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1

Purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin citreoviridin has been associated with the 'yellow rice' disease, which caused cardiac beriberi in Japan. In Brazil, the consumption of contaminated rice was suspected to be involved in a recent beriberi outbreak. In this work, citreoviridin was produced by Penicillium citreonigrum, cultivated in 500 ml yeast extract sucrose (YES) liquid medium for 8 days at 25ºC, and the toxin extracted with chloroform from the liquid medium and the mycelium. A total of 15.3 g of crude extract was obtained from 48 culture flasks, with an estimated citreoviridin contend of 5.54 g, 74.3% being present in the mycelia. Semi-preparative HPLC of the crude extract yielded 27.1% citreoviridin. The HPLC-purified citreoviridin fraction was fully characterised by UV/VIS, FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, LC-MS/MS and LC-MSD TOF, and purity confirmed by gravimetric analysis. Isocitreoviridin was also produced by P. citreonigrum, accounting for about 10% of the citreoviridin present in the crude extract, most transformed into citreoviridin after 10 months under freezing conditions protected from light. Citreoviridin was shown to be stable under the same conditions, although it can suffer isomerisation after a longer storage period. Isomerisation is a potential source of variability in toxicological studies and purity of the material should be checked before study initiation. PMID:25190053

da Rocha, Mariana Wagner; Resck, Inês Sabioni; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

2014-09-29

2

A soybean sucrose binding protein independently mediates nonsaturable sucrose uptake in yeast.  

PubMed Central

Heterologous expression of a cDNA encoding a 62-kD soybean sucrose binding protein in yeast demonstrates that this protein, independent of other plant proteins, mediates sucrose uptake across the plasma membrane. Sucrose binding protein-mediated sucrose uptake is nonsaturable up to 30 mM sucrose, is specific for sucrose, and is relatively insensitive to treatment with sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. Alteration of the external pH or pretreatment of the yeast cells with protonophores did not significantly affect the rate of 14C-sucrose uptake. This demonstrates that sucrose binding protein-mediated sucrose uptake is not dependent on H+ movement and delineates it from other plant sucrose transporters. Physiological characterization of sucrose uptake into higher plant cells has shown the presence of both saturable and nonsaturable uptake components. The nonsaturable mechanism is relatively insensitive to external pH, pretreatment with protonophores, and treatment with sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. Sucrose binding protein-mediated sucrose uptake in yeast mimics this physiologically described, but mechanistically undefined, nonsaturable sucrose uptake mechanism in higher plants. Functional characterization of the sucrose binding protein thus defines both a novel component of sucrose uptake and provides important insight into this nonsaturable sucrose uptake mechanism, which has remained enigmatic since its physiological description. PMID:8742712

Overvoorde, P J; Frommer, W B; Grimes, H D

1996-01-01

3

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

4

Medicinal yeast extracts.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. PMID:10547066

Schlemm, D J; Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Stanley, A E; Keller, S J

1999-09-01

5

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2014-04-01

6

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2011-04-01

7

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2012-04-01

8

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food...Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section,...

2013-04-01

9

Games microbes play: The game theory behind cooperative sucrose metabolism in yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. Microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot, thus leading to growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. In order for the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase. This hydrolysis reaction is performed outside of the cytoplasm in the periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. Here we demonstrate that the vast majority (˜99%) of the monosaccharides created by sucrose hydrolysis diffuse away before they can be imported into the cell, thus making invertase production and secretion a cooperative behavior [1]. A mutant cheater strain that does not produce invertase is able to take advantage of and invade a population of wildtype cooperator cells. However, over a wide range of conditions, the wildtype cooperator can also invade a population of cheater cells. Therefore, we observe coexistence between the two strains in well-mixed culture at steady state resulting from the fact that rare strategies outperform common strategies---the defining features of what game theorists call the snowdrift game. A simple model of the cooperative interaction incorporating nonlinear benefits explains the origin of this coexistence. Glucose repression of invertase expression in wildtype cells produces a strategy which is optimal for the snowdrift game---wildtype cells cooperate only when competing against cheater cells. In disagreement with recent theory [2], we find that spatial structure always aids the evolution of cooperation in our experimental snowdrift game. [4pt] [1] Gore, J., Youk, H. & van Oudenaarden, A., Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009) [0pt] [2] Hauert, C. & Doebeli, M., Nature 428, 643 -- 646 (2004)

Gore, Jeff

2010-03-01

10

Isomaltulose production via yeast surface display of sucrose isomerase from Enterobacter sp. FMB-1 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The gene encoding sucrose isomerase from Enterobacter sp. FMB-1 species (ESI) was displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 using a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attachment signal sequence. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the localization of ESI on the yeast cell surface. The displayed ESI (dESI) was stable at a broad range of temperatures (35-55 °C) and pHs (pH 5-7) with optimal temperature and pH at 45 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. In addition, the thermostability of the dESI was significantly enhanced compared with the recombinant ESI expressed in Escherichia coli. Biotransformation of sucrose to isomaltulose was observed in various ranges of substrate concentrations (50-250 mM) with a 6.4-7.4% conversion yield. It suggested that the bioconversion of sucrose to isomaltulose can be successfully performed by the dESI on the surface of host S. cerevisiae. PMID:21803574

Lee, Gil-Yong; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Dong-Ho; Hansin, Jantra; Ha, Suk-Jin; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Yong-Sung; Park, Cheon-Seok

2011-10-01

11

Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

1979-01-01

12

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent...

2010-04-01

13

Sucrose enhances the recovery and activity of ribonuclease A during reversed micelle extraction.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of two simple sugars, glucose and sucrose, on the extraction of ribonuclease A by AOT-isooctane reversed micelles. Including the sugars at concentrations up to 0.75 M in the feed solution resulted in moderate improvements in the forward transfer efficiency. The greatest effects were seen observed in the backward transfer step where both the protein recovery yield and the activity of the protein were greatly increased. Protein transfer and activity yields were also dependent on the AOT concentration. We suggest that the presence of sucrose, which was solubilized into the reversed micelles, results in preferential hydration of ribonuclease A, reducing the protein-surfactant interactions. PMID:10099271

Spirovska, G; Chaudhuri, J B

1998-05-20

14

Safer DNA extraction from plant tissues using sucrose buffer and glass fiber filter.  

PubMed

For some plant species, DNA extraction and downstream experiments are inhibited by various chemicals such as polysaccharides and polyphenols. This short communication proposed an organic-solvent free (except for ethanol) extraction method. This method consists of an initial washing step with STE buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA), followed by DNA extraction using a piece of glass fiber filter. The advantages of this method are its safety and low cost. The purity of the DNA solution obtained using this method is not necessarily as high as that obtained using the STE/CTAB method, but it is sufficient for PCR experiments. These points were demonstrated empirically with two species, Japanese speedwell and common dandelion, for which DNA has proven difficult to amplify via PCR in past studies. PMID:22695723

Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishio, Takayuki

2012-11-01

15

Ameliorative Effect of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in Alcohol- and Sucrose-Induced Hypertension in Rats  

PubMed Central

Hypertension remains a major health problem worldwide considering the prevalence of morbidity and mortality. Plants remain a reliable source of efficacious and better tolerated drugs and botanicals. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the chemo-profiled hydroethanolic leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertension. Groups of rats were treated orally (p.o.) with distilled water (10 ml/kg), ethanol (35%; 3 g/kg), sucrose (5-7%), and B. coccineus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and nifedipine together with ethanol and sucrose separately for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure and heart rate of rats were determined. Blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile assessment, and the liver, aorta, kidney, and heart were harvested for estimation of in vivo antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results obtained in this study showed that B. coccineus at the various doses administered reduced the systolic, diastolic, and arterial blood pressure elevated by ethanol and sucrose. Also, the extract reversed the reduction in catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by ethanol and sucrose. The level of MDA was reduced compared to the ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertensive group. With respect to lipid profile, administration of B. coccineus at the various doses reduced the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and atherogenic indices, compared to the ethanol and sucrose groups. In conclusion the hydroethanolic leaf extract of B. coccineus exerted significant antihypertensive effect and this is probably related to the antioxidant property and improvement of lipid profile observed in this study. PMID:25161923

Akindele, Abidemi J.; Iyamu, Endurance A.; Dutt, Prabhu; Satti, Naresh K.; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O.

2014-01-01

16

Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, using sucrose by fungal and yeast strains, and their interfacial properties.  

PubMed

Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were produced from glucose and sucrose without vegetable oils. Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, Ustilago maydis NBRC 5346, U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and P. siamensis CBS 9960 produced mainly MEL-A, MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C respectively. The sucrose-derived MELs showed excellent interfacial properties: low critical micelle concentration as well as that of oil-derived MELs. PMID:19809166

Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

2009-10-01

17

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar. PMID:16345853

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

18

Molecular Structure of Sucrose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sucrose is the chemical name of table sugar. It is found in granulated, powdered and brown sugar and molasses, as well as, in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be made from the combination of two monosaccarides, glucose and fructose. For production use, sucrose is generally extracted from a sugar cane and then purified and crystallized. Sucrose is the most common sweetener in the modern world, however, including too much of it in a diet does have adverse health effects such obesity caused by the high calorie content.

2002-08-29

19

Phenolics-rich extracts from Silybum marianum and Prunella vulgaris reduce a high-sucrose diet induced oxidative stress in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study tested the effects of phenolics-rich extracts from the plants Silybum marianum (silymarin) and Prunella vulgaris (PVE) on blood and liver antioxidant status and lipoprotein metabolism. Hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats fed on standard diet (STD) or high-sucrose diet (HSD, 70cal% of sucrose) for two weeks were used. HSD doubled plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased plasma VLDL-TAG and VLDL-cholesterol

Nina Škottová; Ludmila Kazdová; Olena Oliyarnyk; Rostislav Ve?e?a; Lucie Sobolová; Jitka Ulrichová

2004-01-01

20

Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

2013-01-01

21

Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.  

PubMed

We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

2011-06-01

22

A 220-kilodalton glycoprotein in yeast extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus adherence to human endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

A 220-kDa glycoprotein from yeast extract causes a twofold decrease in S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells in vitro. Medium constituents can have a significant effect on bacterial adherence interactions. Images PMID:2037385

Elliott, D A; Hatcher, V B; Lowy, F D

1991-01-01

23

Screening of carob bean yeasts. Chemical composition of Schizosaccharomyces versatilis grown on aqueous carob extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An improved extraction procedure for soluble sugars and tannins from carob bean is described. The yeast flora of the carob is rich, withSaccharomyces predominant; an isolate ofSchizosaccharomyces versatilis cultured in the aqueous extract utilizes tannins as well as sugars to give a high biomass and protein yield of good quality.

S. G. Marakis; A. D. Karagouni

1985-01-01

24

Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

2007-01-01

25

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

26

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress may provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed on a standard diet, or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (YE), to determine if YE would improve disease resistance in a stress model.2. At 16 weeks of age, half of the

G. R. Huff; V. Dutta; W. E. Huff; N. C. Rath

2011-01-01

27

Gastrointestinal Maturation is Accelerated in Turkey Poults Supplemented with a Mannan-Oligosaccharide Yeast Extract (Alphamune)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, increase body weight in pigs, and reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. The influence of Alphamune™ on gastrointestinal tract development has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evalu...

28

GASTROINTESTINAL MATURATION IS ACCELERATED IN TURKEY POULTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE YEAST EXTRACT (ALPHAMUNE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...

29

Biphenyl synthase from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The biphenyl aucuparin accumulated in Sorbus aucuparia L. cell cultures in response to yeast extract treatment. Incubation of cell-free extracts from challenged cell cultures with benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA led to the formation of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. This reaction was catalysed by a novel polyketide synthase, which

Benye Liu; Till Beuerle; Tim Klundt; Ludger Beerhues

2004-01-01

30

Effects of Teucrium polium Ethyl acetate Extract on Serum, Liver and Muscle Triglyceride Content of Sucrose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat  

PubMed Central

Possessing putative hypolipidemic effects, Teucrium polium (TP) have been traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect on the sucrose-induced insulin resistance male rat model. Thirty Wistar male rats weighting 180 ± 20 g were divided into five groups of six each. Four groups were given sucrose 50% in drinking water for 10 weeks. In 8th week of treatment, three groups of them were randomly selected and treated with Teucrium polium (T. polium) ethyl acetate extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg for two weeks). Control animals were fed using normal rat chow. After ten weeks, blood samples were collected from the heart. Blood Glucose, insulin, leptin, lipid content and fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) as well as liver and muscle glycogen and lipid contents were determined. Final data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test. Liver glycogen contents and blood levels of glucose and insulin were significantly increased in high sucrose (HS) group compared with control group. A significant decrease was observed in blood glucose and insulin levels, FIRI, serum total lipid, triglyceride and VLDL-c as well as the liver triglyceride level, muscle and liver glycogen contents in 100 and 200 mg/Kg of TP-treated groups compared with HS group. Leptin level was significantly decreased in 50 and 100 mg/Kg groups compared with HS group. The treatment with T. polium ethyl acetate extract (TP-EAE) induced a dose-dependent reduction in serum, liver and muscle triglyceride (TG) and liver glycogen content levels, as well as serum insulin. These effects may be attributed, in part, to the hypolipidemic effect of TP flavonoids; otherwise, the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of TP-EAE may improve the liver function and reverse harmful sucrose effects. PMID:24250458

Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Shahriari, Ali; Ahangarpour, Akram; Vatanpour, Hossein; Jolodar, Abbas

2012-01-01

31

Sucrose hydrolases from the midgut of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

A beta-fructosidase (EC 3.2.1.26) was isolated from the midgut of larval sugar cane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis by mild-denaturing electrophoresis and further purified to near homogeneity by gel filtration. beta-Fructosidase hydrolysed sucrose, raffinose and the fructosyl-trisaccharide isokestose, but it had no activity against maltose, melibiose and synthetic substrates for alpha-glucosidases. Two other sucrose hydrolases, one resembling a alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) and the other one active specifically against sucrose (sucrase) were detected in the larval midgut of D. saccharalis. All three sucrose hydrolases were associated with the midgut epithelium of larval D. saccharalis. Relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the beta-fructosidase was estimated around 45,000 (by gel filtration). The other two sucrose hydrolases had M(r) of 54,000 (alpha-glucosidase) and 59,000 (sucrase). The pH optima of the sucrose hydrolases were 5-10 for both alpha-glucosidase and sucrase and 7-8 for beta-fructosidase. Considering V(max)/K(m) ratios, beta-fructosidase preferentially cleaves isokestose rather than raffinose and sucrose. In order to evaluate the possible contribution of microorganisms isolated from the midgut to the pool of sucrose hydrolases, washed midgut epithelia were homogenised and plated onto appropriate media. Seven bacterial and one yeast species were isolated. None of the sucrose hydrolases extracted from the microorganisms corresponded to the enzymes isolated from midgut tissue homogenates. This result suggests that the major sucrose hydrolases found in the midgut of larval D. saccharalis were probably produced by the insect themselves not by the gut microflora. PMID:15607512

Carneiro, Cíntia N B; Isejima, Eliza M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P

2004-11-01

32

Extractable activities and protein content of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in trunk tissues of Robinia pseudoacacia L. are related to cambial wood production and heartwood formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The presence of sucrose synthesizing and degrading enzymes and the correlation of their enzyme activity with cambial growth\\u000a and heartwood formation are demonstrated in trunks of Robinia pseudoacacia L., black locust. Sucrose is formed by sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14), predominantly in the storage part of\\u000a the sapwood. In the cambial differentiation zone and the sapwood-heartwood transition zone, both

Siegfried Hauch; Elisabeth Magel

1998-01-01

33

Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.

1982-04-01

34

Identification and Quantitation of Phosphorus Metabolites in Yeast Neutral pH Extracts by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

31P NMR spectroscopy offers a possibility to obtain a survey of all low-molecular-weight phosphorylated compounds in yeast. The yeast cells have been extracted using chloroform into a neutral aqueous phase. The use of high fields and the neutral pH extracts, which are suitable for NMR analysis, results in well-resolved 31P NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR experiments, such as proton-detected heteronuclear single

Anita Teleman; Peter Richard; Mervi Toivari; Merja Penttilä

1999-01-01

35

Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

Rezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

2014-11-14

36

Isomaltulose production from sucrose by Protaminobacter rubrum immobilized in calcium alginate.  

PubMed

Different culture conditions for Protaminobacter rubrum and enzymatic reaction parameters were evaluated with the goal of improving isomaltulose production. P. rubrum was grown in a medium with 1% (w/v) cane molasses and 0.5% yeast extract and achieved a maximum cell yield Y(x/s) of 0.295 g of cells/g sucrose and a specific growth rate (mu) of 0.192 h(-1). The immobilization of P. rubrum cells was carried out with calcium alginate, glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine. Stabile immobilized cell pellets were obtained and used 24 times in batch processes. Enzymatic conversion was carried out at different sucrose concentrations and in pH 6 medium with 70% (w/v) sucrose at 30 degrees C an isomaltulose yield of 89-94% (w/v) was obtained. The specific activity of the P. rubrum immobilized pellets in calcium alginate at 30 degrees C ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 g isomaltulose g(-1) pellet h(-1), respectively with 70% and 65% sucrose solution, while in lower sucrose concentration had higher specific activities presumably due to substrate inhibition of the isomaltulose synthase in higher sucrose concentrations. PMID:19410450

de Oliva-Neto, P; Menão, Paula T P

2009-09-01

37

Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

1980-01-01

38

Topical application of yeast extract accelerates the wound healing of diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of yeast have been used as the active ingredient in medications under names such as "tissue or skin respiratory factor," Biodyne (Sperti Drug Co, Cincinnati, Ohio--now defunct), and live yeast cell derivative (LYCD). Beneficial clinical results from the use of LYCD have been reported for the treatment of burns, wounds, and hemorrhoids. The medicinal effects of LYCD have recently been localized to a protein fraction containing a mixture of several peptides. The effects of topical application of the peptide mixture on wounds were examined in diabetic mice, an animal model in which the healing process is disrupted and delayed. Full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of diabetic (DB) and nondiabetic (non-DB) mice. Half of the DB and non-DB mice were treated with 0.05 mL of LYCD after wounding and for 4 successive days. All other mice received vehicle. Wound areas were measured at Day 0 and at 2-day intervals. Mice were sacrificed at 3, 7, 10, 21, and 28 days postinjury. Differences in the extent and quality of healing appeared between DB mice receiving LYCD and DB mice receiving vehicle by day 10 (P < .0001). By 24 days postinjury, DB mice receiving LYCD had achieved 100% wound closure, whereas DB mice receiving vehicle had achieved only 31.4% wound closure. Histologic examination of wounds reflected improved wound healing in DB mice receiving LYCD as compared with those receiving vehicle. A topically applied yeast extract peptide mixture significantly attenuates wound closure and the degree of cellular reorganization of full-thickness excisional wounds of DB mice. PMID:10188114

Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Schlemm, D J; Greenhalgh, D G; Keller, S J

1999-01-01

39

Biphenyl synthase from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia.  

PubMed

Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The biphenyl aucuparin accumulated in Sorbus aucuparia L. cell cultures in response to yeast extract treatment. Incubation of cell-free extracts from challenged cell cultures with benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA led to the formation of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. This reaction was catalysed by a novel polyketide synthase, which will be named biphenyl synthase. The most efficient starter substrate for the enzyme was benzoyl-CoA. Relatively high activity was also observed with 2-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA but, instead of the corresponding biphenyl, the derailment product 2-hydroxybenzoyltriacetic acid lactone was formed. PMID:14595561

Liu, Benye; Beuerle, Till; Klundt, Tim; Beerhues, Ludger

2004-01-01

40

Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment.  

PubMed Central

Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

1977-01-01

41

Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.  

PubMed

Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4?-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3?-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound. PMID:21706170

Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-01-01

42

Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

2014-12-01

43

The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe prevention of cardiovascular risk, as occurs in lipoprotein disorders, is required since childhood. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in a group of children affected by primary dyslipidemia, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols.

O. Guardamagna; F. Abello; V. Baracco; B. Stasiowska; F. Martino

2011-01-01

44

21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cane sugar, or beet sugar is the chemical ?-D-fructofuranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion, then clarified and...

2010-04-01

45

In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

2014-01-01

46

Multi-lamellar organization of fully deuterated lipid extracts of yeast membranes.  

PubMed

Neutron scattering studies on mimetic biomembranes are currently limited by the low availability of deuterated unsaturated lipid species. In the present work, results from the first neutron diffraction experiments on fully deuterated lipid extracts from the yeast Pichia pastoris are presented. The structural features of these fully deuterated lipid stacks are compared with those of their hydrogenous analogues and with other similar synthetic systems. The influence of temperature and humidity on the samples has been investigated by means of small momentum-transfer neutron diffraction. All of the lipid extracts investigated self-assemble into multi-lamellar stacks having different structural periodicities; the stacking distances are affected by temperature and humidity without altering the basic underlying arrangement. At high relative humidity the deuterated and hydrogenous samples are similar in their multi-lamellar arrangement, being characterized by two main periodicities of ?75 and ?110?Å reflecting the presence of a large number of polar phospholipid molecules. Larger differences are found at lower relative humidity, where hydrogenous lipids are characterized by a larger single lamellar structure than that observed in the deuterated samples. In both cases the heterogeneity in composition is reflected in a wide structural complexity. The different behaviour upon dehydration can be related to compositional differences in the molecular composition of the two samples, which is attributed to metabolic effects related to the use of perdeuterated growth media. PMID:25478835

Gerelli, Yuri; de Ghellinck, Alexis; Jouhet, Juliette; Laux, Valérie; Haertlein, Michael; Fragneto, Giovanna

2014-12-01

47

Sucrose intake in Germany.  

PubMed

The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake. By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative sample of 15,838 persons aged 4 years and older were analyzed. The relation between sucrose and nutrients intake was investigated by variance and regression analyses. Low, moderate, and high sucrose intake categories were defined by means of sucrose density quartiles and comparisons were made for the percentages of persons meeting the German nutrient intake recommendations. Mean daily sucrose intake ranges between 43.2 g/d (f, 51-64 years) and 82.3 g/d (m, 13-14 years). The mean contribution of sucrose to total energy intake is highest with 14% in young age (4-6 years) and decreases to 9% and 7% in 51-64 year old women and men, respectively. The food groups "table sugar", "confectionery and ice cream", "biscuits, cake and pastries", "preserves", "dairy products", and "non-alcoholic beverages" are the main sucrose sources with varying importance in different age groups. The average amount of naturally occurring sucrose in the Germans' diet is estimated to 15-25% of total sucrose intake. Sucrose contributes 80-90% to total disaccharides intake in Germany. With each gram of sucrose the intake of energy rises on the average by 12.5 kcal (52.4 kJ), of protein by 0.3 g (9% of the energy increase), of fat by 0.5 g (34%), and of carbohydrates by 1.8 g (57%). Consequently, the higher the sucrose content of a diet, the lower is the contribution of fat to total energy intake. In contrast, the energy-adjusted effect of sucrose was found to be negative for energy-providing nutrients (except mono- and disaccharides) as well as for all the selected micronutrients, except calcium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and dietary fiber. Accordingly, the comparison between moderate and high sucrose consumers revealed a lower percentage of persons meeting nutrient intake recommendations in the high sucrose category under the condition of a comparable energy intake. This unfavorable effect of high sucrose intake is most prominent in 4-6 year old boys and girls as the groups with the highest sucrose intake. Since from the present data no exact figure for a sucrose or sugars intake recommendation can be deduced, it is suggested to keep on the WHO recommendation for a moderate sugar intake of 10% of energy intake. PMID:9894678

Linseisen, J; Gedrich, K; Karg, G; Wolfram, G

1998-12-01

48

Succinic acid production from sucrose by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113.  

PubMed

In this study, sucrose, a reproducible disaccharide extracted from plants, was used as the carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. During serum bottle fermentation, the succinic acid concentration reached 57.1g/L with a yield of 71.5%. Further analysis of the sucrose utilization pathways revealed that sucrose was transported and utilized via a sucrose phosphotransferase system, sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase, and a fructose PTS. Compared to glucose utilization in single pathway, more pathways of A. succinogenes NJ113 are dependent on sucrose utilization. By changing the control strategy in a fed-batch culture to alleviate sucrose inhibition, 60.5g/L of succinic acid was accumulated with a yield of 82.9%, and the productivity increased by 35.2%, reaching 2.16g/L/h. Thus utilization of sucrose has considerable potential economics and environmental meaning. PMID:24393713

Jiang, Min; Dai, Wenyu; Xi, Yonglan; Wu, Mingke; Kong, Xiangping; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Min; Chen, Kequan; Wei, Ping

2014-02-01

49

Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells  

PubMed Central

The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL-1) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L-1), bacteriological peptone (7 g L-1) and yeast extract (20 g L-1), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

Orsi, Daniela C.; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; Sato, Hélia H.

2009-01-01

50

[Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].  

PubMed

Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress. PMID:25272834

Huang, Lei; Xiao, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guang; Mo, Ge; Lin, Shu-Fang; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lan-Ping

2014-06-01

51

Semiconservative replication in yeast nuclear extracts requires Dna2 helicase and supercoiled template 1 1 Edited by M. Yaniv  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the preparation of nuclear extracts from yeast cells synchronised in S-phase that support the aphidicolin-sensitive, semi-conservative replication of primer-free, supercoiled plasmid in vitro. This is monitored by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication intermediates that have incorporated [?-32P]dATP, by the conversion of methylated template DNA into a hemi-methylated or DpnI-resistant form, and by substitution of dTTP with

D Braguglia; P Heun; P Pasero; B. P Duncker; S. M Gasser

1998-01-01

52

Controlled evaluation of trypticase soy broth with and without gelatin and yeast extract in the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.  

PubMed

The addition of gelatin to blood culture media has been suggested to prevent the inhibition of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius that is caused by sodium polyanetholsulfonate. To determine the effect of such supplementation on the overall yield of microorganisms, we compared the yield and speed of detection of clinically important microorganisms from 5422 paired 10-ml samples of blood cultured in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) containing 0.03% sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS) and TSB/SPS containing 1.2% gelatin and 1.0% yeast extract (mTSB). The atmosphere of incubation (open venting unit) and ratio of blood to broth (1:5) were the same for both samples. Only cultures with adequate blood sample (greater than or equal to 80% of stated volume) were compared statistically. Addition of gelatin and yeast extract resulted in inhibited growth of Enterobacteriaceae (p less than 0.001), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p less than 0.01), fungi (p less than 0.05), and the overall set of microorganisms encountered (p less than 0.001). It delayed growth of Enterobacteriaceae (p less than 0.001) but reduced the time to recover staphylococci (p less than 0.02). Of 12 isolates of species usually inhibited by SPS, seven grew only with the addition of gelatin and yeast extract, none grew only without supplementation, and five grew in both media. Although gelatin and yeast extract may improve the yield of some specific bacteria, the routine use of these additives cannot be recommended for all blood culture media. PMID:2831009

Reimer, L G; Reller, L B; Wang, W L; Mirrett, S

1987-09-01

53

Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate\\/yeast extract medium. Part I. multiple factor kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty pH-controlled batch cultures with Lactobacillus helveticus were carried out in whey permeate-yeast extract medium according to a composite design with three factors: pH setpoint, and yeast extract and initial whey permeate concentrations. Growth and production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Richards and Luedeking and Piret models, respectively, and analyzed statistically with response surfaces. The maximum specific

Adolf Willem Schepers; Jules Thibault; Christophe Lacroix

2002-01-01

54

Sucrose intake in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake\\u000a and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake.\\u000a \\u000a By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative\\u000a sample of 15838 persons

J. Linseisen; K. Gedrich; G. Karg; G. Wolfram

1998-01-01

55

Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.  

PubMed

Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118

Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

2003-01-01

56

Sucrose and Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mechanisms by which sucrose could influence behavior are reviewed. Firstly there is food intolerance. There are dozens of foods to which an adverse reaction has been demonstrated, although a reaction to sucrose is less frequent than many other foods. A second possible mechanism is hypoglycemia. There is evidence that a tendency to develop low blood glucose levels, but higher

David Benton

2008-01-01

57

Sucrose Metabolism in Plastids1  

PubMed Central

The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experiments suggest substantial Suc entry into plastids. The enzyme levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis efficiently synthesizes fructan from Suc. Targeting of this enzyme to the plastids of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants leads to high-level fructan accumulation in chloroplasts and amyloplasts, respectively. Moreover, introduction of this enzyme in amyloplasts leads to an altered starch structure. Expression of the yeast invertase in potato tuber amyloplasts results in an 80% reduction of total Suc content, showing efficient hydrolysis of Suc by the plastidic invertase. These observations suggest that Suc can enter plastids efficiently and they raise questions as to its function and metabolism in this organelle. PMID:11161049

Gerrits, Nathalie; Turk, Stefan C.H.J.; van Dun, Kees P.M.; Hulleman, Stephan H.D.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Weisbeek, Peter J.; Smeekens, Sjef C.M.

2001-01-01

58

Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose)  

E-print Network

Embryo Staining Protocol. 1. Keep the flies for egg laying on agar sucrose plates (1.5% agar, 1.5% sucrose) with a drop of yeast paste for the required amount of time. 2. Age as required at 25C. 3. With a brush and distilled water transfer the embryos into an egg basket. (egg baskets can be made by cutting

59

Sucrose: a constitutive elicitor of phytoalexin synthesis.  

PubMed

Extracts of seeds and leaves of the tropical legume Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (the pigeon pea) elicited the accumulation of three phytoalexins when applied as droplets to superficially wounded leaves of the plant. The active component was purified and identified as sucrose. Phytoalexin accumulation was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of sucrose applied, with maxima ranging from 338 to 455 micrograms per gram (fresh weight) of leaf tissue. The sucrose concentrations required to elicit half these amounts ranged from 20 to 35 micrograms per milliliter, but other sugars had little effect even at 1000 micrograms per milliliter. The elicitor activity of sucrose was abolished by actinomycin D, puromycin, and cycloheximide at a concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter or greater, suggesting that gene derepression is required for expression of the phytoalexin response. PMID:17730656

Cooksey, C J; Garratt, P J; Dahiya, J S; Strange, R N

1983-06-24

60

Iron Sucrose Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... any other iron injection such as ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed, Proferdex), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other medications; or any of the ingredients in iron sucrose injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list ...

61

Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: Extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14–5323 mg\\/kg) and Cu (8–12987 mg\\/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR\\/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first

Pasi Peltola; Angela Ivask; Mats Åström; Marko Virta

2005-01-01

62

The survival and recovery of Salmonella typhimurium phage type U285 in frozen meats and tryptone soya yeast extract broth.  

PubMed

The survival of S. typhimurium U285 was studied in cooked minced beef, sausage mixture and tryptone soya yeast extract (TSY) broth stored at freezer temperatures (-18 degrees C to -20 degrees C) for up to 10 weeks. Survival, as indicated by changes in viable counts, was best in minced beef followed by sausage mixture and TSY broth. Metabolic injury was minimal in each substrate whereas structural injury was detected, especially in TSY broth. Recovery, as indicated by changes in viable counts during thawing at room temperature, was generally complete after thawing 10 g or 10 ml amounts for 2 h. Viable counts obtained after thawing at refrigerator temperature for 24 h were similar to those obtained after 2h at room temperature. For specimens containing low inocula of salmonellae (0.5 cells/g), more isolations were obtained with pre-enrichment than with direct enrichment for minced beef and sausage mixture. PMID:3079470

Barrell, R A

1988-06-01

63

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS CHALLENGED WITH COLD STRESS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI TO ALPHAMUNE™, A DIETARY YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two battery trials were conducted using a yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™, to protect turkey poults from production losses due to cold stress and E. coli infection. Trial 1 used commercially hatched day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-wk-old hens in their 2nd wk of lay and Trial 2...

64

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

65

Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

1997-01-01

66

Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening plant extracts for antifungal activity is increasing due to demand for new antifungal agents, but the testing methods present many challenges. Standard broth microdilution methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of available antifungal agents are available now, but these methods are optimised for single compounds instead of crude plant extracts. In this study we evaluated the standard NCCLS method as

Manjuan Liu; Veronique Seidel; David R. Katerere; Alexander I. Gray

2007-01-01

67

Isolation and characterization of a thermally extracted yeast cell wall fraction potentially useful for improving the foaming properties of sparkling wines.  

PubMed

Two different yeast cell wall extracts were obtained using enzymatic digestion and thermal treatment. The effects of the extracts obtained on the foaming properties of a model wine and two sparkling wines were studied. The model wine and sparkling wines, supplemented with the thermal extract, presented better foaming properties than did the samples supplemented with the enzymatic extract. The fractioning (Con A chromatography) and characterization (SDS-PAGE, SEC, GC, and RP-HPLC) of both extracts showed that the fraction responsible for the foaming properties is constituted by mannoproteins with a relative molecular weight between 10 and 30 kDa, presenting an equilibrated composition of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein domains. This thermal extract did not modify the protein stability in both the model wine and the sparkling wines. These results demonstrate that the enrichment of a sparkling wine with mannoproteins extracted by mild heat procedures will contribute to improving its foaming properties. PMID:17002468

Núñez, Y P; Carrascosa, A V; Gonzalez, R; Polo, M C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A

2006-10-01

68

Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars  

E-print Network

Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

Constabel, Peter

69

Application of supercritical CO(2) extraction for the elimination of odorant volatile compounds from winemaking inactive dry yeast preparation.  

PubMed

A procedure based on the application of supercritical CO(2) extraction to reduce and/or to remove odorant volatile compounds from a winemaking inactive dry yeast (IDY) preparation has been set up. By applying a factorial design, a screening of different temperatures and pressure conditions was assayed in order to determine the optimal deodorization conditions, and afterward the effect of several sample pretreatments was investigated. The best extraction conditions were achieved at 200 atm and 60 degrees C, applying the cryogenic grinding of the sample and using 40% (w/w) ethanol as cosolvent. By using these conditions, it was possible to reduce to approximately 70% of the volatile compounds present in the samples that may be released into the wines and therefore affecting their sensory characteristics. Odorant volatile compounds such as 2-methylhydroxypyrrole, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine completely disappeared from the deodorized sample as verified by GC-O analysis. Additional experiments in model wines confirmed the low release of volatile compounds from the deodorized samples, without provoking any change to their nonvolatile composition (nitrogen compounds and neutral polysaccharides) that is related to the technological properties of these preparations. PMID:20170168

Pozo-Bayón, María Angeles; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Mendiola, Jose A; Ibáñez, Elena; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

2010-03-24

70

A new subfamily of sucrose transporters, SUT4, with low affinity\\/high capacity localized in enucleate sieve elements of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new subfamily of sucrose transporters from Arabidopsis (AtSUT4), tomato (LeSUT4), and potato (StSUT4) was isolated, demonstrating only 47% similarity to the previously characterized SUT1. SUT4 from two plant species conferred sucrose uptake activity when expressed in yeast. The K(m) for sucrose uptake by AtSUT4 of 11.6 +\\/- 0.6 mM was approximately 10-fold greater than for all other plant sucrose

Andreas Weise; Laurence Barker; Christina Kühn; Sylvie Lalonde; Henrik Buschmann; Wolf B. Frommer; John M. Ward

2000-01-01

71

Evolution of Sucrose Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (Suc). Suc-P synthase, Suc-phosphatase (SPP), and Suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for Suc-P synthase (sps) and Suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena (Nostoc) spp., respectively. An open reading frame in the Synechocystis

John Edward Lunn

2002-01-01

72

Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.  

PubMed

Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and phosphorylated, as well as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase subunit, Slx5. PMID:24300101

Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

2013-01-01

73

Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop  

PubMed Central

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

74

Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop.  

PubMed

Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

2015-01-01

75

In Vitro NER Assay Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris-acetate (pH 7.5) (40 ml), 0.39 M  

E-print Network

/v) DSD in water. Store at room temperature. Proteinase K: Make 20 mg/ml in water. Store in 50-µl aliquots at -20°C. 10 mg/ml RNase A: make in water. Boil for 10 minutes to inactivate DNase. Store at -20°CAuble Lab In Vitro NER Assay Reagents: Water YPD Yeast extraction Buffer (200 ml): 0.2 M Tris

Auble, David

76

Glass bead lysis of whole yeast cells The following protocol is suitable for preparation of 5 OD600 units of whole-cell extract at a final  

E-print Network

at room temperature (RT). 3. Decant supernatant, resuspend cell pellet in 1 mL sterile water, and transferGlass bead lysis of whole yeast cells The following protocol is suitable for preparation of 5 OD600 units of whole-cell extract at a final concentration of 0.5 OD600 units per 20 µL of SDS-PAGE reducing

Odorizzi, Greg

77

Enhancing isomaltulose production by recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase: culture medium optimization containing agricultural wastes and cell immobilization.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l?¹), yeast extract (25.93 g l?¹), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l?¹) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 ± 0.11 U mg DCW?¹) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet?¹ h?¹. A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 ± 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose. PMID:23300051

Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Yu, Jianguang; Wang, Yanyuan; Feng, Xiaohai; Ouyang, Pingkai

2013-10-01

78

Microbial transformation of sucrose and glucose to erythritol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of osmophilic yeast which were isolated from honey-comb, produced good yields of erythritol as a main product. These strains were identified as Trichosporonoides sp., 150-5 and 331-1.From the fermentation studies with these strains using glucose and sucrose as substrate, strain 331-1 produced more erythritol as the sole polyhydric product,with trace quantities of glycerol, than strain 150-5.

Marina A. Y. Aoki; Glaucia M. Pastore; Yong K. Park

1993-01-01

79

Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1  

PubMed Central

The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

1992-01-01

80

Evolution of Plant Sucrose Uptake Transporters  

PubMed Central

In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that types I and II are localized to the plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but they are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue) loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I) mutant. This indicates that type I and II SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable) phloem loading transporter capabilities independently. PMID:22639641

Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B.; Ward, John M.

2012-01-01

81

Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  

PubMed

In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-11-01

82

Evolution of sucrose synthesis.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (Suc). Suc-P synthase, Suc-phosphatase (SPP), and Suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for Suc-P synthase (sps) and Suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena (Nostoc) spp., respectively. An open reading frame in the Synechocystis genome encodes a predicted 27-kD polypeptide that shows homology to the maize (Zea mays) SPP. Heterologous expression of this putative spp gene in Escherichia coli, reported here, confirmed that this open reading frame encodes a functional SPP enzyme. The Synechocystis SPP is highly specific for Suc-6(F)-P (K(m) = 7.5 microM) and is Mg(2+) dependent (K(a) = 70 microM), with a specific activity of 46 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Like the maize SPP, the Synechocystis SPP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily of phosphatases/hydrolases. Searches of sequenced microbial genomes revealed homologs of the Synechocystis sps gene in several other cyanobacteria (Nostoc punctiforme, Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT9313, and Synechococcus sp. WH8012), and in three proteobacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Magnetococcus sp. MC1, and Nitrosomonas europaea). Homologs of the Synechocystis spp gene were found in Magnetococcus sp. MC1 and N. punctiforme, and of the Anabaena sus gene in N. punctiforme and N. europaea. From analysis of these sequences, it is suggested that Suc synthesis originated in the proteobacteria or a common ancestor of the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. PMID:11950997

Lunn, John Edward

2002-04-01

83

Application of isotope dilution analysis for the evaluation of extraction conditions in the determination of total selenium and selenomethionine in yeast-based nutritional supplements.  

PubMed

Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) has been used to quantify total selenium, total solubilized selenium, and the selenomethionine (SeMet) amount in yeast and yeast-based nutritional supplements after acid microwave digestion and different enzymatic extraction procedures. For this purpose, both a (77)Se-enriched SeMet spike, previously synthesized and characterized in our laboratory, and a (77)Se(VI) spike were used. In the analysis of the nutritional supplements, the SeMet spike was added to the sample and extracted under different conditions, and the (78)Se/(77)Se and (80)Se/(77)Se isotope ratios were measured as peak area ratios after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The formation of SeH(+) and mass discrimination were corrected using a natural SeMet standard injected every three samples. Similarly, total solubilized selenium was measured in the extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis using the (77)Se-enriched SeMet as a spike by direct nebulization without a chromatographic separation. To establish a mass balance, total selenium was also determined by IDA-ICP-MS on the yeast tablets after microwave digestion using (77)Se(VI) as a spike. Results showed that all enzymatic procedures tested were able to solubilize total selenium quantitatively from the solid. However, the recovery for the species SeMet, the major selenium compound detected, was seriously affected by the enzymatic procedure employed and also by the matrix composition of the supplement evaluated. For the yeast sample, SeMet recovery increased from 68 to 76% by the combined use of driselase and protease. For the nutritional supplements, the two most effective procedures appeared to be protease and driselase/protease, with a SeMet recovery ranging from 49 to 63%, depending upon the supplement evaluated. In the case of in vitro gastrointestinal enzymolysis, the results obtained showed 26-37% SeMet recovery, while the rest of selenium was solubilized as other unknown compounds (probably Se-containing peptides). PMID:16506800

Hinojosa Reyes, L; Marchante-Gayón, J M; García Alonso, J I; Sanz-Medel, A

2006-03-01

84

Effect of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or Aspergillus oryzae plus yeast culture plus mineral and vitamin supplement on performance of Holstein cows during a complete lactation.  

PubMed

The addition of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (Amaferm) increased milk flow and mean 3.5% FCM production during the latter stages of the full lactation trial compared with the control group and the Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract plus yeast culture plus mineral-vitamin supplement (VitaFerm) group. Based on the differences observed when FCM production was determined for the cows at various stages of lactation, Amaferm apparently had its greatest effect during the early stages of the lactation cycle and subsequent milk production was likely a result of higher initial production. The response difference observed between the Amaferm and VitaFerm treatments could have resulted from the additional minerals provided by the VitaFerm compared with the Amaferm and control groups. PMID:2283420

Kellems, R O; Lagerstedt, A; Wallentine, M V

1990-10-01

85

Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

2014-10-01

86

Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.  

PubMed

Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

Rucklidge, Julia J

2013-01-01

87

Oligosaccharides from Sucrose via Glycansucrases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glycansucrases are a class of microbial enzymes that polymerize either the fructosyl or the glucosyl moiety of sucrose to give beta-D-fructans or alpha-D-glucans. They are also capable of transferring fructosyl or glucosyl units to acceptor molecules to yield oligosaccharides. Although the glycosy...

88

27 CFR 21.131 - Sucrose octaacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...131 Sucrose octaacetate. (a) Sucrose octaacetate is an organic acetylation product occurring as a white or cream-colored powder having an intensely bitter taste. (b) Free acid (as acetic acid). Maximum percentage...

2010-04-01

89

A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.  

PubMed

The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different ?-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced ?-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 ?g L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

2014-04-01

90

Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran.

Gutiérrez, Lucía; del Puerto Morales, María; José Lázaro, Francisco

2005-05-01

91

Evaluation of red chicory extract as a natural antioxidant by pure lipid oxidation and yeast oxidative stress response as model systems.  

PubMed

The search for renewable and abundant sources of antioxidants has recently focused on agricultural byproducts, especially promising due to their natural origins and low costs. In particular, plant raw materials are sources of important compounds such as dietary fiber, carotenoids, tocopherols, and polyphenolics, which are mostly discarded during harvesting and processing. Among these vegetal crops, red chicory is attractive because of the large quantity of its byproducts (residues as leaves and stems); moreover, there is no information on its role as a food and feed ingredient. In this study, red chicory leaf residue was evaluated as a natural substitute for synthetic antioxidants for the food and feed industry. After lyophilization, a red chicory extract (RC) was characterized for its phenolic profile and its oxidative stability as compared to BHT. RC was shown to reduce lipid peroxidation of different oils in the Rancimat test. In addition, the antioxidant property of RC was studied in a model system by evaluating the Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to oxidative stress by means of gene expression. In this analysis, the RC extract, added to the yeast culture prior to oxidative stress induction, exhibited a pleiotropic protective effect on stress responsive genes. PMID:21488640

Lante, Anna; Nardi, Tiziana; Zocca, Federico; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

2011-05-25

92

Microbial counts and invert sugars in juice extracts from stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus Linn. (earth almond).  

PubMed

The microbial populations and the levels of invert sugars in juice extracts from healthy tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. stored at 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C were determined. Bacterial counts increased with time and attained the peak on the 25th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. Similar trends were obtained for the yeasts, but the peak counts were recorded on the 20th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. At 10 and 20 degrees C, the counts, both for bacteria and yeasts increased throughout the 40-d period. Invert sugar levels increased throughout the investigation period at all the tested temperatures. Highest levels were recorded at about 30 and 40 degrees C while the lowest levels were obtained at 10 degrees C. Of the seven bacteria and five yeasts tested, only Saccharomyces rouxii, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces sp., Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis brought about significant hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro. Results on the microbial populations and levels of invert sugars in raw juice extracts suggest that yeasts could possibly play a greater role than bacteria in the hydrolysis of sucrose in vivo. PMID:8121474

Adebajo, L O

1993-01-01

93

Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation. PMID:23757382

Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

2013-11-01

94

Sucrose metabolism: Anabaena sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose-phosphate phosphatase define minimal functional domains shuffled during evolution.  

PubMed

Based on the functional characterization of sucrose biosynthesis related protiens[SBP: sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (SPP), and sucrose synthase (SuS)] in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and sequence analysis, we have shown that SBP are restricted to cyanobacterium species and plants, and that they are multidomain proteins with modular architecture. Anabaena SPS, a minimal catalytic SPS unit, defines a glucosyltransferase domain present in all SPSs and SuSs. Similarly, Anabaena SPP defines a phosphohydrolase domain characteristic of all SPPs and some SPSs. Phylogenetic analysis points towards the evolution of modern cyanobacterial and plant SBP from a bidomainal common ancestral SPS-like gene. PMID:12062401

Cumino, Andrea; Curatti, Leonardo; Giarrocco, Laura; Salerno, Graciela L

2002-04-24

95

Molecular Control of Sucrose Utilization in Escherichia coli W, an Efficient Sucrose-Utilizing Strain  

PubMed Central

Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the W?cscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in W?cscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236

Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K.

2013-01-01

96

Molecular control of sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli W, an efficient sucrose-utilizing strain.  

PubMed

Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the W?cscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in W?cscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236

Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

2013-01-01

97

Estimation of sucrose esters (E473) in foods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method was developed for estimating the content in foods of the emulsifying additive E473, sucrose esters of fatty acids. The analytical approach taken to estimate the complex mixtures that comprise this additive involved, selective solvent extraction of the intact esters using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate, alkaline hydrolysis of the esters to liberate sucrose, and then GC-MS measurement of the liberated sucrose using GC-MS after acidic hydrolysis to glucose and fructose and then silylation. The method was developed to aid future estimates of intake of this food additive. The method determines the total sucrose esters content of a food sample and does not attempt to discrimination between individual sucrose esters when present as a mixture in a food sample. A single (average) factor is used to convert the liberated sucrose content into sucrose ester content. The method was applied to analysis of eight different food types (including bakery wares, sugar confectionery, dairy product, margarine, meat pies and a sauce) spiked with 0.5-1% of a mixture of three sucrose esters that spanned the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) range 1-16. The limit of quantification was around 50 mg kg-1, which is more than adequate for these additives. The analytical recovery rate was 73-106% with an average of 91%. The precision of the method (RSD) was 6-18% (n = 3-20 for each food type) with an average RSD of 11%. The main analytical uncertainty is the conversion factor used to express sucrose ester content from the amount of sucrose liberated. The method is also applicable to sucroglycerides (E474). PMID:16766452

Scotter, M J; Castle, L; Roberts, D P T

2006-06-01

98

Absence of turnover and futile cycling of sucrose in leaves of Lolium temulentum L.: implications for metabolic compartmentation.  

PubMed

To study the interdependence of sucrose accumulation and its hydrolyzing enzyme, soluble acid invertase (AI; EC 3.2.1.26), in fructan-accumulating temperate grasses and cereals, experiments were performed in which sucrose synthesis was abolished in leaves of Lolium temulentum by four independent inhibitory factors, each having a distinct mechanism of action. Trials in the light with mannose or vanadate and in the dark with anoxia or cyanide showed that previously accumulated sucrose was stable in the tissue over a 5- to 6-h period. Conversely, putatively vacuolar AI activity in tissue homogenates was sufficient to completely convert endogenous sucrose to monosaccharide within the same period. Continuous invertase-mediated breakdown of sucrose was thus not a feature of this tissue. It is concluded that AI and sucrose were not in metabolic contact in vivo, implying differential compartmentation. In darkness, in uninhibited leaves, sucrose concentrations fell linearly with respect to time at a rate of -0.6 mg g(-1) FW h(-1), over a 5- to 6-h period. This value is equivalent to rates of dark respiration measured by gas exchange. Dark-utilisation of sucrose was not accompanied by monosaccharide accumulation in the tissue. The rate of sucrose loss was 3-fold lower than rates of extractable AI activity. Hence, if AI was involved in dark-utilisation, then this implies at least a partial differential localisation of enzyme and substrate. However, the dark-consumption of sucrose was completely abolished by anoxia and by cyanide. It follows that dark-mobilisation (unlike invertase hydrolysis per se) was respiration-dependent and did not result from a simple co-localisation of sucrose and invertase. Taken together, the results show that sucrose and invertase do not share the same metabolic compartment in grass leaves. It is possible that invertase has no role in the mobilisation of stored sucrose in leaves of the fructan-accumulating grasses. PMID:15138820

Cairns, Andrew J; Gallagher, Joseph A

2004-09-01

99

Sucrose Induces Vesicle Accumulation and Autophagy.  

PubMed

It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the ?-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25389129

Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

2014-11-11

100

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

SciTech Connect

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

1987-01-01

101

Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.  

PubMed

In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

2014-10-01

102

Endogenous hydrogen peroxide is a key factor in the yeast extract-induced activation of biphenyl biosynthesis in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia.  

PubMed

Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins produced by plants belonging to Pyrinae, a subtribe of the economically important Rosaceae family. The formation of aucuparin, a well-known biphenyl, is induced by yeast extract (YE) in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying YE-induced activation of biphenyl biosynthesis remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the addition of YE to the cell cultures results in a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS; H(2)O(2) and O(2) (-)), followed by transcriptional activation of the biphenyl synthase 1 gene (BIS1) encoding the key enzyme of the biphenyl biosynthetic pathway and aucuparin accumulation. Pretreatment of the cell cultures with ROS scavenger dihydrolipoic acid and NADPH oxidase-specific inhibitor diphenylene iodonium abolished all of the above YE-induced biological events. However, when the cell cultures was pretreated with superoxide dismutase specific inhibitor N,N-diethyldithiocarbamic acid, although O(2) (-) continued to be generated, the H(2)O(2) accumulation, BIS1 expression and aucuparin production were blocked. Interestingly, exogenous supply of H(2)O(2) in the range of 0.05-10 mM failed to induce aucuparin accumulation. These results indicate that endogenous generation of H(2)O(2) rather than that of O(2) (-) is a key factor in YE-induced accumulation of biphenyl phytoalexins in cell cultures of S. aucuparia. PMID:22086110

Qiu, Xiaofang; Lei, Caiyan; Huang, Lili; Li, Xing; Hao, He; Du, Zhigao; Wang, Hong; Ye, Hechun; Beerhues, Ludger; Liu, Benye

2012-01-01

103

Kinetics analysis of growth and lactic acid production in pH-controlled batch cultures of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 using yeast extract\\/corn steep liquor\\/glucose medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the optimal conditions of yeast extract, corn steep liquor and glucose concentration for the growth and lactic acid production of Lactobacillus casei KH-1 and to assess the effect of these conditions using a response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combination as 17 pH-controlled

Mi-Young Ha; Si-Wouk Kim; Yong-Woon Lee; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2003-01-01

104

Transfer RNA methylating activity of yeast mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified in Urografin or sucrose gradient contain tRNA methylating activity with specificities different from those of the cytoplasm. The main reaction product, using E.coli tRNA as methyl group acceptor, is N2,-N2-dimethylguanine. The corresponding mitochondrial methylase is coded by nuclear DNA. A DNA methylating activity is also associated with yeast mitochondria. PMID:10793751

Smolar, Nina; Svensson, Ingvar

1974-01-01

105

Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Unique Sucrose Hydrolase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines  

PubMed Central

A novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, a causative agent of bacterial pustule disease on soybeans, was studied at the functional and molecular levels. SUH was shown to act rather specifically on sucrose (Km = 2.5 mM) but not on sucrose-6-phosphate. Protein analysis of purified SUH revealed that, in this monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular mass of 70,223 ± 12 Da, amino acid sequences determined for several segments have corresponding nucleotide sequences in XAC3490, a protein-coding gene found in the genome of X. axonopodis pv. citri. Based on this information, the SUH gene, consisting of an open reading frame of 1,935 bp, was cloned by screening a genomic library of X. axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra. Database searches and sequence comparison revealed that SUH has significant homology to some family 13 enzymes, with all of the crucial invariant residues involved in the catalytic mechanism conserved, but it shows no similarity to known invertases belonging to family 32. suh expression in X. axonopodis pv. glycines requires sucrose induction, and insertional mutagenesis resulted in an absence of sucrose-inducible sucrose hydrolase activity in crude protein extracts and a sucrose-negative phenotype. Recombinant SUH, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified, was shown to have the same enzymatic characteristics in terms of kinetic parameters. PMID:14702310

Kim, Hong-Suk; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Heu, Sunggi; Jung, Jin

2004-01-01

106

A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

107

Kinetics of immobilized sucrose phosphorylase  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose phosphorylase was immobilized on porous ceramic beads with 3-aminopropyltrie-thoxysilane and glutaraldehyde. It was determined experimentally that under laboratory conditions there was no diffusional resistance to the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The half-life of the immobilized enzyme varied from about 35 days at 30 degrees C to about 5 days at 40 degrees C. The pH optimum was found to be between 6.5 and 7.0. The activation energy for the reaction was found to be about 12.5 kcal/mol. Eleven independent kinetic constants in the complete rate equation for the previously proposed ping-pong mechanism were found to be in good agreement with those for the soluble enzyme. (Refs. 19).

Taylor, F.; Cheng Shung Gong, L.C.; Tsao, G.T.

1982-02-01

108

Reducing sucrose loss in sugarbeet storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose loss in sugarbeet storage is a considerable problem which is negatively influenced by environmental conditions, stress on roots from disease problems in the field, rough handling during harvest and transport, and microbial growth. To reduce sucrose loss in sugarbeet storage, studies were in...

109

Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.  

SciTech Connect

This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose for an additional 20 h. Sucrose transport activity was higher than the water control in both staurosporine/water- and staurosporine/sucrose-fed leaves. In contrast, sucrose transport activity was only 40% of the water control in sucrose-fed leaves. Taken together, these results showed that a phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathway is involved in sucrose-mediated regulation of BvSUT1 gene expression, sucrose transport activity, and ultimately phloem loading. Publications originating from this work: Vaughn MW, GN. Harrington, and DR Bush 2002. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10876-10880 Ransom-Hodgkins W, MW Vaughn, and DR Bush 2003. Protein phosphorylation mediates a key step in sucrose-regulation of the expression and transport activity of a beet proton-sucrose symporter. Planta 217:483-489 Harrington GN and Bush DR 2003. The bifunctional role of hexokinase in metabolism and glucose signaling. Plant Cell 15: 2493-2496

Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

2002-08-06

110

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

111

Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. The fact that microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot has led to a growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolysed by the enzyme invertase.

Jeff Gore; Hyun Youk; Alexander van Oudenaarden

2009-01-01

112

Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.  

PubMed

The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology. PMID:23339519

Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

2013-02-13

113

Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds  

SciTech Connect

Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

Xu, Dianpeng; Sung, Shijean, S.; Black, C.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1989-04-01

114

Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate  

PubMed Central

Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima ?-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

2014-01-01

115

Transport of sucrose, not hexose, in the phloem  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that glucose and fructose are essentially absent in mobile phloem sap. However, this paradigm has been called into question, especially but not entirely, with respect to species in the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae. In the experiments in question, phloem sap was obtained by detaching leaves and placing the cut ends of the petioles in an EDTA solution. More hexose than sucrose was detected. In the present study, these results were confirmed for four species. However, almost identical results were obtained when the leaf blades were removed and only petiole stubs were immersed. This suggests that the sugars in the EDTA solution represent compounds extracted from the petioles, rather than sugars in transit in the phloem. In further experiments, the leaf blades were exposed to 14CO2 and, following a chase period, radiolabelled sugars in the petioles and EDTA exudate were identified. Almost all the radiolabel was in the form of [14C]sucrose, with little radiolabelled hexose. The data support the long-held contention that sucrose is a ubiquitous transport sugar, but hexoses are essentially absent in the phloem stream. PMID:22553289

Liu, David D.; Chao, Wesley M.; Turgeon, Robert

2012-01-01

116

Sucrose/Glucose molecular alloys by cryomilling.  

PubMed

We report here for the first time a series of amorphous sucrose/glucose molecular alloys prepared by cryomilling. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and solution proton nuclear magnetic resonance showed that cryomilling drives a direct transformation from a two-phase mixture of crystalline sucrose and glucose, to a single-phase amorphous sucrose/glucose molecular alloy. The molecular alloys displayed a single Tg which varied linearly with composition. The effect of atmospheric moisture and the possibility of localised melting of the material because of milling-related friction were also discussed. PMID:24867316

Megarry, Andrew J; Booth, Jonathan; Burley, Jonathan

2014-07-01

117

Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases are valued tools in chemistry to generate glycodiversification. Not only do these enzymes use as substrate an abundant agroresource, sucrose, but they also share a remarkable versatility regarding the acceptor substrate, allowing the structurally-controlled synthesis of diverse glucosylated products. Latest research has demonstrated the potential of enzyme engineering to tailor novel sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases that give access to original carbohydrate-based structures. This chapter gives an overview of the recent achievements in biocatalysis using these enzymes.

André, Isabelle; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

118

Microencapsulation in yeast cells.  

PubMed

A method for encapsulating high concentrations of essential oils into bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is described. The process involves mixing an aqueous suspension of yeast and an essential oil, which allows the oil to pass freely through the cell wall and membrane and remain passively within the cell. Oil droplets sequestered within the cell were clearly visible using confocal microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell wall and membrane remain intact during the process. Cells quickly lost viability during the process and it appeared unnecessary for the cells to be viable for the process to occur. Encapsulated oil was recovered from the cells using a water/ethanol extraction procedure and analysed by gas chromatography. No significant differences were noted between encapsulated and unencapsulated oil profiles. The rate of permeation of oil into the yeast cells was found to increase significantly at higher temperatures due to the phase transition of the lipid membrane. The rates at which different essential oils permeated the cell varied considerably due to variations in terpene chemistry. The encapsulation of straight chain hydrocarbons highlighted the effects of molecular size, shape and the presence of hydroxl groups on the process. The process occurs by passive diffusion as a result of hydrophobic flavour components partitioning into the cell membrane and intracellular lipid. This paper briefly reviews the patented literature and reports some of the initial observations of the transport mechanisms involved during the accumulation of essential oils by yeast cells. PMID:9818954

Bishop, J R; Nelson, G; Lamb, J

1998-01-01

119

Intracellular sucrose communicates metabolic demand to sucrose transporters in developing pea cotyledons  

PubMed Central

Mechanistic inter-relationships in sinks between sucrose compartmentation/metabolism and phloem unloading/translocation are poorly understood. Developing grain legume seeds provide tractable experimental systems to explore this question. Metabolic demand by cotyledons is communicated to phloem unloading and ultimately import by sucrose withdrawal from the seed apoplasmic space via a turgor-homeostat mechanism. What is unknown is how metabolic demand is communicated to cotyledon sucrose transporters responsible for withdrawing sucrose from the apoplasmic space. This question was explored here using a pea rugosus mutant (rrRbRb) compromised in starch biosynthesis compared with its wild-type counterpart (RRRbRb). Sucrose influx into cotyledons was found to account for 90% of developmental variations in their absolute growth and hence starch biosynthetic rates. Furthermore, rr and RR cotyledons shared identical response surfaces, indicating that control of transporter activity was likely to be similar for both lines. In this context, sucrose influx was correlated positively with expression of a sucrose/H+ symporter (PsSUT1) and negatively with two sucrose facilitators (PsSUF1 and PsSUF4). Sucrose influx exhibited a negative curvilinear relationship with cotyledon concentrations of sucrose and hexoses. In contrast, the impact of intracellular sugars on transporter expression was transporter dependent, with expression of PsSUT1 inhibited, PsSUF1 unaffected, and PsSUF4 enhanced by sugars. Sugar supply to, and sugar concentrations of, RR cotyledons were manipulated using in vitro pod and cotyledon culture. Collectively the results obtained showed that intracellular sucrose was the physiologically active sugar signal that communicated metabolic demand to sucrose influx and this transport function was primarily determined by PsSUT1 regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:18931350

Zhou, Yuchan; Chan, Katie; Wang, Trevor L.; Hedley, Cliff L.; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

2009-01-01

120

Sucrose Phosphatase Associated with Vacuole Preparations from Red Beet, Sugar Beet, and Immature Sugarcane Stem 12  

PubMed Central

The specific phosphatase, sucrose phosphate phosphohydrolase (sucrose phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.24) was present in vacuole preparations from storage tissue of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivar Kawemono), and immature sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid, cultivar NCO 310). In red beet vacuole preparations the specific activity of sucrose phosphatase, using the naturally occurring vacuole marker, betanin, as reference, was higher than the specific activity of cytoplasmic markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that sucrose phosphatase is associated with the vacuoles. High speed centrifugation of lysed vacuoles did not result in precipitation of the enzyme indicating that the enzyme is not tightly bound to the tonoplast. Sucrose phosphatase was more sensitive to inhibition by sodium vanadate and less sensitive to ammonium molybdate than was the nonspecific phosphatase which was also present in the extracts. Sucrose phosphatase might be part of the group translocator proposed recently to operate in the tonoplast of sugarcane and red beet. PMID:16665598

Hawker, John S.; Smith, Genevieve M.; Phillips, Hilary; Wiskich, Joseph T.

1987-01-01

121

Identification of Amino Acids Important for Substrate Specificity in Sucrose Transporters Using Gene Shuffling*  

PubMed Central

Plant sucrose transporters (SUTs) are H+-coupled uptake transporters. Type I and II (SUTs) are phylogenetically related but have different substrate specificities. Type I SUTs transport sucrose, maltose, and a wide range of natural and synthetic ?- and ?-glucosides. Type II SUTs are more selective for sucrose and maltose. Here, we investigated the structural basis for this difference in substrate specificity. We used a novel gene shuffling method called synthetic template shuffling to introduce 62 differentially conserved amino acid residues from type I SUTs into OsSUT1, a type II SUT from rice. The OsSUT1 variants were tested for their ability to transport the fluorescent coumarin ?-glucoside esculin when expressed in yeast. Fluorescent yeast cells were selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Substitution of five amino acids present in type I SUTs in OsSUT1 was found to be sufficient to confer esculin uptake activity. The changes clustered in two areas of the OsSUT1 protein: in the first loop and the top of TMS2 (T80L and A86K) and in TMS5 (S220A, S221A, and T224Y). The substrate specificity of this OsSUT1 variant was almost identical to that of type I SUTs. Corresponding changes in the sugarcane type II transporter ShSUT1 also changed substrate specificity, indicating that these residues contribute to substrate specificity in type II SUTs in general. PMID:22807445

Reinders, Anke; Sun, Ye; Karvonen, Kayla L.; Ward, John M.

2012-01-01

122

Identification of sucrose binding, membrane proteins using a photolyzable sucrose analog. [P. saccharophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sucrose derivative 6'-deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-4-azido)benzamidosucrose (6'-HABS) was prepared from sucrose (via 6'-deoxy-6'-aminosucrose) and 4-amino-salicylic acid. 6'-HABS is a competitive inhibitor of sucrose influx into protoplasts from developing soybean cotyledons and of sucrose binding to membranes from the bacteria P. saccharophila. The Ki for inhibition in the soybean protoplasts was 75..mu..M. 6'-Deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-3-¹²⁵Iodo-4-azido)benzamidosucrose was prepared by lactoperoxidase iodination of 6'-HABS. Upon photolysis in

K. G. Ripp; D. F. Liu; P. Viitanen; W. D. Hitz

1986-01-01

123

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

2007-04-01

124

Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

1996-10-05

125

Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological, biochemical and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 days) induced a stable (>24 hr) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 hr) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7-day protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a non-caloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multi-step GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose. PMID:23554493

Tukey, David S.; Ferreira, Jainne M.; Antoine, Shannon O.; D’amour, James A.; Ninan, Ipe; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K.; Hartner, Diana T.; Guarini, Carlo B.; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F.; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S.; Mahajan, Shahana S.; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C.; Carr, Kenneth D.; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B.

2013-01-01

126

Sucrose ingestion induces rapid AMPA receptor trafficking.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPARs containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Electrophysiological, biochemical, and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 d) induced a stable (>24 h) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 h) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7 d protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a noncaloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multistep GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose. PMID:23554493

Tukey, David S; Ferreira, Jainne M; Antoine, Shannon O; D'amour, James A; Ninan, Ipe; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K; Hartner, Diana T; Guarini, Carlo B; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S; Mahajan, Shahana S; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C; Carr, Kenneth D; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B

2013-04-01

127

Current studies on sucrose isomerase and biological isomaltulose production using sucrose isomerase.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely used as a functional sweetener with promising properties, including slower digestion, lower glycemic index, prolonged energy release, lower insulin reaction, and less cariogenicity. It has been approved as a safe sucrose substitute by the Food and Drug Administration of the US; Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan; and the Commission of the European Communities. This article presents a review of recent studies on the properties, physiological effects, and food application of isomaltulose. In addition, the biochemical properties of sucrose isomerases producing isomaltulose are compared; the heterologous expression, fermentation optimization, structural determination, and catalysis mechanism of sucrose isomerase are reviewed; and the biotechnological production of isomaltulose from sucrose is summarized. PMID:24866943

Mu, Wanmeng; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

2014-08-01

128

Production and characterization of a novel yeast extracellular invertase activity towards improved dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization.  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was the production and characterization of a novel invertase activity from Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 for further application to biodesulfurization (BDS) in order to expand the exploitable alternative carbon sources to renewable sucrose-rich feedstock. The maximum invertase activity (163 U ml(-1)) was achieved after 7 days of Z. bailii strain Talf1 cultivation at pH 5.5-6.0, 25 °C, and 150 rpm in Yeast Malt Broth with 25 % Jerusalem artichoke pulp as inducer substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude enzyme activity were 5.5 and 50 °C, respectively, and moreover, high stability was observed at 30 °C for pH 5.5-6.5. The application of Talf1 crude invertase extract (1 %) to a BDS process by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B at 30 °C and pH 7.5 was carried out through a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach in which 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 250 ?M dibenzothiophene were used as sole carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. Growth and desulfurization profiles were evaluated and compared with those of BDS without invertase addition. Despite its lower stability at pH 7.5 (loss of activity within 24 h), Talf1 invertase was able to catalyze the full hydrolysis of 10 g l(-1) sucrose in culture medium into invert sugar, contributing to a faster uptake of the monosaccharides by strain 1B during BDS. In SSF approach, the desulfurizing bacterium increased its ?max from 0.035 to 0.070 h(-1) and attained a 2-hydroxybiphenyl productivity of 5.80 ?M/h in about 3 days instead of 7 days, corresponding to an improvement of 2.6-fold in relation to the productivity obtained in BDS process without invertase addition. PMID:25163885

Arez, Bruno F; Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

2014-11-01

129

Effects of Sucrose on the Extracellular Matrix of Plaque-Like Biofilm Formed in vivo, Studied by Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that sucrose promotes changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of plaque-like biofilm (PLB), but its effect on protein expression has not been studied in vivo. Therefore, the protein compositions of ECM of PLB formed with and without sucrose exposure were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). For this purpose, a crossover study was conducted during two phases of 14 days each, during which a volunteer wore a palatal appliance containing eight enamel blocks for PLB accumulation. In each phase, a 20% sucrose solution or distilled and deionized water (control) were extraorally dripped onto the blocks 8×/day. On the 14th day, the PLB were collected, the ECM proteins were extracted, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, digested by in-gel trypsin and MALDI-TOF MS analyzed. In the ECM of PLB formed under sucrose exposure, the following changes compared with the control PLB were observed: (1) the presence of upregulated proteins that may be involved in bacterial response to environmental changes induced by sucrose and (2) the absence of calcium-binding proteins that may partly explain the low inorganic concentration found in ECM of PLB formed under sucrose exposure. The findings showing that sucrose affected the ECM protein composition of PLB in vivo provide further insight into the unique cariogenic properties of this dietary carbohydrate. PMID:18832830

Paes Leme, A.F.; Bellato, C.M.; Bedi, G.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; Koo, H.; Cury, J.A.

2008-01-01

130

Permeability properties of peroxisomal membranes from yeasts.  

PubMed

We have studied the permeability properties of intact peroxisomes and purified peroxisomal membranes from two methylotrophic yeasts. After incorporation of sucrose and dextran in proteoliposomes composed of asolectin and peroxisomal membranes isolated from the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Candida boidinii a selective leakage of sucrose occurred indicating that the peroxisomal membranes were permeable to small molecules. Since the permeability of yeast peroxisomal membranes in vitro may be due to the isolation procedure employed, the osmotic stability of peroxisomes was tested during incubations of intact protoplasts in hypotonic media. Mild osmotic swelling of the protoplasts also resulted in swelling of the peroxisomes present in these cells but not in a release of their matrix proteins. The latter was only observed when the integrity of the cells was disturbed due to disruption of the cell membrane during further lowering of the concentration of the osmotic stabilizer. Stability tests with purified peroxisomes indicated that this leak of matrix proteins was not associated with the permeability to sucrose. Various attempts to mimic the in vivo situation and generate a proton motive force across the peroxisomal membranes in order to influence the permeability properties failed. Two different proton pumps were used for this purpose namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and reaction center-light-harvesting complex I (RCLH1 complex). After introduction of BR into the membrane of intact peroxisomes generation of a pH-gradient was not or barely detectable. Since this pump readily generated a pH-gradient in pure liposomes, these results strengthened the initial observations on the leakiness of the peroxisomal membrane fragments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2339956

Douma, A C; Veenhuis, M; Sulter, G J; Waterham, H R; Verheyden, K; Mannaerts, G P; Harder, W

1990-01-01

131

The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334?  

PubMed Central

Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ?50,000 and ?17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ?50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-?-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-?-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ?1.5- and ?1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

2008-01-01

132

High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density increase was shown to quickly saturate with cell mass attached on the electrode. Based on recent modelling data that suggested that the electrode currents might be limited by the poor electrical conductivity of the anode, the power density versus electrical conductivity of a yeast-immobilized anode was investigated. Introduction of high aspect ratio carbon fiber filaments to the immobilization matrix increased the electrical conductivity of the anode. Although a higher electrical conductivity clearly led to an increase in power densities, it was shown that the principal limitation to power density increase was coming from proton transfer limitations in the immobilized anode. Partial overcoming of the gradients lead a power density of ca. 250 microW cm-2, which is the highest reported for yeast powered MFCs. A yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cell was investigated as a power source for low power sensors using raw tree sap. It was shown that yeast can efficiently utilize the sucrose present in the raw tree sap to produce electricity when excess salt is added to the medium. Therefore the salinity of a potential energy source is an important consideration when MFCs are being considered for energy harvesting from natural sources.

Ganguli, Rahul

133

Dental caries: Possible sugar substitutes for sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of sucrose, fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)§, and equal weights of fructose and glucose in cakes containing fat and prepared by the solution method of mixing. Cakes prepared with glucose scored lowest in all sensory attributes.According to objective measurements of product quality, cakes made with monosaccharides were smaller, more easily broken and more

Charlotte M. Thompson; Kaye Funk; Rachel Schemmel; Olaf Mickelsen

1974-01-01

134

Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential ?-Glucosidase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast ?-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast ?-glucosidase with an IC50?=?1.18?mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97?mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79?mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500?mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

2013-01-01

135

Sucrose utilization and impact of sucrose on glycosyltransferase expression in Lactobacillus reuteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases of lactic acid bacteria are associated with biofilm formation, bacterial stress response and sucrose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of glycosyltransferases to sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 expressing the glucosyltransferase GtfA and the inulosucrase Inu, and L. reuteri LTH 5448 expressing the fructosyltransferase FtfA.Transcriptional analysis using quantitative real time PCR revealed that

Clarissa Schwab; Jens Walter; Gerald W. Tannock; Rudi F. Vogel; Michael G. Gänzle

2007-01-01

136

Attempts to detect lycopersene formation in yeast  

PubMed Central

1. ?-Ionone vapour has been shown to cause an increase in the more saturated carotenes and a decrease in the less saturated carotenes of Rhodotorula glutinis. Lycopersene (dihydrophytoene) has been proposed as a precursor to phytoene. Attempts were made to isolate lycopersene from ?-ionone-treated cultures of R. glutinis. 2. Large samples of ?-ionone-treated cultures were examined for the presence of lycopersene. Spots were detected on silicic acid plates that could not be differentiated from synthetic lycopersene on the basis of column and thin-layer chromatographic separations and staining techniques. The lycopersene-like substance could be obtained from non-treated pigmented yeast as well as baker's yeast. 3. An extraction of bacterial-grade yeast extract also yielded a lycopersene-like substance. The extracts of R. glutinis cells cultured on media not containing yeast extract did not contain the lycopersene-like compound. 4. No significant carbon was incorporated into the lycopersene zone from 14C-labelled mevalonate, acetate and glucose by R. glutinis and baker's yeast. 5. These results indicate that compounds may exist with chromatographic properties similar to lycopersene, but that lycopersene could not be detected in either a pigmented or a non-pigmented yeast. PMID:5753091

Scharf, S. S.; Simpson, K. L.

1968-01-01

137

Influence of Sucrose on the Mutarotation Velocity of Lactose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of mutarotation of lactose in the presence of sucrose was determined at 25, 30 and 35 C. The rate of mnta- rotation o£ lactose decreased slightly by sucrose added to 40% and thereafter greatly decreased. Increasing sucrose from 30 to 60 g per 100 ml solution, decreased the velocity constant 1.8 to 1.9 times, inde- pendent of the

K. N. Patel; T. A. Nickerson

1970-01-01

138

Monoacetalization of Unprotected Sucrose with Citral And Ionones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monoacetalization of sucrose by citral, ?-ionone and ?-ionone is reported. Geranial and neral sucrose acetals (E and Z isomers of citral acetals) are described. Optimization of the acidic catalysis afforded good yields of acetals directly from unprotected sucrose by transacetalization of dimethyl acetals in dimethylformamide. The influence of microwave irradiation on the reaction outcome was investigated.

Piotr Salanski; Gérard Descotes; Alain Bouchu; Yves Queneau

1998-01-01

139

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

2008-01-01

140

Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity.  

PubMed

The pathway of carbon phloem loading was examined in leaf tissues of the forage grass Lolium perenne. The effect of defoliation (leaf blade removal) on sucrose transport capacity was assessed in leaf sheaths as the major carbon source for regrowth. The pathway of carbon transport was assessed via a combination of electron microscopy, plasmolysis experiments and plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning from the microsomal fraction. Results support an apoplastic phloem loading mechanism. Imposition of an artificial proton-motive force to PMVs from leaf sheaths energized an active, transient and saturable uptake of sucrose (Suc). The affinity of Suc carriers for Suc was 580 microM in leaf sheaths of undefoliated plants. Defoliation induced a decrease of K(m) followed by an increase of V(max). A transporter was isolated from stubble (including leaf sheaths) cDNA libraries and functionally expressed in yeast. The level of L.perenne SUcrose Transporter 1 (LpSUT1) expression increased in leaf sheaths in response to defoliation. Taken together, the results indicate that Suc transport capacity increased in leaf sheaths of L. perenne in response to leaf blade removal. This increase might imply de novo synthesis of Suc transporters, including LpSUT1, and may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to rapid refoliation. PMID:19520670

Berthier, Alexandre; Desclos, Marie; Amiard, Véronique; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W; Turgeon, Robert; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

2009-07-01

141

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

142

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

The Exploratorium

2012-03-10

143

Functional characterization of sucrose phosphorylase and scrR, a regulator of sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus reuteri harbours alternative enzymes for sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphorylase, fructansucrases, and glucansucrases. Sucrose phosphorylase and fructansucrases additionally contribute to raffinose metabolism. Glucansucrases and fructansucrases produce exopolysaccharides as alternative to sucrose hydrolysis. L. reuteri LTH5448 expresses a levansucrase (ftfA) and sucrose phosphorylase (scrP), both are inducible by sucrose. This study determined the contribution of scrP to sucrose and raffinose metabolism in L. reuteri LTH5448, and elucidated the role of scrR in regulation sucrose metabolism. Disruption of scrP and scrR was achieved by double crossover mutagenesis. L. reuteri LTH5448, LTH5448?scrP and LTH5448?scrR were characterized with respect to growth and metabolite formation with glucose, sucrose, or raffinose as sole carbon source. Inactivation of scrR led to constitutive transcription of scrP and ftfA, demonstrating that scrR is negative regulator. L. reuteri LTH5448 and the LTH5448?scrP or LTH5448?scrR mutant strains did not differ with respect to glucose, sucrose or raffinose utilization. However, L. reuteri LTH5448?scrP produced more levan, indicating that the lack of sucrose phosphorylase is compensated by an increased metabolic flux through levansucrase. In conclusion, the presence of alternate pathways for sucrose and raffinose metabolism and their regulation indicate that these substrates, which are abundant in plants, are preferred carbohydrate sources for L. reuteri. PMID:24010626

Teixeira, Januana S; Abdi, Reihaneh; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

2013-12-01

144

Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays  

PubMed Central

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

2012-01-01

145

Isolation and characterization of sucrose polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various chromatographic techniques for isolation and separation of highly esterified sucrose polyesters (SPE) of olive oil\\u000a are described. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography was used to check the purity of the samples, particularly to\\u000a show that SPE were free from unreacted fatty acid methyl esters. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), Iatroscan TLC flame-ionization\\u000a detection (FID) and highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reversed-phase were applied

J. J. Rios; M. C. Pérez-Camino; G. Márquez-Ruiz; M. C. Dobarganes

1994-01-01

146

Location of enzymes metabolising sucrose and starch in the grasses Pennisetum purpureum and Muhlenbergia montana.  

PubMed

Leaf tissue of the panicoid grass Pennisetum purpureum (Schum) and of the chloridoid grass Muhlenbergia montana (Hitchcock) were fractionated to produce preparations enriched in the contents of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase were found predominantly in the mesophyll tissues of both species, as was uridine-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Pennisetum. In Muhlenbergia this enzyme was more plentiful in the bundle sheath cell fraction.Starch synthetase and adenosine-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase were plentiful in bundle sheath extracts of both species but phosphorylase was associated with extracts of mesophyll cells. In no case was there a clear-cut compartmentation of enzymes between leaf fractions. PMID:24435920

Bucke, C; Oliver, I R

1975-01-01

147

Transcription factors, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes interact to regulate potato phenylpropanoid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Much remains unknown about how transcription factors and sugars regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism in tuber crops like potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on phylogeny and protein similarity to known regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism, 15 transcription factors were selected and their expression was compared in white, yellow, red, and purple genotypes with contrasting phenolic and anthocyanin profiles. Red and purple genotypes had increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, markedly higher levels of phenylpropanoids, and elevated expression of most phenylpropanoid structural genes, including a novel anthocyanin O-methyltransferase. The transcription factors Anthocyanin1 (StAN1), basic Helix Loop Helix1 (StbHLH1), and StWD40 were more strongly expressed in red and purple potatoes. Expression of 12 other transcription factors was not associated with phenylpropanoid content, except for StMYB12B, which showed a negative relationship. Increased expression of AN1, bHLH1, and WD40 was also associated with environmentally mediated increases in tuber phenylpropanoids. Treatment of potato plantlets with sucrose induced hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, structural genes, AN1, bHLH1, WD40, and genes encoding the sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV2. Transient expression of StAN1 in tobacco leaves induced bHLH1, structural genes, SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV1, and increased phenylpropanoid amounts. StAN1 infiltration into tobacco leaves decreased sucrose and glucose concentrations. In silico promoter analysis revealed the presence of MYB and bHLH regulatory elements on sucrolytic gene promoters and sucrose-responsive elements on the AN1 promoter. These findings reveal an interesting dynamic between AN1, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes in modulating potato phenylpropanoids. PMID:24098049

Payyavula, Raja S.; Navarre, Duroy A.

2013-01-01

148

The Medicago truncatula sucrose transporter family: characterization and implication of key members in carbon partitioning towards arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

We identified de novo sucrose transporter (SUT) genes involved in long-distance transport of sucrose from photosynthetic source leaves towards sink organs in the model leguminous species Medicago truncatula. The identification and functional analysis of sugar transporters provide key information on mechanisms that underlie carbon partitioning in plant-microorganism interactions. In that way, full-length sequences of the M. truncatula SUT (MtSUT) family were retrieved and biochemical characterization of MtSUT members was performed by heterologous expression in yeast. The MtSUT family now comprises six genes which distribute among Dicotyledonous clades. MtSUT1-1 and MtSUT4-1 are key members in regard to their expression profiles in source leaves and sink roots and were characterized as functional H(+)/sucrose transporters. Physiological and molecular responses to phosphorus supply and inoculation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices was studied by gene expression and sugar quantification analyses. Sucrose represents the main sugar transport form in M. truncatula and the expression profiles of MtSUT1-1, MtSUT2, and MtSUT4-1 highlight a fine-tuning regulation for beneficial sugar fluxes towards the fungal symbiont. Taken together, these results suggest distinct functions for proteins from the SUT1, SUT2, and SUT4 clades in plant and in biotrophic interactions. PMID:22930732

Doidy, Joan; van Tuinen, Diederik; Lamotte, Olivier; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Wipf, Daniel

2012-11-01

149

The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose  

E-print Network

was treated with aqueous solutions of sucrose and with type "A" sugar. The results of the two treatments were examined for parity. 2. The cell structure of various samples was examined by the use of light microscopy as well as transmission and scanning... in sample BR-12. . . 60 Table 2. Compositional data for type "A" sugar. . . . . . . . Table 3. Relationships between solution percentage, percent of sugar in the wood sample, and the amount of moisture absorbed by the sample at . . 67 82% RH at 26...

Parrent, James Michael

1983-01-01

150

Comprehensive Mutational Analysis of Sucrose-Metabolizing Pathways in Streptococcus mutans Reveals Novel Roles for the Sucrose Phosphotransferase System Permease  

PubMed Central

Sucrose is perhaps the most efficient carbohydrate for the promotion of dental caries in humans, and the primary caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes multiple enzymes involved in the metabolism of this disaccharide. Here, we engineered a series of mutants lacking individual or combinations of sucrolytic pathways to understand the control of sucrose catabolism and to determine whether as-yet-undisclosed pathways for sucrose utilization were present in S. mutans. Growth phenotypes indicated that gtfBCD (encoding glucan exopolysaccharide synthases), ftf (encoding the fructan exopolysaccharide synthase), and the scrAB pathway (sugar-phosphotransferase system [PTS] permease and sucrose-6-PO4 hydrolase) constitute the majority of the sucrose-catabolizing activity; however, mutations in any one of these genes alone did not affect planktonic growth on sucrose. The multiple-sugar metabolism pathway (msm) contributed minimally to growth on sucrose. Notably, a mutant lacking gtfBC, which cannot produce water-insoluble glucan, displayed improved planktonic growth on sucrose. Meanwhile, loss of scrA led to growth stimulation on fructooligosaccharides, due in large part to increased expression of the fruAB (fructanase) operon. Using the LevQRST four-component signal transduction system as a model for carbohydrate-dependent gene expression in strains lacking extracellular sucrases, a PlevD-cat (EIIALev) reporter was activated by pulsing with sucrose. Interestingly, ScrA was required for activation of levD expression by sucrose through components of the LevQRST complex, but not for activation by the cognate LevQRST sugars fructose or mannose. Sucrose-dependent catabolite repression was also evident in strains containing an intact sucrose PTS. Collectively, these results reveal a novel regulatory circuitry for the control of sucrose catabolism, with a central role for ScrA. PMID:23222725

Zeng, Lin

2013-01-01

151

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.  

PubMed

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both sucrose and sucralose activate functionally connected primary taste pathways; (2) taste pleasantness predicts left insula response; (3) sucrose elicits a stronger brain response in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, striatum and anterior cingulate, compared to sucralose; (4) only sucrose, but not sucralose, stimulation engages dopaminergic midbrain areas in relation to the behavioral pleasantness response. Thus, brain response distinguishes the caloric from the non-caloric sweetener, although the conscious mind could not. This could have important implications on how effective artificial sweeteners are in their ability to substitute sugar intake. PMID:18096409

Frank, Guido K W; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Simmons, Alan N; Paulus, Martin P; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Kaye, Walter H

2008-02-15

152

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

153

Effect of salt on the response of birds to sucrose  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The preference of male red-winged blackbirds for solutions of sucrose and sucrose with 0.03 M sodium chloride was tested, using a two-bottle choice test. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the birds were indifferent to 0.03 M NaCl in water. Both control and experimental animals exhibited indifference to the solutions at the lowest concentration and aversion at the highest. The data suggest that the added sodium chloride makes the sucrose stimulus more discriminable.

Rogers, J.G., Jr.; Maller, O.

1973-01-01

154

Preparation and cross-linking properties of methacrylated sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

By interfacial esterification of sucrose with methacryloyl chloride, an ester derivative of sucrose—methacryloyloxysucrose\\u000a was prepared, which contains vinyl side groups. The structure of methacrylated sucrose (MS) was determined by means of FTIR,\\u000a 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectra. The MS was used as new cross-linker to cross-link poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The influence of the amounts\\u000a of cross-linking agent on the swelling

Roman Jantas; Lucyna Herczy?ska; Joanna Potakowska

155

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

156

Computational systems biology of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MSc (Biochemistry)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2006. This thesis is about mathematical modelling of sucrose accumulation in the storage perenchyma of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) In… (more)

Uys, Lafras

2006-01-01

157

Seed-specific overexpression of a potato sucrose transporter increases sucrose uptake and growth rates of developing pea cotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the storage phase, cotyledons of developing pea seeds are nourished by nutrients released to the seed apoplasm by their maternal seed coats. Sucrose is transported into pea cotyledons by sucrose\\/H+ symport mediated by PsSUT1 and possibly other sucrose symporters. PsSUT1 is principally localised to plasma membranes of cotyledon epidermal and subepidermal transfer cells abutting the seed coat. We tested

Elke Rosche; Daniel Blackmore; Mechthild Tegeder; Terese Richardson; Hart Schroeder; Thomas J. V. Higgins; Wolf B. Frommer; Christina E. Offler; John W. Patrick

2002-01-01

158

Drought induces fructan synthesis and 1SST (sucrose: sucrose fructosyltransferase) in roots and leaves of chicory seedlings ( Cichorium intybus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Seeds of Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum cv. Flash were sown in acid-washed vermiculite and grown in a controlled-environment growth chamber. After 1 month of growth,\\u000a plantlets did not contain sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), the key enzyme in fructan biosynthesis. No fructan\\u000a could be observed. Some of the plants were submitted to drought for 2 weeks. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations

Joke De Roover; Kathleen Vandenbranden; André Van Laere; Wim Van den Ende

2000-01-01

159

Sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and yield analysis of tomato plants transformed with maize sucrose-phosphate synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Sucrose synthesis is a major element of the interactions between photosynthesis and plant growth and development. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. UC82B) plants transformed with maize sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) expressed from either a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate\\u000a carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit promoter (SSU) or the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S) were used\\u000a to study effects of increased sucrose synthesis

Marianne M. Laporte; Julie A. Galagan; Joseph A. Shapiro; Michael R. Boersig; Christine K. Shewmaker; Thomas D. Sharkey

1997-01-01

160

Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.  

PubMed

During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. PMID:25555226

Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

2015-03-16

161

Determination of Bitrex, Quassia Powder and Sucrose Octaacetate Next to Diethyl Phthalate and Camphor in Specially Denatured Alcohols by Liquid Chromatografhy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC method for determination of the bitter principles, bitrex, quassia and sucrose octaacetate, next to other ingredients in Specially Denatured Alcohol formulations is described. The method is based on evaporation of a sample, extraction of the residue with hexane and analysis of the extracted residue on a Cyano-type column with acetonitrile-water used as the eluent. Baseline separation of compounds

Jan Kovar; Mireille Loyer

1984-01-01

162

A 62-kD sucrose binding protein is expressed and localized in tissues actively engaged in sucrose transport.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose transport from the apoplasm, across the plasma membrane, and into the symplast is critical for growth and development in most plant species. Phloem loading, the process of transporting sucrose against a concentration gradient into the phloem, is an essential first step in long-distance transport of sucrose and carbon partitioning. We report here that a soybean 62-kD sucrose binding protein is associated with the plasma membrane of several cell types engaged in sucrose transport, including the mesophyll cells of young sink leaves, the companion cells of mature phloem, and the cells of the developing cotyledons. Furthermore, the temporal expression of the gene and the accumulation pattern of the protein closely parallel the rate of sucrose uptake in the cotyledon. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA for this 62-kD sucrose binding protein indicated that the protein is not an invertase, contains a 29-amino acid leader peptide that is absent from the mature protein, and is not an integral membrane protein. We conclude that the 62-kD sucrose binding protein is involved in sucrose transport, but is not performing this function independently. PMID:1467654

Grimes, H D; Overvoorde, P J; Ripp, K; Franceschi, V R; Hitz, W D

1992-01-01

163

Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

2013-01-01

164

Temperature dependence of water activity in aqueous solutions of sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental data analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the water activity coefficient and selected excess thermodynamic functions for aqueous solutions of sucrose. A four-suffix Margules equation with temperature-dependent parameters was used to fit thermodynamic data such as the vapor pressure, boiling point, osmotic coefficient, freezing point, sucrose solubility, heat of dilution and specific heat

Maciej Starzak; Mohamed Mathlouthi

2006-01-01

165

Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers  

PubMed Central

In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

2013-01-01

166

Sucrose transporter1 functions in phloem loading in maize leaves  

PubMed Central

In most plants, sucrose is exported from source leaves to carbon-importing sink tissues to sustain their growth and metabolism. Apoplastic phloem-loading species require sucrose transporters (SUTs) to transport sucrose into the phloem. In many dicot plants, genetic and biochemical evidence has established that SUT1-type proteins function in phloem loading. However, the role of SUT1 in phloem loading in monocot plants is not clear since the rice (Oryza sativa) and sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) SUT1 orthologues do not appear to function in phloem loading of sucrose. A SUT1 gene was previously cloned from maize (Zea mays) and shown to have expression and biochemical activity consistent with a hypothesized role in phloem loading. To determine the biological function of SUT1 in maize, a sut1 mutant was isolated and characterized. sut1 mutant plants hyperaccumulate carbohydrates in mature leaves and display leaf chlorosis with premature senescence. In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered biomass partitioning, delayed flowering, and stunted tassel development. Cold-girdling wild-type leaves to block phloem transport phenocopied the sut1 mutants, supporting a role for maize SUT1 in sucrose export. Furthermore, application of 14C-sucrose to abraded sut1 mutant and wild-type leaves showed that sucrose export was greatly diminished in sut1 mutants compared with wild type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SUT1 is crucial for efficient phloem loading of sucrose in maize leaves. PMID:19181865

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Meeley, Robert; Braun, David M.

2009-01-01

167

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used molecular dynamics simulations to determine the sucrose hydrogen bond network (HBN) in amorphous sucrose with 0–50% w\\/w water. We find that the onset of a percolated sugar HBN network (between 33% and 40%) coincides with the experimental observation of the decoupling of viscosity and probe diffusion for these mixtures. The analysis of the free volume (FV) in these

Valeria Molinero; Tahir Ça??n; William A. Goddard III

2003-01-01

168

Oral sucrose and pain relief for preterm infants.  

PubMed

The frequency of painful procedures performed on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) presents a challenge to nurses who are attempting to provide effective pain relief, and to the infants themselves who may suffer adverse consequences in response to repeated painful procedures. One new pain relief intervention under study is the administration of oral sucrose, which may activate endogenous opioid systems within the body. Studies with preterm infants that have examined the use of oral sucrose as an analgesic during heelsticks and venipunctures have shown that sucrose is effective in reducing pain. Sucrose may also be combined with nonnutritive sucking to provide significant pain relief. The use of oral sucrose is now recommended with a wide range of painful procedures in the NICU. Promising results have been observed in studies with both term and preterm infants, but less research has occurred with preterm infants. Additional research is warranted to determine the most effective approaches for the administration of sucrose, to examine the effectiveness of sucrose with additional types of painful procedures, and to examine the effects of long-term repeated use of sucrose. PMID:12836150

Mitchell, Anita; Waltman, Patricia A

2003-06-01

169

Molecular characterization of sucrose: sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1SST) from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA encoding for 1-SST in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. was isolated, cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The heterologous protein, with a molecular mass of 75kDa, shows identity with different plant fructosyltransferases and invertases, which belong to the glycoside hydrolase 32 family. When sucrose was used as substrate, only the transference products 1-kestose and glucose were identified,

Ángela Ávila-Fernández; Clarita Olvera-Carranza; Enrique Rudiño-Piñera; Gladys Iliana Cassab; Jorge Nieto-Sotelo; Agustín López-Munguía

2007-01-01

170

Sucrose helps regulate cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

A test was carried out to see if sucrose could regulate cold-acclimation-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis. In plants and excised leaves, sucrose caused an increase in GUS activity, as a reporter for the activity of the cold-responsive COR78 promoter. This increase was transient at 21 °C but lasted for at least 4 d at 4 °C in continuous darkness. However, at 4 °C with a 16 h photoperiod, GUS activity was similarly high with solutions lacking sucrose or with different concentrations of sucrose. In peeled lower epidermis in the cold dark environment, 40 mM sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance to substantially above that in the controls, but sorbitol had no effect. Similarly to the cold and dark conditions, sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance in the epidermis in the warm light and warm dark environments, but not in a cold light environment. Sucrose had much less effect on COR78 transcript abundance in leaves without the lower epidermis. Thus sucrose regulates expression of COR78, possibly mainly in the epidermis, at the level of transcription. Furthermore, 40 mM sucrose at 4 °C for 24 h in constant darkness was sufficient to give the same GUS activity as in fully acclimated plants of the same age in a 16 h photoperiod, although by 48 h, GUS activity had become intermediate between control and fully cold-acclimated plants. Thus sucrose has a regulatory role in the acclimation of whole plants to cold and this may be important during diurnal dark periods. PMID:18980951

Rekarte-Cowie, Iona; Ebshish, Omar S.; Mohamed, Khalifa S.; Pearce, Roger S.

2008-01-01

171

A Strategy to Compare Yeast Strains and Improve Cell Survival in Ethanol Production Processes above 30°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

At industrial scale, sucrose is converted into ethanol in fermentation processes in which high amounts of both yeast cells and sugar are used. When the temperature increases, the cell lethality, caused by the concomitant effects of high temperature and high sugar levels, is aggravated by increasing levels of ethanol within the medium. By decreasing the sugar concentration in the reactor

Crisla S. Souza; Karen F. Oliveira; Henrique C. Trevisan; Cecilia Laluce

172

78 FR 66743 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability AGENCY: Food and...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose.'' The recommendations provide...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for iron sucrose injection. The draft...

2013-11-06

173

77 FR 18827 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection; Availability AGENCY...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose.'' The recommendations provide...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for iron sucrose injection. DATES: Although...

2012-03-28

174

Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers.  

PubMed

Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers. PMID:24170204

Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte

2013-12-01

175

Sucrose- and H+-Dependent Charge Movements Associated with the Gating of Sucrose Transporter ZmSUT1  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to man the majority of higher plants use sucrose as mobile carbohydrate. Accordingly proton-driven sucrose transporters are crucial for cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution within the plant body. Generally very negative plant membrane potentials and the ability to accumulate sucrose quantities of more than 1 M document that plants must have evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. Methodology/Principal Findings To unravel the functional properties of one specific high capacity plasma membrane sucrose transporter in detail, we expressed the sucrose/H+ co-transporter from maize ZmSUT1 in Xenopus oocytes. Application of sucrose in an acidic pH environment elicited inward proton currents. Interestingly the sucrose-dependent H+ transport was associated with a decrease in membrane capacitance (Cm). In addition to sucrose Cm was modulated by the membrane potential and external protons. In order to explore the molecular mechanism underlying these Cm changes, presteady-state currents (Ipre) of ZmSUT1 transport were analyzed. Decay of Ipre could be best fitted by double exponentials. When plotted against the voltage the charge Q, associated to Ipre, was dependent on sucrose and protons. The mathematical derivative of the charge Q versus voltage was well in line with the observed Cm changes. Based on these parameters a turnover rate of 500 molecules sucrose/s was calculated. In contrast to gating currents of voltage dependent-potassium channels the analysis of ZmSUT1-derived presteady-state currents in the absence of sucrose (I?=?Q/?) was sufficient to predict ZmSUT1 transport-associated currents. Conclusions Taken together our results indicate that in the absence of sucrose, ‘trapped’ protons move back and forth between an outer and an inner site within the transmembrane domains of ZmSUT1. This movement of protons in the electric field of the membrane gives rise to the presteady-state currents and in turn to Cm changes. Upon application of external sucrose, protons can pass the membrane turning presteady-state into transport currents. PMID:20838661

Carpaneto, Armando; Koepsell, Hermann; Bamberg, Ernst; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

2010-01-01

176

The sucrose–trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) nexus: specificity and mechanisms of sucrose signalling by Tre6P  

PubMed Central

Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P), the intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, has a profound influence on plant metabolism, growth, and development. It has been proposed that Tre6P acts as a signal of sugar availability and is possibly specific for sucrose status. Short-term sugar-feeding experiments were carried out with carbon-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in axenic shaking liquid cultures. Tre6P increased when seedlings were exogenously supplied with sucrose, or with hexoses that can be metabolized to sucrose, such as glucose and fructose. Conditional correlation analysis and inhibitor experiments indicated that the hexose-induced increase in Tre6P was an indirect response dependent on conversion of the hexose sugars to sucrose. Tre6P content was affected by changes in nitrogen status, but this response was also attributable to parallel changes in sucrose. The sucrose-induced rise in Tre6P was unaffected by cordycepin but almost completely blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the response. There was a strong correlation between Tre6P and sucrose even in lines that constitutively express heterologous trehalose-phosphate synthase or trehalose-phosphate phosphatase, although the Tre6P:sucrose ratio was shifted higher or lower, respectively. It is proposed that the Tre6P:sucrose ratio is a critical parameter for the plant and forms part of a homeostatic mechanism to maintain sucrose levels within a range that is appropriate for the cell type and developmental stage of the plant. PMID:24420566

Yadav, Umesh Prasad; Ivakov, Alexander; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward

2014-01-01

177

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery’s Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and\\u000a biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast\\u000a extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost\\u000a fermentation routes for several top value

Luís C. Duarte; Florbela Carvalheiro; Sónia Lopes; Ines Neves; Francisco M. Gírio

2008-01-01

178

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Phd Program

179

Structural determinants of product specificity of sucrose isomerases.  

PubMed

The healthy sweetener isomaltulose is industrially produced from the conversion of sucrose by the sucrose isomerase SmuA from Protaminobacter rubrum. Crystal structures of SmuA in native and deoxynojirimycin complexed forms completed with modeling studies unravel the characteristics of the isomaltulose synthases catalytic pocket and their substrate binding mode. Comparison with the trehalulose synthase MutB highlights the role of Arg(298) and Arg(306) active site residues and surface charges in controlling product specificity of sucrose isomerases (isomaltulose versus trehalulose). The results provide a rationale for the specific design of optimized enzymes. PMID:19427862

Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

2009-06-18

180

Mitochondrial metabolism and stress response of yeast: Applications in fermentation technologies.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are sites of oxidative respiration. During sake brewing, sake yeasts are exposed to long periods of hypoxia; the structure, role, and metabolism of mitochondria of sake yeasts have not been studied in detail. It was first elucidated that the mitochondrial structure of sake yeast transforms from filamentous to dotted structure during sake brewing, which affects malate metabolism. Based on the information of yeast mitochondria during sake brewing, practical technologies have been developed; (i) breeding pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast by the isolation of a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport; and (ii) modifying malate and succinate production by manipulating mitochondrial activity. During the bread-making process, baker's yeast cells are exposed to a variety of baking-associated stresses, such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high sucrose concentrations. These treatments induce oxidative stress generating reactive oxygen species due to mitochondrial damage. A novel metabolism of proline and arginine catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 in the mitochondria eventually leads to synthesis of nitric oxide, which confers oxidative stress tolerance on yeast cells. The enhancement of proline and arginine metabolism could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains that are tolerant to multiple baking-associated stresses. These new and practical methods provide approaches to improve the processes in the field of industrial fermentation technologies. PMID:24210052

Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

181

Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

2009-01-01

182

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism. PMID:18322039

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

183

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

184

Sucrose substitutes and their role in caries prevention.  

PubMed

Many non- or low-cariogenic sucrose substitutes are currently available and are found as ingredients of a variety of candy, chewing gum, and drinks. Recently the role of sugar alcohols in promoting remineralisation of enamel has attracted much attention. Thus, the dental profession needs to understand the general characteristics and features of sugar substitutes to provide advice on oral health to patients as well as the general public. There are two critical requirements for sucrose substitutes, namely, being nutritionally appropriate and not being detrimental to the overall general health of the individual. The use of a greater variety of confectionary containing sucrose substitutes and the development of new substitutes with high nutritional value are essential in the battle against caries. In this paper we review in detail the characteristics of sucrose substitutes currently in use, their role in caries prevention and promotion of oral health. PMID:16826877

Matsukubo, Takashi; Takazoe, Ichiro

2006-06-01

185

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

186

Yeast Alive! Watch Yeast Live and Breathe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson for Grades 6-8 explores the chemical reaction that happens when yeast makes bread rise. The process, called fermentation, occurs when tiny living organisms (yeast) feed on the sugars in flour dough, expelling carbon dioxide as they go. It promotes understanding of how enzymes can cause chemical reactions. This resource combines a 4-minute video of the process plus a hands-on lab that allows students to see the effects of fermentation within a typical 40-45 minute middle school class period.

2011-08-19

187

Evolution of Sucrose Synthesis[w  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (Suc). Suc-P synthase, Suc-phosphatase (SPP), and Suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for Suc-P synthase (sps) and Suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena (Nostoc) spp., respectively. An open reading frame in the Synechocystis genome encodes a predicted 27-kD polypeptide that shows homology to the maize (Zea mays) SPP. Heterologous expression of this putative spp gene in Escherichia coli, reported here, confirmed that this open reading frame encodes a functional SPP enzyme. The Synechocystis SPP is highly specific for Suc-6F-P (Km = 7.5 ?m) and is Mg2+ dependent (Ka = 70 ?m), with a specific activity of 46 ?mol min?1 mg?1 protein. Like the maize SPP, the Synechocystis SPP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily of phosphatases/hydrolases. Searches of sequenced microbial genomes revealed homologs of the Synechocystis sps gene in several other cyanobacteria (Nostoc punctiforme, Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT9313, and Synechococcus sp. WH8012), and in three proteobacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Magnetococcus sp. MC1, and Nitrosomonas europaea). Homologs of the Synechocystis spp gene were found in Magnetococcus sp. MC1 and N. punctiforme, and of the Anabaena sus gene in N. punctiforme and N. europaea. From analysis of these sequences, it is suggested that Suc synthesis originated in the proteobacteria or a common ancestor of the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. PMID:11950997

Lunn, John Edward

2002-01-01

188

Biotechnological potential of yeast isolates from cachaça: the Brazilian spirit.  

PubMed

This study identified phenotypic traits appropriate for biotechnological applications of 118 yeasts isolated from cachaça distilleries. Different properties were verified: capacity to use alternative carbon sources; ability to tolerate high concentrations of sucrose, ethanol, methanol, aluminum and zinc as well as different pH values and foam production. Pichia guilliermondii and Pichia anomala strains were identified as the most promising ones for application in the second-generation biofuel industry, showing ability to grow on high glycerol concentrations. Other isolates, identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produced bioethanol comparable to the industrial strains, and were therefore ideal for use in the first-generation ethanol industry. Some of these strains also showed high resistance to aluminum, as observed in sugarcane juice, and to inter-cycle washings with diluted sulphuric acid, as performed in the industrial bioethanol production process. In summary, yeast isolates from cachaça distilleries displayed robustness and phenotypic plasticity, which makes them interesting for biotechnological applications. PMID:25540045

da Conceição, Luís Eduardo Fernandes Rodrigues; Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Oliveira, Juliana; Barbosa, Gustavo Dimas; Alvarez, Florencia; da Mata Correa, Lygia Fátima; Mezadri, Hygor; Coutrim, Mauricio Xavier; Afonso, Robson José de Cássia Franco; Lucas, Candida; Castro, Ieso Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

2015-02-01

189

Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (Tg) that was higher than the well-studied sucrose Tg. This result was obtained either at reduced water content of the analysed sample or by removal of water during Modulated DSC analysis. After removal of the remaining water ( < 3.5% w/w), a Tg of approximately 105 degrees C was obtained at a mass ratio of sodium citrate to sucrose of 0.3. FTIR analysis showed a similar increase in Tg as was found with Modulated DSC analysis. The Tg values were derived from breaks in the vibrational frequency vs. temperature plots in the OH stretching and bending regions. Elevated average strength of hydrogen bonding in the sucrose/citrate glass was concluded from the downshift of the OH stretching band of 25 cm(-1) and from the reduced wavenumber temperature coefficient (WTC). The antisymmetric carboxylate stretch of citrate sensed the glass transition of the mixture, from which we conclude that citrate interacts with the sucrose OH via its carboxylate groups. PMID:14969681

Kets, E P W; IJpelaar, P J; Hoekstra, F A; Vromans, H

2004-02-01

190

Microbial sucrose isomerases: producing organisms, genes and enzymes.  

PubMed

Sucrose isomerase (SI) activity is used industrially for the conversion of sucrose into isomers, particularly isomaltulose or trehalulose, which have properties advantageous over sucrose for some food uses. All of the known microbial SIs are TIM barrel proteins that convert sucrose without need for any cofactors, with varying kinetics and product specificities. The current analysis was undertaken to bridge key gaps between the information in patents and scientific publications about the microbes and enzymes useful for sucrose isomer production. This analysis shows that microbial SIs can be considered in 5 structural classes with corresponding functional distinctions that broadly align with the taxonomic differences between producing organisms. The most widely used bacterial strain for industrial production of isomaltulose, widely referred to as "Protaminobacter rubrum" CBS 574.77, is identified as Serratia plymuthica. The strain producing the most structurally divergent SI, with a high product specificity for trehalulose, widely referred to as "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45, is identified as Rhizobium sp. Each tested SI-producer is shown to have a single SI gene and enzyme, so the properties reported previously for the isolated proteins can reasonably be associated with the products of the genes subsequently cloned from the same isolates and SI classes. Some natural isolates with potent SI activity do not catabolize the isomer under usual production conditions. The results indicate that their industrial potential may be further enhanced by selection for variants that do not catabolize the sucrose substrate. PMID:22133441

Goulter, Ken C; Hashimi, Saeed M; Birch, Robert G

2012-01-01

191

Identification and characterization of the three homeologues of a new sucrose transporter in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Sucrose transporters (SUTs) play important roles in regulating the translocation of assimilates from source to sink tissues. Identification and characterization of new SUTs in economically important crops such as wheat provide insights into their role in determining seed yield. To date, however, only one SUT of wheat has been reported and functionally characterized. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a new SUT, designated as TaSUT2, and its homeologues (TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results TaSUT2A and TaSUT2B genes each encode a protein with 506 amino acids, whereas TaSUT2D encodes a protein of 508 amino acids. The molecular mass of these proteins is predicted to be?~?54 kDA. Topological analysis of the amino acid sequences of the three homeologues revealed that they contain 12 transmembrane spanning helices, which are described as distinct characteristic features of glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide cation symporter family that includes all known plant SUTs, and a histidine residue that appears to be localized at and associated conformationally with the sucrose binding site. Yeast SUSY7/ura3 strain cells transformed with TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D were able to uptake sucrose and grow on a medium containing sucrose as a sole source of carbon; however, our subcellular localization study with plant cells revealed that TaSUT2 is localized to the tonoplast. The expression of TaSUT2 was detected in the source, including flag leaf blade, flag leaf sheath, peduncle, glumes, palea and lemma, and sink (seed) tissues. The relative contributions of the three genomes of wheat to the total expression of TaSUT2 appear to differ with tissues and developmental stages. At the cellular level, TaSUT2 is expressed mainly in the vein of developing seeds and subepidermal mesophyll cells of the leaf blade. Conclusion This study demonstrated that TaSUT2 is a new wheat SUT protein. Given that TaSUT2 is localized to the tonoplast and sucrose is temporarily stored in the vacuoles of both source and sink tissues, our data imply that TaSUT2 is involved in the intracellular partitioning of sucrose, particularly between the vacuole and cytoplasm. PMID:24237613

2013-01-01

192

ISOLATION OF MULTIPLE ISOFORMS OF ENDOSPERM SUCROSE SYNTHASE FROM GUICHAO ORYZA SATIVA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase activity in rice potentially limits rice crop yields. This is because the carbon that forms starch enters the developing rice grain as sucrose and that sucrose must be broken down by the enzyme sucrose synthase to form the precursors of starch, UDP glucose and fructose. By a serie...

193

In situ hybridization of riboprobes for two sucrose synthase transcripts in sugarbeet root tissue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase is an important enzyme for sucrose metabolism in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots. Its activity rises during root development and it is correlated with sucrose accumulation. Sucrose synthase has two active isoforms in sugarbeet roots. The goals of this work were to study spatial d...

194

Evidence for a tonoplast-associated form of sucrose synthase and its potential involvement in sucrose mobilization from the vacuole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following work presents new evidence for a tonoplast localization of sucrose synthase and its functional role during the mobilization of vacuolar sucrose. Highly purified tonoplast vesicles were associated with significant SuSy levels as determined by immuno-recognition, enzymatic activity, and by- product measurements. Total tonoplast-bound SuSy was estimated to be approximately 7% of the total tis- sue activity. SuSy affinity

Ed Etxeberria; Pedro Gonzalez

2003-01-01

195

A Preliminary Study of the Human Brain Response to Oral Sucrose and its Association with Recent Drinking  

PubMed Central

Background A preference for sweet tastes has been repeatedly shown to be associated with alcohol preference in both animals and humans. In this study, we tested the extent to which recent drinking is related to blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) activation from an intensely sweet solution in orbitofrontal areas known to respond to primary rewards. Methods Sixteen right-handed, non-treatment seeking, healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years; 75% male) were recruited from the community. All underwent a taste test using a range of sucrose concentrations, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during pseudorandom, event-driven stimulation with water and a 0.83M concentration of sucrose in water. Results [Sucrose > Water] provoked significant BOLD activation in primary gustatory cortex and amygdala, as well as in the right ventral striatum and in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex. Drinks/drinking day correlated significantly with the activation as extracted from the left orbital area (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 after correcting for a bilateral comparison). Using stepwise multiple regression, the addition of rated sucrose-liking accounted for significantly more variance in drinks/drinking day than did left orbital activation alone (multiple R= 0.79, p = 0.002). Conclusions Both the orbitofrontal response to an intensely sweet taste, as well as rated liking of that taste, accounted for significant variance in drinking behavior. The brain response to sweet tastes may be an important phenotype of alcoholism risk. PMID:23841808

Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Eiler, William J.A.

2014-01-01

196

A novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma.  

PubMed

A novel, specific and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed for the determination of sucrose octasulfate (SOS) in dog plasma and urine using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray triple quadruple mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI MS/MS). (13)C-labeled sucrose octasulfate-(13)C12 sodium salt is used as the internal standard. 200?L of plasma or serum sample is extracted using weak anion exchange solid phase cartridge. In this method, a polar amide column is employed for the liquid chromatograph (LC) separation while the diethylamine and formic acid buffer is used as the ion-pairing reagent. The low limitation of quantitation of sucrose octasulfate is 0.20ng on the column with a signal to noise ratio larger than 50. Parameters such as linearity, accuracy and precision have been validated in full compliance with the FDA guidelines for the bioanalytical method development and validation. A linear regression model fit the calibration curve very well with R>0.99. The bias and coefficient of variation of all levels of QCs are within the range of 15%. The selectivity, matrix effect and stabilities of analytes in solution and matrix have also been evaluated and the results met the acceptance criteria according to the guidelines. Based on these results, the method has qualified to analyze sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma for clinic research. This method has been applied to 1000 preclinical samples. PMID:25553387

Ke, Yuyong; Li, Steve Lianghong; Chang, Linda Dongxia; Kapanadze, Theo

2015-01-26

197

Yeast biomass production in brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.  

PubMed

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h(-1), 0.61 g g(-1), and 0.56 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids. PMID:18418745

Duarte, Luís C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Inês; Gírio, Francisco M

2008-03-01

198

Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

199

Unexpected destruction of chitosomal chitin synthetase by an endogenous protease during sucrose density gradient purification.  

PubMed

Because of their intrinsic low buoyant density, chitosomes can be separated from crude cell homogenates (1000 g or 35,000 g supernatants) of Mucor rouxii by isopycnic sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. To accelerate and simplify the isolation of chitosomes, we centrifuged the cell-free extracts at ultrahigh speed (in a fixed-angle rotor at forces up to 311,000 g Rav) and found that the duration of centrifugation was critical. Prolonged centrifugation at ultrahigh speed caused severe distortion of the chitin synthetase profile in the gradient as the peak of chitosomal chitin synthetase nearly disappeared. We traced the problem to a soluble protease(s) that moved into the chitosome band during protracted centrifugation and destroyed the chitin synthetase activity. The interfering protease was a soluble protein with a sedimentation coefficient of 4.6 S and a pH optimum of 7-7.5, and it was sensitive to PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), indicating that it was a serine protease. Unlike other proteases, it destroyed chitin synthetase but did not activate the chitin synthetase zymogen. The interfering protease could be eliminated either by adding PMSF to the cells immediately after breakage or by removing the upper part of the sucrose gradient midway through the centrifugation of the cell-free extract and then completing the sedimentation with the 'decapitated' gradient. PMID:1939371

Kamada, T; Bracker, C E; Lippman, E; Bartnicki-Garcia, S

1991-07-01

200

RNAi in Budding Yeast  

E-print Network

RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing pathway triggered by double-stranded RNA, is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species but has been lost in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that RNAi ...

Drinnenberg, Ines A.

201

Vaginal Yeast Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans in the vagina. Candida is yeast, which is a type of fungus. ... small numbers, and symptoms only appear with overgrowth. Candida can multiply when an imbalance occurs, such as ...

202

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

203

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

204

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

205

Forces in yeast flocculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

2015-01-01

206

Forces in yeast flocculation.  

PubMed

In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

2015-01-22

207

Non-invasive monitoring of sucrose mobilization from culm storage parenchyma by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Because sucrose stored in mature stalks (in excess of 40% of stalk dry weight) can be wholly mobilized to supply carbon for the growth of heterotrophic tissues, we propose that sucrose mobilization requires a net sink-to-source transition that acts in toto within sett internode storage parenchyma. Based on our data we propose that mobilization of sucrose from culm storage parenchyma requires minimal investment of metabolic resources, and that the mechanism of sucrose mobilization is metabolically neutral. By magnetic resonance spectroscopy and phloem-specific tracer dyes, strong evidence was found that sucrose is mobilized from sett storage parenchyma via phloem to the growing shoot tissue. An analysis of the enzyme activities involved in sucrose metabolism and glycolysis suggested that sucrose synthase activity is downregulated due to the effects of sucrose mobilization. Overall, metabolism in storage parenchyma shifts from futile cycling to a more quiescent state during sucrose mobilization. PMID:23470752

O'Neill, Brian P; Purnell, Matthew P; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Cowin, Gary J; Galloway, Graham J; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2013-01-01

208

The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications*  

PubMed Central

Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-? resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets. PMID:21865170

Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael

2011-01-01

209

The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael (MSU); (NWU)

2014-10-02

210

Production and characterization of yeast killer toxin monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were obtained after fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from mice primed with a crude extract of yeast killer toxin produced by a strain of Hansenula anomala. Hybridomas were selected by specific immunoassay reaction of their fluid with crude yeast killer toxin extract. Among the monoclonal antibodies, which were characterized by the Western blot technique, one (designated KT4) proved to have precipitating properties, thus permitting the neutralization of the killer activity of the toxin. Experiments in double immunodiffusion showed that monoclonal antibody KT4 produced homologous precipitin bands by reacting with either the crude toxin used as immunogen or a toxic extract of Hansenula mrakii. It is suggested that these monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the purification, characterization, and understanding of the bioactions of yeast killer toxins. Images PMID:2434524

Polonelli, L; Morace, G

1987-01-01

211

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

212

Sucrose: A prospering and sustainable organic raw material.  

PubMed

Sucrose (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies. PMID:21626746

Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

2010-01-01

213

Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose (?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

214

Characteristics of the sucrose uptake system of vacuoles isolated from red beet tissue. Kinetics and specifity of the sucrose uptake system.  

PubMed

The uptake of sucrose against a concentration gradient into the dextran-impermeable [(3)H]H2O space of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) vacuoles has been studied using silicone-layer-filtering centrifugation on both fluorometric and (14)C-measurement of sucrose. Sucrose transport into vacuoles proceeds partly by an active transport system and partly by passive permeation. The K M(20°C) for active sucrose uptake was found to be about 22 mM and the V Max(20°C) was about 174 nmol sucrose x (unit betacyanin)(-1) x h(-1). The temperature dependency of sucrose transport appears to have an activation energy of 35,0 KJ×mol(-1). Among various mono-, di-, and trisaccharides tested, raffinose acts as a competitive inhibitor of sucrose uptake. PMID:24310973

Willenbrink, J; Doll, S

1979-12-01

215

21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram...

2010-04-01

216

The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate-xanthan gels.  

PubMed

The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate-xanthan-sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the colligative properties of sucrose whereas the equilibrium syneresis behaviour was associated with the changes in network dynamics caused by the kosmotropic properties of sucrose. The latter could enhance xanthan-sucrose association or favour xanthan-protein interactions. PMID:15913757

Braga, A L M; Cunha, R L

2005-07-01

217

Microbiological Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of New Records of Yeasts from Wild Flowers in Yokjido, Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25071392

Hyun, Se-Hee

2014-01-01

218

Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure  

PubMed Central

In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

2014-01-01

219

Expression of a yeast-derived invertase in developing cotyledons of Vicia narbonensis alters the carbohydrate state and affects storage functions.  

PubMed

In plants the carbohydrate state provides signals to adjust metabolism to specific physiological conditions. Storage-active sink organs like seeds often contain high levels of sucrose. In order to change the sugar status during seed development a yeast-derived invertase gene was expressed in Vicia narbonensis under control of the LeguminB4 promoter. A signal sequence targeted the invertase to the apoplast in maturing embryos. In the cotyledons, sucrose was decreased whereas hexoses strongly accumulated. There was a major reduction of starch whereas proteins were less affected. Vacuoles of cotyledon cells were enlarged and dry seeds wrinkled. Transcripts and enzyme activity of sucrose synthase, the small and large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase as well as vicilin were downregulated. Sucrose phosphate synthase and legumin-mRNAs were not affected. Analysing single seeds with different sucrose levels revealed a positive correlation of sucrose concentration to mRNA levels of sucrose synthase and most pronounced to ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase-mRNA levels as well as to starch content. Glucose on the other hand did not show any correlation. After feeding 14C-sucrose in vitro, the invertase-expressing cotyledons partitioned less carbon into starch compared to the wild-type. In the transgenic cotyledons, a relatively higher amount was directed into proteins compared to starch. We conclude that starch accumulation in developing cotyledons could be a function of sucrose concentration. Our results are consistent with a possible sucrose-mediated induction of storage-associated differentiation indicated by upregulation of specific genes of the starch synthesis pathway. PMID:9839463

Weber, H; Heim, U; Golombek, S; Borisjuk, L; Manteuffel, R; Wobus, U

1998-10-01

220

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

221

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. Images PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-01-01

222

Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks  

PubMed Central

The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

2013-01-01

223

Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2011-10-21

224

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.  

PubMed

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

2012-04-01

225

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a common infection caused by a yeast called candida albicans (a type of fungus). Yeast infections usually ... the vagina, it is known as vulvovaginal candidiasis . Candida can overgrow for many reasons. Stress, pregnancy, and ...

226

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

227

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

228

Nucleation of amorphous sucrose–corn syrup mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction times for onset of nucleation and nucleation rates were determined for amorphous sugar matrices made with sucrose and corn syrup held at temperatures between 60 and 110°C. Induction times decreased and nucleation rates increased exponentially with increasing temperature. Both the classical nucleation rate equation and the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) equation fit the data. Within the measurement variability, the type of

D. A. Levenson; R. W. Hartel

2005-01-01

229

Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2013-01-01

230

Purification of mitochondria by sucrose step density gradient centrifugation.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial fractions isolated from tissue culture cells or tissue such as liver after differential centrifugation can be purified further by density gradient centrifugation. Here we describe the use of sucrose for this purpose because it is commonly used and inexpensive and the resulting mitochondria preparations are useful for many purposes. PMID:25275106

Clayton, David A; Shadel, Gerald S

2014-10-01

231

[The applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology].  

PubMed

Nowadays, one of the most important task of the pharmaceutical technology is to optimize the dissolution of active ingredients, because most of the drug candidates have a poorly water solubility and hence a slow absorption. According to the latest examinations, the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs can be increased significantly by using surfactants or the mixture of surfactants and polymers. Nowadays, surfactants (like polysorbates) are generally used in the production of solid dispersions, so the use of surface-active sucrose esters can be resulted an innovative solution in the pharmaceutical technology. The aim of our investigation was to examine the applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology in order to influence the crystalline structure and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug (gemfibrosil) having low-melting point. The results of the X-ray powder diffractometry have showed that the sucrose laurate had no significant effect on the crystallization degree of the drug which is important in case of the stability. On the bases of the results of in-vitro dissolution studies, it can be concluded that the sucrose laurate (using minimum 5%) can be well applied in hot-melt technology with carriers having characteristic melting point (e.g. Macrogol) to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:21595305

Lang, Péter; Szuts, Angéla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

2011-01-01

232

Genetics of Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

233

Arabidopsis sucrose transporter SUT4 interacts with cytochrome b5-2 to regulate seed germination in response to sucrose and glucose.  

PubMed

It remains unknown whether a sucrose transporter mediates sugar signaling. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sucrose transporter SUT4 interacts with five members of the Arabidopsis cytochrome b5 (Cyb5) family, and sucrose represses the interaction between SUT4 and a Cyb5 member Cyb5-2/A. We observed that down-regulation of SUT4 and three cytochrome b5 members (Cyb5-2, Cyb5-4, and Cyb5-6) confers the sucrose- and glucose-insensitive phenotypes in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination. The sut4 cyb5-2 double mutant displays slightly stronger sucrose/glucose-insensitive phenotypes than either the sut4 or cyb5-2 single mutant. We showed that the SUT4/Cyb5-2-mediated signaling in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination does not require ABA or the currently known ABI2/ABI4/ABI5-mediated signaling pathway(s). These data provide evidence that the sucrose transporter SUT4 interacts with Cyb5 to positively mediate sucrose and glucose signaling in the sucrose/glucose-induced inhibition of seed germination. PMID:22311778

Li, Yan; Li, Ling-Li; Fan, Ren-Chun; Peng, Chang-Cao; Sun, Hai-Li; Zhu, Sai-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Da-Peng

2012-09-01

234

The Trehalose Phosphotransferase System (PTS) in E. coli W Can Transport Low Levels of Sucrose that Are Sufficient to Facilitate Induction of the csc Sucrose Catabolism Operon  

PubMed Central

Plasticity in substrate acceptance is a well-characterised phenomenon for disaccharide transporters. Sucrose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is usually metabolised via either the permease-mediated chromosomally-encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) regulon or the sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS). E. coli W is a fast-growing strain which efficiently utilises sucrose at concentrations above 1% via the csc regulon. To examine if sucrose could be metabolised via other routes, a library of transposon mutants was generated and screened on 0.2% sucrose. One mutant identified from this library had an insertion in the repressor for the regulon controlling catabolism of the disaccharide trehalose (treR). A series of mutants was constructed to elucidate the mechanism of sucrose utilization in the treR insertion strain. Analysis of these mutants provided evidence that deletion of TreR enables uptake of sucrose via TreB, an enzyme II protein required for PTS-mediated uptake of trehalose. Once inside the cell, this sucrose is not processed by the TreC hydrolase, nor is it sufficient for growth of the strain. QRT-PCR analysis showed that levels of cscA (invertase) transcript increased in the W?treR mutant relative to the wild-type strain when grown under low sucrose conditions. This result suggests that the intracellular sucrose provided by TreB can facilitate de-repression of the csc regulon, leading to increased gene expression, sucrose uptake and sucrose utilization in the treR mutant. PMID:24586369

Steen, Jennifer A.; Bohlke, Nina; Vickers, Claudia E.; Nielsen, Lars K.

2014-01-01

235

Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge. PMID:24481032

Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

2014-01-01

236

Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis.  

PubMed

Around 80 enzymes are implicated in the generic starch and sucrose pathways. One of these enzymes is sucrose phosphorylase, which reversibly catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and orthophosphate to d-Fructose and alpha-d-glucose 1-phosphate. Here, we present the crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B', and C. Domain A comprises the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel common to family 13. The catalytic active-site residues (Asp192 and Glu232) are located at the tips of beta-sheets 4 and 5 in the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel, as required for family 13 members. The topology of the B' domain disfavors oligosaccharide binding and reduces the size of the substrate access channel compared to other family 13 members, underlining the role of this domain in modulating the function of these enzymes. It is remarkable that the fold of the C domain is not observed in any other known hydrolases of family 13. BiSP was found as a homodimer in the crystal, and a dimer contact surface area of 960 A(2) per monomer was calculated. The majority of the interactions are confined to the two B domains, but interactions between the loop 8 regions of the two barrels are also observed. This results in a large cavity in the dimer, including the entrance to the two active sites. PMID:14756551

Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman; Kastrup, Jette S; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gajhede, Michael; Skov, Lars K

2004-02-10

237

The Sucrose Transporter of Celery. Identification and Expression during Salt Stress1  

PubMed Central

In celery (Apium graveolens L.), long-distance transport of reduced carbon occurs both in the form of sucrose (Suc) and mannitol. The presence of mannitol has been related to the resistance of celery to salt stress. To investigate the transport events occurring during salt stress, we have cloned the H+/Suc transporter of celery AgSUT1 (A. graveolens Suc uptake transport 1) from a mature leaf cDNA library. The function of the encoded protein was confirmed by expression in yeast. AgSUT1 is a H+/Suc transporter with a high affinity for Suc (Km of 139 ?m). Another closely related cDNA (AgSUT2) was also identified. AgSUT1 is mainly expressed in mature leaves and phloem of petioles, but also in sink organs such as roots. When celery plants were subjected to salt stress conditions (30 d watering with 300 mm NaCl) favoring mannitol accumulation (J.D. Everard, R. Gucci, S.C. Kann, J.A. Flore, W.H. Loescher [1994] Plant Physiol 106: 281–292), AgSUT1 expression was decreased in all organs, but markedly in roots. The results are discussed in relation to the physiology of celery. PMID:10759540

Noiraud, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge; Lemoine, Rémi

2000-01-01

238

Effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of activated charcoal, autoclaving and culture media on sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media was investigated. Activated charcoal acidified an aqueous sucrose (5%) solution and culture media by about 1 to 2 units after autoclaving. Sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media and\\/or aqueous sucrose (5%) solutions containing activated charcoal (buffered to pH 5.8) was dependent on both the

M. J. Pan; J. van Staden

1999-01-01

239

Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

240

Effect of ABA and sucrose on germination of encapsulated somatic embryos of guava ( Psidium guajava L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study demonstrates the effect of sucrose and ABA on germination of encapsulated somatic embryos of guava (Psidium guajava L.). Sucrose and ABA at different concentrations were also evaluated for their effects on maturation and germination of somatic embryos. Mature somatic embryos developed on MS medium containing high concentration of sucrose (10%) or ABA (1.0mgl?1) showed inhibition in germination if

Manoj K. Rai; V. S. Jaiswal; U. Jaiswal

2008-01-01

241

Intra-Accumbens Amphetamine Increases the Conditioned Incentive Salience of Sucrose Reward: Enhancement of Reward \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine microinjection into the nucleus accumbens shell enhanced the ability of a Pavlovian reward cue to trigger in- creased instrumental performance for sucrose reward in a pure conditioned incentive paradigm. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets. They were separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue (30 sec light) with free sucrose pellets.

Cindy L. Wyvell; Kent C. Berridge

2000-01-01

242

Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience

Karen Ackroff; Anthony Sclafani

2011-01-01

243

The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate–xanthan gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate–xanthan–sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the

A. L. M. Braga; R. L. Cunha

2005-01-01

244

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

245

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2014-09-23

246

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... rash on the penis if they have unprotected sex with an infected woman. If this happens to your partner, he should see a doctor. Men who haven’t been circumcised are at higher risk. Lesbians may be at risk for spreading yeast infections ...

247

The genetics of a putative social trait in natural populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

The sharing of secreted invertase by yeast cells is a well-established laboratory model for cooperation, but the only evidence that such cooperation occurs in nature is that the SUC loci, which encode invertase, vary in number and functionality. Genotypes that do not produce invertase can act as ‘cheats’ in laboratory experiments, growing on the glucose that is released when invertase producers, or ‘cooperators’, digest sucrose. However, genetic variation for invertase production might instead be explained by adaptation of different populations to different local availabilities of sucrose, the substrate for invertase. Here we find that 110 wild yeast strains isolated from natural habitats, and all contained a single SUC locus and produced invertase; none were ‘cheats’. The only genetic variants we found were three strains isolated instead from sucrose-rich nectar, which produced higher levels of invertase from three additional SUC loci at their subtelomeres. We argue that the pattern of SUC gene variation is better explained by local adaptation than by social conflict. PMID:25169714

Bozdag, G O; Greig, D

2014-01-01

248

High-field/ high-frequency EPR study on stable free radicals formed in sucrose by gamma-irradiation.  

PubMed

The EPR spectrum of sucrose irradiated by high-energy radiation is complex due to the presence of more than one radical species. In order to decompose the spectrum and elucidate the radical magnetic parameters a high-field (HF(-)EPR) study on stable free radicals in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline sucrose (table sugar) was performed at three different high frequencies--94, 190 and 285 GHz as well as at the conventional X-band. We suggest a presence of three stable radicals R1, R2 and R3 as the main radical species. Due to the increase of g-factor resolution at high fields the g-tensors of these radicals could be extracted by accurate simulations. The moderate g-anisotropy suggests that all three radicals are carbon-centred. Results from an earlier ENDOR study on X-irradiated sucrose single crystals (Vanhaelewyn et al., Appl Radiat Isot, 52, 1221 (2000)) were used for analyzing of the spectra in more details. It was confirmed that the strongest hyperfine interaction has a relatively small anisotropy, which indicates either the absence of alpha-protons or a strongly distorted geometry of the radicals. PMID:16753832

Georgieva, Elka R; Pardi, Luca; Jeschke, Gunnar; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Yordanov, Nicola D

2006-06-01

249

Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

2011-01-01

250

In vitro inhibition of Candida albicans growth by plant extracts and essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic Candida albicans yeast strain ATCC 10261 grows at 37 °C and gives germ tubes after 3 h on corn meal agar and blood plasma. It produces chlamydospores and assimilates sucrose, dextrose, galactose, maltose, trehalose and xylose among the tested carbon sources. Other growth characters were also investigated. The agar diffusion cut plug technique revealed that 200 µl of

S. M. Ezzat

2001-01-01

251

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

2001-01-01

252

A new colorimetric method for determining the isomerization activity of sucrose isomerase.  

PubMed

A new colorimetric method for determining the isomerization activity of sucrose isomerase was developed. This colorimetric method is based on the enzymatic reactions of invertase and glucose oxidase-peroxidase (GOD-POD). The main scheme for assaying sucrose isomerase activity is to degrade sucrose in the reaction mixture to glucose and fructose by invertase and to detect the concentration of glucose generated using GOD-POD. The concentrations of trehalulose and isomaltulose, reaction products of sucrose isomerase, are calculated from the concentration of glucose. This method allows rapid and accurate determination of the isomerization activity of sucrose isomerase without inhibition by hydrolysis activity. PMID:17284828

Park, Sang-Eun; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Lim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Cheon-Seok

2007-02-01

253

Improvement of the functional properties of sucrose stearate by phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated sucrose stearate (SE-P) was prepared by dry-heating sucrose stearate (SE) with metaphosphoric acid. The main product was deduced to be a monophosphosucrose monostearate by chemical analysis and mass spectrometry. SE-P exhibited remarkably higher solubility and emulsifying properties than SE, especially in the acidic region and in the presence of NaCl, and SE-P bound Ca2+ at a 1:1 molar ratio (SE-P/Ca2+). SE-P markedly reduced the viscosity of potato starch paste and inhibited retrogradation, whereas SE did not reduce it so much. It is thus expected that phosphorylation would be an appropriate method for improving the functional properties of SE and that SE-P could be used as a novel emulsifier and modifier with Ca2+-binding ability for starchy foods. PMID:15612793

Yamagishi, Yukako; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

2004-12-29

254

Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its

Fernanda Badotti; Marcelo G Dário; Sergio L Alves Jr; Maria Luiza A Cordioli; Luiz C Miletti; Pedro S de Araujo; Boris U Stambuk

2008-01-01

255

The duration and perceived intensity of sucrose taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two subjects judged the perceived intensity of each of four concentrations of sucrose over 2 min. Stimuli were either\\u000a sipped and expectorated or flowed over the subject’s extended tongue. Ratio judgments on a line scale and category ratings\\u000a were made. Sixteen of the subjects had had extensive training in judging the sensory attributes of food products, and another\\u000a group of

Harry T. Lawless; Elaine Z. Skinner

1979-01-01

256

Electrons trapped in single crystals of sucrose: Induced spin densities  

SciTech Connect

Electrons are trapped at intermolecular sites in single crystals of sucrose {ital X} irradiated at 4.2 K. The coupling tensors for the hyperfine couplings between the electron and surrounding protons have been deduced from electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) data. Electron spin densities at nearby hydroxy protons are positive, whereas spin densities at the more remote protons of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms are negative. The origin of these negative spin densities is discussed.

Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G. (Biophysics Department, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (USA))

1990-07-01

257

Enhancement of Sucrose Sweetness with Soluble Starch in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soluble starch (acid-modified starch) on taste intensity was investigated in human subjects. Different concentrations of sucrose (Suc), six sweeteners, NaCl, quinine-HCl (QHCl) and citric acid (Cit) were dissolved in either distilled water (DW; standard) or starch solution (test solution). The solutions were presented to naive subjects and each subject was requested to taste and compare the sweetness

Norikazu Kanemaru; Shuitsu Harada; Yasuo Kasahara

2002-01-01

258

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions  

E-print Network

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions Valeria Molinero, Tahir of the solution from the diffusion of non-HB molecules, and the ratio between water and sugar diffusion. These two carbohydrate oxygen ðOc� and a H_OH of sugar or water, with the parameters D ¼ 0:03783 kcal/mol, R ¼ 2:4 AA

Goddard III, William A.

259

New phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose from Polygonum lapathifolium.  

PubMed

Four new phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose, lapathosides A (1), B (2), C (3), and D (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygonum lapathifolium together with known esters, vanicoside B (5) and hydropiperoside (6). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectral (1D and 2D NMR and MS) analysis. Lapathoside A (1) and vanicoside B (2) showed significant inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation by tumor-promoters. PMID:11678656

Takasaki, M; Kuroki, S; Kozuka, M; Konoshima, T

2001-10-01

260

Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.  

PubMed

During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

2013-08-01

261

Diffusion of sucrose and dextran through agar gel membranes.  

PubMed

Mass transfer limitations severely impede the performance of bioreactions involving large molecules by gel-entrapped microorganisms. This paper describes a quantitative investigation of such diffusional limitations in agar gel membranes. Sucrose and commercial dextran fractions with (weight-average) molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 Da were used as standard diffusants. For all tested solutes but sucrose, the values of the agar/water partition coefficients highlighted steric hindrance at the entrance of the membrane pores. The effective diffusivity of sucrose in agar was similar to that in water. All dextran fractions, however, displayed restricted diffusion in the agar membranes. Their effective diffusivities were a decreasing function of the agar content of the gel membrane (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% w/v). The effective diffusivity in a given membrane decreased as the molecular weight of the diffusing molecule increased. T500 (Mw = 470,000 Da) and T2000 (Mw = 1,950,000 Da) fractions were unable to diffuse through 1.0 or 1.5% agar membranes. The diffusion data did not agree with the classical (Renkin) model for a hard sphere diffusing through a cylindrical pore. These results are discussed in terms of gel and diffusant characteristics. PMID:7505595

Lebrun, L; Junter, G A

1993-12-01

262

CSF distribution of morphine, methadone and sucrose after intrathecal injection.  

PubMed

The lumbar to cisternal CSF distribution of morphine and methadone were compared to C-14 sucrose, a standard marker of CSF bulk flow, after lumbar subarachnoid injections in a sheep preparation. Morphine appeared and peaked simultaneously with C-14 sucrose in cisternal CSF at 90 to 190 minutes. The mean peak cisternal CSF morphine concentrations were sustained for 30-40 minutes, and averaged 148 ng/ml, representing 0.3% of the administered dose. Methadone was not detectable in cisternal CSF up to 240-300 minutes after lumbar subarachnoid administration. The C-14 sucrose/morphine ratio was increased an average of 6.7 times in cisternal CSF as compared to the ratio of the two compounds injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space. These studies demonstrate that morphine, a hydrophilic opioid, given intrathecally moves rostrally and appears in cisternal CSF by bulk flow. Furthermore the rostral redistribution of morphine is associated with the clearance of morphine from CSF. Methadone, a lipophilic opioid, appears to be completely cleared from CSF before it reaches the cisterna magna. These pharmacokinetic studies support a contribution of supraspinal sites to the analgesic and adverse effects produced by morphine given by spinal routes of administration. In contrast methadone appears to exert its effects predominantly at spinal sites. PMID:3839885

Payne, R; Inturrisi, C E

1985-09-23

263

Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

264

Persisting adiposity following chronic consumption of 10% sucrose solution: strain differences and behavioural effects.  

PubMed

The metabolic consequences of providing rats with extended access to sugar solutions have varied across studies. The two experiments in this study examined the effects of 8 weeks of 24-h access to 10% sucrose solution on adult Wistar rats. This was followed by 6 weeks of food restriction with no access to sucrose during which the behavioural effects of prior sucrose consumption on reward-oriented behaviour (Experiment 1) and reversal learning (Experiment 2) were assessed. In a comparison between rat strains, Experiment 1 found that sucrose accelerated weight gain in Albino but not Hooded Wistar rats, while sucrose-fed rats of both strains exhibited elevated fasting blood glucose and resistance to insulin. Importantly, at cull retroperitoneal fat deposits were elevated in sucrose-fed rats, at which point glucose and insulin had resolved to control levels and liver triglyceride content did not differ between groups. Experiment 2 also found that retroperitoneal fat content was higher in sucrose-fed rats at cull, after 6 weeks of behavioural testing without sucrose and with restricted access to food, and found a similar effect for epididymal fat. Behavioural testing in Experiment 1 found that sucrose exposure had no effect on habit formation assessed using an outcome devaluation paradigm. However, instrumental responding by sucrose-fed Albino rats was the least affected by pre-feeding, indicating a relationship between sucrose-induced obesity and food-seeking behaviour. In Experiment 2, sucrose-fed and control rats did not differ on a discrimination reversal task. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the behavioural and metabolic effects of sucrose consumption vary with strain. Further, results indicate that sucrose consumption can lead to lasting increases in adipose tissue stores, a finding which has significant implications for human diets. PMID:24662698

Kendig, Michael D; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H; Boakes, Robert A

2014-05-10

265

Mammalian Homology to Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

1997-01-01

266

Design and Construction of Two Yeast Shuttle Vectors Containing Human Procollagen Genes Expression Cassette for Expression in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the human body. Their main function is to provide structural and mechanical support for the tissues, but they are also involved in a number of other biological functions including cell attachment, migration and differentiation. Collagens and gelatins are widely used in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Every year, more than 50,000 tons of collagen and gelatin are used in medical applications. These materials may have some viral and prion impurity and/or stimulate allergic response in human body. Therefore, scientists have produced human collagen in recombinant systems. In this study we have constructed two yeast shuttle vectors containing human procollagen genes expression cassette for expression in yeast. Total RNA was extracted from human skin fibroblast cell line, and cDNA synthesis was done by oligo dt. Then gene fragments were amplified from the cDNA with the necessary changes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally they were cloned in yeast vector pPICZ?A containing regulatory sequences for expressing and secreting the polypeptide product. Two yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression cassettes were created. Final constructs were confirmed by enzymatic digestion, PCR of desired fragment and sequencing. The yeast shuttle vectors containing human COL1A1 and COL1A2 can be transferred into the yeast in the later stages to determine the scale of expression. PMID:23407617

Abdemami, Baharak; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Shahreza, Hossein Khanahmad; Ghavami, Mehdi

2011-01-01

267

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

268

Genome evolution in yeasts.  

PubMed

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity to explore such mechanisms. We present here the complete, assembled genome sequences of four yeast species, selected to represent a broad evolutionary range within a single eukaryotic phylum, that after analysis proved to be molecularly as diverse as the entire phylum of chordates. A total of approximately 24,200 novel genes were identified, the translation products of which were classified together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins into about 4,700 families, forming the basis for interspecific comparisons. Analysis of chromosome maps and genome redundancies reveal that the different yeast lineages have evolved through a marked interplay between several distinct molecular mechanisms, including tandem gene repeat formation, segmental duplication, a massive genome duplication and extensive gene loss. PMID:15229592

Dujon, Bernard; Sherman, David; Fischer, Gilles; Durrens, Pascal; Casaregola, Serge; Lafontaine, Ingrid; De Montigny, Jacky; Marck, Christian; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Talla, Emmanuel; Goffard, Nicolas; Frangeul, Lionel; Aigle, Michel; Anthouard, Véronique; Babour, Anna; Barbe, Valérie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Blanchin, Sylvie; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Bleykasten, Claudine; Boisramé, Anita; Boyer, Jeanne; Cattolico, Laurence; Confanioleri, Fabrice; De Daruvar, Antoine; Despons, Laurence; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Fairhead, Cécile; Ferry-Dumazet, Hélène; Groppi, Alexis; Hantraye, Florence; Hennequin, Christophe; Jauniaux, Nicolas; Joyet, Philippe; Kachouri, Rym; Kerrest, Alix; Koszul, Romain; Lemaire, Marc; Lesur, Isabelle; Ma, Laurence; Muller, Héloïse; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Nikolski, Macha; Oztas, Sophie; Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, Odile; Pellenz, Stefan; Potier, Serge; Richard, Guy-Franck; Straub, Marie-Laure; Suleau, Audrey; Swennen, Dominique; Tekaia, Fredj; Wésolowski-Louvel, Micheline; Westhof, Eric; Wirth, Bénédicte; Zeniou-Meyer, Maria; Zivanovic, Ivan; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Thierry, Agnès; Bouchier, Christiane; Caudron, Bernard; Scarpelli, Claude; Gaillardin, Claude; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc

2004-07-01

269

Tapping into yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

Fay, Justin C

2012-11-01

270

Transforming a fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase from perennial ryegrass into a sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase.  

PubMed

Fructosyltransferases (FTs) synthesize fructans, fructose polymers accumulating in economically important cool-season grasses and cereals. FTs might be crucial for plant survival under stress conditions in species in which fructans represent the major form of reserve carbohydrate, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Two FT types can be distinguished: those using sucrose (S-type enzymes: sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase [1-SST], sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase) and those using fructans (F-type enzymes: fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase [1-FFT], fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase [6G-FFT]) as preferential donor substrate. Here, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, the transformation of an F-type enzyme (6G-FFT/1-FFT) into an S-type enzyme (1-SST) using perennial ryegrass 6G-FFT/1-FFT (Lp6G-FFT/1-FFT) and 1-SST (Lp1-SST) as model enzymes. This transformation was accomplished by mutating three amino acids (N340D, W343R, and S415N) in the vicinity of the active site of Lp6G-FFT/1-FFT. In addition, effects of each amino acid mutation alone or in combination have been studied. Our results strongly suggest that the amino acid at position 343 (tryptophan or arginine) can greatly determine the donor substrate characteristics by influencing the position of the amino acid at position 340. Moreover, the presence of arginine-343 negatively affects the formation of neofructan-type linkages. The results are compared with recent findings on donor substrate selectivity within the group of plant cell wall invertases and fructan exohydrolases. Taken together, these insights contribute to our knowledge of structure/function relationships within plant family 32 glycosyl hydrolases and open the way to the production of tailor-made fructans on a larger scale. PMID:18952861

Lasseur, Bertrand; Schroeven, Lindsey; Lammens, Willem; Le Roy, Katrien; Spangenberg, German; Manduzio, Hélène; Vergauwen, Rudy; Lothier, Jérémy; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Van den Ende, Wim

2009-01-01

271

Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporter AtSUC1 Is Important for Pollen Germination and Sucrose-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation1(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sucrose transporter AtSUC1 (At1g71880) is highly expressed in pollen; however, its function has remained unknown. Here, we show that suc1 mutant pollen is defective in vivo, as evidenced by segregation distortion, and also has low rates of germination in vitro. AtSUC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to the plasma membrane in pollen tubes. AtSUC1 is also expressed

Alicia B. Sivitz; Anke Reinders; John M. Ward

272

Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.  

PubMed

This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

2015-03-15

273

Characteristics of Sucrose Transport and Sucrose-Induced H+ Transport on the Tonoplast of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose-induced changes of the energization state of the red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) vacuolar membrane were observed with the fluorescent dyes 6-chloro-9-{[4-(diethylamino)- 1-methylbutyl]-amino}-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride, as a pH monitor, and 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine (ACMA). Consequently, transient acidification of the surrounding suspension medium could be measured with a pH electrode. This signal was specific for Suc and was not seen for sorbitol, mannitol, or maltose. Sucrose-induced medium acidification was sensitive to the same inhibitors that were efficient in inhibiting sucrose transport, including the monoclonal antibodies TNP56-12 and C50-5-3. It was seen with vacuoles and vesicles energized with MgATP before sucrose was added but also with vacuoles not artificially energized previously. Using bafilomycin A1 for the inhibition of the vacuolar ATPase of vacuoles previously energized by MgATP, apparent Km values for H+ export from the vacuoles to the medium could be calculated taking into account the passive proton leak. Apparent Km values for H+ export determined from data obtained with pH measurements in the medium and with ACMA corresponded to those obtained previously for sucrose uptake. Comparing sucrose uptake rates with corresponding H+ export rates at the respective sucrose concentrations and at Km, a stoichiometry of approximately one proton per transported sucrose was estimated. PMID:12228372

Getz, H. P.; Klein, M.

1995-01-01

274

Cytosolic cycles regulate the turnover of sucrose in heterotrophic cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated whether sucrose accumulation in heterotrophic cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L. is regulated by a cycle in which sucrose is simultaneously synthesised and degraded. Net sucrose accumulation was measured by monitoring the sucrose content, unidirectional synthesis was monitored by supplying pulses of [14C] glucose, and unidirectional degradation was estimated from the difference between unidirectional synthesis and net

Jane Dancer; Wolf-Dieter Hatzfeld; Mark Stitt

1990-01-01

275

Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

PubMed

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

Ianieva, O D

2013-01-01

276

Transcriptional regulatory network for sexual differentiation in fission yeast  

E-print Network

promoter, cells were grown in EMM contain- ing 15 ?M thiamine, washed three times in EMM, and incu- bated at 32°C for 18 h. In every experiment, RNA extracted from cells overexpressing a particular transcription factor was compared with RNA from cells... chromatids is ensured by two distinct mechanisms at the first meiotic division in fission yeast. EMBO J 2003, 22:2284-2296. 19. Maundrell K: Thiamine-repressible expression vectors pREP and pRIP for fission yeast. Gene 1993, 123:127-130. 20. Bähler J: Cell...

Mata, Juan; Wilbrey, Anna; Bahler, Jurg

2007-10-10

277

Inhibition in the lateral septum increases sucrose intake and decreases anorectic effects of stress.  

PubMed

Sucrose-overeating rats with decreased anorectic response to stress showed lower stress-induced activation of c-fos expression in the lateral septum (LS). The present study tested a hypothesis that neuronal inhibition in the LS is important for the development and maintenance of the sucrose-overeating phenotype. Sucrose overeating was developed with weekly episodes of food restriction (21 h per day, 4 days per week) followed by 1-h access to sucrose. The anorectic effects of stress on 1-h sucrose intake were estimated using weekly foot shock stress sessions. The development of the sucrose-overeating phenotype was accompanied by a decrease in the anorectic effects of stress and by an increase in LS mRNA expression of a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesising enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in stressed rats. Direct recordings of neuronal firing in the LS in rats submitted to repeated weekly cycles of food restriction, sucrose refeeding and stress showed that the development of sucrose overeating increased the percentage of LS neurons inhibited during anticipation and at the start of clusters (CS) of sucrose licking. In addition, the CS-excited LS neurons showed a decrease in responsiveness to sucrose during the development of sucrose overeating. Direct injection of baclofen, an agonist of the GABAB receptor, into the LS decreased the anorectic effects of stress and increased sucrose intake. These results suggest that an increase in inhibitory effects in the LS is important for the development of sucrose overeating and the decreased anorectic effects of stress. PMID:25417941

Mitra, Arojit; Lenglos, Christophe; Timofeeva, Elena

2015-02-01

278

Influence of cell turgor on sucrose partitioning in potato tuber storage tissues.  

PubMed

Sucrose uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber discs were examined under a range of mannitol and ethylene-glycol concentrations. Mannitol caused the same changes in turgor over a wide range of incubation periods (90 min-6 h), indicating that it did not penetrate the tissue. In comparison, ethylene glycol reduced turgor losses but did not eliminate them, even after 6 h. Between 100 mM and 300 mM mannitol, turgor fell by 350 kPa, compared with 35 kPa in ethylene glycol. Uptake experiments in mannitol alone showed that total sucrose uptake was strongly correlated with both osmotic potential and with turgor potential. In subsequent experiments sucrose uptake and partitioning were examined after 3 h equilibration in 100 mM and 300 mM concentrations of mannitol and ethylene glycol. Total sucrose uptake and the conversion of sucrose to starch were enhanced greatly only at 300 mM mannitol, indicating an effect of turgor, rather than osmotic potential on sucrose partitioning. The inhibitors p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) both reduced sucrose uptake, but in quite different ways. p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid reduced total sucrose uptake but did not affect the partitioning of sucrose to starch. By contrast, CCCP inhibited total uptake and virtually eliminated the conversion of sucrose to starch. Despite this, sucrose uptake in the presence of CCCP continued to increase as the mannitol concentration increased, indicating an increase in passive transport at higher mannitol concentrations. Increased sucrose uptake above 400 mM mannitol was shown to be the result of uptake into the free space. The data show that starch synthesis is optimised at low but positive turgors and the relation between sucrose partitioning and the changing diurnal water relations of the tuber are discussed. PMID:24221935

Oparka, K J; Wright, K M

1988-10-01

279

A rapid extraction method for glycogen from formalin-fixed liver.  

PubMed

Liver glycogen, a highly branched polymer, acts as our blood-glucose buffer. While past structural studies have extracted glycogen from fresh or frozen tissue using a cold-water, sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique, a method for the extraction of glycogen from formalin-fixed liver would allow the analysis of glycogen from human tissues that are routinely collected in pathology laboratories. In this study, both sucrose-gradient and formalin-fixed extraction techniques were carried out on piglet livers, with the yields, purities and size distributions (using size exclusion chromatography) compared. The formalin extraction technique, when combined with a protease treatment, resulted in higher yields (but lower purities) of glycogen with size distributions similar to the sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique. This formalin extraction procedure was also significantly faster, allowing glycogen extraction throughput to increase by an order of magnitude. Both extraction techniques were compatible with mass spectrometry proteomics, with analysis showing the two techniques were highly complementary. PMID:25542100

Sullivan, Mitchell A; Li, Shihan; Aroney, Samuel T N; Deng, Bin; Li, Cheng; Roura, Eugeni; Schulz, Benjamin L; Harcourt, Brooke E; Forbes, Josephine M; Gilbert, Robert G

2015-03-15

280

A new method for rapid screening of ester-producing yeasts using in situ HS-SPME.  

PubMed

The selection of ester-producing yeasts is difficult because these molecules evaporate quickly, are extremely unstable and may be missed during analytical manipulation. We propose an easy, fast and efficient headspace-SPME method for screening of ester-producing yeasts directly at the extraction vials (in situ HS-SPME). PMID:24814753

Garavaglia, Juliano; Habekost, Andressa; Bjerk, Thiago Rodrigues; de Souza Schneider, Rosana de Cassia; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Valente, Patricia

2014-08-01

281

Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308).2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4

R. Morales-López; E. Auclair; F. Van Immerseel; R. Ducatelle; F. García; J. Brufau

2010-01-01

282

Production of Food Grade Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

2006-01-01

283

Sucrose requirements and lipid utilization during germination of interior spruce ( Picea glauca engelmannii complex) somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both somatic and excised zygotic embryos of interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) required exogenous sucrose in the medium for germination in vitro. Over a period of 29 days on sucrose-containing medium germinants with roots and epicotyls developed from both kinds of embryo, and their content of linolenic acid (9,12,15-18:3) increased about six- to eightfold. Without added sucrose, embryos showed

D. J. Carrier; J. E. Cunningham; D. C. Taylor; D. I. Dunstan

1997-01-01

284

Sucrose requirements and lipid utilization during germination of interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both somatic and excised zygotic embryos of interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) required exogenous sucrose in the medium for germination in vitro. Over a period of 29 days on sucrose-containing medium germinants with roots and epicotyls developed from both kinds of embryo, and their content of linolenic acid (9,12,15-18:3) increased about six- to eightfold. Without added sucrose, embryos showed

D. J. Carrier; J. E. Cunningham; D. C. Taylor; D. I. Dunstan

1997-01-01

285

Sucrose-induced analgesia is related to sweet preferences in children but not adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of sucrose in reducing pain during the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) was related to its hedonic value. To this aim, we determined the most preferred level of sucrose and the analgesic properties of 24% w\\/v sucrose during the CPT in 242, 5- to 10-year-old children and their mothers. Outcome measures included

M. Yanina Pepino; Julie A. Mennella

2005-01-01

286

Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production. PMID:24003656

Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

2013-01-01

287

An increase in apparent affinity for sucrose of mung bean sucrose synthase is caused by in vitro phosphorylation or directed mutagenesis of Ser11.  

PubMed

A mutational analysis of mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) sucrose synthase was performed by site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli, in which two different acidic amino acid residues (Asp or Glu) were introduced at Ser11 (S11D, S11E). Only the wild-type enzyme (Ser11) was phosphorylated in vitro by a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from soybean root nodules, suggesting that this is the specific target residue in mung bean sucrose synthase. The apparent affinity for sucrose was increased in this phosphorylated enzyme and also in the S11D and S11E mutant enzymes, although the affinities for UDP-glucose and fructose were similar in the wild-type, phosphorylated wild-type, and mutant enzymes. These results suggest that a monoanionic (1-) side chain at position 11 mimics the Ser11-P2- residue to bind and cleave sucrose for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. Since the S11E mutant enzyme showed the lowest K(m) (sucrose) and the highest catalytic efficiency of the recombinant proteins, the enzymic properties of this S11E mutant were further characterized. The results showed that replacement of Ser11 with Glu11 modestly protected the sucrose synthesis activity against phenolic glycosides and altered the enzyme nucleotide specificity. We postulate that the introduction of negative charge at Ser11 is possibly involved in the enzymatic perturbation of sucrose synthase. PMID:10050318

Nakai, T; Konishi, T; Zhang, X Q; Chollet, R; Tonouchi, N; Tsuchida, T; Yoshinaga, F; Mori, H; Sakai, F; Hayashi, T

1998-12-01

288

Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

2009-12-01

289

Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass.  

PubMed

Sucrose transport between source and sink tissues is supposed to be a key-step for an efficient regrowth of perennial rye-grass after defoliation and might be altered by light conditions. We assessed the effect of different light regimes (high vs low light applied before or after defoliation) on growth, fructans and sucrose mobilization, as well as on sucrose transporter expression during 14 days of regrowth. Our results reported that defoliation led to a mobilization of C reserves (first sucrose and then fructans), which was parallel to an induction of LpSUT1 sucrose transporter expression in source and sink tissues (i.e. leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases, respectively) irrespective to light conditions. Light regime (high or low light) had little effects on regrowth and on C reserves mobilization during the first 48 h of regrowth after defoliation. Thereafter, low light conditions, delaying the recovery of photosynthetic capacities, had a negative effect on C reserves re-accumulation (especially sucrose). Surprisingly, high light did not enhance sucrose transporter expression. Indeed, while light conditions had no effect on LpSUT1 expression, LpSUT2 transcripts levels were enhanced for low light grown plants. These results indicate that two sucrose transporter currently identified in Lolium perenne L. are differentially regulated by light and sucrose. PMID:23085586

Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Berthier, Alexandre; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Meuriot, Frédéric

2012-12-01

290

Original article The effect of sucrose on the development of hybrid  

E-print Network

/ sucrose / micropropagation / acclimatization / survival Résumé — Rôle du saccharose sur le/ saccharose / micropropagation / acclimatation / survie INTRODUCTION Widespread use of micropropagation to pro

Boyer, Edmond

291

Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

Lv, Wei; Wei, Bo; Xu, Lingling; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Hong; Liu, Jia

2012-10-01

292

Mechanistic investigation of domain specific unfolding of human serum albumin and the effect of sucrose  

PubMed Central

This study is devoted to understand the unfolding mechanism of a multidomain protein, human serum albumin (HSA), in absence and presence of the sucrose by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with domain specific marker molecules and is further being substantiated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In water, the domain III of HSA found to unfold first followed by domains I and II as the concentration of GnHCl is increased in the medium. The sequential unfolding behavior of different domains of HSA remains same in presence of sucrose; however, a higher GnHCl concentration is required for unfolding, suggesting stabilizing effect of sucrose on HSA. Domain I is found to be most stabilized by sucrose. The stabilization of domain II is somewhat similar to domain I, but the effect of sucrose on domain III is found to be very small. MD simulation also predicted a similar behavior of sucrose on HSA. The stabilizing effect of sucrose is explained in terms of the entrapment of water molecules in between HSA surface and sucrose layer as well as direct interaction between HSA and sucrose. PMID:24038622

Yadav, Rajeev; Sen, Pratik

2013-01-01

293

Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes  

PubMed Central

The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

2014-01-01

294

Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light and in dark were investigated. Sucrose suppressed the hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light, but stimulated elongation in dark. Application of paclobutrazol (PAC, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor) impaired the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation, suggesting that endogenous GAs is required for sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark. Exogenous GA(3) application reversed the repression caused by PAC application, indicating that exogenous GA(3) could substitute, at least partially, for endogenous GAs in sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation. In addition, we found that GA 3-oxidase 1 (GA3ox1), encoding a key enzyme involved in endogenous bioactive GA biosynthesis, was up-regulated by sucrose in the dark, whereas GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1a (AtGID1a), encoding a GA receptor and playing an important role during GAs degradation to DELLA proteins (DELLAs, repressors of GA-induced plant growth), was down-regulated. These results imply that endogenous bioactive GA levels are expected to be enhanced, but the degradation of DELLAs was inhibited by sucrose in dark. Thus, our data suggest that the sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark does not result from GA-induced degradation of DELLAs. We conclude that sucrose can stimulate hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark in a GA-dependent manner. PMID:20430474

Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Wang, Liguang; Zheng, Sheng; Xie, Jiping; Bi, Yurong

2010-09-15

295

Multiple, Distinct Isoforms of Sucrose Synthase in Pea1  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding three isoforms of sucrose synthase (Sus1, Sus2, and Sus3) have been cloned from pea (Pisum sativum). The genes have distinct patterns of expression in different organs of the plant, and during organ development. Studies of the isoforms expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli show that they differ in kinetic properties. Although not of great magnitude, the differences in properties are consistent with some differentiation of physiological function between the isoforms. Evidence for differentiation of function in vivo comes from the phenotypes of rug4 mutants of pea, which carry mutations in the gene encoding Sus1. One mutant line (rug4-c) lacks detectable Sus1 protein in both the soluble and membrane-associated fractions of the embryo, and Sus activity in the embryo is reduced by 95%. The starch content of the embryo is reduced by 30%, but the cellulose content is unaffected. The results imply that different isoforms of Sus may channel carbon from sucrose towards different metabolic fates within the cell. PMID:11598239

Barratt, D.H. Paul; Barber, Lorraine; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Smith, Alison M.; Wang, Trevor L.; Martin, Cathie

2001-01-01

296

Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation  

PubMed

Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production. PMID:9933520

Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

1999-01-01

297

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

298

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

299

Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1995-12-31

300

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

301

Lager yeast comes of age.  

PubMed

Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

Wendland, Jürgen

2014-10-01

302

Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID:21552715

RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

2011-01-01

303

Functional analysis of LjSUT4, a vacuolar sucrose transporter from Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

Sucrose transporters in the SUT family are important for phloem loading and sucrose uptake into sink tissues. The recent localization of type III SUTs AtSUT4 and HvSUT2 to the vacuole membrane suggests that SUTs also function in vacuolar sucrose transport. The transport mechanism of type III SUTs has not been analyzed in detail. LjSUT4, a type III sucrose transporter homolog from Lotus japonicus, is expressed in nodules and its transport activity has not been previously investigated. In this report, LjSUT4 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its transport activity assayed by two-electrode voltage clamping. LjSUT4 transported a range of glucosides including sucrose, salicin, helicin, maltose, sucralose and both alpha- and beta-linked synthetic phenyl glucosides. In contrast to other sucrose transporters, LjSUT4 did not transport the plant glucosides arbutin, fraxin and esculin. LjSUT4 showed a low affinity for sucrose (K(0.5)=16 mM at pH 5.3). In addition to inward currents induced by sucrose, other evidence also indicated that LjSUT4 is a proton-coupled symporter: (14)C-sucrose uptake into LjSUT4-expressing oocytes was inhibited by CCCP and sucrose induced membrane depolarization in LjSUT4-expressing oocytes. A GFP-fusion of LjSUT4 localized to the vacuole membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the roots and nodules of Medicago truncatula. Based on these results we propose that LjSUT4 functions in the proton-coupled uptake of sucrose and possibly other glucosides into the cytoplasm from the vacuole. PMID:18618272

Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B; Starker, Colby G; Gantt, J Stephen; Ward, John M

2008-10-01

304

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.  

PubMed

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-09-01

305

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

306

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

of ' oven to give crustiness. Makes 2 dozen large rolls. 1 Crusty water rolls. TOMATO CHEESE ROLLS 314 cup lukewarm tomato juice 1 package yeast or 1 .yeast cake 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons .melted butter or margarine 2114 CUPS... flour Add yeast and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and Irt $tdnd until dissolved. Add salt and fat. Add half the fln~lr and beat until smooth. Add remaining flour Place in greased bowl and brush with melted fat. Cover 2nd let rise until doubled...

Cox, Maeona; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Lousie

1957-01-01

307

Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

2014-01-01

308

Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC)  

PubMed Central

Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC. PMID:25207825

Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

309

Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was

Wim Van den Ende; An Michiels; Dominik Van Wonterghem; Rudy Vergauwen; AndreVan Laere

310

Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns.  

PubMed

This experiment had three goals: 1. To identify the basis of sucking-induced analgesia in healthy, term, newborn humans undergoing the painful, routine, procedure of heel lance and blood collection. 2. To evaluate how taste-induced and sucking-induced analgesias combine to combat pain. 3. To determine whether facial grimacing was an accurate index of diminished pain, or whether it was linked to tissue trauma. We report that: 1. Sucking an unflavored pacifier was analgesic when and only when suck rate exceeded 30 sucks/min. 2. The combination of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking was remarkably analgesic; we saw no behavioral indication in nine of the ten infants that the heel lance had even occurred. 3. Grimacing was reduced to almost naught by procedures that essentially eliminated crying and markedly reduced heart rate during the blood harvesting procedure. PMID:10568870

Blass, E M; Watt, L B

1999-12-01

311

Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

312

Learning in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) As a Function of Sucrose Concentration: Analysis of the Retrospective Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging honeybees (Apis mellifera), trained with 2 successively presented targets labeled with different odors, one target baited with a small drop of 50% sucrose solution and the other baited with a small drop of 20% sucrose solution, soon come to respond more promptly on 50% than on 20% trials (prospective effect) and more promptly after 20% than after 50% trials

P. A. Couvillon; Julie A. Nagrampa; M. E. Bitterman

1994-01-01

313

Mineral balances in humans as affected by fructose, high fructose corn syrup and sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of selected minerals when sugars were supplemented to basal diets was investigated in two separate, laboratory-controlled human feeding studies. Fructose-fed subjects had higher fecal excretions of iron and magnesium than did subjects fed sucrose. Apparent iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc balances tended to be less positive during the fructose feeding period as compared to balances during the sucrose

Rao Ivaturi; Constance Kies

1992-01-01

314

Shallow-burial dolomite cement: a major component of many ancient sucrosic dolomites  

E-print Network

Shallow-burial dolomite cement: a major component of many ancient sucrosic dolomites PHILIP W 54901, USA (E-mail: hiatt@uwosh.edu) ABSTRACT Dolomite cement is a significant and widespread component of Phanerozoic sucrosic dolomites. Cements in dolomites that were never deeply buried are limpid, have planar

Hiatt, Eric E.

315

Membrane Potentials of the Lobster Giant Axon Obtained by Use of the Sucrose-Gap Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method similar to the sucrose-gap technique introduced be St~pfli is described for measuring membrane potential and current in singly lobster giant axons (diameter about 100 micra). The isotonic sucrose solution used to perfuse the gaps raises the external leakage resistance so that the re- corded potential is only about 5 per cent less than the actual membrane po- tential.

FRED J. JULIAN; JOHN W. MOORE; DAVID E. GOLDMAN

2010-01-01

316

Continuous Production of Glycerol by Catalytic High Pressure Hydrogenolysis of Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several continuous reactor systems have been discussed for the catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose to glycerol. Theoretically and actually, continuous reactors lead to lower glycerol yields than in a batch process. Two continuous stirred tank reactors in cascade constitute a reasonable compromise. An economic evaluation of the sucrose route to glycerol in comparison with other synthetic glycerol processes based

Ling van Gerrit; Alfons J. Driessen; Arie C. Piet; Jozef C. Vlugter

1970-01-01

317

Temporal analysis of sucrose-induced phosphorylation changes in plasma membrane proteins of Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose is the main product of photosynthesis and the most common transport form of carbon in plants. In addition, sucrose is a compound that serves as a signal affecting metabolic flux and development. Here we provide first results of externally induced phosphorylation changes of plasma membrane proteins in Arabidopsis. In an unbiased approach, seedlings were grown in liquid medium with

T. Niittylae; Anja T. Fuglsang; Michael G. Palmgren; Wolf B. Frommer; Waltraud X. Schulze

2007-01-01

318

Interchain association of locust bean gum in sucrose solutions: An interpretation based on thixotropic behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thixotropic behavior of locust bean gum (LBG) in sucrose solutions after freezing and thawing was investigated using a transient rheological approach. The thixotropy is attributed to the forced association of LBG chains during freezing. The effects of shear rate, shearing temperature, sucrose concentration, and number of freeze–thaw cycles on the transient viscosity profile were studied. A second-order kinetic equation

Ching-Feng Mao; Jia-Chin Chen

2006-01-01

319

Thermodynamic incompatibility and microstructure of milk protein\\/locust bean gum\\/sucrose systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase equilibria of milk protein\\/locust bean gum systems in high levels of sucrose were investigated to understand the behaviour of these components in diary products and also to look at the particular effect of sucrose. Two milk protein systems were investigated, skimmed milk (SMP) and native phosphocaseinate (PCN). The main advantage of using this latter sample is that it is

C. Schorsch; M. G. Jones; I. T. Norton

1999-01-01

320

Functional characterization of the sucrose isomerase responsible for trehalulose production in plant-associated Pectobacterium species.  

PubMed

Fifty-three plant-associated microorganisms were investigated for their ability to convert sucrose to its isomers. These microorganisms included one Dickeya zeae isolate and 7 Enterobacter, 3 Pantoea, and 43 Pectobacterium species. Eleven out of the 53 strains (21%) showed the ability to transform sucrose to isomaltulose and trehalulose. Among those, Pectobacterium carotovorum KKH 3-1 showed the highest bioconversion yield (97.4%) from sucrose to its isomers. In this strain, the addition of up to 14% sucrose in the medium enhanced sucrose isomerase (SIase) production. The SIase activity at 14% sucrose (47.6 U/mg dcw) was about 3.6-fold higher than that of the negative control (13.3 U/mg dcw at 0% sucrose). The gene encoding SIase, which is comprised a 1776 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 591 amino acids, was cloned from P. carotovorum KKH 3-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant SIase (PCSI) was shown to have optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 40 °C. The reaction temperature significantly affected the ratio of sucrose isomers produced by PCSI. The amount of trehalulose increased from 47.5% to 79.1% as temperature was lowered from 50 °C to 30 °C, implying that SIase activity can be controlled by reaction temperature. PMID:24411451

Nam, Cheon-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Koh, Young-Jin; Jung, Jae-Sung; Heu, Sunggi; Oh, Chang-Sik; Park, Cheon-Seok

2014-02-01

321

Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots  

SciTech Connect

Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose (/sup 14/C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM (/sup 3/H//sup 14/C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. /sup 14/C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than /sup 3/H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of /sup 3/H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of /sup 3/H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the /sup 3/H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no /sup 14/C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear.

Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

1987-04-01

322

PCR-generated molecular markers for the invertase gene and sucrose accumulation in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green-fruited tomato species, Lycopersicon hirsutum, unlike the domesticated red-fruited species, L. esculentum, accumulates sucrose during the final stages of fruit development, concomitant with the loss of soluble acid invertase activity. In order to study the genetic linkage of sucrose accumulation to the invertase gene, part of the invertase gene from L. hirsutum was cloned, sequenced and the sequence compared

R. Hadas; A. Schaffer; D. Miron; M. Fogelman; D. Granot

1995-01-01

323

Location of enzymes metabolising sucrose and starch in the grasses Pennisetum purpureum and Muhlenbergia montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf tissue of the panicoid grass Pennisetum purpureum (Schum) and of the chloridoid grass Muhlenbergia montana (Hitchcock) were fractionated to produce preparations enriched in the contents of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase were found predominantly in the mesophyll tissues of both species, as was uridine-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Pennisetum. In Muhlenbergia this enzyme was more

C. Bucke; I. R. Oliver

1975-01-01

324

Determination of structural requirements and probable regulatory effectors for membrane association of maize sucrose synthase 1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase (SUS) cleaves sucrose to form UDP-glucose and fructose, and exists in soluble (s-SUS) and membrane-associated (m-SUS) forms, with the latter proposed to channel UDP-glucose to the cellulose synthase complex on the plasma membrane of plant cells during synthesis of cellulose. However...

325

Discrimination between the Tastes of Sucrose and Monosodium Glutamate in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned taste aversion studies have demonstrated that rats conditioned to avoid monosodium glutamate (MSG) with amiloride added to reduce the intensity of the sodium component of MSG taste, will generalize an aversion for MSG to sucrose and vice versa. This suggests that taste transduction for sodium, sucrose and MSG may intersect at some point. Generalization of conditioned taste aversion indicates

J. R. Stapleton; M. Luellig; S. D. Roper; E. R. Delay

2002-01-01

326

Repeated Cocaine Experience Facilitates Sucrose-Reinforced Operant Responding in Enriched and Isolated Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether repeated cocaine exposure differentially affects sucrose-reinforced operant responding in rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) or an isolated condition (IC). Specifically, the performance of EC and IC rats pressing a lever for sucrose under a high fixed-ratio schedule (FR 30)…

Klein, Emily D.; Gehrke, Brenda J.; Green, Thomas A.; Zentall, Thomas R.; Bardo, Michael T.

2007-01-01

327

Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

2007-01-01

328

NMR, Molecular Modeling, and Crystallographic Studies of Lentil Lectin-Sucrose Interaction*  

E-print Network

NMR, Molecular Modeling, and Crystallographic Studies of Lentil Lectin-Sucrose Interaction- ing site of lentil lectin have been characterized through elucidation of a crystalline complex at 1, and molecular modeling. In the crys- tal, the lentil lectin dimer binds one sucrose molecule per monomer

Hamelryck, Thomas

329

Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots.  

PubMed

Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

Greco, N; D'Addabbo, T

1990-10-01

330

The Yeast Sphingolipid Signaling Landscape  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are recognized as signaling mediators in a growing number of pathways, and represent potential targets to address many diseases. The study of sphingolipid signaling in yeast has created a number of breakthroughs in the field, and has the potential to lead future advances. The aim of this article is to provide an inclusive view of two major frontiers in yeast sphingolipid signaling. In the first section, several key studies in the field of sphingolipidomics are consolidated to create a yeast sphingolipidome that ranks nearly all known sphingolipid species by their level in a resting yeast cell. The second section presents an overview of most known phenotypes identified for sphingolipid gene mutants, presented with the intention of illuminating not yet discovered connections outside and inside of the field. PMID:24220500

Montefusco, David J.; Matmati, Nabil

2014-01-01

331

Synthesis and characterization of an exopolysaccharide by antarctic yeast strain Cryptococcus laurentii AL???.  

PubMed

An exopolysaccharide-producing Antarctic yeast strain was selected and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii AL???. The physiological properties of the strain and its ability to utilize and biotransform different carbon sources (pentoses, hexoses, and oligosaccharides) into exopolysaccharide and biomass were investigated. Sucrose was chosen as a suitable and accessible carbon source. The biosynthetic capacity of the strain was studied in its dynamics at different sucrose concentrations (20, 30, 40, and 50 g/L) and temperatures (22 and 24 °C). The maximum biopolymer quantity of 6.4 g/L was obtained at 40 g/L of sucrose, 22 °C temperature and 96-h fermentation duration. The newly synthesized microbial carbohydrate was a heteropolysaccharide having the following monosaccharide composition: arabinose, 61.1%; mannose, 15.0%; glucose, 12.0%; galactose, 5.9%; and rhamnose, 2.8%. It was characterized by polydispersity of the polymer molecule, 60% of it having molecular mass of 4200 Da. The exopolysaccharide demonstrated good emulsifying and stabilizing properties with regard to oil/water emulsions and a pronounced synergistic effect with other hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum, guar gum, and alginate. PMID:20972644

Pavlova, Kostantsa; Rusinova-Videva, Snezhana; Kuncheva, Margarita; Kratchanova, Maria; Gocheva, Mariana; Dimitrova, Stela

2011-04-01

332

Studies of Impedance in Cardiac Tissue Using Sucrose Gap and Computer Techniques  

PubMed Central

Impedances of cardiac cells of an insect were determined as a function of time to test the effects of sucrose and oil as insulating media in a gap arrangement. Impedance values are shown to increase markedly with time when sucrose is used as the insulating agent. Although impedance values are steady when oil is used, it is suggested that a layer of trapped electrolyte provides a shunt pathway and seriously impairs the validity of the measurements. A quick wash with sucrose followed by oil does not alleviate the situation but leaves a layer of sucrose trapped at the tissue-medium interface into which ions diffuse. The hypotheses (a) that the diffusion of intracellular K+ into the sucrose would result in an increase in tissue impedance and (b) that a layer of trapped electrolyte under the oil film provides a shunt pathway are examined by computer analyses of a simple model. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B PMID:4754198

McCann, Frances V.; Stibitz, George R.; Huguenin, Jan

1973-01-01

333

A requirement for sucrose in xylem sap flow from dormant maple trees.  

PubMed

The response of excised stem segments of several tree species to freezing and thawing cycles was studied. All species studied (Thuja occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, and Betula papyrifera) except maple (Acer spp.) exuded sap while freezing and absorbed on thawing. Maple stems absorbed sap while freezing and exuded sap during the thaw only when sucrose was present in the vessel solution. Increased concentration of sucrose in the vessel sap led to increased exudation. In the absence of sucrose, maple stems absorbed sap on thawing. The presence of sucrose enhanced sap absorption during freezing cycles in maples. In general, large sugars, disaccharides and larger, could substitute for sucrose in the maple exudation response while sugar hexoses could not. The results are discussed in relation to the O'Malley-Milburn model (1983 Can J Bot 61: 3100-3106) of sap flow in maples. PMID:16665468

Johnson, R W; Tyree, M T; Dixon, M A

1987-06-01

334

Yeast Breads: Made at Home.  

E-print Network

/4 cup lukewarm tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and tomato juice I 1 package or cake yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted butter or margarine 21/4 CUPS flour Add penst and sugar to lukewarm tomato juice and

Reasonover, Frances

1971-01-01

335

Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

1989-06-06

336

Characterization of cDNAs encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase from cultures of Brassica napus and sucrose-mediated induction of enzyme biosynthesis.  

PubMed

cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20), designated BnDGAT1 and BnDGAT2, were obtained from a microspore-derived cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Jet Neuf). BnDGAT2 shares a very high level of identity with BnDGAT1, but is a smaller protein lacking the relatively hydrophilic N-terminal segment found in BnDGAT1. Both transcripts were produced in the cell suspension cultures and the cDNAs were functionally expressed in transformed yeast (Pichia pastoris) cells. Sucrose-mediated changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism and expression of BnDGAT1 were examined in the cell suspension cultures following transfer of cells from media containing 6% (w/v) sucrose to media containing 14% sucrose. TAG content and DGAT activity of the cells increased transiently within the first 12 h after transfer (HAT). The rapid decline in TAG content observed at 12 HAT was inversely related to an increase in TAG lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) activity. The transient increases in TAG content and DGAT activity correlated with the elevated amounts of BnDGAT1 polypeptide. Transcript levels were also induced, but levels of mRNA encoding BnDGAT1 were not tightly correlated with DGAT activity and amount of polypeptide suggesting some control of expression at the post-transcriptional level. In general, the rapid changes in TAG content were closely associated with the changes in the activity of TAG-metabolizing enzymes and expression of BnDGAT1. PMID:11880235

Nykiforuk, Cory L; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara L; Huff, Phillip W; Sarna, Magdalena; Laroche, André; Moloney, Maurice M; Weselake, Randall J

2002-02-28

337

The Sucrose Analog Palatinose Leads to a Stimulation of Sucrose Degradation and Starch Synthesis When Supplied to Discs of Growing Potato Tubers1  

PubMed Central

In the present paper we investigated the effect of the sucrose (Suc) analog palatinose on potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber metabolism. In freshly cut discs of growing potato tubers, addition of 5 mm palatinose altered the metabolism of exogenously supplied [U-14C]Suc. There was slight inhibition of the rate of 14C-Suc uptake, a 1.5-fold increase in the rate at which 14C-Suc was subsequently metabolized, and a shift in the allocation of the metabolized label in favor of starch synthesis. The sum result of these changes was a 2-fold increase in the absolute rate of starch synthesis. The increased rate of starch synthesis was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in inorganic pyrophosphate, a 2-fold increase in UDP, decreased UTP/UDP, ATP/ADP, and ATP/AMP ratios, and decreased adenylate energy charge, whereas glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates were unchanged. In addition, feeding palatinose to potato discs also stimulated the metabolism of exogenous 14C-glucose in favor of starch synthesis. In vitro studies revealed that palatinose is not metabolized by Suc synthases or invertases within potato tuber extracts. Enzyme kinetics revealed different effects of palatinose on Suc synthase and invertase activities, implicating palatinose as an allosteric effector leading to an inhibition of Suc synthase and (surprisingly) to an activation of invertase in vitro. However, measurement of tissue palatinose levels revealed that these were too low to have significant effects on Suc degrading activities in vivo. These results suggest that supplying palatinose to potato tubers represents a novel way to increase starch synthesis. PMID:11299376

Fernie, Alisdair R.; Roessner, Ute; Geigenberger, Peter

2001-01-01

338

Hedonic response to sucrose solutions and the fear of weight gain in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that patients with bulimia nervosa (B), anorexia nervosa, restricting type, or restrictive-anorectic (RA), and anorexia nervosa, binge eating, purging type, or anorectic-bulimic (AB) exhibit a reduced hedonic response to sucrose compared with control subjects. We hypothesized that this response could be linked to an excessive fear of weight gain rather than a decreased ability to experience pleasure. We therefore compared the hedonic responses to sucrose solutions in B, RA and AB women (n=20/group) in two different conditions: sucrose solution swallowed vs. sucrose solution spit. Under double-blind conditions and according to a Latin square design, patients received sucrose in solution (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40%) and rated each concentration for pleasantness on a nine-point scale. The two test conditions were randomly administered. The threshold concentration of sweet taste perception was also assessed, and the subjects filled out Chapman's Social and Physical Anhedonia Scale. The hedonic response to sucrose adjusted for the sweet taste perception threshold was significantly lower in the 'swallow' than in the 'spit' condition. There was a significant effect of sucrose concentrations as well as a significant condition by concentration interaction. When 'fear to swallow' sucrose solution responses were included as a covariate, the significant difference between the conditions of 'swallow' or 'spit' disappeared, but there was a significant concentration by condition by fear to swallow interaction and an almost significant covariate effect. When 'Drive for Thinness' on the Eating Disorder Inventory was included as a covariate, similar results were obtained. Social Anhedonia but not Physical Anhedonia correlated positively with 'Drive for Thinness' and 'fear of swallowing sucrose solutions', and correlated inversely with maximal hedonic response to the 'swallow' condition. 'We conclude that the hedonic responses to sucrose in patients with eating disorders are decreased when solutions are swallowed. This may reflect excessive fear of gaining weight rather than decreased ability to experience pleasure'. PMID:12467956

Eiber, Rénate; Berlin, Ivan; de Brettes, Benoît; Foulon, Christine; Guelfi, Julien Daniel

2002-12-15

339

Speciation of chromium in chromium yeast.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The separation was achieved on a weak anion exchange column. The mobile phase was pH 7.0 ammonium nitrate solution. The redox reaction between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was avoided during separation and determination. This separation method could be used to separate the samples with large concentration differences between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The alkaline digestion was used to extract chromium in solid sample, which had no effect on the retention time and the peak area of the Cr(VI). However, the conversion of Cr(VI) from Cr(III) was observed during alkaline digestion, which displayed positive relation with the ratio of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) contents of chromium yeasts cultured in media with different chromium additions were determined. The spike recoveries of Cr(VI) for chromium yeasts were in the range of 95-108 %. PMID:25269546

Guo, Xuena; Liu, Wei; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

2014-12-01

340

Resinless section electron microscopy reveals the yeast cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially invisible using conventional microscopy techniques. A similar problem was solved for the mammalian cell cytoskeleton using resinless section electron microscopy, a technique applied here to yeast. In the resinless image, soluble proteins are no longer cloaked by embedding medium and must be removed by selective detergent extraction. In yeast, this requires breaching the cell wall by digesting with Zymolyase sufficiently to allow detergent extraction of the plasma membrane lipids. Gel electropherograms show that the extracted or "soluble" proteins are distinct from the retained or "structural" proteins that presumably comprise the cytoskeleton. These putative cytoskeleton proteins include the major portions of a 43-kDa protein, which is presumably actin, and of proteins in a band appearing at 55 kDa, as well as numerous less abundant, nonactin proteins. Resinless section electron micrographs show a dense, three-dimensional web of anastomosing, polymorphic filaments bounded by the remnant cell wall. Although the filament network is very heterogenous, there appear to be two principal classes of filament diameters-5 nm and 15-20 nm-which may correspond to actin and intermediate filaments, respectively. A large oval region of lower filament density probably corresponds to the vacuole, and an electron dense spheroidal body, 300-500 nm in diameter, is likely the nucleus. The techniques detailed in this report afford new approaches to the study of yeast cytoarchitecture. PMID:9108046

Penman, J; Penman, S

1997-04-15

341

Characterization of the Highly Efficient Sucrose Isomerase from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J and Cloning of the Sucrose Isomerase Gene  

PubMed Central

Sucrose isomerase (SI) genes from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J, Klebsiella planticola UQ14S, and Erwinia rhapontici WAC2928 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The predicted products of the UQ14S and WAC2928 genes were similar to known SIs. The UQ68J SI differed substantially, and it showed the highest isomaltulose-producing efficiency in E. coli cells. The purified recombinant WAC2928 SI was unstable, whereas purified UQ68J and UQ14S SIs were very stable. UQ68J SI activity was optimal at pH 5 and 30 to 35°C, and it produced a high ratio of isomaltulose to trehalulose (>22:1) across its pH and temperature ranges for activity (pH 4 to 7 and 20 to 50°C). In contrast, UQ14S SI showed optimal activity at pH 6 and 35°C and produced a lower ratio of isomaltulose to trehalulose (<8:1) across its pH and temperature ranges for activity. UQ68J SI had much higher catalytic efficiency; the Km was 39.9 mM, the Vmax was 638 U mg?1, and the Kcat/Km was 1.79 × 104 M?1 s?1, compared to a Km of 76.0 mM, a Vmax of 423 U mg?1, and a Kcat/Km of 0.62 × 104 M?1 s?1 for UQ14S SI. UQ68J SI also showed no apparent reverse reaction producing glucose, fructose, or trehalulose from isomaltulose. These properties of the P. dispersa UQ68J enzyme are exceptional among purified SIs, and they indicate likely differences in the mechanism at the enzyme active site. They may favor the production of isomaltulose as an inhibitor of competing microbes in high-sucrose environments, and they are likely to be highly beneficial for industrial production of isomaltulose. PMID:15746363

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G.

2005-01-01

342

Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 Allocates Carbon into Wood Fibers1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H+ symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after 13CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more 13C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers. PMID:24170204

Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Niittylä, Totte

2013-01-01

343

Metabolic regulation of yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

Fiechter, A.

1982-12-01

344

Synthetic Yeast Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

2010-03-01

345

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification of Yeasts Is Contingent on Robust Reference Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for yeast identification is limited by the requirement for protein extraction and for robust reference spectra across yeast species in databases. We evaluated its ability to identify a range of yeasts in comparison with phenotypic methods.MethodsMALDI-TOF MS was performed on 30 reference and 167 clinical isolates followed by prospective examination

Angie Pinto; Catriona Halliday; Melissa Zahra; Sebastian van Hal; Tom Olma; Krystyna Maszewska; Jonathan R. Iredell; Wieland Meyer; Sharon C.-A. Chen; Markus M. Heimesaat

2011-01-01

346

THE THIRD SUCROSE SYNTHASE IN ZEA MAYS(SUS3) IS A UBIQUITOUS PROTEIN THAT IS PHOSPHORYLATED AND MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a vital enzyme in plant metabolism as it serves to cleave sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose. Zea mays has three known sucrose synthase isoforms: SUS1, SH1, and SUS3. The SUS3 isoform was only recently characterized at the transcript level. Recent evidence using...

347

Gibberellins, jasmonate and abscisic acid modulate the sucrose-induced expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in the physiology of plants. Both sucrose and hormones regulate anthocyanin synthesis. Here, the interplay between sucrose and plant hormones was investigated in the expression of sucrose-regulated genes coding for anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes in Arabidopsis seedlings.  The expression pattern of 14 genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway,

Elena Loreti; Giovanni Povero; Giacomo Novi; Cinzia Solfanelli; Amedeo Alpi; Pierdomenico Perata

2008-01-01

348

Expression and regulation of a Vibrio alginolyticus sucrose utilization system cloned in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A halotolerant collagenolytic Vibrio alginolyticus strain isolated from salted hides had intracellular sucrase activity and did not secret sucrase into the medium. The strain actively transported sucrose by a sucrose-inducible, Na+-independent process. A 10.4-kilobase DNA fragment of V. alginolyticus DNA was cloned into Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli(pVS100) could utilize sucrose as a sole carbon source. In contrast to V. alginolyticus, the recombinant E. coli produced both intra- and extracellular sucrase activities. Up to 20% of the total sucrase activity was in the supernatant. Sucrase synthesis in E. coli(pVS100) was inducible and was subject to glucose repression, which was relieved by cyclic AMP. Sucrose was actively transported by a sucrose-inducible, Na+-independent system in E. coli(pVS100). Sucrose uptake was inhibited by the addition of a proton conductor. The maximum velocity and apparent Km values of sucrose uptake for the V. alginolyticus strain and E. coli(pVS100) were 130 nmol/mg of protein per min and 50 microM and 6 nmol/mg of protein per min and 275 microM, respectively. Images PMID:3034863

Scholle, R R; Coyne, V E; Maharaj, R; Robb, F T; Woods, D R

1987-01-01

349

Distinct sucrose isomerases catalyze trehalulose synthesis in whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii, and Erwinia rhapontici.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose [alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,6)-D-fructofuranose] and trehalulose [alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,1)-D-fructofuranose] are commercially valuable sucrose-substitutes that are produced in several microorganisms by the palI gene product, a sucrose isomerase. Trehalulose also occurs in the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifoli, as the major carbohydrate in the insect's honeydew. To determine if the enzyme that synthesizes trehalulose in whiteflies was similar to the well-characterized sucrose isomerase from microbial sources, the properties of the enzymes from whiteflies and the bacterium, Erwinia rhapontici, were compared. Partial purification of both enzymes showed that the enzyme from whiteflies was a 116 kD membrane-associated polypeptide, in contrast to the enzyme from E. rhapontici, which was soluble and 66 kD. The enzyme from E. rhapontici converted sucrose to isomaltulose and trehalulose in a 5:1 ratio, whereas the enzyme from whiteflies produced only trehalulose. Unlike the E. rhapontici enzyme, the whitefly enzyme did not convert isomaltulose to trehalulose, but both enzymes catalyzed the transfer of fructose to trehalulose using sucrose as the glucosyl donor. The results indicate that trehalulose synthase from whiteflies is structurally and functionally distinct from the sucrose isomerases described in bacteria. The whitefly enzyme is the first reported case of an enzyme that converts sucrose to exclusively trehalulose. PMID:12798947

Salvucci, Michael E

2003-06-01

350

Intramolecular labelling of sucrose made by leaves from [14C)carbon dioxide or [3-14C]serine.  

PubMed Central

Pea leaves were illuminated in air containing 150 or 1000p.p.m. of 14CO2 for various times. Alternatively, segments of wheat leaves were supplied with [3-14C]serine for 40 min in the light in air with 145, 326 or 944p.p.m. of 12CO2. Sucrose was extracted from the leaf material, hydrolysed with invertase, and 14C in the pairs of carbon atoms C-3+C-4, C-2+C-5 and C-1+C-6 in the glucose moiety was measured. The results obtained after metabolism of 14CO2 were consistent with the operation of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle; the effects of CO2 concentration on distribution of 14C in the carbon chain of glucose after metabolism of [3-14C]serine is more easily explained by metabolism through the glycollate pathway than by the carbon-reduction cycle. PMID:656073

Bird, I F; Cornelius, M J; Keys, A J; Whittingham, C P

1978-01-01

351

Downregulating the sucrose transporter VpSUT1 in Verbascum phoeniceum does not inhibit phloem loading  

PubMed Central

Sucrose is loaded into the phloem in the minor veins of leaves before export. Two active, species-specific loading mechanisms have been proposed. One involves transporter-mediated sucrose transfer from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, so-called apoplastic loading. In the putative second mechanism, sucrose follows an entirely symplastic pathway, and the solute concentration is elevated by the synthesis of raffinose and stachyose in the phloem, not by transporter activity. Several sucrose-transporting plants have been shown to be apoplastic loaders by downregulating sucrose transporter 1 (SUT1), leading to accumulation of sugars and leaf chlorosis. In this study we compared the effect of downregulating SUT1 in Nicotiana tabacum, a sucrose transporter, and Verbascum phoeniceum, a species that transports raffinose and stachyose. To test the effectiveness of RNAi downregulation, we measured SUT1 mRNA levels and sucrose-H+ symport in leaf discs. Mild NtSUT1 downregulation in N. tabacum resulted in the pronounced phenotype associated with loading inhibition. In contrast, no such phenotype developed when VpSUT1 was downregulated in V. phoeniceum, leaving minimal sucrose transport activity. Only those plants with the most severe VpSUT1 downregulation accumulated more carbohydrate than usual and these plants were normal by other criteria: growth rate, photosynthesis, and ability to clear starch during the night. The results provide direct evidence that the mechanism of phloem loading in V. phoeniceum does not require active sucrose uptake from the apoplast and strongly supports the conclusion that the loading pathway is symplastic in this species. PMID:19846784

Zhang, Cankui; Turgeon, Robert

2009-01-01

352

Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes  

PubMed Central

Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

Enenkel, Cordula

2014-01-01

353

Synthesis of a sucrose dimer with enone tether; a study on its functionalization  

PubMed Central

Summary The reaction of appropriately functionalized sucrose phosphonate with sucrose aldehyde afforded a dimer composed of two sucrose units connected via their C6-positions (‘the glucose ends’). The carbonyl group in this product (enone) was stereoselectively reduced with zinc borohydride and the double bond (after protection of the allylic alcohol formed after reduction) was oxidized with osmium tetroxide to a diol. Absolute configurations of the allylic alcohol as well as the diol were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy using the in situ dimolybdenum methodology. PMID:24991275

Pakulski, Zbigniew; Gajda, Norbert; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Frelek, Jadwiga; Cmoch, Piotr

2014-01-01

354

Synthesis of a sucrose dimer with enone tether; a study on its functionalization.  

PubMed

The reaction of appropriately functionalized sucrose phosphonate with sucrose aldehyde afforded a dimer composed of two sucrose units connected via their C6-positions ('the glucose ends'). The carbonyl group in this product (enone) was stereoselectively reduced with zinc borohydride and the double bond (after protection of the allylic alcohol formed after reduction) was oxidized with osmium tetroxide to a diol. Absolute configurations of the allylic alcohol as well as the diol were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy using the in situ dimolybdenum methodology. PMID:24991275

Pakulski, Zbigniew; Gajda, Norbert; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Frelek, Jadwiga; Cmoch, Piotr; Jarosz, S?awomir

2014-01-01

355

Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether exposure to artificial sweeteners degrades the predictive relationship between sweet taste and its post-ingestive consequences. Here we tested whether brain response to caloric sucrose is influenced by individual differences in self-reported artificial sweetener use. Twenty-six subjects participated in fMRI scanning while consuming sucrose solutions. A negative correlation between artificial sweetener use and amygdala response to sucrose ingestion was observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior. PMID:22178008

Rudenga, KJ; Small, DM

2011-01-01

356

Evaluation of Brewer's spent yeast to produce flavor enhancer nucleotides: influence of serial repitching.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the influence of serial yeast repitching on nucleotide composition of brewer's spent yeast extracts produced without addition of exogenous enzymes. Two procedures for disrupting cell walls were compared, and the conditions for low-cost and efficient RNA hydrolysis were selected. A HILIC methodology was validated for the quantification of nucleotides and nucleosides in yeast extracts. Thirty-seven samples of brewer's spent yeast ( Saccharomyces pastorianus ) organized according to the number of serial repitchings were analyzed. Nucleotides accounted for 71.1-88.2% of the RNA products; 2'AMP was the most abundant (ranging between 0.08 and 2.89 g/100 g dry yeast). 5'GMP content ranged between 0.082 and 0.907 g/100 g dry yeast. The sum of 5'GMP, 5'IMP, and 5'AMP represented between 25 and 32% of total nucleotides. This works highlights for the first time that although serial repitching influences the content of monophosphate nucleotides and nucleosides, the profiles of these RNA hydrolysis products are not affected. PMID:24004163

Vieira, Elsa; Brandão, Tiago; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2013-09-18

357

Interplay between sucrose and folate modulates auxin signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

As sessile organisms growing in an ever-changing environment, plants must integrate multiple regulatory inputs to promote the appropriate developmental responses. One such nutritional signal is cellular sugar levels, which rise and fall throughout the day and affect a variety of developmental processes. To uncover signaling pathways that modulate sugar perception, compounds from the Library of Active Compounds in Arabidopsis were screened for the ability to perturb developmental responses to sucrose (Suc) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. This screen found that sulfonamides, which inhibit folate biosynthesis in plants, restrict hypocotyl elongation in a sugar-dependent fashion. Transcriptome analysis identified a small set of transcripts that respond to the interaction between sulfonamide and Suc, including a number of transcripts encoding Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acids, negative regulators of auxin signal transduction. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport or genetic disruption of auxin signaling relieved this interaction, suggesting that responses to these two nutritional stimuli are mediated by auxin. Reporter systems used to track auxin signaling and distribution showed enhanced activity in the vascular region of the hypocotyl in response to cotreatment of Suc and sulfonamide, yet no change in auxin abundance was observed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the interplay between Suc and folates acts to fine-tune auxin sensitivity and influences auxin distribution during seedling development. PMID:23690535

Stokes, Michael E; Chattopadhyay, Abhishek; Wilkins, Olivia; Nambara, Eiji; Campbell, Malcolm M

2013-07-01

358

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

2001-01-01

359

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 4LGrowth and Manipulation of Yeast PREPARATION OF SELECTED YEAST MEDIA Like Escherichia media of consistently high quality is essential for the genetic manipulation of yeast. Autoclaving coli, yeast can be grown in either liquid media or on the surface of (or embedded in) solid agar plates

Winston, Fred

360

Modern approach for determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in human urine using HPLC-MS/MS for the studies of intestinal and upper digestive tract permeability.  

PubMed

A new analytical procedure was described for the simultaneous determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in urine, in which HILIC chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection are used. Sugars are orally administered for the estimation of intestinal permeability in children digestive tract. Samples were purified by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) using Amberlite MB150 resin. Raffinose was selected as an internal standard. The chosen chromatographic separation was carried out on ZIC(®)-HILIC column in 10 min at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, using mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and ammonium acetate (NH(4)Ac) in water (H(2)O) as the mobile phase. Within-run precision (CV) measured at three concentrations was 1.08%, 0.32% and 0.49% for lactulose; 1.88%, 0.47% and 0.75% for mannitol, 2.95%, 1.31% and 0.6% for sucrose. Between-run CVs were 0.75%, 1.1% and 1.2% for lactulose; 1.1%, 1.02% and 1.01% for mannitol; 1.17%, 1.4% and 1.05% for sucrose. Analytical recovery of all three sugar probes was 95.06-99.92%. The detection limits were: 15.94 ng/mL for lactulose, 17.10 ng/mL for sucrose and 11.48 ng/mL for mannitol. The proposed method is rapid, simple, sensitive and suitable for the determination of intestinal permeability of the sugar derivatives in children. PMID:22985725

Kubica, Pawe?; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namie?nik, Jacek; Landowski, Piotr

2012-10-15

361

Characterization of the highly efficient sucrose isomerase from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J and cloning of the sucrose isomerase gene.  

PubMed

Sucrose isomerase (SI) genes from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J, Klebsiella planticola UQ14S, and Erwinia rhapontici WAC2928 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The predicted products of the UQ14S and WAC2928 genes were similar to known SIs. The UQ68J SI differed substantially, and it showed the highest isomaltulose-producing efficiency in E. coli cells. The purified recombinant WAC2928 SI was unstable, whereas purified UQ68J and UQ14S SIs were very stable. UQ68J SI activity was optimal at pH 5 and 30 to 35 degrees C, and it produced a high ratio of isomaltulose to trehalulose (>22:1) across its pH and temperature ranges for activity (pH 4 to 7 and 20 to 50 degrees C). In contrast, UQ14S SI showed optimal activity at pH 6 and 35 degrees C and produced a lower ratio of isomaltulose to trehalulose (<8:1) across its pH and temperature ranges for activity. UQ68J SI had much higher catalytic efficiency; the Km was 39.9 mM, the Vmax was 638 U mg(-1), and the Kcat/Km was 1.79 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), compared to a Km of 76.0 mM, a Vmax of 423 U mg(-1), and a Kcat/Km of 0.62 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) for UQ14S SI. UQ68J SI also showed no apparent reverse reaction producing glucose, fructose, or trehalulose from isomaltulose. These properties of the P. dispersa UQ68J enzyme are exceptional among purified SIs, and they indicate likely differences in the mechanism at the enzyme active site. They may favor the production of isomaltulose as an inhibitor of competing microbes in high-sucrose environments, and they are likely to be highly beneficial for industrial production of isomaltulose. PMID:15746363

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2005-03-01

362

The intronome of budding yeasts.  

PubMed

Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors. PMID:21819948

Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

2011-01-01

363

Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV); Sophie G. Martin (Switzerland;University of Lausanne REV)

2012-12-04

364

Efficient secretory expression of the sweet-tasting protein brazzein in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.  

PubMed

Brazzein is an intensely sweet-tasting protein with high water solubility, heat stability, and taste properties resembling those of carbohydrate sweeteners. In the present study, we describe the expression of the synthetic gene encoding brazzein, a sweet protein in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The synthetic brazzein gene was designed based on the biased codons of the yeast, so as to optimize its expression, as well as on the extracellular secretion for expression in an active, soluble form. The synthesized brazzein gene was cloned into the secretion vector pKLAC2, which contains the yeast prepropeptide signal from the Saccharomycescerevisiae ?-mating factor. The constructed plasmid pKLAC2-des-pE1M-brazzein was introduced into the yeast K. lactis GG799. The yeast transformants were cultured for high-yield secretion of the recombinant des-pE1M-brazzein in YPGal medium for 96 h at 30°C. The expressed recombinant des-pE1M-brazzein was purified by CM-Sepharose column chromatography and approximately 104 mg/L was obtained. The purity and conformational state of the recombinant des-pE1M-brazzein were confirmed using SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and circular dichroism. The identity of the recombinant protein was also confirmed by N-terminal amino acid analysis and taste testing. The purified recombinant des-pE1M-brazzein had an intrinsic sweetness in its minor form, approximately 2130 times sweeter than sucrose on a weight basis. These results demonstrate that the K. lactis expression system is useful for producing the recombinant brazzein in active form at a high yield with attributes useful in the food industry. PMID:23684772

Jo, Hyun-Joo; Noh, Jin-Seok; Kong, Kwang-Hoon

2013-08-01

365

Monitoring of quorum-sensing molecules during minifermentation studies in wine yeast.  

PubMed

At high cell density or under low nutrient conditions, yeasts collectively adapt their metabolism by secreting aromatic alcohols in what is known as quorum sensing. However, the mechanisms and role of quorum sensing in yeast are poorly understood, and the methodology behind this process is not well established. This paper describes an effective approach to study quorum sensing in yeast fermentations. The separation, detection, and quantification of the putative quorum-sensing molecules 2-phenylethanol, tryptophol, and tyrosol have been optimized on a simple HPLC-based system. With the use of a phenyl HPLC column and a fluorescence detector, the sensitivity of the system was significantly increased. This allowed extraction and concentration procedures to be eliminated and the process to be scaled down to 2 mL minifermentations. Additionally, an innovative method for rapid viable-cell counting is presented. This study forms the basis for detailed studies in kinetics and regulation of quorum sensing in yeast fermentation. PMID:23413824

Zupan, Jure; Avbelj, Martina; Butinar, Bojan; Kosel, Janez; Šergan, Matej; Raspor, Peter

2013-03-13

366

Oily yeasts as oleaginous cell factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily yeasts have been described to be able to accumulate lipids up to 20% of their cellular dry weight. These yeasts represent\\u000a a minor proportion of the total yeast population, and only 5% of them have been reported as able to accumulate more than 25%\\u000a of lipids. The oily yeast genera include Yarrowia, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces.

Jose Manuel Ageitos; Juan Andres Vallejo; Patricia Veiga-Crespo; Tomas G. Villa

2011-01-01

367

Sucrose in cyanobacteria: from a salt-response molecule to play a key role in nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes. PMID:25569239

Kolman, María A; Nishi, Carolina N; Perez-Cenci, Macarena; Salerno, Graciela L

2015-01-01

368

Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

2012-01-01

369

Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

1992-01-01

370

The reward value of sucrose in leptin-deficient obese mice.  

PubMed

Leptin-deficient patients report higher "liking" ratings for food, and leptin replacement therapy normalizes these ratings even before weight loss is achieved. Since animals cannot report their ratings, we studied the relationship between leptin and food reward in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice using a optogenetic assay that quantifies the reward value of sucrose. In this assay, mice chose between one sipper dispensing the artificial sweetener sucralose coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and another sipper dispensing sucrose. We found that the reward value of sucrose was high under a state of leptin deficiency, as well as at a dose of leptin that does not suppress food intake (12.5 ng/h). Treatment with higher doses of leptin decreased the reward value of sucrose before weight loss was achieved (100 ng/h), as seen in leptin-deficient patients. These results phenocopy in mice the behavior of leptin-deficient patients. PMID:24567906

Domingos, Ana I; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Sordillo, Aylesse; Friedman, Jeffrey M

2014-02-01

371

Modeling Sucrose Hydrolysis in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Pretreatment Conditions for Lignocellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25 g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 C for 3-12 min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.

Bower, S.; Wickramasinghe, R.; Nagle, N. J.; Schell, D. J.

2008-01-01

372

Microplate assay for rapid determination of sucrose, glucose, fructose and raffinose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current methods for the quantification of carbohydrates in sugarbeet roots have limitations. Polarimetry and refractometry measure only sucrose content and are inaccurate with deteriorated roots. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) quantify all simple carbohy...

373

Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.  

PubMed

Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region. PMID:23385465

Lipski, Alexandra; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Rhimi, Moez; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

2013-02-01

374

Small-molecule glucosylation by sucrose phosphorylase: structure-activity relationships for acceptor substrates revisited.  

PubMed

Sucrose phosphorylase catalyzes the O-glucosylation of a wide range of acceptor substrates. Acceptors presenting a suitable 1,2-diol moiety are glucosylated exclusively at the secondary hydroxyl. Production of the naturally occurring compatible solute, 2-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol, from sucrose and glycerol is a notable industrial realization of the regio- and stereoselective biotransformation promoted by sucrose phosphorylase. The acceptor substrate specificity of sucrose phosphorylase was analyzed on the basis of recent high-resolution crystal structures of the enzyme. Interactions at the acceptor binding site, observed in the crystal (d-fructosyl) and suggested by results of docking experiments (glycerol), are used to rationalize experimentally determined efficiencies and regioselectivities of enzymatic glucosyl transfer. PMID:20416864

Luley-Goedl, Christiane; Nidetzky, Bernd

2010-07-01

375

Histological Intestinal Recovery in Chickens Refed Dietary Sugar Cane Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane extract (SCE), the residue after removing glucose, fructose, and sucrose from sugar cane juice, has growth-promoting, antistress, and immunosti- mulation effects. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the effects of refeeding dietary SCE on recovery of BW and intestinal histology after withdrawing feed from chickens. Forty-eight male Sanuki Cochin chickens were assigned randomly to 6

K. Yamauchi; K. Koge; T. Ebashi

376

Production of fructooligosaccharides from sucrose by a transfructosylase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from sugarcane fields, produced an extracellular transfructosylase in the culture medium. Sucrose and raffinose induced the production to the enzyme, which was purified by 138-fold. The optimum pH for activity and stability were 5.5 and 6.5, respectively. Its optimum temperature was 55°C. The enzyme hydrolysed sucrose rapidly and simultaneously formed fructooligosaccharides by transfructosylation.

Y. K. Park; M. M. Almeida

1991-01-01

377

Dilute solution properties of guar and locust bean gum in sucrose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilute solution properties of guar, native and purified locust bean gum (LBG) in sucrose solutions (0–40% w\\/w) have been assessed. The intrinsic viscosity of LBG is artificially high due to a contribution from polymer\\/polymer associations. For both galactomannans, the addition of sucrose was shown to initially decrease the intrinsic viscosity, possibly due to either a reduction in solvent quality

Paul H Richardson; Juliette Willmer; Tim J Foster

1998-01-01

378

Reduced alcohol drinking in adult rats exposed to sucrose during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of sweet-alcoholic drinks during adolescence is believed to favor alcohol abuse and dependence in adulthood. This study examined the influence of early exposure to ethanol with or without sucrose on the consumption of sweet or alcoholic solutions in adulthood. Adolescent rats (from post-natal day 30–46) were given continuous free access to tap water and either 5% sucrose, 5% ethanol

Leandro F. Vendruscolo; Aliou Badara Gueye; Janaína C. M. Vendruscolo; Kelly J. Clemens; Pierre Mormède; Muriel Darnaudéry; Martine Cador

2010-01-01

379

ROLE OF INITIAL SUCROSE AND PH LEVELS ON NATURAL, HYDROGEN-PRODUCING, ANAEROBE GERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic batch cultures were established to assess natural anaerobic sporulation, germination, and hydrogen production. Heat-shocked soil inocula obtained from a potato field was cultured using sucrose as the substrate. Eleven batch experimental results suggested that baking was an excellent heat-shock treatment to select for spore forming hydrogen-producing bacteria i.e. clostridia from the soil. Sucrose could induce clostridial spore germination and

Steven Van Ginkel; ShihWu Sung; Ling Li

2001-01-01

380

Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the influence of ingestion of beverages with sucrose or with intense sweeteners on food intake (FI) and on hunger ratings in before and after a month of daily consumption of beverages.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Department of Physiology, University Hospital, Dijon, France.Subjects: In all, 12 men and 12 women, aged 20–25 y.Interventions: Four beverages contained either sucrose (E+:100 g\\/l,

V Van Wymelbeke; M-E Béridot-Thérond; V de La Guéronnière; M Fantino

2004-01-01

381

A mouse model for binge-like sucrose overconsumption: Contribution of enhanced motivation for sweetener consumption.  

PubMed

Behavioral and neural features of binge-like sugar overconsumption have been studied using rat models. However, few mouse models are available to examine the interaction between neural and genetic underpinnings of bingeing. In the present study, we first aim to establish a simple mouse model of binge-like sucrose overconsumption using daytime limited access training in food-restricted male mice. Trained mice received 4-h limited access to both 0.5M sucrose solution and chow for 10days. Three control groups received (1) 4-h sucrose and 20-h chow access, (2) 20-h sucrose and 4-h, or (3) 20-h chow access, respectively. Only the trained group showed progressively increased sucrose consumption during brief periods of time and developed binge-like excessive behavior. Next, we examined whether the present mouse model mimicked a human feature of binge eating known as "eating when not physically hungry." Trained mice consumed significantly more sucrose or non-caloric sweetener (saccharin) during post-training days even after they nocturnally consumed substantial chow prior to daytime sweetener access. In other trained groups, both a systemic administration of glucose and substantial chow consumption prior to the daytime limited sucrose access failed to reduce binge-like sucrose overconsumption. Our results suggest that even when caloric consumption is not necessarily required, limited access training shapes and triggers binge-like overconsumption of sweetened solution in trained mice. The binge-like behavior in trained mice may be mainly due to enhanced hedonic motivation for the sweetener's taste. The present study suggests that our mouse model for binge-like sugar overconsumption may mimic some human features of binge eating and can be used to investigate the roles of neural and genetic mechanisms in binge-like overconsumption of sweetened substances in the absence of physical hunger. PMID:25446199

Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

2015-01-01

382

Desaturase activities in rat model of insulin resistance induced by a sucrose-rich diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sucrose-rich diet, as compared with a similar starch diet, induces a time-dependent typical noninsulin-dependent diabetes\\u000a syndrome characterized by insulin resistance in rats. Within the first 3 wk, there was glucose intolerance associated with\\u000a hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high plasma FFA. In this study, we examined the effect of the sucrose-rich diet\\u000a vs. the starch diet during short-(3 wk) and long-term

Rodolfo R. Brenner; Omar J. Rimoldi; Yolanda B. Lombardo; María S. González; Ana M. Bernasconi; Adriana Chicco; Juan C. Basabe

2003-01-01

383

Transport of Stachyose and Sucrose by Vacuoles of Japanese Artichoke (Stachys sieboldii) Tubers 1  

PubMed Central

Vacuoles are the stores for large amounts of stachyose [?gal (1,6) ?gal (1,6) ?glc (1,2) ?fru] in tubers of Japanese artichoke (Stachys sieboldii). The uptake of stachyose by these vacuoles was examined and compared with that of sucrose. The uptake mechanisms of both sugars were quite similar. The kinetics showed a single saturable response to increasing external concentrations of 14C-sugars with similar apparent Km values of about 50 and 30 millimolar for stachyose and sucrose, respectively. The uptake rates, however, were always higher for stachyose than for sucrose. Stachyose and sucrose uptake was inhibited by fructose and raffinose, and, reciprocally, by sucrose and stachyose, but not by glucose or galactose. The main structural feature common to all sugars recognized by the uptake systems seems to be a terminal fructosyl residue. The uptake of both sugars was stimulated by Mg-ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate, suggesting a proton-sugar antiport system. The possibility that stachyose and sucrose might be transported by the same carrier is discussed. PMID:16668659

Keller, Felix

1992-01-01

384

Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats  

PubMed Central

The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating. PMID:25610366

Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

2015-01-01

385

Is there a specific role for sucrose in sports and exercise performance?  

PubMed

The consumption of carbohydrate before, during, and after exercise is a central feature of the athlete's diet, particularly those competing in endurance sports. Sucrose is a carbohydrate present within the diets of athletes. Whether sucrose, by virtue of its component monosaccharides glucose and fructose, exerts a meaningful advantage for athletes over other carbohydrate types or blends is unclear. This narrative reviews the literature on the influence of sucrose, relative to other carbohydrate types, on exercise performance or the metabolic factors that may underpin exercise performance. Inference from the research to date suggests that sucrose appears to be as effective as other highly metabolizable carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, glucose polymers) in providing an exogenous fuel source during endurance exercise, stimulating the synthesis of liver and muscle glycogen during exercise recovery and improving endurance exercise performance. Nonetheless, gaps exist in our understanding of the metabolic and performance consequences of sucrose ingestion before, during, and after exercise relative to other carbohydrate types or blends, particularly when more aggressive carbohydrate intake strategies are adopted. While further research is recommended and discussed in this review, based on the currently available scientific literature it would seem that sucrose should continue to be regarded as one of a variety of options available to help athletes achieve their specific carbohydrate-intake goals. PMID:23630082

Wallis, Gareth A; Wittekind, Anna

2013-12-01

386

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

PubMed

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

387

Sucrose accelerates flower opening and delays senescence through a hormonal effect in cut lily flowers.  

PubMed

Sugars are generally used to extend the vase life of cut flowers. Such beneficial effects have been associated with an improvement of water relations and an increase in available energy for respiration by floral tissues. In this study we aimed at evaluating to what extent (i) endogenous levels of sugars in outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium are altered during opening and senescence of lily flowers; (ii) sugar levels increase in various floral tissues after sucrose addition to the vase solution; and (iii) sucrose addition alters the hormonal balance of floral tissues. Results showed that endogenous glucose levels increased during flower opening and decreased during senescence in all floral organs, while sucrose levels increased in outer and inner tepals and the androecium during senescence. Sucrose treatment accelerated flower opening, and delayed senescence, but did not affect tepal abscission. Such effects appeared to be exerted through a specific increase in the endogenous levels of sucrose in the gynoecium and of glucose in all floral tissues. The hormonal balance was altered in the gynoecium as well as in other floral tissues. Aside from cytokinin and auxin increases in the gynoecium; cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels increased in the androecium, while abscisic acid decreased in outer tepals. It is concluded that sucrose addition to the vase solution exerts an effect on flower opening and senescence by, among other factors, altering the hormonal balance of several floral tissues. PMID:22525243

Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2012-06-01

388

The effect of sucrose esters on a culture model of the nasal barrier.  

PubMed

Sucrose esters are effective solubilizers and there is an interest to use them as pharmaceutical excipients for nasal drug delivery. We have determined for the first time the non-toxic doses of laurate and myristate sucrose esters by four independent methods, and their effects on epithelial permeability using RPMI 2650 human nasal epithelial cell line. Based on real-time cell electronic sensing, MTT dye conversion and lactate dehydrogenase release methods reference surfactant Cremophor RH40 proved to be the least toxic excipient, and could be used at 5mg/mL concentration for 1h in epithelial cells without cellular damage. The non-toxic dose of Tween 80 was 1 mg/mL, while the dose of laurate and myristate sucrose esters that could be safely used on cells for 1 h was 0.1 mg/mL. Both the reference surfactants and the sucrose esters significantly enhanced the permeability of epithelial cell layers for the paracellular marker FITC-labelled 4.4 kDa dextran at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. The effects of sucrose esters on epithelial permeability were dose-dependent. These data indicate that laurate and myristate sucrose esters can be potentially used as permeability enhancers in nasal formulations to augment drug delivery to the systemic circulation. PMID:22274662

Kürti, Levente; Veszelka, Szilvia; Bocsik, Alexandra; Dung, Ngo Thi Khue; Ozsvári, Béla; Puskás, László G; Kittel, Agnes; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Deli, Mária A

2012-04-01

389

Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044

Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

2012-01-01

390

Recombinant protein production in yeasts.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production is a multibillion-dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of a production host. While one single perfect host for every protein does not exist, several expression systems ranging from bacterial hosts to mammalian cells have been established. Among them, yeast cell factories combine the advantages of being single cells, such as fast growth and easy genetic manipulation, as well as eukaryotic features including a secretory pathway leading to correct protein processing and post-translational modifications. In this respect, especially the engineering of yeast glycosylation to produce glycoproteins of human-like glycan structures is of great interest. Additionally, different attempts of cellular engineering as well as the design of different production processes that are leading to improved productivities are presented. With the advent of cheaper next-generation sequencing techniques, systems biotechnology approaches focusing on genome scale analyses will advance and accelerate yeast cell factories and thus recombinant protein production processes in the near future. In this review we summarize advantages and limitations of the main and most promising yeast hosts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Hansenula polymorpha as those presently used in large scale production of heterologous proteins. PMID:22160907

Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola; Dato, Laura; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo

2012-01-01

391

Evaluation of Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Supercritical Fluid Extract of Leaves of Vitex negundo  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was tested for its antimicrobial potential and was compared with that of ethanol extract, ether extract and hydrodistilled oil of leaves. The chemical constituents of extracts were studied by chromatographic techniques. Extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Supercritical fluid extract exhibited good antibacterial potential. PMID:21695000

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2010-01-01

392

Shifts in microbiota species and fermentation products in a dietary model enriched in fat and sucrose.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract harbours a 'superorganism' called the gut microbiota, which is known to play a crucial role in the onset and development of diverse diseases. This internal ecosystem, far from being a static environment, can be manipulated by diet and dietary components. Feeding animals with high-fat sucrose (HFS) diets entails diet-induced obesity, a model which is usually used in research to mimic the obese phenotype of Western societies. The aim of the present study was to identify gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated metabolic changes produced in male Wistar rats fed a HFS diet for 6 weeks and compare it with the basal microbial composition. For this purpose, DNA extracted from faeces at baseline and after treatment was analysed by amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Short-chain fatty acids, i.e. acetate, propionate and butyrate, were also evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the end of the treatment, gut microbiota composition significantly differed at phylum level (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) and class level (Erisypelotrichi, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Bacilli). Interestingly, the class Clostridia showed a significant decrease after HFS diet treatment, which correlated with visceral adipose tissue, and is likely mediated by dietary carbohydrates. Of particular interest, Clostridium cluster XIVa species were significantly reduced and changes were identified in the relative abundance of other specific bacterial species (Mitsuokella jalaludinii, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridium sp. FCB90-3, Prevotella nanceiensis, Clostridium fusiformis, Clostridium sp. BNL1100 and Eubacterium cylindroides) that, in some cases, showed opposite trends to their relative families. These results highlight the relevance of characterising gut microbial population differences at species level and contribute to understand the plausible link between diet and specific gut bacterial species that are able to influence the inflammatory status, intestinal barrier function and obesity development. PMID:25213025

Etxeberria, U; Arias, N; Boqué, N; Macarulla, M T; Portillo, M P; Milagro, F I; Martinez, J A

2015-03-01

393

Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in vitro. PMID:15781217

Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

2005-04-01

394

Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening  

PubMed Central

Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

2012-01-01

395

Flavor preferences conditioned by sucrose depend upon training and testing methods: two-bottle tests revisited.  

PubMed

In confirmation of prior work, rats given one-bottle training with flavored 5% and 30% sucrose solutions (CS5 and CS30) strongly preferred the CS5 when both flavors were presented in intermediate 17.5% sucrose solutions. The CS5 preference has been attributed to a conditioned satiety response to the CS30 flavor, but equal intakes of CS5 and CS30 in one-bottle tests did not support this view. To determine if sweetness differences between training and test solutions contributed to the CS5 preference, new rats were trained and tested with flavored 10% sucrose solutions. One flavor (CS5) was paired with matched intragastric (ig) water infusions (=net 5% solution) and another flavor (CS30) was paired with matched infusions of 50% sucrose (=net 30% solution) during one-bottle training. In two-bottle tests with both flavors paired with an intermediate infusion (25%=net 17.5%), the rats initially showed no overall preference for the CS5 or CS30. Following additional training, the rats significantly preferred the CS30 to the CS5. The intragastric data suggested that a change in sweet taste context between training and testing might have accounted for the strong CS5 preference obtained in the first experiment. This was confirmed in a third experiment in which rats were trained with flavored 5% and 30% sucrose solutions and then given two-bottle tests with both flavors presented either in 5% sucrose or 30% sucrose. Rats tested with 30% sucrose strongly preferred the CS5 flavor, whereas rats tested with 5% sucrose significantly preferred the CS30 flavor. Thus, the outcome of two-bottle flavor preference tests and presumably other tests of conditioned flavor reward may be greatly influenced by the solutions used in the tests. The impact of this variable may be greatest when the training solutions do not substantially differ in their net postingestive reinforcing actions. This appears to be the case with 5% and 30% sucrose solutions because the satiating effect of the concentrated solution tends to counteract its nutrient reinforcing action. PMID:12127003

Sclafani, Anthony

2002-08-01

396

CPTC and NIST-sponsored Yeast Reference Material Now Publicly Available  

Cancer.gov

Posted on February 15, 2010 The yeast protein extract (RM8323) developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the auspices of NCI's CPTC initiative is currently available to the public at https://www-s.nist.gov/srmors/view_detail.cfm?srm=8323.

397

Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber  

E-print Network

Effects of Solid-State Yeast Treatment on the Antioxidant Properties and Protein and Fiber, including extractable antioxidant properties, protein contents, and soluble and insoluble fiber compositions treatments were able to significantly increase releasable antioxidant properties ranging from 28 to 65, from

Liu, Jian-Guo

398

Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activity in leptin resistant sucrose-drinking rats.  

PubMed

Rats offered 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow and water become leptin resistant therefore we investigated the effect of sucrose solution consumption on leptin signaling. In Experiment 1 rats were resistant to 3rd ventricle injections of1.5?g leptin after 36days of sucrose and western blot indicated that resistance was associated with increased basal levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3). In Experiment 2 rats were resistant to a peripheral injection of 2mg leptin/kg after 26days of sucrose. Immunohistochemistry indicated that increased basal pSTAT3 was limited to the medial and lateral arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Increased availability of glucose and fructose can stimulate the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which O-GlcNAc-modifies proteins. This has the potential to change protein bioactivity. We tested whether this pathway could account for the leptin resistance. There was no increase in the expression of HBP enzymes in tissues from sucrose rats in Experiment 1, however, direct activation of the HBP with a 3h intravenous infusion of 30?mol/kg/min glucosamine significantly increased hypothalamic pSTAT3. Although sucrose consumption and activation of the HBP both increase hypothalamic pSTAT3 experiments described here did not provide evidence of a direct link between sucrose consumption, HBP activity and leptin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that the HBP enzyme glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) in liver and O-GlcNAcase in hypothalamus were increased 30min after leptin injection in leptin responsive animals, implying a complex interaction between activity of the HBP and leptin responsiveness. PMID:25446204

Harris, Ruth B S; Apolzan, John W

2015-01-01

399

Comparison and validation of two analytical methods for measurement of urinary sucrose and fructose excretion  

PubMed Central

Urinary sugars excretion has been proposed as a potential biomarker for intake of sugars. In this study we compared two analytical methods [gas chromatography (GC) and enzymatic reactions – UV absorption] for quantifying urinary fructose and sucrose using 24-hour urine samples from a randomized cross-over controlled feeding study. All samples were successfully quantified by the GC method; however 21% and 1.9% of samples were below the detection limit of the enzymatic method for sucrose and fructose, respectively. While the correlation between the two methods was good for fructose (Pearson correlation 0.71), the correlation was weak for sucrose (Pearson correlation 0.27). We favor the GC method due to its better sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to quantify fructose and sucrose directly in the same run. Of the 106 samples from 53 participants with complete urine collection after two study diets, 24-hour urinary fructose excretion was significantly associated with fructose intake. The sum of 24-hour urinary fructose and sucrose was significantly associated with total sugars consumption. However, variation in intakes of sugars explained only a modest amount of variation in urinary sugars excretion. In the unadjusted models, fructose intake explained 24.3% of urinary fructose excretion; and intake of total sugars 16.3% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. The adjusted models explained 44.3% of urinary fructose excretion and 41.7% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. Therefore, we caution using these biomarkers to predict sugars consumption before other factors that determine urinary sugars excretion are understood. PMID:24034568

Song, Xiaoling; Navarro, Sandi L.; Diep, Pho; Thomas, Wendy K.; Razmpoosh, Elena C.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Ching-Yun; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

2013-01-01

400

Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose.  

PubMed

A sucrose utilization pathway was established in Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB11599 and R. eutropha 437-540 by introducing the Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E sacC gene that encodes ?-fructofuranosidase. These engineered strains were examined for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)], respectively, from sucrose as a carbon source. It was found that ?-fructofuranosidase excreted into the culture medium could hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose, which were efficiently used as carbon sources by recombinant R. eutropha strains. When R. eutropha NCIMB11599 expressing the sacC gene was cultured in nitrogen-free chemically defined medium containing 20?g/L of sucrose, a high P(3HB) content of 73.2?wt% could be obtained. In addition, R. eutropha 437-540 expressing the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene and the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene accumulated P(3HB-co-21.5?mol% LA) to a polymer content of 19.5?wt% from sucrose by the expression of the sacC gene and the Escherichia coli ldhA gene. The molecular weights of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-21.5?mol%LA) synthesized in R. eutropha using sucrose as a carbon source were 3.52?×?10(5) (Mn ) and 2.19?×?10(4) (Mn ), respectively. The engineered R. eutropha strains reported here will be useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sucrose, one of the most abundant and relatively inexpensive carbon sources. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 638-643. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25258020

Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Shin, Jihoon; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

2015-03-01

401

Metabolite production of yeasts on a strawberry-agar during storage at 7 degrees C in air and low oxygen atmosphere.  

PubMed

Changes of different quality factors of strawberries have been described until now from a physiological point of view. Possible effects on quality caused by yeast proliferation have not been described. To elucidate the metabolic activity of yeasts (i.e. Debaryomyces melissophilus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Cryptococcus laurentii), isolated from strawberries, they were inoculated on a simulation medium of strawberries (strawberry-agar). Their activity was measured by analysing and correlating microbiological counts, metabolite concentration in the headspace as well as in the medium, and sugar consumption. The isolated yeasts from strawberries could grow on the strawberry-agar, both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions. The maximum count for the yeasts reached 7.5-8.5 log cfu cm(-2) (air conditions) and 5.6-6.4 log cfu cm(-2) (MA conditions). Production or consumption of a number of compounds could be detected when microbial counts reached levels between 4.7 log cfu cm(-2) and 8.5 log cfu cm(-2) depending on species and atmospheric conditions. A range of volatile organic compounds, produced by the yeasts, was detected: acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol and hexyl acetate. These compounds are able to influence the sensory properties of strawberries. A simultaneous decrease in sugar concentrations (sucrose, glucose, fructose) was observed. When ethanol reached high concentrations, ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate were produced. This production can be attributed to a detoxification of ethanol by yeasts. The fermentative metabolism of yeasts during aerobic conditions could be explained by the Crabtree effect. As the detected volatile organic compounds produced by yeasts are also found in fresh strawberries, it can be concluded that these compounds are produced both by microbiological and physiological processes. PMID:16942999

Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F; Loos, S; Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Debevere, J

2006-04-01

402

Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined, 36 produced more than 1 g of ethanol liter/sup -1/ from 20 g of D-xylose liter/sup -1/, all under aerated conditions. Closer examination of the strains indicated that their time courses of D-xylose fermentation followed different patterns. Some strains produced more biomass than ethanol, and among these, ethanol may or may not be assimilated rapidly after depletion of D-xylose. Others produced more ethanol than biomass, but all catabolized ethanol after carbohydrate exhaustion. Ethanol production appeared best at low pH values and under mild aeration. Possible correlations between the nutritional profiles of the yeasts and their ability to produce ethanol from D-xylose were explored by multivariate analysis. D-Xylose appeared slightly better utilized by yeasts which rate poorly in terms of fermentation. The fermentation of D-glucose had no bearing on D-xylose fermentation. No specific nutritional trait could discriminate well between better D-xylose fermentors and other yeasts.

Nigam, J.N.; Ireland, R.S.; Margaritis, A.; Lachance, M.A.

1985-12-01

403

Acylated sucroses and acylated quinic acids analogs from the flower buds of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effect on melanogenesis.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract from the flower buds of Prunus mume, cultivated in Zhejiang Province, China, showed an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the methanolic extract, five acylated sucroses, mumeoses A-E, and three acylated quinic acid analogs, 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid ethyl ester, and mumeic acid-A and its methyl ester, were isolated together with 13 known compounds. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were also investigated. Acylated quinic acid analogs substantially inhibited melanogenesis. In particular, 5-O-(E)-feruloylquinic acid methyl ester exhibited a potent inhibitory effect [inhibition (%): 21.5±1.0 (P<0.01) at 0.1 ?M]. Moreover, its biological effect was much stronger than that of the reference compound, arbutin [inhibition (%): 10.6±0.6 (P<0.01) at 10 ?M]. Interestingly, the obtained acylated quinic acid analogs displaying melanogenesis inhibitory activity showed no cytotoxicity [cell viability >97% at 10 ?M]. It is concluded that acylated quinic acid analogs are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:23693120

Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2013-08-01

404

Sucrose stabilization of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) during nebulization and experimental infection  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory pathogen that can cause severe pneumonia. In vivo studies of RSV can be difficult due to variation in viral infection and disease severity in some animal models. Factors that may contribute to the variation are decreases in viral titer due to preparation and storage and method of virus administration. Nebulization is one method of RSV administration that provides even distribution of virus to all lung lobes; however, the exact quantity of the virus killed by nebulization is not defined. To test the hypothesis that sucrose enhances RSV stability and infectivity, a series of in vitro experiments were conducted with RSV strain Memphis 37 stored at varying concentrations (0%, 3%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of sucrose as a possible cryo- and nebulization protectant. The optimal in vitro concentration was then assessed in vivo in a lamb model. Methods Prior to titering the virus on HEp-2 cells, the various virus solutions were subjected to one freeze-thaw cycle and one nebulization cycle. Forty-eight hours after viral plating, infectious foci were detected and counted using immunofluorescent imaging. Titers were determined after freeze-thaw and after freeze-thaw followed by nebulization, then compared to the stock titers (before freezing) as well as to one another to determine the loss of infectivity. To further test this in vivo, lambs 2 to 3-days-old were infected via nebulization with RSV using inoculate containing either 20% sucrose or no sucrose followed by assessments of infection severity. Results Nebulization of virus in 0% sucrose resulted in a 0.580 log reduction in infectivity while virus in 20% sucrose exhibited a 0.297 log reduction. In vivo studies demonstrated that 20% sucrose enhanced RSV lesions and antigen distribution. Conclusions The data suggests that both nebulization and freeze-thawing of RSV in the absence of sucrose cause unacceptable losses in viral infectivity and that sucrose acts as a RSV protectant in both regards. PMID:24642084

2014-01-01

405

Antimicrobial effect of various combinations of plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined extracts of corni fructus, cinnamon and Chinese chive were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on common foodborne micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The combined extract (8:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) showed an entire antimicrobial spectrum and outstanding inhibitory effect. The combined extract was very stable under heat treatment. The inhibitory effect of the combined extract was greater with more

Pao-Chuan Hsieh; Jeng-Leun Mau; Shu-Hui Huang

2001-01-01

406

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-print Network

with 5 g yeast supplement (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biosafe) per day in a latin square design. Diets by yeast treatment. Supplementation of yeast in- creased acetate: propionate ratio, butyrate, isoacids, p number in the rumen fluid rapidly declined when dietary yeast was ceased. Further- more, yeast cells

Boyer, Edmond

407

The Structure of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase from Halothermothrix orenii Reveals Its Mechanism of Action and Binding Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the transfer of a glycosyl group from an activated donor sugar, such as uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-Glc), to a saccharide acceptor D-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P), resulting in the formation of UDP and D-sucrose-6'-phosphate (S6P). This is a central regulatory process in the production of sucrose in plants, cyanobacteria, and proteobacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure

Teck Khiang Chua; Janusz M. Bujnicki; T.-C. Tan; F. Huynh; B. K. Patel; J. Sivaraman; Y. Ogimoto; K. Miyano; H. Sawa

2008-01-01

408

Behavioral and circuit basis of sucrose rejection by Drosophila females in a simple decision-making task.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster egg-laying site selection offers a genetic model to study a simple form of value-based decision. We have previously shown that Drosophila females consistently reject a sucrose-containing substrate and choose a plain (sucrose-free) substrate for egg laying in our sucrose versus plain decision assay. However, either substrate is accepted when it is the sole option. Here we describe the neural mechanism that underlies females' sucrose rejection in our sucrose versus plain assay. First, we demonstrate that females explored the sucrose substrate frequently before most egg-laying events, suggesting that they actively suppress laying eggs on the sucrose substrate as opposed to avoiding visits to it. Second, we show that activating a specific subset of DA neurons triggered a preference for laying eggs on the sucrose substrate over the plain one, suggesting that activating these DA neurons can increase the value of the sucrose substrate for egg laying. Third, we demonstrate that neither ablating nor inhibiting the mushroom body (MB), a known Drosophila learning and decision center, affected females' egg-laying preferences in our sucrose versus plain assay, suggesting that MB does not mediate this specific decision-making task. We propose that the value of a sucrose substrate- as an egg-laying option-can be adjusted by the activities of a specific DA circuit. Once the sucrose substrate is determined to be the lesser valued option, females execute their decision to reject this inferior substrate not by stopping their visits to it, but by actively suppressing their egg-laying motor program during their visits. PMID:25632118

Yang, Chung-Hui; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich

2015-01-28

409

Electrospun gelatin nanofibers: A facile cross-linking approach using oxidized sucrose.  

PubMed

Gelatin nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning with minimal toxicity from solvents and cross-linking agents. Electrospinning was carried out using a solvent system based on water and acetic acid (8:2, v/v). Acetic acid concentration was kept as minimum as possible to reduce the toxic effects. Electrospun gelatin nanofibers were cross-linked with oxidized sucrose. Sucrose was oxidized by periodate oxidation to introduce aldehyde functionality. Cross-linking with oxidized sucrose could be achieved without compromising the nanofibrous architecture. Cross-linked gelatin nanofibers maintained the fibrous morphology even after keeping in contact with aqueous medium. The morphology of the cross-linked nanofibrous mats was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidized sucrose cross-linked gelatin nanofibers exhibited improved thermal and mechanical properties. The nanofibrous mats were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cell viability using L-929 fibroblast cells. The results confirmed that oxidized sucrose cross-linked gelatin nanofibers were non-cytotoxic towards L-929 cells with good cell viability. PMID:25478965

Jalaja, K; James, Nirmala R

2015-02-01

410

Environmental enrichment attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking in rats  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on sucrose seeking in rats made abstinent from sucrose for 1 month, as measured by response for a tone + light cue previously associated with 10% sucrose self-administration. Rats were either enriched throughout the study (experiment 1) or only after sucrose self-administration training (experiment 2). Enrichment consisted of either housing the rats in pairs or grouping four rats (ENR4) in a large environment, both with novel objects. Controls (CON) were singly housed without novel objects. In experiment 1, ENR4 rats responded less to the sucrose-paired cue versus CON rats, but this difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the decrease in response of ENR4 rats versus CON rats in experiment 2 was dramatic and significant. These findings, along with findings from other laboratories, support a hypothesis that the enrichment may provide individuals with a greater ability to discriminate the availability of reward. This may impart a decreased vulnerability to relapse behavior. Therefore, these results are relevant to both eating disorder and drug addiction – disorders characterized by relapse. PMID:19020412

Grimm, Jeffery W.; Osincup, Daniel; Wells, Barbara; Manaois, Meghan; Fyall, Amber; Buse, Carl; Harkness, John H.

2010-01-01

411

Pharmaceutical characterization and thermodynamic stability assessment of a colloidal iron drug product: iron sucrose.  

PubMed

The study objective was to evaluate the thermodynamic stability of iron sucrose complexes as determined by molecular weight (m.w.) changes. The first part of the study focused on the effect of thermal stress, pH, electrolyte or excipient dilution on the stability of a colloidal iron drug product. Part two focused on the physical and chemical evaluation of the colloidal nature of iron sucrose using a series of characterization experiments: ultracentrifugation, dialysis, particle size, zeta potential, and osmotic pressure analysis. A validated Taguchi-optimized high performance gel permeation chromatography method was used for m.w. determinations. Results indicate m.w. of the iron sucrose complex remained unchanged after excipient dilution, ultracentrifugation, dialysis, and electrolyte dilution. Electrolyte dilution studies indicated the lyophilic nature of the iron sucrose colloid with a particle size of 10nm and zeta potential of 0 mV. The complex deformed at low pH and reformed back at the formulation pH. The complex is stable under mild-to-moderate temperature <50°C but aggregates following prolonged exposure to high temperatures >70°C. In conclusion, the resistance of the complex to breakdown by electrolytic conditions, excipient dilution, ultracentrifugation and the reversible complexation after alteration of formulation pH suggest iron sucrose is a lyophilic colloid in nature and lyophilic colloidals are thermodynamically stable. PMID:24440404

Shah, Rakhi B; Yang, Yongsheng; Khan, Mansoor A; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence X; Faustino, Patrick J

2014-04-10

412

Heavy-ion-induced sucrose radicals investigated using EPR and UV spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The potential use of a sucrose dosimeter for estimating both linear energy transfer (LET) and the absorbed dose of heavy ion and X-ray radiation was investigated. The stable free radicals were produced when sucrose was irradiated with heavy ions, such as helium, carbon, silicon and neon ions, and when the X-ray radiation was similar to the obtained electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, which were ?7 mT wide and composed of several hyperfine structures. In addition, the total spin concentration resulting from heavy-ion irradiation increased linearly as the absorbed dose increased, and decreased logarithmically as the LET increased. These empirical relations imply that the LET at a certain dose can be determined from the spin concentration. For sucrose and alanine, both cross-sections following C-ion irradiation with a 50 Gy dose were ?1.3 × 10(-12) [?m(2)], taking into account the molecular size of the samples. The values of these cross-sections imply that multiple ionizing particles were involved in the production of stable radicals. Furthermore, UV absorbance at 267 nm of an aqueous solution of irradiated sucrose was found to linearly increase with increasing absorbed dose. Therefore, the EPR and UV results suggest that sucrose can be a useful dosimeter for heavy-ion irradiation. PMID:25480828

Nakagawa, Kouichi; Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D

2014-12-01

413

Starch and Sucrose Synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as Affected by Light, CO(2), and Abscisic Acid.  

PubMed

Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO(2), and O(2) levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of (14)CO(2) followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO(2). After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions (presumed to be mostly carbon reduction and carbon oxidation cycle intermediates and amino acids) except at low CO(2) partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction (presumed sucrose) or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate (slope = 0.35). Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate (slope = 0.56) but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO(2) in combination with low O(2) (thought to disrupt control of carbon metabolism) caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO(2) assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates. PMID:16664108

Sharkey, T D; Berry, J A; Raschke, K

1985-03-01

414

Resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking in free-feeding rats.  

PubMed

Resurgence is relapse of an extinguished operant response following the removal of alternative reinforcement. In animal models of resurgence to date, rats have been food deprived and food is used as the source of alternative reinforcement. Thus, when the alternative reinforcer is removed, the only remaining source of food during experimental sessions is no longer available. Acute food deprivation is known to produce reinstatement of drug seeking, thus such deprivation has been suggested a potential mechanism of resurgence. The present experiments examined whether resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking could be obtained with rats that were not food deprived. Free-feeding rats were trained to press a lever for either sucrose (Experiment 1) or cocaine infusions (Experiment 2). Next, lever pressing was extinguished and an alternative response (nose poking) was reinforced with sucrose. When nose poking was also placed on extinction, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking was observed. Thus, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking can be obtained in rats that are not food restricted and it appears unlikely that an acute hunger state is responsible for resurgence. In addition, the present procedures for studying resurgence in the absence of interpretive complexities introduced by the use of food-deprivation may prove useful for further investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms of resurgence. PMID:25446761

Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R; Sweeney, Mary M

2015-02-15

415

Influence of solid-state acidity on the decomposition of sucrose in amorphous systems. I.  

PubMed

It was of interest to develop a method for solid-state acidity measurements using pH indicators and to correlate this method to the degradation rate of sucrose. Amorphous samples containing lactose 100mg/ml, sucrose 10mg/ml, citrate buffer (1-50mM) and sodium chloride (to adjust the ionic strength) were prepared by freeze-drying. The lyophiles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Karl Fischer titremetry. The solid-state acidity of all lyophiles was measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and suitable indicators (thymol blue or bromophenol blue). The prepared lyophiles were subjected to a temperature of 60 degrees C and were analyzed for degradation using the Trinder kit. The results obtained from this study have shown that the solid-state acidity depends mainly on the molar ratio of the salt and the acid used in buffer preparation and not on the initial pH of the solution. The degradation of sucrose in the lyophiles is extremely sensitive to the solid-state acidity and the ionic strength. Reasonable correlation was obtained between the Hammett acidity function and sucrose degradation rate. The use of cosolvents (in the calibration plots) can provide good correlations with the rate of an acid-catalyzed reaction, sucrose inversion, in amorphous lyophiles. PMID:18647642

Alkhamis, Khouloud A

2008-10-01

416

High Fat and High Sucrose (Western) Diet Induce Steatohepatitis that is Dependent on Fructokinase  

PubMed Central

Fructose intake from added sugars has been implicated as a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that fructose may interact with high fat diet to induce fatty liver, and to determine if this was dependent on a key enzyme in fructose metabolism, fructokinase. Wild type or fructokinase knockout mice were fed a low fat (11%), high fat (36%) or high fat (36%) and high sucrose (30%) diet for 15 weeks. Both wild type and fructokinase knockout mice developed obesity with mild hepatic steatosis and no evidence for hepatic inflammation on a high fat diet compared to a low fat diet. In contrast, wild type mice fed a high fat and high sucrose diet developed more severe hepatic steatosis with low grade inflammation and fibrosis, as noted by increased CD68, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I and TIMP1 expression. These changes were prevented in the fructokinase knockout mice. Conclusion An additive effect of high fat and high sucrose diet on the development of hepatic steatosis exists. Further, the combination of sucrose with high fat diet may induce steatohepatitis. The protection in fructokinase knockout mice suggests a key role for fructose (from sucrose) in this development of steatohepatitis. These studies emphasize the important role of fructose in the development of fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:23813872

Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Orlicky, David J.; Cicerchi, Christina; McMahan, Rachel H.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Rosen, Hugo R.; Jackman, Matthew R.; MacLean, Paul S.; Diggle, Christine P.; Asipu, Aruna; Inaba, Shinichiro; Kosugi, Tomoki; Sato, Waichi; Maruyama, Shoichi; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Hill, James O.; Bonthron, David T.; Johnson, Richard J.

2013-01-01

417

Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations. PMID:24983658

Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

2014-10-01

418

Medicinal flowers. XXXVIII. structures of acylated sucroses and inhibitory effects of constituents on aldose reducatase from the flower buds of Prunus mume.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract from the flower buds of Prunus mume, cultivated in Zhejiang province, China, showed an inhibitory effect on aldose reductase. From the methanolic extract, five new acylated sucroses, mumeoses F-J, were isolated together with 29 known compounds. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on aldose reductase were also investigated. Acylated quinic acid analogs, which are one of the major compounds of the flower buds of P. mume, were shown to substantially inhibit aldose reductase. In particular, mumeic acid-A was found to exhibit a potent inhibitory effect [IC50=0.4?µm]. PMID:23546004

Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Tamura, Haruka; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2013-01-01

419

Sterols in yeast subcellular fractions.  

PubMed

Yeast is the most primitive organism synthesizing substantial amounts of sterols. Because of this eucaryotic organism's versatility in growth conditions, ease of culture, well-defined genetic mechanism, and characteristic subcellar architecture, it is readily applied to studies of the role of sterols in the general economy of the cell. Sterols exist in two major forms, as the free sterol, or esterified with long chain fatty acids. The importance of sterols for this organism can be demonstrated using a naturally occurring antimycotic azasterol. This agent inhibits yeast growth. Three effects are seen on sterol synthesis: inhibition of the enzymes delta14-reductase, sterol methyltransferase, and methylene reductase. Cells cultured on respiratory substrates are more sensitive to inhibition than are cells growing on glucose. We have demonstrated a relationship between respiratory competency and sterol biosynthesis in this organism. Many mutants altered in sterol synthesis are respirationally defective and must grow fermentatively. One clone has temperature conditional respiration. Experiments with purified mitochondria, prepared from this mutant and its isogenic wildtype, show that the mutant organism is able to respire at the higher temperature but lacks the ability to couple respiration to phosphorylation. No similar loss is seen in the wild-type clones. Data are given which support the proposal that, for inclusion in mitochondrial structures, yeast cells may discriminate among sterols available from the total sterol pool in favor of ergosterol. PMID:364234

Parks, L W; McLean-Bowen, C; Taylor, F R; Hough, S

1978-10-01

420

Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein βγ subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV); Janna E. Slessareva (University of North Carolina;Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

2006-12-05

421

A complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of sucrose in aqueous medium based on the SQM methodology and SCRF calculations.  

PubMed

In the present study, a complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of sucrose in aqueous medium was performed combining Pulay's Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology with self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of sucrose and solutions at different molar concentrations of sucrose in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR, and Raman spectroscopies. In accordance with reported data of the literature for sucrose, the theoretical structures of sucrose penta and sucrose dihydrate were also optimized in gas and aqueous solution phases by using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The solvent effects for the three studied species were analyzed using the solvation PCM/SMD model and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The presence of pure water, sucrose penta-hydrate, and sucrose dihydrate was confirmed by using theoretical calculations based on the hybrid B3LYP/6-31G(?) method and the experimental vibrational spectra. The existence of both sucrose hydrate complexes in aqueous solution is evidenced in the IR and HATR spectra by means of the characteristic bands at 3388, 3337, 3132, 1648, 1375, 1241, 1163, 1141, 1001, 870, 851, 732, and 668cm(-1) while in the Raman spectrum, the groups of bands in the regions 3159-3053cm(-1), 2980, 2954, and 1749-1496cm(-1) characterize the vibration modes of those complexes. The inter and intra-molecular H bond formations in aqueous solution were studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Atoms in Molecules theory (AIM) investigation. PMID:24632216

Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Castillo, María Victoria; Raschi, Ana Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Romano, Elida; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

2014-03-31

422

Novel Structural Features in Candida albicans Hyphal Glucan Provide a Basis for Differential Innate Immune Recognition of Hyphae Versus Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. 1H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1?3,1?6) ?-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or “closed chain” structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast ?-glucan. In addition to the expected (1?3), (1?6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1? processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae. PMID:24344127

Lowman, Douglas W.; Greene, Rachel R.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Kruppa, Michael D.; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Ensley, Harry E.; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G.; Williams, David L.

2014-01-01

423

Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.  

PubMed

The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

2014-12-01

424

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

425

Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.  

PubMed

Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ?10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol extracts induced weight loss and anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects, although the tissue content of polyphenols differed significantly. PMID:25031332

Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

2014-09-01

426

Assembly of eukaryotic algal chromosomes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic genomic approaches offer unique opportunities to use powerful yeast and Escherichia coli genetic systems to assemble and modify chromosome-sized molecules before returning the modified DNA to the target host. For example, the entire 1 Mb Mycoplasma mycoides chromosome can be stably maintained and manipulated in yeast before being transplanted back into recipient cells. We have previously demonstrated that cloning in yeast of large (>?~?150 kb), high G?+?C (55%) prokaryotic DNA fragments was improved by addition of yeast replication origins every ~100 kb. Conversely, low G?+?C DNA is stable (up to at least 1.8 Mb) without adding supplemental yeast origins. It has not been previously tested whether addition of yeast replication origins similarly improves the yeast-based cloning of large (>150 kb) eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content. The model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has an average G?+?C content of 48% and a 27.4 Mb genome sequence that has been assembled into chromosome-sized scaffolds making it an ideal test case for assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic chromosomes in yeast. Results We present a modified chromosome assembly technique in which eukaryotic chromosomes as large as ~500 kb can be assembled from cloned ~100 kb fragments. We used this technique to clone fragments spanning P. tricornutum chromosomes 25 and 26 and to assemble these fragments into single, chromosome-sized molecules. We found that addition of yeast replication origins improved the cloning, assembly, and maintenance of the large chromosomes in yeast. Furthermore, purification of the fragments to be assembled by electroelution greatly increased assembly efficiency. Conclusions Entire eukaryotic chromosomes can be successfully cloned, maintained, and manipulated in yeast. These results highlight the improvement in assembly and maintenance afforded by including yeast replication origins in eukaryotic DNA with moderate G?+?C content (48%). They also highlight the increased efficiency of assembly that can be achieved by purifying fragments before assembly. PMID:24325901

2013-01-01

427

Deletion of cscR in Escherichia coli W improves growth and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from sucrose in fed batch culture.  

PubMed

Sucrose has several advantages over glucose as a feedstock for bioprocesses, both environmentally and economically. However, most industrial Escherichia coli strains are unable to utilize sucrose. E. coli W can grow on sucrose but stops growing when sucrose concentrations become low. This is undesirable in fed-batch conditions where sugar levels are low between feeding pulses. Sucrose uptake rates were improved by removal of the cscR gene, which encodes a protein that represses expression of the sucrose utilization genes at low sucrose concentrations. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was used as a model compound in order to assess the effect of improved sugar utilization on bio-production. In the cscR knockout strain, production from sucrose was improved by 50%; this strain also produced 30% more PHB than the wild-type using glucose. This result demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing sucrose as an industrial feedstock for E. coli-based bioprocesses in high cell density culture. PMID:21782859

Arifin, Yalun; Sabri, Suriana; Sugiarto, Haryadi; Krömer, Jens O; Vickers, Claudia E; Nielsen, Lars K

2010-12-20

428

Extracting yeast stress genes by dependencies between stress treatments  

E-print Network

where it is easier to pick a group of data sets than to specify a model for the biological process different sources (Gasch et al. 2000, Causton et al. 2001) Heat (3), acid, alkali, peroxide, Na only at this stage. In general: Select any collection of data sets that share a common property. Focus

Kaski, Samuel

429

Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

McGinnis, M. R.

1996-01-01

430

Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe con- struction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier,

K. F. Lowes; C. A. Shearman; J. Payne; D. MacKenzie; D. B. Archer; R. J. Merry; M. J. Gasson

2000-01-01

431

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based model to study yeast population in batch cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDISIM-YEAST, an individual-based simulator, models the evolution of a yeast population by setting up rules of behaviour for each individual cell according to their own biological rules and characteristics. It takes into account the uptake, metabolism, budding reproduction and viability of the yeast cells, over a period of time in the bulk of a liquid medium, occupying a three dimensional

Marta Ginovart; Joan Xifré; Daniel López; Moises Silbert

432

Trehalulose synthase native and carbohydrate complexed structures provide insights into sucrose isomerization.  

PubMed

Various diseases related to the overconsumption of sugar make a growing need for sugar substitutes. Because sucrose is an inexpensive and readily available d-glucose donor, the industrial potential for enzymatic synthesis of the sucrose isomers trehalulose and/or isomaltulose from sucrose is large. The product specificity of sucrose isomerases that catalyze this reaction depends essentially on the possibility for tautomerization of sucrose, which is required for trehalulose formation. For optimal use of the enzyme, targeting controlled synthesis of these functional isomers, it is necessary to minimize the side reactions. This requires an extensive analysis of substrate binding modes and of the specificity-determining sites in the structure. The 1.6-2.2-A resolution three-dimensional structures of native and mutant complexes of a trehalulose synthase from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45 mimic successive states of the enzyme reaction. Combined with mutagenesis studies they give for the first time thorough insights into substrate recognition and processing and reaction specificities of these enzymes. Among the important outcomes of this study is the revelation of an aromatic clamp defined by Phe(256) and Phe(280) playing an essential role in substrate recognition and in controlling the reaction specificity, which is further supported by mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, this study highlights essential residues for binding the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties. The introduction of subtle changes informed by comparative three-dimensional structural data observed within our study can lead to fundamental modifications in the mode of action of sucrose isomerases and hence provide a template for industrial catalysts. PMID:17597061

Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

2007-09-21

433

Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee  

PubMed Central

Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body’s nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee’s nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1 M sucrose or 1 M sucrose containing 100 mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24 h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

Simcock, Nicola K.; Gray, Helen E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

2014-01-01

434

Improving energetics of triacylglyceride extraction from wet oleaginous microbes.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microbes can upgrade carbon to lipids, which can be used as a feedstock to produce renewable replacements for petroleum-based compounds. Efficient extraction of lipids from oleaginous microbes typically involves dewatering and drying of the biomass. Problematically, drying often requires an amount of energy approaching that available from the cells. Here, we report an approach for the high efficiency extraction of triacylglycerides (TAG) from wet oleaginous microbes, bypassing the drying process. Solvent candidates for extraction of wet oleaginous biomass were identified using ASPEN's databases to determine an activity based selectivity coefficient. Optimal extraction conditions were determined which resulted in >91% extraction of TAG from yeast, bacteria, and microalgae. Experimental data was integrated into system models to evaluate the energetics of the processes compared to traditional extraction methods. The net energy ratio (NER) of a traditional dry solvent extraction is 0.84, whereas the approach presented here has a NER of 0.34 for yeast. PMID:25000397

Willis, Robert M; McCurdy, Alex T; Ogborn, Mariah K; Wahlen, Bradley D; Quinn, Jason C; Pease, Leonard F; Seefeldt, Lance C

2014-09-01

435

Transforming a Fructan:Fructan 6G-Fructosyltransferase from Perennial Ryegrass into a Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyltransferase1[C  

PubMed Central

Fructosyltransferases (FTs) synthesize fructans, fructose polymers accumulating in economically important cool-season grasses and cereals. FTs might be crucial for plant survival under stress conditions in species in which fructans represent the major form of reserve carbohydrate, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Two FT types can be distinguished: those using sucrose (S-type enzymes: sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase [1-SST], sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase) and those using fructans (F-type enzymes: fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase [1-FFT], fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase [6G-FFT]) as preferential donor substrate. Here, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, the transformation of an F-type enzyme (6G-FFT/1-FFT) into an S-type enzyme (1-SST) using perennial ryegrass 6G-FFT/1-FFT (Lp6G-FFT/1-FFT) and 1-SST (Lp1-SST) as model enzymes. This transformation was accomplished by mutating three amino acids (N340D, W343R, and S415N) in the vicinity of the active site of Lp6G-FFT/1-FFT. In addition, effects of each amino acid mutation alone or in combination have been studied. Our results strongly suggest that the amino acid at position 343 (tryptophan or arginine) can greatly determine the donor substrate characteristics by influencing the position of the amino acid at position 340. Moreover, the presence of arginine-343 negatively affects the formation of neofructan-type linkages. The results are compared with recent findings on donor substrate selectivity within the group of plant cell wall invertases and fructan exohydrolases. Taken together, these insights contribute to our knowledge of structure/function relationships within plant family 32 glycosyl hydrolases and open the way to the production of tailor-made fructans on a larger scale. PMID:18952861

Lasseur, Bertrand; Schroeven, Lindsey; Lammens, Willem; Le Roy, Katrien; Spangenberg, German; Manduzio, Hélène; Vergauwen, Rudy; Lothier, Jérémy; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Van den Ende, Wim

2009-01-01

436

In vivo survival of (14C)sucrose-loaded porcine carrier erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Porcine carrier erythrocyte survival was measured in adult pigs. (14C)Sucrose-loaded erythrocytes had a biphasic survival curve, with as much as 50% of the cells removed from circulation in the first 24 hours. The remaining cells had a 35-day half-life. Encapsulation values were measured for porcine erythrocytes and entrapment of (14C)sucrose was greater than 45%. Addition of inosine and glucose to the dialyzed cells and to the final wash buffer before reinjection of autologous cells did not improve their survival.

DeLoach, J.R.

1983-06-01

437

Strain differences in Sucrose- and Fructose-Conditioned Flavor Preferences in Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors strongly influence the intake and preference for sugar and saccharin solutions in inbred mouse strains. The present study determined if genetic variance also influences the learned preferences for flavors added to sugar solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) are produced in rodents by adding a flavor (CS+) to a sugar solution and a different flavor (CS?) to a saccharin solution (CS?) in one-bottle training trials; the CS+ is subsequently preferred to the CS? when both are presented in saccharin solutions in two-bottle tests. With some sugars (e.g., sucrose), flavor preferences are reinforced by both sweet taste and post-oral nutrient effects, whereas with other sugars (e.g., fructose), sweet taste is the primary reinforcer. Sucrose and fructose were used in three experiments to condition flavor preferences in one outbred (CD-1) and eight inbred strains which have “sensitive” (SWR/J, SJL/J, C57BL/10J, C57BL/6J) or “sub-sensitive” (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, 129P3/J) sweet taste receptors (T1R2/T1R3). Food-restricted mice of each strain were trained (1 h/day) to drink flavored 16% sucrose (CS+16S, Experiment 1), 16% fructose (CS+16F, Experiment 2) or 8% fructose + 0.2% saccharin (CS+8F, Experiment 3) solutions on five alternate days and a differently flavored saccharin solution (0.05% or 0.2%, CS?) on the other five alternating days. The CS+ and CS? flavors were presented in 0.2% saccharin for two-bottle testing over six days. All strains preferred the CS+16S to CS? although there were significant strain differences in the magnitude and persistence of the sucrose preference. The strains also differed in the magnitude and persistence of preferences for the CS+16F and CS+8F flavors over the CS? with two strains failing to prefer the fructose-paired flavors. Sucrose conditioned stronger preferences than did fructose which is attributed to differences in the taste and post-oral actions of the sugars. These