF and FCF hydrolysates. The ACE inhibition and AC from extruded products with added hydrolysates were higher than that from maize control; however, the extrusion process modified both ACE inhibition and AC formerly present in hydrolysates. PMID:21568820

Cian, Raúl E; Luggren, Pablo; Drago, Silvina R

2011-11-01

416

Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.  

PubMed

An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control, and similar amounts of the SMB and control diets. The intake ratios for each were 0.73 and 0.52, respectively. Salmon protein hydrolysate was especially palatable to dogs. These data suggest that chemical composition and nutritional quality of fish substrates differ greatly and are affected by the specific part of the fish used to prepare fish meals and fish protein hydrolysates. PMID:16971577

Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

2006-10-01

417

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

418

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

419

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2013-04-01

420

Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9860241

Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

1998-11-01

421

Chicken collagen hydrolysate protects rats from hypertension and cardiovascular damage.  

PubMed

We previously reported that chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) has strong angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we investigated the chronic therapy effects of CCH on blood pressure and vascular relaxation in a cardiovascular damage model of Wistar-Kyoto rats induced by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Following co-treatment with CCH for 4 weeks, the increment of systolic blood pressure was suppressed significantly. At 8 weeks, the vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta increased significantly, and cardiovascular damage was ameliorated. The concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in blood was reduced significantly by long-term administration of CCH, whereas the nitric oxide concentration was increased significantly at 1 hour post-treatment. The results suggest that beneficial effects of CCH result from antihypertensive function, but also from inhibition of cardiovascular damage to the endothelial cells via its ACE inhibitory activity and regulation of nitric oxide and ICAM-1, which suggests that CCH may be useful as a medicinal food for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:20170381

Zhang, Youzuo; Kouguchi, Tomomi; Shimizu, Muneshige; Ohmori, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki

2010-04-01

422

Preparation and performance of immobilized yeast cells in columns containing no inert carrier. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

SciTech Connect

Schizosaccharomyes pombe was cultivated in a medium of glucose (10 g/l), malt extract (3 g/l), yeast extract (3 g/l), and bactopeptone (5 g/l) to form flocs. More than 95% of the cell population were flocculated. Variation in glucose concentration (from 10 to 11 g/l) did not affect flocculation. Yeast extract helped induce flocculation. Application of the immobilized yeast for the continuous production of ethanol was tested in a column reactor. Soft yeast flocs (50-200 mesh) underwent morphological changes to heavy particles (0.1-9.3 cm diameter) after continuously being fed with fresh substrates in the column. Productivity as high as 87 g EtOH/l/hour was obtained when a 150 g/l glucose medium was fed. The performance of this yeast reactor was stable over a two-month period. The ethanol yield was 97% of the theoretical maximum based upon glucose consumed. (Refs. 16).

Hsiao, H.Y.; Chiang, L.C.; Yang, C.M.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

1983-02-01

423

Microbiological Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of New Records of Yeasts from Wild Flowers in Yokjido, Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

Hyun, Se-Hee

2014-01-01

424

Quick-drying, protective coating of papers with poly(methacrylate) latices containing alkali-hydrolysable emulsifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfaces of filter papers pretreated with sodium carbonate were coated with poly(methacrylate) latices containing alkali-hydrolysable\\u000a or non-hydrolysable cationic emulsifiers by a simple drop-coating method and their surface properties were investigated. Determination\\u000a of fixed amounts of polymers and observation of the paper surfaces suggest that glass transition temperature of the polymers\\u000a and hydrolysability of the emulsifier are dominant factors for the

Yoshihiro Itoh; Kaori Ozaki; Fumiya Sahara; Akira Teramoto

425

Antioxidant and Free Radical-Scavenging Activities of Goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) Muscle Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Enzymatic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from goby muscle by treatment with various bacterial alkaline proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A1, Bacillus pumilus A26, and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Alcalase were investigated. All hydrolysates showed different degrees of hydrolysis. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

Rim Nasri; Ali Bougatef; Hayet Ben Khaled; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Maha Karra Chaâbouni; Pascal Dhulster; Moncef Nasri

2012-01-01

426

Influence of the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis on the functional properties of protein hydrolysate from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates from grass carp skin were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Alcalase®. Hydrolysis was performed using the pH-stat method. The hydrolysis reaction was terminated by heating the mixture to 95°C for 15min. At 5.02%, 10.4%, and 14.9% degree of hydrolysis (DH), the hydrolysates were analyzed for functional properties. The protein hydrolysates had desirable essential amino acid profiles. Results demonstrated

Joseph Wasswa; Jian Tang; Xiao-hong Gu; Xiao-qing Yuan

2007-01-01

427

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed.

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

428

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

2008-02-28

429

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

430

Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.  

PubMed

Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. PMID:22641483

Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

2012-07-01

431

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

432

On the mechanisms of glycolytic oscillations in yeast.  

PubMed

This work concerns the cause of glycolytic oscillations in yeast. We analyse experimental data as well as models in two distinct cases: the relaxation-like oscillations seen in yeast extracts, and the sinusoidal Hopf oscillations seen in intact yeast cells. In the case of yeast extracts, we use flux-change plots and model analyses to establish that the oscillations are driven by on/off switching of phosphofructokinase. In the case of intact yeast cells, we find that the instability leading to the appearance of oscillations is caused by the stoichiometry of the ATP-ADP-AMP system and the allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase, whereas frequency control is distributed over the reaction network. Notably, the NAD+/NADH ratio modulates the frequency of the oscillations without affecting the instability. This is important for understanding the mutual synchronization of oscillations in the individual yeast cells, as synchronization is believed to occur via acetaldehyde, which in turn affects the frequency of oscillations by changing this ratio. PMID:15943800

Madsen, Mads F; Danø, Sune; Sørensen, Preben G

2005-06-01

433

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

434

Improved bioethanol production using fusants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts.  

PubMed

The present research deals with the development of a hybrid yeast strain with the aim of converting pentose and hexose sugar components of lignocellulosic substrate to bioethanol by fermentation. Different fusant strains were obtained by fusing protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and xylose-fermenting yeasts such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae and Pichia stipitis. The fusants were sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorter and further confirmed by molecular characterization. The fusants were evaluated by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture and the highest ethanol producing fusant was used for further study to ferment hydrolysates produced by acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cotton gin waste. Among the various fusant and parental strains used under present study, RPR39 was found to be stable and most efficient strain giving maximum ethanol concentration (76.8 ± 0.31 g L(-1)), ethanol productivity (1.06 g L(-1) h(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.458 g g(-1)) by fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture under test conditions. The fusant has also shown encouraging result in fermenting hydrolysates of cotton gin waste with ethanol concentration of 7.08 ± 0.142 g L(-1), ethanol yield of 0.44 g g(-1), productivity of 0.45 g L(-1) h(-1) and biomass yield of 0.40 g g(-1). PMID:22639357

Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, K

2012-06-01

435

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro  

PubMed Central

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized > 90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production.

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

436

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.  

PubMed

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L.?hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

2013-01-01

437

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2010-12-07

438

Novel endophytic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3 I: production of xylitol and ethanol.  

PubMed

An endophytic yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain PTD3, that was isolated from stems of hybrid poplar was found to be capable of production of xylitol from xylose, of ethanol from glucose, galactose, and mannose, and of arabitol from arabinose. The utilization of 30 g/L of each of the five sugars during fermentation by PTD3 was studied in liquid batch cultures. Glucose-acclimated PTD3 produced enhanced yields of xylitol (67% of theoretical yield) from xylose and of ethanol (84, 86, and 94% of theoretical yield, respectively) from glucose, galactose, and mannose. Additionally, this yeast was capable of metabolizing high concentrations of mixed sugars (150 g/L), with high yields of xylitol (61% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (83% of theoretical yield). A 1:1 glucose:xylose ratio with 30 g/L of each during double sugar fermentation did not affect PTD3's ability to produce high yields of xylitol (65% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (92% of theoretical yield). Surprisingly, the highest yields of xylitol (76% of theoretical yield) and ethanol (100% of theoretical yield) were observed during fermentation of sugars present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate obtained after steam pretreatment of a mixture of hybrid poplar and Douglas fir. PTD3 demonstrated an exceptional ability to ferment the hydrolysate, overcome hexose repression of xylose utilization with a short lag period of 10 h, and tolerate sugar degradation products. In direct comparison, PTD3 had higher xylitol yields from the mixed sugar hydrolysate compared with the widely studied and used xylitol producer Candida guilliermondii. PMID:22399239

Bura, Renata; Vajzovic, Azra; Doty, Sharon L

2012-07-01

439

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

440

Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

2009-03-01

441

Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast  

PubMed Central

Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3? tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose, the activity of the “wheat gene” driven by the GAL10 promoter is low and ACCase becomes limiting for growth, a condition expected to enhance transgenic yeast sensitivity to wheat ACCase-specific inhibitors. An aryloxyphenoxypropionate and two cyclohexanediones do not inhibit growth of haploid yeast strains containing the yeast ACC1 gene, but one cyclohexanedione inhibits growth of the gene-replacement strains at concentrations below 0.2 mM. In vitro, the activity of wheat cytosolic ACCase produced by the gene-replacement yeast strain is inhibited by haloxyfop and cethoxydim at concentrations above 0.02 mM. The activity of yeast ACCase is less affected. The wheat plastid ACCase in wheat germ extract is inhibited by all three herbicides at concentrations below 0.02 mM. Yeast gene-replacement strains will provide a convenient system for the study of plant ACCases.

Joachimiak, M.; Tevzadze, G.; Podkowinski, J.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

1997-01-01

442

Development of a phenotypic assay for characterisation of ethanologenic yeast strain sensitivity to inhibitors released from lignocellulosic feedstocks.  

PubMed

Inhibitors released by the breakdown of plant cell walls prevent efficient conversion of sugar into ethanol. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reliable inhibitor sensitivity assay for ethanologenic yeast strains. The assay comprised bespoke 96-well plates containing inhibitors in isolation or combination in a format that was compatible with the Phenotypic Microarray Omnilog reader (Biolog, hayward, CA, USA). A redox reporter within the assay permits analysis of inhibitor sensitivity in aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. Results from the assay were verified using growth on spot plates and tolerance assays in which maintenance of viability was assessed. The assay allows for individual and synergistic effects of inhibitors to be determined. It was observed that the presence of both acetic and formic acid significantly inhibited the yeast strains assessed, although this impact could be partially mitigated by buffering to neutral pH. Scheffersomyces stipitis, Candida spp., and Pichia guilliermondii demonstrated increased sensitivity to short chain weak acids at concentrations typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. S. cerevisiae exhibited robustness to short chain weak acids at these concentrations. However, S. stipitis, Candida spp., and P. guilliermondii displayed increased tolerance to HMF when compared to that observed for S. cerevisiae. The results demonstrate that the phenotypic microarray assay developed in the current study is a valuable tool that can be used to identify yeast strains with desirable resistance to inhibitory compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:24664516

Greetham, D; Wimalasena, T; Kerruish, D W M; Brindley, S; Ibbett, R N; Linforth, R L; Tucker, G; Phister, T G; Smart, K A

2014-06-01

443

Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant peptides from ethanol-soluble proteins hydrolysate of Sphyrna lewini muscle.  

PubMed

To get high yield of ethanol-soluble proteins (EP) and the antioxidant peptides from Sphyrna lewini muscle, orthogonal experiments (L(9)(3)(4)) were applied to optimize the best extraction conditions and enzyme hydrolysis conditions. The yield of EP reached 5.903±0.053% under the optimum conditions of ethanol concentration 90%, solvent to material ratio 20:1, extraction temperature of 40°C and extraction time of 80min. The antioxidant SEPH (EP hydrolysate of S. lewini muscle) was prepared by using papain under the optimum conditions of enzymolysis time 2h, total enzyme dose 1.2%, enzymolysis temperature 50°C and pH 6, and its DPPH radical scavenging activity reached 21.76±0.42% at the concentration of 10mg/ml. Two peptides (F42-3 and F42-5) were isolated from SEPH by using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The structures of F42-3 and F42-5 were identified as Trp-Asp-Arg and Pro-Tyr-Phe-Asn-Lys with molecular weights of 475.50Da and 667.77Da, respectively. F42-3 and F42-5 exhibited good scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical (EC(50) 0.15mg/ml and 0.24mg/ml), ABTS radical (EC(50) 0.34mg/ml and 0.12mg/ml), and superoxide anion radical (EC(50) 0.09mg/ml and 0.11mg/ml), but moderate DPPH radical (EC(50) 3.63mg/ml and 4.11mg/ml). F42-3 and F42-5 were also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system and peroxyl free radical scavenging in ?-carotene linoleic acid assay. Their high activities were due to the smaller size and the presence of antioxidative amino acids within the peptide sequences. PMID:22652579

Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Chi, Chang-Feng; Zhang, Qi-Hong; Luo, Hong-Yu

2012-08-01

444

Evaluation of YeastIdent and Uni-Yeast-Tek yeast identification systems.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the new API YeastIdent system and the Flow Laboratories Uni-Yeast-Tek identification kit with an expanded data base was evaluated in comparison to the API 20C yeast identification system by three laboratories. A total of 489 test isolates were used, biased toward yeasts commonly encountered in clinical specimens. Isolates not in a system's data base were not counted in the evaluation of that system. For isolates in their data base, YeastIdent was 55% accurate and Uni-Yeast-Tek was 40% accurate. By the manufacturer's criteria of reliable identification without additional tests, both systems failed to identify many common and uncommon species. The limited number of substrates and difficulties in assessing results obtained with 11 of the API YeastIdent substrates and apparent errors in the expanded Uni-Yeast-Tek data base appeared to be major factors limiting the accuracy of these systems.

Salkin, I F; Land, G A; Hurd, N J; Goldso