Sample records for yeast extract sucrose

  1. Purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Mariana Wagner; Resck, Inês Sabioni; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-04-01

    The mycotoxin citreoviridin has been associated with the 'yellow rice' disease, which caused cardiac beriberi in Japan. In Brazil, the consumption of contaminated rice was suspected to be involved in a recent beriberi outbreak. In this work, citreoviridin was produced by Penicillium citreonigrum, cultivated in 500 ml yeast extract sucrose (YES) liquid medium for 8 days at 25ºC, and the toxin extracted with chloroform from the liquid medium and the mycelium. A total of 15.3 g of crude extract was obtained from 48 culture flasks, with an estimated citreoviridin contend of 5.54 g, 74.3% being present in the mycelia. Semi-preparative HPLC of the crude extract yielded 27.1% citreoviridin. The HPLC-purified citreoviridin fraction was fully characterised by UV/VIS, FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, LC-MS/MS and LC-MSD TOF, and purity confirmed by gravimetric analysis. Isocitreoviridin was also produced by P. citreonigrum, accounting for about 10% of the citreoviridin present in the crude extract, most transformed into citreoviridin after 10 months under freezing conditions protected from light. Citreoviridin was shown to be stable under the same conditions, although it can suffer isomerisation after a longer storage period. Isomerisation is a potential source of variability in toxicological studies and purity of the material should be checked before study initiation. PMID:25190053

  2. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    E-print Network

    , such as slow or incom- plete fermentation, `off flavors' and poor maintenance of yeast vitality. Recent studies applications of yeast biotechnology, including alcoholic fermentation, bread pro- duction and the fabricationGlucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast? Kevin J. Verstrepen1,2 , Dirk

  3. Yeast DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  4. Stimulation of lactobacilli during alcoholic fermentation: action of sucrose hydrolysis by yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Essia Ngang; E. Wolniewicz; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

    1992-01-01

    Summary Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria especially their stimulation in mixed culture with yeast was studied. In alcoholic fermentation of molasses worts, bacterial growth was stimulated as the yeast inoculum size increase. The consumption of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) liberated during hydrolysis of sucrose by yeast is proposed as a major factor accounting for this phenomenon.

  5. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of sucrose using flocculating yeast. The limits of invertase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fontana; C. Ghommidh; J. P. Guiraud; J. M. Navarro

    1992-01-01

    Summary At high flow rates, the continuous alcoholic fermentation of sucrose in a laboratory fermenter with internal cell recycle, using a strongly flocculating yeast can be limited by the substrate hydrolysis. This system is sensitive to glucose catabolic repression and to mineral deficiency. The release of invertase activity in the medium is negligible. From theoretical and experimental considerations, the hydrolysis

  6. Rapid and reliable protein extraction from yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitaly V. Kushnirov

    2000-01-01

    The methods currently used for protein extraction from yeast are either laborious or insufficiently reliable. Here I report a method for protein extraction for electrophoretic analysis that is both easy and reliable. In this method, yeast cells are subjected to mild alkali treatment and then boiled in a standard electrophoresis loading buffer. The method was tested for different strains of

  7. Supplemental diets containing yeast, sucrose, and soy powder enhance the survivorship, growth, and development of prey-limited cursorial spiders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of a food spray mixture (‘wheast’) and its individual ingredients (sucrose, yeast, and toasted soy flour) on the survivorship, growth, and development of a cursorial spider, Hibana futilis Banks (Anyphaenidae). Some treatments included eggs of Helicoverpa zea, a favored prey...

  8. Games microbes play: The game theory behind cooperative sucrose metabolism in yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff

    2010-03-01

    The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. Microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot, thus leading to growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. In order for the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase. This hydrolysis reaction is performed outside of the cytoplasm in the periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. Here we demonstrate that the vast majority (˜99%) of the monosaccharides created by sucrose hydrolysis diffuse away before they can be imported into the cell, thus making invertase production and secretion a cooperative behavior [1]. A mutant cheater strain that does not produce invertase is able to take advantage of and invade a population of wildtype cooperator cells. However, over a wide range of conditions, the wildtype cooperator can also invade a population of cheater cells. Therefore, we observe coexistence between the two strains in well-mixed culture at steady state resulting from the fact that rare strategies outperform common strategies---the defining features of what game theorists call the snowdrift game. A simple model of the cooperative interaction incorporating nonlinear benefits explains the origin of this coexistence. Glucose repression of invertase expression in wildtype cells produces a strategy which is optimal for the snowdrift game---wildtype cells cooperate only when competing against cheater cells. In disagreement with recent theory [2], we find that spatial structure always aids the evolution of cooperation in our experimental snowdrift game. [4pt] [1] Gore, J., Youk, H. & van Oudenaarden, A., Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009) [0pt] [2] Hauert, C. & Doebeli, M., Nature 428, 643 -- 646 (2004)

  9. Preparation of yeast whole cell splicing extract.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth A; Rader, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing, the removal of introns from pre-messenger RNA, is an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression. In humans, it has been estimated that 60 % of noninfectious diseases are caused by errors in splicing, making the study of pre-mRNA splicing a high priority from a health perspective. Pre-mRNA splicing is also complicated: the molecular machine that catalyzes the reaction, the spliceosome, is composed of five small nuclear RNAs, and over 100 proteins, making splicing one of the most complex processes in the cell.An important tool for studying pre-mRNA splicing is the in vitro splicing assay. With an in vitro assay, it is possible to test the function of each splicing component by removing the endogenous version and replacing it (or reconstituting it) with a modified one. This assay relies on the ability to produce an extract-either whole cell or nuclear-that contains all of the activities required to convert pre-mRNA to mRNA. To date, splicing extracts have only been produced from human and S. cerevisiae (yeast) cells. We describe a method to produce whole cell extracts from yeast that support splicing with efficiencies up to 90 %. These extracts have been used to reconstitute snRNAs, screen small molecule libraries for splicing inhibitors, and purify a variety of splicing complexes. PMID:24549660

  10. The Extraction and Assay of 1-Kestose:Sucrose Fructosyl Transferase from Leaves of Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, C. J.; Housley, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    Isolating the enzymes responsible for fructan synthesis in plants has been hampered by unsuitable assays used during purification. It is believed that there are two enzymes necessary for fructan synthesis in higher plants, one initiating synthesis utilizing sucrose as donor and the other elaborating the polymer using fructan oligomers as donor. In this paper, a rapid quantitative assay is described to measure the latter fructosyl transfer. The activity was absent from leaves that were not synthesizing fructan. Activity in crude extracts showed a hyperbolic dependence upon sucrose concentration. Activity against 1-kestose showed a pronounced optimum, suggesting that self-transfer also occurred. PMID:12231842

  11. Charcoal-Yeast Extract Agar: Primary Isolation Mediumfor Legionella pneumophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. FEELEY; ROBERT J. GIBSON; GEORGE W. GORMAN; NANCY C. LANGFORD; J. KAMILE RASHEED; DON C. MACKEL; WILLIAM B. BAINE

    1979-01-01

    Charcoal-yeast extract agar isa new bacteriological mediumthatsupports excellent growth oftheLegionella pneumophila. Itresults frommodifications madeinan existing L.pneumophila medium,F-Gagar.Yeastextract, instead of an acidhydrolysate ofcasein, servesastheprotein source.Beefextractives and starch are notadded. Activated charcoal (Norit A or Norit SG)isincluded at 0.20%(wt\\/vol). Comparison ofcharcoal-yeast extract andF-Gagars showedthat a greater numberofcolony-forming units ofL.pneumophila was recovered from astandardized tissue inoculum on charcoal-yeast extract agar(4.35 x 106colony- forning

  12. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

  13. The presence of trehalose-containing oligosaccharides in yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Iwahara, S; Takegawa, K; Kawaguchi, K; Okamoto, G

    1993-07-01

    It was suggested that several trehalose-containing oligosaccharides are present in yeast extract. Among these oligosaccarides a trisaccharides was isolated and identified as beta-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1<==>1)-alpha-D-Glcp. PMID:7763997

  14. Optimized Protein Extraction for Quantitative Proteomics of Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias von der Haar; Thomas Preiss

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe absolute quantification of intracellular protein levels is technically demanding, but has recently become more prominent because novel approaches like systems biology and metabolic control analysis require knowledge of these parameters. Current protocols for the extraction of proteins from yeast cells are likely to introduce artifacts into quantification procedures because of incomplete or selective extraction.Principal FindingsWe have developed a novel

  15. Mild water stress of Phaseolus vulgaris plants leads to reduced starch synthesis and extractable sucrose phosphate synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vassey, T.L.; Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mild water stress, on the order of {minus}1.0 megapascals xylem water potential, can reduce the rate of photosynthesis and eliminate the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by O{sub 2} in water-stress-sensitive plants such as Phaseolus vulgaris. To investigate the lack of O{sub 2} inhibition of photosynthesis, we measured stromal and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and partitioning of newly fixed carbon between starch and sucrose before, during, and after mild water stress. The extractable activity of the fructose bisphosphatases was unaffected by mild water stress. The extractable activity of SPS was inhibited by more than 60% in plants stressed to water potentials of {minus}0.9 megapascals. Water stress caused a decline in the starch/sucrose partitioning ratio indicating that starch synthesis was inhibited more than sucrose synthesis. We conclude that the reduced rate of photosynthesis during water stress is caused by stomatal closure, and that the restriction of CO{sub 2} supply caused by stomatal closure leads to a reduction in the capacity for both starch and sucrose synthesis. This causes the reduced O{sub 2} inhibition and abrupt CO{sub 2} saturation of photosynthesis.

  16. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahnaz Sharifia; Keikhosro Karimi; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2008-01-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet\\u000a molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation\\u000a of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by

  17. A rapid and simple method for extracting yeast mitochondrial DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Gargouri; M. Curie

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction of yeast mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is described. In comparison with previous methods, it simplifies several steps, does not require either the isolation of mitochondria or phenol treatment and is less time consuming. This protocol gives a high yield of pure mtDNA (50–120 µg from a 100-ml culture), which can be directly used in various

  18. Evaluation of a rapid DNA extraction method to detect yeast cells by PCR in orange juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ros-Chumillas; Marcos Egea-Cortines; Antonio Lopez-Gomez; Julia Weiss

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts are the main causes of spoilage in pasteurized orange juice. Whereas detection by plate counting techniques is too slow to allow appropriate intervention measures, PCR reaction offers a rapid alternative, but it can be inhibited by components of food samples. We developed a DNA extraction method directly from orange juice for rapid yeast detection by PCR amplification of the

  19. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. PMID:21820955

  20. Effect of yeast extract on Escherichia coli growth and acetic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Suárez; C. W. Liria; B. V. Kilikian

    1998-01-01

    Fed batch cultures were performed to investigate the effect of yeast extract concentration on the kinetics of growth and acetic acid production of recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 in a synthetic medium. Three runs were performed with 40g\\/l total glucose concentration. The yeast extract\\/glucose ratio (YE\\/G; w\\/w), was 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 in the feed. These decreasing YE\\/G values did not

  1. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase positive Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, or any other recognized microbial pathogen or any harmful...

  6. The isolation of an unidentified factor from yeast extract for the formate-pyruvate exchange reaction in streptococcus faecalis

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chi-sin

    1962-01-01

    %21 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 60 15 Ethanol precipitation of yeast extract 16 Distributinn of aotivity of a barium praoipitcticn of yeaot extract o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 17 Activity of a crystalline substance obtained by a... GPF~ isolation prooess . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Distribution of activity in fractions obtained from yeast extract by treating &th barium, iced and sliver salts ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lg ~ualitative color test...

  7. Extraction of genomic DNA from yeasts for PCR-based applications.

    PubMed

    Lõoke, Marko; Kristjuhan, Kersti; Kristjuhan, Arnold

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a quick and low-cost genomic DNA extraction protocol from yeast cells for PCR-based applications. This method does not require any enzymes, hazardous chemicals, or extreme temperatures, and is especially powerful for simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples. DNA can be efficiently extracted from different yeast species (Kluyveromyces lactis, Hansenula polymorpha, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans, Pichia pastoris, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The protocol involves lysis of yeast colonies or cells from liquid culture in a lithium acetate (LiOAc)-SDS solution and subsequent precipitation of DNA with ethanol. Approximately 100 nanograms of total genomic DNA can be extracted from 1 × 10(7) cells. DNA extracted by this method is suitable for a variety of PCR-based applications (including colony PCR, real-time qPCR, and DNA sequencing) for amplification of DNA fragments of ? 3500 bp. PMID:21548894

  8. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Weckesser; K. Engel; B. Simon-Haarhaus; A. Wittmer; K. Pelz; C. M. Schempp

    2007-01-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata

  9. Screening of carob bean yeasts. Chemical composition of Schizosaccharomyces versatilis grown on aqueous carob extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Marakis; A. D. Karagouni

    1985-01-01

    Summary An improved extraction procedure for soluble sugars and tannins from carob bean is described. The yeast flora of the carob is rich, withSaccharomyces predominant; an isolate ofSchizosaccharomyces versatilis cultured in the aqueous extract utilizes tannins as well as sugars to give a high biomass and protein yield of good quality.

  10. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

  11. Chromatin Assembly in a Yeast Whole-Cell Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

    1997-08-01

    A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

  12. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

  13. GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

  14. An automatic turbidimetric method to screen yeast extracts as fermentation nutrient ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Potvin; Evelyne Fonchy; John Conway; Claude P. Champagne

    1997-01-01

    Yeast extracts (YEs) are frequently used as fermentation nutrient ingredients. However, lots from the same manufacturing process gave biomass and growth rate (?) levels that could vary by almost 50%. Establishing growth curves with shake flasks, or in fermenters under external pH control, is tedious and labour-demanding. An automated turbidimetry (AT) system (Bioscreen™) was thus used with the aim of

  15. GASTROINTESTINAL MATURATION IS ACCELERATED IN TURKEY POULTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE YEAST EXTRACT (ALPHAMUNE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...

  16. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

  17. A simple and sensitive method to extract bacterial, yeast and fungal DNA from blood culture material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley C. Millar; Xu Jiru; John E. Moore; John A. P. Earle

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the various commercially available kits and ‘in-house’ methods to extract DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and fungal agents in commonly employed blood culture material. The main methods investigated were as follows; Qiagen QIAmp Blood kit, Roche high PCR template preparation kit, Puregene DNA extraction kit, boiling, glass beads\\/sonication and wash\\/alkali\\/heat lysis. The results indicated that

  18. Improving glutathione extraction from crude yeast extracts by optimizing aqueous two-phase system composition and operation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangting Wu; Linmei Tang; Yinming Du; Zhinan Xu

    2010-01-01

    PEG-Dextran and PEG-salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have been applied to separate glutathione (GSH) from crude yeast\\u000a extracts. Single-factor experiments were carried out to determine the important factors influencing the partition coefficient\\u000a and extraction yield. The effect of PEG molecular weight, phase-forming components, PEG and Dextran concentration, pH value,\\u000a and temperature on the GSH partitioning behavior in ATPS was investigated.

  19. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Joana P.; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76–89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

  20. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joana P; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76-89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

  1. Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Silva, S Q; Silva, D C; Lanna, M C S; Baeta, B E L; Aquino, S F

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

  2. Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract

    PubMed Central

    Silva, S.Q.; Silva, D.C.; Lanna, M.C.S.; Baeta, B.E.L.; Aquino, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

  3. Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min

    1997-01-01

    Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

  4. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Rezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2014-11-14

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards. PMID:25394535

  5. A Yeast Metabolite Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing call for the absolute quantification of time-resolved metabolite data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as metabolites being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt concentrations often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, metabolite yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised metabolite leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate metabolites to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously. PMID:22952947

  6. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  7. Whole Cell Extract Prep of Gal-Induced Yeast Cells Inoculate 3 X 5 ml YEP + 2% raffinose with single yeast colony harboring EE-MOT1-

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    minus Leucine, 1 liter 1.2 g Yeast Nitrogen Base (without amino acids and ammonium sulfate) 5.0 g ammonium sulfate 1.0 g amino acid drop out mix (e.g. minus W, U, L) Add 950 ml water, adjust pH to 7 liter) Benoit's Extraction Buffer 200 mM TRIS, pH 8.0 3.6 g TRIS 400 mM ammonium sulfate 7.6 g ammonium

  8. A yeast estrogen screen without extraction provides fast, reliable measures of estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Colosi, Joseph C; Kney, Arthur D

    2011-10-01

    Yeast estrogen screen (YES) has been used since 1996 as a bioassay to quantify activity in wastewater. Here we present a modification of YES to measure estrogenic activity in water. This modification, called yeast estrogen screen no extraction (YESne), is faster and easier than the common method. The modified method can detect 17?-estradiol equivalent concentrations down to 1.1 ng/L. The median effective concentration value (EC50) is 1.2E-10. It detected average influent concentrations of 16.4 and 17.5 ng/L of 17?-estradiol equivalent at four Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania, USA, wastewater treatment plants on September 18 and October 23, 2008, respectively, and average effluent concentrations of 5.1 and 8.1 ng/L of 17?-estradiol equivalent at the same plants on the two dates, respectively. Reduction in 17?-estradiol equivalent activity for the four wastewater treatment plants averaged 67.8 and 52.3%, respectively, for the September 18 and October 23 samples. The YESne is a simple, quick method for quantifying estrogenic activity that has been used successfully in nonmajor undergraduate classes and could be adapted by wastewater treatment plant laboratory technicians to measure influent and effluent estrogenicity on a regular basis. This practice will greatly increase our knowledge base of estrogenicity in wastewater before and after treatment. PMID:21755530

  9. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  10. Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway inhibitors from an organic extract of Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Zhang, Hui; Mar, Annie M N; Foss, Adam P; Foo, Sek Hin; Lai, Ngit Shin; Jee, Jap Meng; Seow, Heng Fong; Ho, Coy Choke; Chang, Leng Chee

    2009-08-01

    Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Streptomyces sp. H7667 led to the isolation of three new imides, 3-[(5E)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-hydroxy-5-octenyl]glutarimide (1), 2-amino-N-2'-(phenylacetyl)propanimide (5), and 2-amino-N-(2'-(cyclohex-2''-enyl)acetyl)acetimide (6), and one new isoflavonoid glycoside, 6-O-methyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyldaidzein (7), along with four known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by HRESIMS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. PMID:19711989

  11. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  12. Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

  13. Influences of yeast extract on specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone during fed-batch fermentation of E. coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Panda; R. H. Khan; S. Mishra; K. B. C. Appa Rao; S. M. Totey

    2000-01-01

    In most cases of E. coli high cell density fermentation process, maximizing cell concentration helps in increasing the volumetric productivity of recombinant proteins usually at the cost of lower specific cellular protein yield. In this report, we describe a process for maintaining the specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone (oGH) from E. coli by optimal feeding of yeast extract

  14. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-01-01

    Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells, avoiding overflow metabolism, with the concomitant reduction in ethanol production. The use of this modified yeast strain in simpler batch culture mode can be a viable option to more complicated traditional sucrose-limited fed-batch cultures for biomass-directed processes of S. cerevisiae. PMID:18304329

  15. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  16. Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Gillian

    Sucrose (?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-fructofuranoside) is the most common low-molecular-weight sugar found in the plant kingdom. It is ubiquitously known as common table sugar and primarily produced industrially from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris); the basics of the industrial manufacture of sucrose are outlined in this chapter. Commercial sucrose has a very high purity (> 99.9%) making it one of the purest organic substances produced on an industrial scale. Value-addition to sucrose via chemical and biotechnological reactions is becoming more important for the diversification of the sugar industry to maintain the industries' competitiveness in a world increasingly turning to a bio-based economy. The basis for the chemical reactivity of sucrose is the eight hydroxyl groups present on the molecule, although, sucrose chemical reactivity is regarded as difficult. Increasing use of enzymatic biotechnological techniques to derivatize sucrose is expected, to add special functionalities to sucrose products like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Analysis of sucrose by colorimetric, enzymatic, oxidation-reduction and chromatography methods are discussed. Oligosaccharides related to sucrose are outlined in detail and include sucrose-based plant, honey and in vitro oligosaccharides.

  17. Investigations on hydrolytic activities from Stachybotrys microspora and their use as an alternative in yeast DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Abdeljalil, Salma; Ben Hmad, Ines; Saibi, Walid; Amouri, Bahia; Maalej, Wiem; Kaaniche, Marwa; Koubaa, Aida; Gargouri, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Stachybotrys microspora is a filamentous fungus characterized by the secretion of multiple hydrolytic activities (cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic enzymes). The production of these biocatalysts was studied under submerged culture using glucose, cellulose, and wheat bran as carbon sources. Endoglucanases, pectinases, xylanases, ?-glucanases, chitinases, and proteases were induced on cellulose-based medium and repressed on glucose in both strains with higher amounts produced by the mutant. ?-glucosidases were roughly equally produced by both strains under glucose and cellulose conditions. The yield of chitinases, ?-glucanases, and proteases produced by Stachybotrys strains was as much higher than the commercialized lysing enzyme called "zymolyase," currently used in yeast DNA extraction. In this context, we showed that S. microspora hydrolases can be successfully applied in the extraction of yeast DNA. PMID:24241970

  18. [Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Xiao, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guang; Mo, Ge; Lin, Shu-Fang; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress. PMID:25272834

  19. Parametric Studies on Batch Alcohol Fermentation Using Saccharomyces Yeast Extracted from Toddy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pramanik

    The present study deals with the development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain from toddy and the study of important process parameters which will facilitate the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using the developed strain. Evaluation of the yeast strain was performed in a batch fermenter of 1 L capacity under varying pH, temperature, sugar concen- tration, inoculum time and

  20. Sucrose and Behavioral Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Benton

    2008-01-01

    Various mechanisms by which sucrose could influence behavior are reviewed. Firstly there is food intolerance. There are dozens of foods to which an adverse reaction has been demonstrated, although a reaction to sucrose is less frequent than many other foods. A second possible mechanism is hypoglycemia. There is evidence that a tendency to develop low blood glucose levels, but higher

  1. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  2. Estrogenicity of solid phase-extracted water samples from two municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and river Rhine water using the yeast estrogen screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pawlowski; T. A. Ternes; M. Bonerz; A. C. Rastall; L. Erdinger; T. Braunbeck

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the yeast estrogen screen (YES) was used to estimate the estrogenic potential of solid phase-extracted water samples from the effluents of two municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs 1 + 2) and from four lanes (left to right) of the river Rhine at Worms, Germany, i.e. downstream the STPs. Estrogenic activities of extracted water samples were expressed

  3. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  4. Overcoming the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid extracts in the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.

    PubMed

    Citulski, Joel; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2012-04-01

    For nearly two decades, the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) has been used as a valuable tool for determining the total estrogenic potency of various environmental samples, including influent and effluent streams at municipal wastewater plants. However, applying the YES assay to wastewater sludges and stabilized biosolids has been problematic. This is due to co-extracted compounds from the solids either proving toxic to the yeast or masking the presence of estrogenic substances. The present research describes the development and validation of sample preparation steps that mitigate the toxicity effects of municipal wastewater sludge and biosolid samples in the YES assay, while allowing for reliable dose-dependent expression of estrogenic activity. A copper work-up for sulfur removal and chromatographic cleanup with silica and alumina were required in addition to solid-phase extraction to adequately remove interfering compounds. Sample stabilization methods such as autoclaving, lyophilization and formaldehyde treatment were found to be detrimental to the assay. Hence, heat-drying is recommended to prevent cytotoxicity and the degradation of estrogenic substances. PMID:22277884

  5. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...?-D-fructofuranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion, then clarified and evaporated. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c)...

  6. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

  7. Comparison of media for enumerating osmotolerant yeasts in orange juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Hernández, P

    1994-06-01

    Enumeration of osmotolerant yeasts in high-sugar food products can be improved by using diluents and recovery media formulated to closely resemble their natural environment. Heat and freeze-stressed yeasts often exhibit decreased tolerance to acetic pH and selective agents, thus requiring optimum recovery conditions for enumeration. The study reported here was done to evaluate three methods for their suitability to enumerate osmotolerant yeasts from fifty Venezuelan orange juice concentrates. Yeasts were enumerated by surface plating serially diluted samples on plate count agar containing 52% (w/w) sucrose (PCAS 52) and incubating at 32 degrees C for 6 days; pour plating in yeast extract malt extract agar containing 52% (w/w) sucrose (YEMS 52) and incubating at 32 degrees C for 6 days and pour plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA), pH 3.5, and incubating at 25 degrees C for 5 days. Mean populations of yeasts recovered were: 4.2 x 10(5), 5.3 x 10(4) and 7.5 x 10(3) cfu/ml, respectively, on PCAS 52, YEMS 52 and PDA. High recovery on PCAS 52 is attributed to avoidance of osmotic shock and possible secondary lethal effects of high temperature, which may be associated with pour plating techniques. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher population were recovered on PCAS 52 than on YEMS 52 and PDA. Predominant osmotolerant yeasts were Saccharomyces bisporus var. mellis, recently named Zygosacharomyces rouxii (Kreger-van Rij W.J.W. (1984) The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study). PMID:7986680

  8. The effect of a yeast extract feed additive on turkeys challenged with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE) was added to the diet of turkeys which were exposed to E. coli and L. monocytogenes Scott A at 16 wks of age using coarse spray and feed inclusion. Positive c...

  9. INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS CHALLENGED WITH COLD STRESS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI TO ALPHAMUNE™, A DIETARY YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two battery trials were conducted using a yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™, to protect turkey poults from production losses due to cold stress and E. coli infection. Trial 1 used commercially hatched day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-wk-old hens in their 2nd wk of lay and Trial 2...

  10. INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

  11. Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

  12. Sucrose synthase isoforms in cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Matic, Sandra; Akerlund, Hans-Erik; Everitt, Einar; Widell, Susanne

    2004-04-01

    The plant enzyme sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and fructose. The enzyme exists in different isoforms and is both located in the cytosol, membrane-bound and associated to the actin cytoskeleton. We here investigate sucrose synthase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 heterotrophic cell suspensions. Two different isoforms of sucrose synthase SuSy1 and SuSy2, could be purified from cytosolic extracts of these cells using a combination of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) precipitation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. They were clearly distinct, both with regard to the binding to the ion-exchange column and with regard to their kinetic and regulatory properties. SuSy1, the more abundant species, showed lower V(max) and K(m) for sucrose and UDP compared to the less abundant SuSy2. The activity of SuSy2 in the breakdown direction was stimulated by 60% by actin, in contrast to that of SuSy1, which showed a 17% inhibition. An indication of interaction between SuSy1 and actin was obtained by partitioning in aqueous Dextran-PEG two-phase systems. Furthermore, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) at micromolar concentrations stimulated SuSy2 in the presence of actin while SuSy1 was strongly inhibited by fructose. Possible roles of these two isoforms in the sucrose turnover in BY-2 cells are discussed. PMID:15120114

  13. A new ?-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native ?-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous ?-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing. PMID:22133603

  14. Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop

    PubMed Central

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  15. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    PubMed

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  16. Comparison of a novel MPN method against the yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Sartory; Haoyi Gu; Chun-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the Quanti-Disc™ most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc™ test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely

  17. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting ?-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  18. Evolution of plant sucrose uptake transporters.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that types I and II are localized to the plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but they are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue) loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I) mutant. This indicates that type I and II SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable) phloem loading transporter capabilities independently. PMID:22639641

  19. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

  20. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  5. The receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 associate in pollen and when expressed in yeast, but dissociate in the presence of style extract

    PubMed Central

    Wengier, Diego; Valsecchi, Isabel; Cabanas, María Laura; Tang, Wei-hua; McCormick, Sheila; Muschietti, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    After pollen grains germinate on the stigma, pollen tubes traverse the extracellular matrix of the style on their way to the ovules. We previously characterized two pollen-specific, receptor-like kinases, LePRK1 and LePRK2, from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Their structure and immunolocalization pattern and the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2 suggested that these kinases might interact with signaling molecules in the style extracellular matrix. Here, we show that LePRK1 and LePRK2 can be coimmunoprecipitated from pollen or when expressed together in yeast. In yeast, their association requires LePRK2 kinase activity. In pollen, LePRK1 and LePRK2 are found in an ?400-kDa protein complex that persists on pollen germination, but this complex is disrupted when pollen is germinated in vitro in the presence of style extract. In yeast, the addition of style extract also disrupts the interaction between LePRK1 and LePRK2. Fractionation of the style extract reveals that the disruption activity is enriched in the 3- to 10-kDa fraction. A component(s) in this fraction also is responsible for the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2. The style component(s) that dephosphorylates LePRK2 is likely to be a heat-stable peptide that is present in exudate from the style. The generally accepted model of receptor kinase signaling involves binding of a ligand to extracellular domains of receptor kinases and subsequent activation of the signaling pathway by receptor autophosphorylation. In contrast to this typical scenario, we propose that a putative style ligand transduces the signal in pollen tubes by triggering the specific dephosphorylation of LePRK2, followed by dissociation of the LePRK complex. PMID:12748390

  6. The yeast aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Methodology for their complete or partial purification and comparison of their relative activities under various extraction conditions.

    PubMed

    Kern, D; Dietrich, A; Fasiolo, F; Renaud, M; Giegé, R; Ebel, J P

    1977-01-01

    Several fractionation steps are described which can be applied to the partial purification of the 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from commercial baker's yeast. Comparative experiments performed in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors revealed that some enzymes prepared in the presence of the inhibitor exhibit much higher specific activities than the proteins extracted in the absence of the inhibitor. The methodology reported can be used for the simultaneous preparation of several pure aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. As examples, the large scale purification of phenylalanyl-and valyl-tRNA synthetases are described. PMID:329894

  7. Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianpeng Xu; S.-J. S. Sung; S. Shijean; C. C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose

  8. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  9. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Thompson; Nicholas Jakubovics; Bindu Abraham; Sonja Hess; Andreas Pikis

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels

  10. Chiral speciation and determination of selenomethionine enantiomers in selenized yeast by ligand-exchange micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jiankun; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2012-12-14

    A new phenylalanine derivative (L-N-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-phenylalanine, L-HP-Phe) was synthesized and its chelate with Cu(II) (Cu(II)-(L-HP-Phe)(2)) was used as the chiral selector for the ligand-exchange (LE) chiral separation of D,L-selenomethionine (SeMet) in selenized yeast samples by micelle electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). In order to improve the sensitivity of MEKC-UV, two-step preconcentration strategy was employed, off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and on-line large volume sample stacking (LVSS). D,L-SeMet was first retained on the Cu(II) loaded mesoporous TiO(2), then eluted by 0.1 mL of 5 mol L(-1) ammonia, and finally introduced for MEKC-UV analysis by LVSS injection after evaporation of NH(3). With the enrichment factors of 1400 and 1378, the LODs of 0.44 and 0.60 ng mL(-1) for L-SeMet and D-SeMet was obtained, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of D,L-SeMet in a certified reference material of SELM-1 and a commercial nutrition yeast, and the results showed that most of SeMet in the SELM-1 selenized yeast was l isomer and the recovery for L and D isomers in the spiked commercial nutrition yeast was 96.3% and 103%, respectively. This method is featured with low running cost, high sensitivity and selectivity, and exhibits application potential in chiral analysis of seleno amino acids in real world samples. PMID:23141622

  11. Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

    2014-10-01

    A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

  12. Expression of the PmSUC1 sucrose carrier gene from Plantago major L. is induced during seed development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Gahrtz; Elmon Schmelzer; Jurgen Stolz; Norbert Sauer

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA clone of the plasma membrane sucrose-H+sym- porter PmSUC1 from Plantago major L. has been isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PmSUC1 protein was characterized in transgenic yeast and in proteoliposomes with an artificial proton-motive-force (pmf) generator. PmSUC1 catalyzes the active uptake of sucrose or maltose in the presence of pmf and is sensitive to uncouplers. Unlike the

  13. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Milne, Ricky J; Byrt, Caitlin S; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences. PMID:23805151

  14. Featured Molecules: Sucrose and Vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-04-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for April relate to the sense of taste. Apple Fool, the JCE Classroom Activity, mentions sucrose and vanillin and their use as flavorings. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  15. Oligosaccharides from Sucrose via Glycansucrases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycansucrases are a class of microbial enzymes that polymerize either the fructosyl or the glucosyl moiety of sucrose to give beta-D-fructans or alpha-D-glucans. They are also capable of transferring fructosyl or glucosyl units to acceptor molecules to yield oligosaccharides. Although the glycosy...

  16. Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

  17. Plant physiology: The importance of sucrose transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Truernit

    2001-01-01

    Sucrose transport is essential for the distribution of carbohydrates in plants. Recent studies have shown that a specific transporter protein plays an essential role in loading sucrose into the phloem component of the plant vasculature.

  18. Identification of Actively Filling Sucrose Sinks 1

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Xu, Dian-Peng; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Certain actively filling plant sucrose sinks such as a seed, a tuber, or a root can be identified by measuring the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent metabolism of sucrose. Sucrolysis in both active and quiescent sucrose sinks was tested and sucrose synthase was found to be the predominant sucrose breakdown activity. Sucrolysis via invertases was low and secondary in both types of sinks. Sucrose synthase activity dropped markedly, greater than fivefold, in quiescent sinks. The tests are consistent with the hypothesis that the sucrose filling activity, i.e. the sink strength, of these plant sinks can be measured by testing the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent breakdown of sucrose. Measuring the initial reactions of sucrolysis shows much promise for use in agriculture crop and tree improvement research as a biochemical test for sink strength. PMID:16666673

  19. Cloning of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyltransferase from Onion and Synthesis of Structurally Defined Fructan Molecules from Sucrose1

    PubMed Central

    Vijn, Irma; van Dijken, Anja; Lüscher, Marcel; Bos, Antoine; Smeets, Edward; Weisbeek, Peter; Wiemken, Andres; Smeekens, Sjef

    1998-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc):Suc 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme in plant fructan biosynthesis, since it catalyzes de novo fructan synthesis from Suc. We have cloned 1-SST from onion (Allium cepa) by screening a cDNA library using acid invertase from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) as a probe. Expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) protoplasts showed the formation of 1-kestose from Suc. In addition, an onion acid invertase clone was isolated from the same cDNA library. Protein extracts of tobacco protoplasts transformed with this clone showed extensive Suc-hydrolyzing activity. Conditions that induced fructan accumulation in onion leaves also induced 1-SST mRNA accumulation, whereas the acid invertase mRNA level decreased. Structurally different fructan molecules could be produced from Suc by a combined incubation of protein extract of protoplasts transformed with 1-SST and protein extract of protoplasts transformed with either the onion fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase or the barley Suc:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase. PMID:9701606

  20. Rates of alcoholic fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using four different sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Barnes

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in 250 ml containers at 40 degrees C generated CO2 gas as a byproduct of alcoholic fermentation when fed glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Glucose (a monosaccharide) yielded CO2 more quickly than the other sugars (all disaccharides). The slowest reaction occurred with lactose, and there was no significant difference between sucrose and maltose.

  1. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different ?-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced ?-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 ?g L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

  2. [Experimental study of the effect of raw materials of the neem tree and neem extracts on dermatophytes, yeasts and molds].

    PubMed

    Khan, M; Schneider, B; Wassilew, S W; Splanemann, V

    1988-06-15

    In traditional Indian medicine, various parts of the neem tree have been used for centuries, especially with skin diseases. These products are often applied in human mycoses. We tested some dried neem materials, neem oils as well as simple neem preparations and extracts with regard to their effect on 14 of the most common pathogenic fungi. Neither the dried neem materials nor the medical preparations and oils had any effect on fungal growth; most of them were even contaminated with molds. Some of the extracts, however, showed antimycotic properties, which decreased with rising solvent polarity. Petrolether leaf extract proved most effective. One of the possible explanations might be the fact that it contains quercetin, a flavonoid. PMID:3407264

  3. Fructan Synthesis in Excised Barley Leaves (Identification of Two Sucrose-Sucrose Fructosyltransferases Induced by Light and Their Separation from Constitutive Invertases).

    PubMed Central

    Simmen, U.; Obenland, D.; Boller, T.; Wiemken, A.

    1993-01-01

    Excised leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to continuous light accumulate large amounts of soluble carbohydrates. Carbohydrates were analyzed in deionized extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography on an anion exchange column coupled with pulsed amperometric detection. During the first few hours of illumination, the main sugar to accumulate was sucrose. The levels of glucose and fructans (oligofructosylsucroses) increased later. The trisaccharide 1-kestose (1-kestotriose) predominated initially among the fructans. Later, 6-kestose (6-kestotriose) and tetra- and pentasaccharides accumulated also. Total extracts from barley leaves were chromatographed on a MonoQ column, and each fraction was assayed for enzymes of interest by incubation with 200 mM sucrose for 3 h, followed by carbohydrate analysis. Freshly excised leaves yielded two peaks of invertase, characterized by formation of fructose and glucose, but had almost no trisaccharide-forming activities. In leaves exposed to continuous light, two new enzyme activities appeared that generated fructan-related trisaccharides and glucose from sucrose. One of them was a sucrose-sucrose fructosyl-1-transferase (1-SST), producing 1-kestose exclusively: the peak fractions of this activity contained almost no invertase. The other was a sucrose-sucrose fructosyl-6-transferase (6-SST), producing 6-kestose. It comigrated with one of the constitutive invertases on MonoQ but was separated from it by subsequent chromatography on alkyl Superose. Nevertheless, the preparation retained invertase activity, suggesting that this enzyme may act both as fructosidase and fructosyltransferase. When incubated with 1-kestose in addition to sucrose, this enzyme formed less 6-kestose but instead produced large amounts of the tetrasaccharide bifurcose (1&6-kestotetraose), the main fructan tetrasaccharide accumulating in vivo. These results suggest that two inducible enzymes, 1-SST and 6-SST, act in concert to initiate fructan accumulation in barley leaves. PMID:12231699

  4. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation. PMID:23757382

  5. Protective effects of flavonoids and extract from Vellozia kolbekii Alves against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in yeast.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carmelita Gomes; Carvalho, Camilla Dayane F; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Castro, Frederico A V; Alves, Ruy José Válka; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo; de Rezende, Cláudia Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Two flavonoids 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-6-prenylflavonol (1) and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-8-methyl-6-prenylflavonol (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of sheaths of Vellozia kolbekii Alves (Velloziaceae). This is the first time that compound 2 has been described. The crude extract and flavonoids were found to be active as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers and were able to the increase tolerance of the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress generated by H(2)O(2). The protective effect was correlated with a reduction in the oxidation of proteins and lipids. In addition, flavonoids isolated from Velloziaceae showed an inhibitory effect on mutations in p53, which is mutated and nonfunctional in more than 50% of cases of human cancer. PMID:21915628

  6. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose

    E-print Network

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01

    Cawley 1977:18). . . Figure 3. Cellobiose segment of cellulose chain. . . Figure 4. Hydrogen bonded cellulose chain showing hydroxyl groups available for bonding with other agents. . . 10 Figure 5. Wood's equilibrium moisture content (E. M. C... photograph (1300X) (Hoffman lighting, polarized filter) of a TD treated with sucrose. . 91 Figure 22. Sucrose molecule composed of a glucose unit and a fructose unit . 92 Figure 23. Proposed hydrogen bonding between cellulose chains and sucrose...

  7. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the ?-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:25389129

  8. Spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Fleet, G

    1992-01-01

    Yeasts are best known for their beneficial contributions to society, and the literature abounds with discussions of their role in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, bread, and other products. Yeasts also cause spoilage, but, with a few exceptions, this unwanted activity often goes unrecognized and underestimated as a major problem in the food and beverage industries. In some cases, there is only a fine line between what is perceived as either a spoilage or beneficial activity. This review examines the occurrence and growth of yeasts in foods and beverages with respect to their spoilage activities, the biochemistry of this spoilage, and technologies for the enumeration and identification of spoilage yeasts. PMID:1733519

  9. Identification and classification of genes required for tolerance to high-sucrose stress revealed by genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2006-03-01

    Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to high concentrations of sucrose during sweet dough fermentation. Despite its importance, tolerance to high-sucrose stress is poorly understood at the gene level. To clarify the genes required for tolerance to high-sucrose stress, genome-wide screening was undertaken using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 273 deletions that yielded high sucrose sensitivity, approximately 20 of which were previously uncharacterized. These 273 deleted genes were classified based on their cellular function and localization of their gene products. Cross-sensitivity of the high-sucrose-sensitive mutants to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol was studied. Among the 273 sucrose-sensitive deletion mutants, 269 showed cross-sensitivities to sorbitol or NaCl, and four (i.e. ade5,7, ade6, ade8, and pde2) were specifically sensitive to high sucrose. The general stress response pathways via high-osmolarity glycerol and stress response element pathways and the function of the invertase in the ade mutants were similar to those in the wild-type strain. In the presence of high-sucrose stress, intracellular contents of ATP in ade mutants were at least twofold lower than that of the wild-type cells, suggesting that depletion of ATP is a factor in sensitivity to high-sucrose stress. The genes identified in this study might be important for tolerance to high-sucrose stress, and therefore should be target genes in future research into molecular modification for breeding of yeast tolerant to high-sucrose stress. PMID:16487347

  10. Comparison of the sequestering properties of yeast cell wall extract and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in three in vitro models accounting for the animal physiological bioavailability of zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, A; Kettunen, H; Apajalahti, J; Pennala, E; Moran, C A

    2013-01-01

    The sequestration/inactivation of the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) by two adsorbents--yeast cell wall extract (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS)--was studied in three laboratory models: (1) an in vitro model was adapted from referenced methods to test for the sequestrant sorption capabilities under buffer conditions at two pH values using liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector for toxin quantification; (2) a second in vitro model was used to evaluate the sequestrant sorption stability according to pH variations and using ³H-labelled ZEA at low toxin concentration; and (3) an original, ex vivo Ussing chamber model was developed to further understand the transfer of ZEA through intestinal tissue and the impact of each sequestrant on the mycotoxin bioavailability of ³H-labelled ZEA. YCW was a more efficient ZEA adsorbent than HSCAS in all three models, except under very acidic conditions (pH 2.5 or 3.0). The Ussing chamber model offered a novel, ex vivo, alternative method for understanding the effect of sequestrant on the bioavailability of ZEA. The results showed that compared with HSCAS, YCW was more efficient in sequestering ZEA and that it reduced the accumulation of ZEA in the intestinal tissue by 40% (p < 0.001). PMID:23844575

  11. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

  12. Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6 % and an average bias of 1.4 %. PMID:25673246

  13. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    PubMed Central

    Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Rocha, Flávia R; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugênio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

    2009-01-01

    Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants. PMID:19302712

  14. Characterization of Saccharomyces strains with respect to their ability to grow and ferment in the presence of ethanol and sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, T.; Delcastillo, L.; Aguilera, A.; Conde, J.; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    1982-12-01

    To optimize the conversion of carbohydrates to ethanol strains of several Saccharomyces species were examined for their ability to grow and ferment in a range of sucrose and ethanol concentrations. Isolated wine yeasts grew in the presence of 10% ethanol to the same final cell density as control cultures without ethanol. The best of these yeast strains grew in the presence of 15% ethanol and fermented in 18%. Ethanol accumulated, although at a reduced rate, after the cells stopped growing. Most yeast strains were highly fermentative in 50% sucrose. Some of them effectively utilized the carbohydrates of the culture, yielding final ethanol concentrations over 14%. Sixteen of the 35 strains were chosen for genetic analysis and breeding because of their capacity to sporulate. These strains are homothallic and their spores are viable.

  15. Red yeast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of red yeast for these uses. ... can affect the muscles. Red yeast can also affect the muscles. Taking niacin along with ... cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

  16. Dry yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranveig Thattai (None; )

    2005-09-27

    Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

  17. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

    2002-08-06

    This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose for an additional 20 h. Sucrose transport activity was higher than the water control in both staurosporine/water- and staurosporine/sucrose-fed leaves. In contrast, sucrose transport activity was only 40% of the water control in sucrose-fed leaves. Taken together, these results showed that a phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathway is involved in sucrose-mediated regulation of BvSUT1 gene expression, sucrose transport activity, and ultimately phloem loading. Publications originating from this work: Vaughn MW, GN. Harrington, and DR Bush 2002. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10876-10880 Ransom-Hodgkins W, MW Vaughn, and DR Bush 2003. Protein phosphorylation mediates a key step in sucrose-regulation of the expression and transport activity of a beet proton-sucrose symporter. Planta 217:483-489 Harrington GN and Bush DR 2003. The bifunctional role of hexokinase in metabolism and glucose signaling. Plant Cell 15: 2493-2496

  18. SUCROSE ACCUMULATION DURING EARLY SUGAR BEET DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined sucrose accumulation in different breeding lines during the first weeks after emergence in order to identify early morphological and physiological differences correlated with final root sucrose content. Six germplasm lines (US H20, SR87, SR95, SR96, SR97, and Syngenta-Hille...

  19. Some Metabolic Effects of Dietary Sucrose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Bender; Pushpa V. Thadani

    1970-01-01

    (1) Male, weanling rats were fed on diets containing 60% sucrose or 60% starch and the liver and adipose tissue were examined in vitro for their ability to oxidise glucose and to synthesise fat from glucose, using radioactive glucose as an indicator. (2) Compared with the livers of rats fed on starch those fed on sucrose showed a severe depression

  20. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  1. Overexpression of multisubunit replication factors in yeast.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M

    1999-07-01

    Facile genetic and biochemical manipulation coupled with rapid cell growth and low cost of growth media has established the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a versatile workhorse. This article describes the use of yeast expression systems for the overproduction of complex multipolypeptide replication factors. The regulated overexpression of these factors in yeast provides for a readily accessible and inexpensive source of these factors in large quantities. The methodology is illustrated with the five-subunit replication factor C. Whole-cell extracts are prepared by blending yeast cells with glass beads or frozen yeast with dry ice. Procedures are described that maximize the yield of these factors while minimizing proteolytic degradation. PMID:10454996

  2. Sugar-snap cookie dough setting: the impact of sucrose on gluten functionality.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-09-01

    In sugar-snap cookie making, sucrose influences the physicochemical transformations of the flour components and is responsible for both cookie sweetness and texture. Sucrose, together with low moisture levels, raises the starch gelatinization temperature to such an extent that little if any of it gelatinizes during baking. However, there is no agreement on the effects that it has on gluten during cookie making. The present study revealed that increasing sucrose levels in the recipe increasingly delay or inhibit gluten cross-linking, as judged from the loss of sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein. This causes cookies containing higher sucrose levels to set later and to have a larger diameter. Gluten entanglement and/or cross-linking result in resistance to collapse, at the same time, cause setting during baking and, hence, determine cookie diameter. PMID:19663483

  3. A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence. PMID:22567033

  4. Wine Yeast Preferment for Enhancing Bread Aroma and Flavor1 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. McKINNON; P. GELINAS; R. E. SIMARD

    Cereal Chem. 73(l):45-50 A liquid preferment containing water, flour, sucrose, and wine yeast most interesting aroma. Compared to bread made by the sponge-and- was optimized to enhance bread aroma and flavor by time and tempera- dough process, crumb and crust of bread prepared from preferment with ture of prefermentation and yeast and flour concentration. Thirteen Flor Sherry yeast contained more

  5. The effect of nitrogen and sucrose concentrations on the growth of Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. plantlets in vitro, and on subsequent anti-inflammatory activity in extracts prepared from the plantlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. S. Taylor; J. van Staden

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of anti-inflammatory activity are present in extractsprepared from Eucomis plants. Extracts prepared from in vitroplantlets grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium supplementedwith 1 mg &ell-1 NAA and 1 mg &ell-1 BA, were tested intwo cyclooxygenase assays (COX-1 and COX-2). Ethanol extracts showedhigh levels of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity, with a COX-2\\/COX-1inhibition ratio of 1.1. Further

  6. Lactobacillus frigidus n.sp. Isolated from Brewery Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Bhandari; T. K. Walker

    1953-01-01

    SUMMARY: Details are given of a new species of the genus Lactobacillus isolated from a sample of brewery yeast. The cells appear as short thick rods, mainly in pairs and small clumps. This organism, which ferments arabinose, xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose and sucrose, has the low optimum temperature of 22-23' and fails to grow above 30'. It has been named

  7. Cinnamon extract inhibits ?-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ?-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast ?-glucosidase and rat-intestinal ?-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast ?-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 ?g/ml and mammalian ?-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 ?g/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats respectively, compared to the control. On the other hand, in rats that received glucose and cinnamon extract, postprandial hyperglycemia was not effectively suppressed, which indicates that the observed postprandial glycemic amelioration is majorly due to ?-glucosidase inhibition. Conclusions The current study demonstrates one of the mechanisms in which cinnamon bark extract effectively inhibits ?-glucosidase leading to suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ induced diabetic rats loaded with maltose, sucrose. This bark extract shows competitive, reversible inhibition on ?-glucosidase enzyme. Cinnamon extract could be used as a potential nutraceutical agent for treating postprandial hyperglycemia. In future, specific inhibitor has to be isolated from the crude extract, characterized and therapeutically exploited. PMID:21711570

  8. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology. PMID:23339519

  9. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ward

    2009-03-31

    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  10. Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dianpeng; Sung, Shijean, S.; Black, C.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

  11. Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima ?-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

  12. Transport of sucrose, not hexose, in the phloem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David D.; Chao, Wesley M.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that glucose and fructose are essentially absent in mobile phloem sap. However, this paradigm has been called into question, especially but not entirely, with respect to species in the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae. In the experiments in question, phloem sap was obtained by detaching leaves and placing the cut ends of the petioles in an EDTA solution. More hexose than sucrose was detected. In the present study, these results were confirmed for four species. However, almost identical results were obtained when the leaf blades were removed and only petiole stubs were immersed. This suggests that the sugars in the EDTA solution represent compounds extracted from the petioles, rather than sugars in transit in the phloem. In further experiments, the leaf blades were exposed to 14CO2 and, following a chase period, radiolabelled sugars in the petioles and EDTA exudate were identified. Almost all the radiolabel was in the form of [14C]sucrose, with little radiolabelled hexose. The data support the long-held contention that sucrose is a ubiquitous transport sugar, but hexoses are essentially absent in the phloem stream. PMID:22553289

  13. Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Isabelle; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

    Sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases are valued tools in chemistry to generate glycodiversification. Not only do these enzymes use as substrate an abundant agroresource, sucrose, but they also share a remarkable versatility regarding the acceptor substrate, allowing the structurally-controlled synthesis of diverse glucosylated products. Latest research has demonstrated the potential of enzyme engineering to tailor novel sucrose-utilizing transglucosidases that give access to original carbohydrate-based structures. This chapter gives an overview of the recent achievements in biocatalysis using these enzymes.

  14. Sucrose/Glucose molecular alloys by cryomilling.

    PubMed

    Megarry, Andrew J; Booth, Jonathan; Burley, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We report here for the first time a series of amorphous sucrose/glucose molecular alloys prepared by cryomilling. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and solution proton nuclear magnetic resonance showed that cryomilling drives a direct transformation from a two-phase mixture of crystalline sucrose and glucose, to a single-phase amorphous sucrose/glucose molecular alloy. The molecular alloys displayed a single Tg which varied linearly with composition. The effect of atmospheric moisture and the possibility of localised melting of the material because of milling-related friction were also discussed. PMID:24867316

  15. 21 CFR 172.869 - Sucrose oligoesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...isobutyl alcohol, and those solvents generally recognized as safe in food. (b) Sucrose oligoesters meet the specifications...Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20418 (Internet: http://www.nap.edu ). (7) Residue on...

  16. Sweet plasmonics: Sucrose macrocrystals of metal nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Sweet plasmonics: Sucrose macrocrystals of metal nanoparticles Talha Erdem1 , Zeliha Soran-Erdem1-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 KEYWORDS plasmonics, macrocrystals, metal nanoparticles, metal enhanced fluorescence, colloidal quantum dots ABSTRACT The realization of plasmonic structures generally necessitates

  17. Weight loss in overweight subjects following low-sucrose or sucrose-containing diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JA West; AE de Looy

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the response by overweight individuals, counselled in a work environment, to energy-reduced diets in which the amount of sucrose-containing foods is varied.DESIGN: Two energy-reduced diets were designed as a weight-reducing programme. A low-sugar diet (LSD) providing 5% of its energy from sucrose and a sugar-containing diet (SCD) providing 10% of its energy from sucrose incorporated as sweet

  18. Molecular physiology of higher plant sucrose transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Sauer

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose is the primary product of photosynthetic CO2 fixation that is used for the distribution of assimilated carbon within higher plants. Its partitioning from the site of synthesis to different sites of storage, conversion into other storage compounds or metabolic degradation involves various steps of cell-to-cell movement and transport. Many of these steps occur within symplastic domains, i.e. sucrose moves

  19. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MAT? MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  20. Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

    2007-04-01

    Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

  1. A kinetic study of sugarcane sucrose synthase.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Wolfgang E; Rohwer, Johann M; Botha, Frederik C

    2004-10-01

    The kinetic data on sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) sucrose synthase (SuSy, UDP-glucose: D-fructose 2-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) are limited. We characterized kinetically a SuSy activity partially purified from sugarcane variety N19 leaf roll tissue. Primary plot analysis and product inhibition studies showed that a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism is followed, with UDP binding first and UDP-glucose dissociating last from the enzyme. Product inhibition studies showed that UDP-glucose is a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP and a mixed inhibitor with respect to sucrose. Fructose is a mixed inhibitor with regard to both sucrose and UDP. Kinetic constants are as follows: Km values (mm, +/- SE) were, for sucrose, 35.9 +/- 2.3; for UDP, 0.00191 +/- 0.00019; for UDP-glucose, 0.234 +/- 0.025 and for fructose, 6.49 +/- 0.61. values were, for sucrose, 227 mm; for UDP, 0.086 mm; for UDP-glucose, 0.104; and for fructose, 2.23 mm. Replacing estimated kinetic parameters of SuSy in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation with experimentally determined parameters of the partially purified isoform had significant effects on model outputs, with a 41% increase in sucrose concentration and 7.5-fold reduction in fructose the most notable. Of the metabolites included in the model, fructose concentration was most affected by changes in SuSy activity: doubling and halving of SuSy activity reduced and increased the steady-state fructose concentration by about 42 and 140%, respectively. It is concluded that different isoforms of SuSy could have significant differential effects on metabolite concentrations in vivo, therefore impacting on metabolic regulation. PMID:15479226

  2. SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SUS) OLIGOMERIZATION IS REGULATED BY SUCROSE LEVELS WITHIN PLANT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is an important plant metabolic enzyme as it cleaves sucrose in the cytoplasm of plant cells. There are three known isoforms of SUS within Zea mays: SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2 (formerly SUS3). It is thought that SUS is predominantly a hetero-tetramer composed of the three isoform...

  3. Role of glucose signaling in yeast metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, K. van [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). E.C. Slater Inst.

    1996-10-05

    The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast was the first biochemical pathway to be studied in detail. The initial observation that this process is catalyzed by an extract of yeast led to the discovery of enzymes and coenzymes and laid the foundation for modern biochemistry. In this article, knowledge concerning the relation between uptake of and signaling by glucose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed and compared to the analogous process in prokaryotes. It is concluded that (much) more fundamental knowledge concerning these processes is required before rational redesign of metabolic fluxes from glucose in yeast can be achieved.

  4. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Mossini, Simone A. G.; Arrotéia, Carla C.; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ? 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation. PMID:22069528

  5. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential ?-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast ?-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast ?-glucosidase with an IC50?=?1.18?mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97?mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79?mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500?mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  6. Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential ?-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Trujano, M E; González-Andrade, M; Aguirre-Hernández, E; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast ? -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast ? -glucosidase with an IC???=?1.18?mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97?mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79?mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500?mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  7. Screening of novel yeast inulinases and further application to bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Susana M; Teixeira, Pedro D; Silva, Tiago P; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Alves, Luís

    2013-09-25

    Inulin is a carbohydrate composed of linear chains of ?-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is one of the most interesting materials among unconventional and renewable raw materials, with levels of inulin reaching 50-80% of dry matter. Inulin or inulin-rich materials can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce glucose and fructose syrups that can be used in bioprocesses. In this study, several microbial strains were isolated and their ability to inulinase biosynthesis was evaluated. The novel yeast strain Talf1, identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, was the best inulinase producer, attaining 8.67 U/ml of inulinase activity when JA juice was used as the inducer substrate. Z. bailii strain Talf1 and/or its enzymatic crude extract were further applied for bioethanol production and biodesulfurization (BDS) processes, using inulin and JA juice as carbon source. In a consolidated bioprocessing for ethanol production from 200 g/l inulin, Z. bailii strain Talf1 was able to produce 67 g/l of ethanol. This ethanol yield was improved in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, with the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 and the Talf1 inulinases, achieving a production of 78 g/l ethanol. However, the highest ethanol yield (?48%) was obtained in a SSF process from JA juice (?130 g/l fermentable sugars), where the S. cerevisiae produced 63 g/l ethanol. Relatively to the dibenzothiophene BDS tests, the Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B achieved a desulfurization rate of 4.8 ?M/h within a SSF process using Talf1 inulinases and JA juice, highlighting the potential of JA as a less expensive alternative carbon source. These results showed the high potential of Z. bailii strain Talf1 inulinases as a versatile tool for bioprocesses using inulin-rich materials. PMID:23419675

  8. Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and ?-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified ?-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNF? and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas ?-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified ?-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that ?-glucan fractions or pure ?-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID:22848391

  9. Dental caries: Possible sugar substitutes for sucrose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte M. Thompson; Kaye Funk; Rachel Schemmel; Olaf Mickelsen

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the use of sucrose, fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)§, and equal weights of fructose and glucose in cakes containing fat and prepared by the solution method of mixing. Cakes prepared with glucose scored lowest in all sensory attributes.According to objective measurements of product quality, cakes made with monosaccharides were smaller, more easily broken and more

  10. Intravenous Iron Sucrose Changes the Intraperitoneal Homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kupczyk; M. Wanic-Kossowka; D. G. Oreopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Intravenous iron infusion is the accepted way of supplementation of that compound in uremic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether this treatment affects intraperitoneal homeostasis in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Methods: Blood and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected from 10 patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who were given 100 mg iron sucrose (IS)

  11. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density increase was shown to quickly saturate with cell mass attached on the electrode. Based on recent modelling data that suggested that the electrode currents might be limited by the poor electrical conductivity of the anode, the power density versus electrical conductivity of a yeast-immobilized anode was investigated. Introduction of high aspect ratio carbon fiber filaments to the immobilization matrix increased the electrical conductivity of the anode. Although a higher electrical conductivity clearly led to an increase in power densities, it was shown that the principal limitation to power density increase was coming from proton transfer limitations in the immobilized anode. Partial overcoming of the gradients lead a power density of ca. 250 microW cm-2, which is the highest reported for yeast powered MFCs. A yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cell was investigated as a power source for low power sensors using raw tree sap. It was shown that yeast can efficiently utilize the sucrose present in the raw tree sap to produce electricity when excess salt is added to the medium. Therefore the salinity of a potential energy source is an important consideration when MFCs are being considered for energy harvesting from natural sources.

  12. Stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum - activity and expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Hilal Ahmad; Paranjpe, Sharayu; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-04-15

    Sugar metabolism was studied in sweet sorghum (SSV74) that is known to store sugars in the mature internodes and which is reported to give grain yields twice that of a grain sorghum variety (SPV1616). Comparison of sugar accumulation in these two varieties was carried out at three stages of growth and in the upper and lower internodes. In spite of large differences in the level of sugar accumulation, osmolarity of the sap did not vary as significantly in the two varieties. Significant contribution of variety, stage and internode position was seen for the variation observed in sugar content. Though the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes namely sucrose synthase (in the synthesis and cleavage directions), sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase (cytoplasmic and vacuolar) also varied in a stage- and internode-specific manner in the two varieties, these enzymes did not contribute significantly to the variation observed in sugar content. Transcriptional expression of one sucrose synthase (SUC1), two sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS2 and SPS3) and a vacuolar invertase (INV3) gene were lower in sweet sorghum as compared to grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum also showed lower expression of two sucrose transporters (SUT1 and SUT4), which correlated to higher sugar accumulation in this variety. Differential expression of the sugar metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters in sweet and grain sorghum suggest a role for signaling molecules and transcription factors in regulating sugar accumulation observed in the mature internodes of sweet sorghum, which needs to be investigated. PMID:22325624

  13. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. PMID:21309979

  14. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

  15. Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

  16. Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Alexandre; Desclos, Marie; Amiard, Véronique; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W; Turgeon, Robert; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

    2009-07-01

    The pathway of carbon phloem loading was examined in leaf tissues of the forage grass Lolium perenne. The effect of defoliation (leaf blade removal) on sucrose transport capacity was assessed in leaf sheaths as the major carbon source for regrowth. The pathway of carbon transport was assessed via a combination of electron microscopy, plasmolysis experiments and plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning from the microsomal fraction. Results support an apoplastic phloem loading mechanism. Imposition of an artificial proton-motive force to PMVs from leaf sheaths energized an active, transient and saturable uptake of sucrose (Suc). The affinity of Suc carriers for Suc was 580 microM in leaf sheaths of undefoliated plants. Defoliation induced a decrease of K(m) followed by an increase of V(max). A transporter was isolated from stubble (including leaf sheaths) cDNA libraries and functionally expressed in yeast. The level of L.perenne SUcrose Transporter 1 (LpSUT1) expression increased in leaf sheaths in response to defoliation. Taken together, the results indicate that Suc transport capacity increased in leaf sheaths of L. perenne in response to leaf blade removal. This increase might imply de novo synthesis of Suc transporters, including LpSUT1, and may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to rapid refoliation. PMID:19520670

  17. Crossbreeding of distillers' yeast by hybridization of spore derived clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Eggert Christensen

    1987-01-01

    Four distiller's yeasts, strains A, B, C and D yielded 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-spored asci upon sporulation. Isolated a and ? mater\\u000a strains, recovered from 4-spored asci by microdissection, were intercrossed to produce a total of 425 hybrids. The meiotic\\u000a segregants and hybrids were tested for fermentation kinetics in a synthetic sucrose medium using a small scale batch system.

  18. Sucrose-Based Epoxies and Reactions with Amines, Anhydrides and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three types of epoxies were recently prepared in two steps from sucrose 1. These were epoxy allyl sucroses with an average of 3.2 epoxy groups per sucrose; epoxy crotyl sucroses with an average of about 7.3 epoxy groups per sucrose; and epoxy methallyl sucroses with an average of 5.6 epoxy groups p...

  19. Translocation of labelled sucrose: A student exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbohydrates from the leaves are exported through the phloem to growing tips, roots, flowers and fruits. If sucrose labelled with {sup 14}C is applied to the leaves of bean plants, the pathway for sugar movement may be readily observed by autoradiography. Students apply the labelled sucrose during class time and return the next day to press their plants. During the next class, the pressed and dried plants are placed against X-ray film and left in the dark for four weeks. the film is then developed, examined for presence of label and compared to the pressed plants. Source to sink movement is clearly illustrated and information about the mechanism of phloem transport and loading is gained through experimental treatments, which include blocking the phloem pathway and inhibiting energy production.

  20. Monogeusia for fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. S. Breslin; G. K. Beauchamp; E. N. Pugh

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the ability of subjects to discriminate sugars with a whole-mouth forced-choice paradigm, in which a standard\\u000a solution was compared with a test solution of varied concentration. Discrimination probabilities were U-shaped functions of\\u000a test concentration: for 6 subjects and pairwise combinations of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, discriminability always declined\\u000a to chance over a narrow range of test concentrations. At

  1. Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose*

    PubMed Central

    Leinen, K.M.; Labuza, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study, however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems. PMID:16421962

  2. Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose.

    PubMed

    Leinen, K M; Labuza, T P

    2006-02-01

    The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study, however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems. PMID:16421962

  3. Pentose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-L. Suihko; M. Dra?i?

    1983-01-01

    66 different yeast strains were screened for glucose, xylose and xylulose fermentation in shake flask cultures. None of the tested yeasts was able to grow or produce significant amounts of ethanol on xylose anaerobically. The best ethanol yields from xylulose were obtained with a wine yeast, two distillery yeasts, and a strain of Saccharomyces uvarum. The best conversion of xylulose

  4. Yeast-Air Balloons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-03-10

    In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

  5. A Feast for Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

  6. Characteristics of a haemolytic extract from avian Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Diallo, I S; Frost, A J

    2000-03-01

    In experimental fowl cholera, the intramuscular inoculation of Pasteurella multocida induces tissue damage that implies proteolytic or cytolytic activity of the bacteria. Such activity could not be demonstrated by conventional in vitro tests. The treatment of P. multocida strain VP21 with Tween-80 yielded an extract that lysed washed chicken red cells. Extracts were active to a maximum titre of 64. Haemolytic activity of the extract was neither affected by boiling nor by extremes of pH, indicating the active component was not a simple protein. Treatment with trypsin had no effect, but it was inactivated by Proteinase K. Yields were highest from bacteria grown in dextrose starch- or casein sucrose-yeast broths; were similar if cultured in air or anaerobically, but were reduced if the bacteria were grown in 5% CO(2). Haemolytic activity was eliminated on exposure to serum or serum albumen. The extract from strain VP21 haemolysed red cells from the chicken, rabbit, sheep, horse, bovine and human, with the highest titres observed on chicken cells. Six other avian strains and seven out of 10 strains of P. multocida from other species yielded an extract which haemolysed chicken red cells. The elaboration of this cytotoxic substance in vivo and its role in pathogenesis remains to be determined. PMID:10699501

  7. Use of Yeast Populations Fractionated by Zonal Centrifugation to Study the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, J.; Carter, B. L. A.; Halvorson, H. O.

    1971-01-01

    Zonal centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient was used to separate yeast cells primarily by size and thus by age in the cell cycle. This approach provides an alternative to synchronous growth for examining the properties of cells at different stages in the cell cycle. PMID:4945182

  8. Non-conventional yeasts.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J F T; Ragout de Spencer, A L; Laluce, C

    2002-02-01

    In the beginning there was yeast, and it raised bread, brewed beer, and made wine. After many not days but centuries and even millenia later, it was named Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After more years and centuries there was another yeast, and it was named Schizosaccharomyces pombe; now there were two stars in the yeast heaven. In only a few more years there were other yeasts, and then more, and more, and more. The era of the non-conventional yeasts had begun. PMID:11878307

  9. Behavioral economics of concurrent ethanol-sucrose and sucrose reinforcement in the rat: effects of altering variable-ratio requirements.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Heyman, G M

    1995-11-01

    These experiments examined the own-price and cross-price elasticities of a drug (ethanol mixed with 10% sucrose) and a nondrug (10% sucrose) reinforcer. Rats were presented with ethanol-sucrose and sucrose, both available on concurrent independent variable-ratio (VR) 8 schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the variable ratio for the ethanol mix was systematically raised to 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, and 30, while the variable ratio for sucrose remained at 8. Five of the 6 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding at some of the increments and defended baseline levels of ethanol intake. However, the rats eventually ceased ethanol-reinforced responding at the highest variable ratios. Sucrose-reinforced responding was not systematically affected by the changes in variable ratio for ethanol mix. In Experiment 2, the variable ratio for sucrose was systematically increased while the ethanol-sucrose response requirement remained constant. The rats decreased sucrose-reinforced responding and increased ethanol-sucrose-reinforced responding, resulting in a two- to 10-fold increase in ethanol intake. Experiment 3 examined the substitutability of qualitatively identical reinforcers: 10% sucrose versus 10% sucrose. Increases in variable-ratio requirements at the preferred lever resulted in a switch in lever preference. Experiment 4 examined whether 10% ethanol mix substituted for 5% ethanol mix, with increasing variable-ratio requirements of the 5% ethanol. All rats eventually responded predominantly for the 10% ethanol mix, but total amount of ethanol consumed per session did not systematically change. In Experiment 5, the variable-ratio requirements for both ethanol and sucrose were simultaneously raised to VR 120; 7 of 8 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding while decreasing sucrose-reinforced responding. These data suggest that, within this ethanol-induction procedure and within certain parameters, demand for ethanol-sucrose was relatively inelastic, and sucrose consumption was independent of ethanol-sucrose consumption. Demand for sucrose, on the other hand, was relatively elastic, and ethanol-sucrose readily substituted for it. The results are discussed in terms of applying a behavioral economic approach to relationships between drug and nondrug reinforcers. PMID:8551192

  10. Transcription factors, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes interact to regulate potato phenylpropanoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Payyavula, Raja S.; Navarre, Duroy A.

    2013-01-01

    Much remains unknown about how transcription factors and sugars regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism in tuber crops like potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on phylogeny and protein similarity to known regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism, 15 transcription factors were selected and their expression was compared in white, yellow, red, and purple genotypes with contrasting phenolic and anthocyanin profiles. Red and purple genotypes had increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, markedly higher levels of phenylpropanoids, and elevated expression of most phenylpropanoid structural genes, including a novel anthocyanin O-methyltransferase. The transcription factors Anthocyanin1 (StAN1), basic Helix Loop Helix1 (StbHLH1), and StWD40 were more strongly expressed in red and purple potatoes. Expression of 12 other transcription factors was not associated with phenylpropanoid content, except for StMYB12B, which showed a negative relationship. Increased expression of AN1, bHLH1, and WD40 was also associated with environmentally mediated increases in tuber phenylpropanoids. Treatment of potato plantlets with sucrose induced hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, structural genes, AN1, bHLH1, WD40, and genes encoding the sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV2. Transient expression of StAN1 in tobacco leaves induced bHLH1, structural genes, SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV1, and increased phenylpropanoid amounts. StAN1 infiltration into tobacco leaves decreased sucrose and glucose concentrations. In silico promoter analysis revealed the presence of MYB and bHLH regulatory elements on sucrolytic gene promoters and sucrose-responsive elements on the AN1 promoter. These findings reveal an interesting dynamic between AN1, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes in modulating potato phenylpropanoids. PMID:24098049

  11. Transcription factors, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes interact to regulate potato phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Payyavula, Raja S; Singh, Rajesh K; Navarre, Duroy A

    2013-11-01

    Much remains unknown about how transcription factors and sugars regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism in tuber crops like potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on phylogeny and protein similarity to known regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism, 15 transcription factors were selected and their expression was compared in white, yellow, red, and purple genotypes with contrasting phenolic and anthocyanin profiles. Red and purple genotypes had increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, markedly higher levels of phenylpropanoids, and elevated expression of most phenylpropanoid structural genes, including a novel anthocyanin O-methyltransferase. The transcription factors Anthocyanin1 (StAN1), basic Helix Loop Helix1 (StbHLH1), and StWD40 were more strongly expressed in red and purple potatoes. Expression of 12 other transcription factors was not associated with phenylpropanoid content, except for StMYB12B, which showed a negative relationship. Increased expression of AN1, bHLH1, and WD40 was also associated with environmentally mediated increases in tuber phenylpropanoids. Treatment of potato plantlets with sucrose induced hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, structural genes, AN1, bHLH1, WD40, and genes encoding the sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV2. Transient expression of StAN1 in tobacco leaves induced bHLH1, structural genes, SUSY1, SUSY4, and INV1, and increased phenylpropanoid amounts. StAN1 infiltration into tobacco leaves decreased sucrose and glucose concentrations. In silico promoter analysis revealed the presence of MYB and bHLH regulatory elements on sucrolytic gene promoters and sucrose-responsive elements on the AN1 promoter. These findings reveal an interesting dynamic between AN1, sucrose, and sucrose metabolic genes in modulating potato phenylpropanoids. PMID:24098049

  12. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. PMID:20036442

  13. Biosynthesis of levan, a bacterial extracellular polysaccharide, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A; Tai, Siew L; Bauer, Florian F

    2013-01-01

    Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (?suc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both ?suc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast. PMID:24147008

  14. Biosynthesis of Levan, a Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharide, in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A.; Tai, Siew L.; Bauer, Florian F.

    2013-01-01

    Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (?suc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both ?suc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast. PMID:24147008

  15. Effect of salt on the response of birds to sucrose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, J.G., Jr.; Maller, O.

    1973-01-01

    The preference of male red-winged blackbirds for solutions of sucrose and sucrose with 0.03 M sodium chloride was tested, using a two-bottle choice test. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the birds were indifferent to 0.03 M NaCl in water. Both control and experimental animals exhibited indifference to the solutions at the lowest concentration and aversion at the highest. The data suggest that the added sodium chloride makes the sucrose stimulus more discriminable.

  16. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

  17. Sucrose-mediated giant cell formation in the genus Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K G; McDonald, I J

    1976-03-01

    Growth of Neisseria perflava, Neisseria cinerea, and Neisseria sicca strain Kirkland in media supplemented with sucrose (0.5 to 5.0% w/v) resulted in the formation of giant cells. Response to sucrose was specific in that a variety of other carbohydrates did not mediate giant cell formation. Giant cells appeared only under growth conditions and did not lyse upon transfer to medium lacking sucrose or upon resuspension in hypotonic media. Reversion of giant to normal cells occurred when giant cells were used as inocula and allowed to multiply in media lacking sucrose. PMID:1253000

  18. Sucrose metabolism in halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    PubMed

    But, Sergey Y; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose accumulation has been observed in some methylotrophic bacteria utilizing methane, methanol, or methylated amines as a carbon and energy source. In this work, we have investigated the biochemical pathways for sucrose metabolism in the model halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The genes encoding sucrose-phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (Spp), fructokinase (FruK), and amylosucrase (Ams) were co-transcribed and displayed similar expression levels. Functional Spp and Ams were purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Spp exhibited high affinity for sucrose-6-phosphate and stayed active at very high levels of sucrose (K i  = 1.0 ± 0.6 M). The recombinant amylosucrase obeyed the classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the reactions of sucrose hydrolysis and transglycosylation. As a result, the complete metabolic network for sucrose biosynthesis and re-utilization in the non-phototrophic organism was reconstructed for the first time. Comparative genomic studies revealed analogous gene clusters in various Proteobacteria, thus indicating that the ability to produce and metabolize sucrose is widespread among prokaryotes. PMID:25577257

  19. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A

    1995-08-01

    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

  20. Drought induces fructan synthesis and 1SST (sucrose: sucrose fructosyltransferase) in roots and leaves of chicory seedlings ( Cichorium intybus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joke De Roover; Kathleen Vandenbranden; André Van Laere; Wim Van den Ende

    2000-01-01

    .  ?Seeds of Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum cv. Flash were sown in acid-washed vermiculite and grown in a controlled-environment growth chamber. After 1 month of growth,\\u000a plantlets did not contain sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), the key enzyme in fructan biosynthesis. No fructan\\u000a could be observed. Some of the plants were submitted to drought for 2 weeks. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations

  1. Yeast Education Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

  2. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ... infection from your sexual partner. Condoms and dental dams may help prevent getting or passing yeast infections ...

  3. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  4. SUGARBEET SUCROSE SYNTHASE GENE EXPRESSION IS ORGAN-SPECIFIC, DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED, AND AFFECTED BY ABIOTIC STRESSES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase is the predominant sucrose degrading activity in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root and is believed to have roles in carbohydrate partitioning to the root during production and sucrose loss during storage. Two genes, sugarbeet sucrose synthase 1 (SBSS1) and sugarbeet sucrose synthas...

  5. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. PMID:25555226

  6. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  7. Oral sucrose and pain relief for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anita; Waltman, Patricia A

    2003-06-01

    The frequency of painful procedures performed on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) presents a challenge to nurses who are attempting to provide effective pain relief, and to the infants themselves who may suffer adverse consequences in response to repeated painful procedures. One new pain relief intervention under study is the administration of oral sucrose, which may activate endogenous opioid systems within the body. Studies with preterm infants that have examined the use of oral sucrose as an analgesic during heelsticks and venipunctures have shown that sucrose is effective in reducing pain. Sucrose may also be combined with nonnutritive sucking to provide significant pain relief. The use of oral sucrose is now recommended with a wide range of painful procedures in the NICU. Promising results have been observed in studies with both term and preterm infants, but less research has occurred with preterm infants. Additional research is warranted to determine the most effective approaches for the administration of sucrose, to examine the effectiveness of sucrose with additional types of painful procedures, and to examine the effects of long-term repeated use of sucrose. PMID:12836150

  8. Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Molinero; Tahir Ça??n; William A. Goddard III

    2003-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations to determine the sucrose hydrogen bond network (HBN) in amorphous sucrose with 0–50% w\\/w water. We find that the onset of a percolated sugar HBN network (between 33% and 40%) coincides with the experimental observation of the decoupling of viscosity and probe diffusion for these mixtures. The analysis of the free volume (FV) in these

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SUCROSE SYNTHASE ISOFORMS IN SUGARBEET ROOT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sucrose synthase isoforms (ED 2.4.1.13) have been identified in developing sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots. To aid in understanding the physiological significance of these multiple sucrose synthase isoforms, the two isoforms were partially purified and some of their physical and kinetic prop...

  10. Sucrose helps regulate cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rekarte-Cowie, Iona; Ebshish, Omar S.; Mohamed, Khalifa S.; Pearce, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    A test was carried out to see if sucrose could regulate cold-acclimation-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis. In plants and excised leaves, sucrose caused an increase in GUS activity, as a reporter for the activity of the cold-responsive COR78 promoter. This increase was transient at 21 °C but lasted for at least 4 d at 4 °C in continuous darkness. However, at 4 °C with a 16 h photoperiod, GUS activity was similarly high with solutions lacking sucrose or with different concentrations of sucrose. In peeled lower epidermis in the cold dark environment, 40 mM sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance to substantially above that in the controls, but sorbitol had no effect. Similarly to the cold and dark conditions, sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance in the epidermis in the warm light and warm dark environments, but not in a cold light environment. Sucrose had much less effect on COR78 transcript abundance in leaves without the lower epidermis. Thus sucrose regulates expression of COR78, possibly mainly in the epidermis, at the level of transcription. Furthermore, 40 mM sucrose at 4 °C for 24 h in constant darkness was sufficient to give the same GUS activity as in fully acclimated plants of the same age in a 16 h photoperiod, although by 48 h, GUS activity had become intermediate between control and fully cold-acclimated plants. Thus sucrose has a regulatory role in the acclimation of whole plants to cold and this may be important during diurnal dark periods. PMID:18980951

  11. Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze

    1995-01-01

    Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48° C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

  12. Application of rotary microfiltration in debittering process of spent brewer’s yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artiwan Shotipruk; Pranee Kittianong; Manop Suphantharika; Chirakarn Muangnapoh

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns the production of yeast extract from spent brewer’s yeast using rotary microfiltration as a means to combine debittering and cell debris separation into a single step, without using a toxic alkali wash. The pH of yeast homogenate was found to affect protein yield and bitterness of the product. Rotary filtration of yeast homogenate at various pHs resulted

  13. 78 FR 66743 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability AGENCY: Food and...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose.'' The recommendations provide...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for iron sucrose injection. The draft...

  14. 77 FR 18827 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection; Availability AGENCY...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose.'' The recommendations provide...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for iron sucrose injection. DATES: Although...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a...Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a...established for residues of sucrose octanoate esters...

  16. Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

    1997-04-01

    Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths. PMID:9105918

  17. Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains. PMID:23750092

  18. Sucrose:Fructan 6-Fructosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme for Diverting Carbon from Sucrose to Fructan in Barley Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Duchateau, N.; Bortlik, K.; Simmen, U.; Wiemken, A.; Bancal, P.

    1995-01-01

    Sucrose:sucrose 6-fructosyltransferase, an enzyme activity recently identified in fructan-accumulating barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves, was further characterized. The purified enzyme catalyzed the transfer of a fructosyl group from sucrose to various acceptors. It displayed some [beta]-fructosidase (invertase) activity, indicating that water could act as fructosyl acceptor. Moreover, it transferred the fructosyl residue of unlabeled sucrose to [U-14C]Glc, producing [U-14C]sucrose and unlabeled glucose. Most significantly for fructan synthesis, the enzyme used as acceptors but not as donors a variety of oligofructans containing [beta](2->1)- and [beta](2->6)-linked fructosyl moieties. Thus, it acted as a general sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase. The products formed by the enzyme from sucrose and various purified, structurally characterized oligofructans were analyzed by liquid chromatography and identified by comparison with structurally characterized standards. The results showed that the enzyme formed exclusively [beta](2->6) fructosyl-fructose linkages, either initiating or elongating a fructan chain of the phlein type. We propose, therefore, to rename the purified enzyme sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase. PMID:12228431

  19. The sucrose-trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) nexus: specificity and mechanisms of sucrose signalling by Tre6P.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Umesh Prasad; Ivakov, Alexander; Feil, Regina; Duan, Guang You; Walther, Dirk; Giavalisco, Patrick; Piques, Maria; Carillo, Petronia; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John Edward

    2014-03-01

    Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P), the intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, has a profound influence on plant metabolism, growth, and development. It has been proposed that Tre6P acts as a signal of sugar availability and is possibly specific for sucrose status. Short-term sugar-feeding experiments were carried out with carbon-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in axenic shaking liquid cultures. Tre6P increased when seedlings were exogenously supplied with sucrose, or with hexoses that can be metabolized to sucrose, such as glucose and fructose. Conditional correlation analysis and inhibitor experiments indicated that the hexose-induced increase in Tre6P was an indirect response dependent on conversion of the hexose sugars to sucrose. Tre6P content was affected by changes in nitrogen status, but this response was also attributable to parallel changes in sucrose. The sucrose-induced rise in Tre6P was unaffected by cordycepin but almost completely blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the response. There was a strong correlation between Tre6P and sucrose even in lines that constitutively express heterologous trehalose-phosphate synthase or trehalose-phosphate phosphatase, although the Tre6P:sucrose ratio was shifted higher or lower, respectively. It is proposed that the Tre6P:sucrose ratio is a critical parameter for the plant and forms part of a homeostatic mechanism to maintain sucrose levels within a range that is appropriate for the cell type and developmental stage of the plant. PMID:24420566

  20. The sucrose–trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) nexus: specificity and mechanisms of sucrose signalling by Tre6P

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Umesh Prasad; Ivakov, Alexander; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P), the intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, has a profound influence on plant metabolism, growth, and development. It has been proposed that Tre6P acts as a signal of sugar availability and is possibly specific for sucrose status. Short-term sugar-feeding experiments were carried out with carbon-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in axenic shaking liquid cultures. Tre6P increased when seedlings were exogenously supplied with sucrose, or with hexoses that can be metabolized to sucrose, such as glucose and fructose. Conditional correlation analysis and inhibitor experiments indicated that the hexose-induced increase in Tre6P was an indirect response dependent on conversion of the hexose sugars to sucrose. Tre6P content was affected by changes in nitrogen status, but this response was also attributable to parallel changes in sucrose. The sucrose-induced rise in Tre6P was unaffected by cordycepin but almost completely blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the response. There was a strong correlation between Tre6P and sucrose even in lines that constitutively express heterologous trehalose-phosphate synthase or trehalose-phosphate phosphatase, although the Tre6P:sucrose ratio was shifted higher or lower, respectively. It is proposed that the Tre6P:sucrose ratio is a critical parameter for the plant and forms part of a homeostatic mechanism to maintain sucrose levels within a range that is appropriate for the cell type and developmental stage of the plant. PMID:24420566

  1. Stabilization of Lipid Bilayer Vesicles by Sucrose during Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, G.; Hauser, H.

    1986-04-01

    The freeze-induced fusion and leakage of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of natural and synthetic phosphatidylcholines and the suppression of these processes by sucrose was studied by electron microscopy, by high-resolution NMR, and by ESR techniques. During slow freezing of SUV suspensions in water, the lipid was compressed into a small interstitial volume and transformed into a multilamellar aggregate without vesicular structure. When frozen in sucrose solution, the lipid also was compressed between the ice crystals but remained in the form of vesicles. The fractional amount of lipid remaining as SUV after freezing was found to increase significantly only at sucrose/lipid molar ratios above 0.4. Eu3+ displaced sucrose from the lipid by competitive binding. During freezing in the absence of sucrose, the vesicles became transiently permeable to ions. ESR studies showed that fusion of vesicles in the absence of sucrose is far more extensive when they are frozen while above their phase-transition temperature (tc) than when frozen while below their tc. It is concluded that the extent of membrane disruption depends on the membrane mobility at the moment of freezing and that sucrose exerts its protective effect by binding to the membrane interface and/or by affecting the water structure.

  2. The AtSUC5 sucrose transporter specifically expressed in the endosperm is involved in early seed development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Baud, Sébastien; Wuillème, Sylvie; Lemoine, Rémi; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Caboche, Michel; Lepiniec, Loïc; Rochat, Christine

    2005-09-01

    The sucrose transporter gene AtSUC5 was studied as part of a programme aimed at identifying and studying the genes involved in seed maturation in Arabidopsis. Expression profiling of AtSUC5 using the technique of real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the gene was specifically and highly induced during seed development between 4 and 9 days after flowering (DAF). Analysis of the activity of the AtSUC5 promoter in planta was consistent with this timing, and suggested that AtSUC5 expression is endosperm specific, spreading from the micropylar to the chalazal pole of the filial tissue. To demonstrate the function of AtSUC5, the corresponding cDNA was used to complement a sucrose uptake-deficient yeast mutant, thus confirming its sucrose transport capacity. To investigate the function in planta, three allelic mutants disrupted in the AtSUC5 gene were isolated and characterized. A strong but transient reduction in fatty acid concentration was observed in mutant seeds 8 DAF. This biochemical phenotype was associated with a slight delay in embryo development. Taken together, these data demonstrated the role of the AtSUC5 carrier in the nutrition of the filial tissues during early seed development. However, additional sugar uptake systems, which remain to be characterized, must be functional in developing seeds, especially during maturation of the embryo. PMID:16146522

  3. Population Growth in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, students in this lesson work in small groups to design experiments that determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

  4. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction On this page: Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Red Yeast Rice Red yeast rice is made by ...

  5. Cryptococcus friedmannii, a new species of yeast from the Antarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Cryptococcus friedmannii Vishniac sp. nov. from an Antarctic cryptoendolithic community is a psychrophilic basidioblastomycete characterized by cream-colored colonies of cells with smooth, layered walls, budding monopolarly, producing amylose and extracellular proteinase, utilizing nitrate and D-alanine (inter alia) as nitrogen sources and L-arabinose, arbutin, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, salicin, soluble starch, trehalose, and D-xylose as carbon sources. This species differs from all other basidiomycetous yeasts in possessing the following combination of characters: amylose production (positive), assimilation of cellobiose (positive), D-galactose (negative), myo-inositol (negative), D-mannitol (negative), and sucrose (negative).

  6. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco. PMID:19690976

  7. Sucrose octasulfate stimulates gastric somatostatin release.

    PubMed

    Lucey, M R; Park, J; DelValle, J; Wang, L D; Yamada, T

    1991-08-01

    To explore the mechanisms of the effects of sucralfate on the stomach, we investigated the action of sucrose octasulfate (SOS), a constituent of sucralfate, on the function of canine gastric parietal cells and somatostatin cells and in the isolated perfused intact rat stomach. Somatostatin cells from the canine gastric fundus were isolated by EDTA-collagenase dispersion and counterflow elutriation, and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) release in response to SOS was measured by radioimmunoassay. Similar methods were used to isolate gastric parietal cells, in which gastric acid secretion was measured by uptake of a radiolabeled weak base, [14C]aminopyrine. SLI release by the intact rat stomach was examined in an isolated vascularly perfused rat stomach model. SOS, either alone or co-administered with epinephrine or gastrin heptadecapeptide (G17), dose-dependently stimulated SLI release by isolated canine fundic D-cells. At the highest doses, SOS potentiated the effect of epinephrine but not G17. Similarly, SOS potentiated the stimulating effect of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (DBcAMP), but not 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The effect of SOS on SLI release could be inhibited by octreotide, a somatostatin analogue. SOS did not alter acid secretion by cultured canine parietal cells either in the basal state or when coadministered with acid secretagogues. In isolated perfused rat stomach studies, SOS produced a significant (60% greater than basal) increase in SLI secretion. There was a similar effect when SOS was perfused against a background of isoproterenol. SOS stimulates SLI release from gastric somatostatin cells and from the isolated perfused stomach but has no direct effect on gastric parietal cells. These actions of SOS may mediate in part the apparent ability of sucralfate to enhance gastric mucosal defense. PMID:1679296

  8. The effect of milk and sucrose consumption on caries in 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Petti; Roberto Simonetti; Adele Simonetti D'Arca

    1997-01-01

    The effect of milk on dental caries was studied on a sample of 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren. The daily amount of milk consumed and the frequency of consumption of sucrose-containing foods were obtained by a 24-hour dietary diary. In the subsequent oral examination, the level of visible plaque and the number of decayed, extracted and filled teeth (both primary and permanent)

  9. In situ hybridization of riboprobes for two sucrose synthase transcripts in sugarbeet root tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase is an important enzyme for sucrose metabolism in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots. Its activity rises during root development and it is correlated with sucrose accumulation. Sucrose synthase has two active isoforms in sugarbeet roots. The goals of this work were to study spatial d...

  10. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Weigert; C. Klein; M. Rizzi; C. Lauterbach; H. Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Summary Furfural as a product from thermic wood hydrolysis processes may be inhibitory to growth and fermentation of yeast cells. In order to determine the influence on the aerobic growth of the yeastPichiastipitis, expermiments were conducted in stirred reactors with the addition of furfural.

  11. Yeasts: Neglected Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poulain; Boualem Sendid; Annie Standaert-Vitse; Chantal Fradin; Thierry Jouault; Samir Jawhara; Jean-Frederic Colombel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current research on Crohn’s disease (CD) concerns molecular events related to loss of tolerance to microbes that could trigger or maintain inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. CD is also associated with antimicrobial antibodies, including the antibodies we described against yeast oligomannosides (ASCA). This prompted us to investigate a role for another yeast, Candida albicans, a very common commensal of

  12. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  13. Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

  14. Biotechnological potential of yeast isolates from cachaça: the Brazilian spirit.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Luís Eduardo Fernandes Rodrigues; Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Oliveira, Juliana; Barbosa, Gustavo Dimas; Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia Fátima da Mata; Mezadri, Hygor; Coutrim, Mauricio Xavier; Afonso, Robson José de Cássia Franco; Lucas, Candida; Castro, Ieso Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2015-02-01

    This study identified phenotypic traits appropriate for biotechnological applications of 118 yeasts isolated from cachaça distilleries. Different properties were verified: capacity to use alternative carbon sources; ability to tolerate high concentrations of sucrose, ethanol, methanol, aluminum and zinc as well as different pH values and foam production. Pichia guilliermondii and Pichia anomala strains were identified as the most promising ones for application in the second-generation biofuel industry, showing ability to grow on high glycerol concentrations. Other isolates, identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produced bioethanol comparable to the industrial strains, and were therefore ideal for use in the first-generation ethanol industry. Some of these strains also showed high resistance to aluminum, as observed in sugarcane juice, and to inter-cycle washings with diluted sulphuric acid, as performed in the industrial bioethanol production process. In summary, yeast isolates from cachaça distilleries displayed robustness and phenotypic plasticity, which makes them interesting for biotechnological applications. PMID:25540045

  15. A novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Li, Steve Lianghong; Chang, Linda Dongxia; Kapanadze, Theo

    2015-01-26

    A novel, specific and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed for the determination of sucrose octasulfate (SOS) in dog plasma and urine using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray triple quadruple mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI MS/MS). (13)C-labeled sucrose octasulfate-(13)C12 sodium salt is used as the internal standard. 200 ?L of plasma or serum sample is extracted using weak anion exchange solid phase cartridge. In this method, a polar amide column is employed for the liquid chromatograph (LC) separation while the diethylamine and formic acid buffer is used as the ion-pairing reagent. The low limitation of quantitation of sucrose octasulfate is 0.20 ng on the column with a signal to noise ratio larger than 50. Parameters such as linearity, accuracy and precision have been validated in full compliance with the FDA guidelines for the bioanalytical method development and validation. A linear regression model fit the calibration curve very well with R>0.99. The bias and coefficient of variation of all levels of QCs are within the range of 15%. The selectivity, matrix effect and stabilities of analytes in solution and matrix have also been evaluated and the results met the acceptance criteria according to the guidelines. Based on these results, the method has qualified to analyze sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma for clinic research. This method has been applied to 1000 preclinical samples. PMID:25553387

  16. Microwave-synthesized magnetic chitosan microparticles for the immobilization of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Maderova, Zdenka; Baldikova, Eva; Horska, Katerina; Safarikova, Mirka

    2015-01-01

    An extremely simple procedure has been developed for the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on magnetic chitosan microparticles. The magnetic carrier was prepared using an inexpensive, simple, rapid, one-pot process, based on the microwave irradiation of chitosan and ferrous sulphate at high pH. Immobilized yeast cells have been used for sucrose hydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and the adsorption of selected dyes. PMID:24753015

  17. Overexpression of the sucrose transporter SoSUT1 in potato results in alterations in leaf carbon partitioning and in tuber metabolism but has little impact on tuber morphology.

    PubMed

    Leggewie, Georg; Kolbe, Anna; Lemoine, Rémi; Roessner, Ute; Lytovchenko, Anna; Zuther, Ellen; Kehr, Julia; Frommer, Wolf B; Riesmeier, Jörg W; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the consequences of the heterologous expression of a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) sucrose transporter ( SoSUT1) in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.). Many studies have indicated that reduction of the expression of this class of sucrose transporter has deleterious effects on plant growth and development; however, until now the possibility of improving plant performance by enhancing the expression of this sucrose transporter has not been reported. With this intention we constructed a chimeric construct in which SoSUT1 was cloned in-frame with the myc epitope. We confirmed that this construct, SoSUT1m, was able to mediate sucrose transport by expression in the yeast strain SUSY7. SoSUT1m was expressed in wild-type potato in the sense orientation under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to evaluate the effect of an increased constitutive expression of a class-I sucrose transporter. We confirmed that these plants displayed expression of SoSUT1 at both the transcript and protein level and that microsomal fragments isolated from selected lines had an increased sucrose uptake capacity. Analysis of metabolism of these lines indicated that the leaves were characterised by a reduced sucrose level yet exhibited little change in photosynthetic rate. Furthermore, despite the observed increase in sugar (and reduction in amino acid) levels within the tubers, there was little change in either starch content or tuber yield in the transformants. In summary, the genetic manipulation described in this paper resulted in a shift in carbon partitioning in both leaves and tubers and an increased sucrose uptake rate in plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from these lines, but had little impact on tuber metabolism or morphology. PMID:12721860

  18. Differences between original intravenous iron sucrose and iron sucrose similar preparations.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Iron sucrose (Venofer; reference) has a good safety record and is prescribed in patients with anaemia and chronic kidney disease worldwide, but various iron sucrose similar (ISS) preparations are now utilized in clinical practice. This study evaluates possible differences between iron sucrose and ISS preparations on haemodynamic and oxidative stress markers in normal rats. 60 male and 60 female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and assigned to receive commercially available ISS test 1, ISS test 2, reference or isotonic saline solution (control). A single i.v. dose of iron (40 mg/kg) or saline (equivalent volume) was administered after 24 h and every 7 days for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biological assessment of haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron and percentage transferrin saturation (TSAT), and urine samples were collected to investigate creatinine clearance and proteinuria. Animals were sacrificed after receiving an i.v. dose on days 1, 7 and 28, and kidney, liver, and heart homogenates were then collected to determine antioxidant enzyme levels. Tissues were processed using Prussian blue and immmunohistochemistry techniques to identify iron deposits, tissue ferritin and pro-inflammatory markers. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in the ISS groups relative to the reference and control groups after 24 h and on days 7, 14 and 21 (p < 0.05). Creatinine clearance was reduced (p < 0.01) and proteinuria marked (p < 0.01) in the ISS groups at 24 h and on days 7 and 28 relative to the reference and control groups which did not differ throughout the study. Liver enzymes were also increased in the ISS groups at 24 h and on days 7 and 28. Both ISS test 1 and ISS test 2 groups presented a significant increase in catalase, thiobarbituric reactive species, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, and a decrease in glutathione levels (p < 0.01) in the liver, heart and kidney at 24 h and on day 7 relative to the reference and control groups. Serum iron and percentage TSAT were elevated in all groups (except control) (p < 0.01) but no differences in Hb concentration were observed between them. Finally, levels of the proinflammatory markers TNF-alpha and IL6 were significantly elevated in the ISS groups (liver, heart and kidney) compared with the reference and control groups on day 28 (p < 0.01). These findings suggest significant differences between the reference and ISS test 1/ISS test 2 regarding oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses of liver, heart and kidneys in normal rats. A possible explanation for these observations could be the stability of the iron complex. PMID:19517894

  19. Oxytocin action in the ventral tegmental area affects sucrose intake

    PubMed Central

    Mullis, Kiersten; Kay, Kristen; Williams, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain oxytocin is known to play a role in the control of food intake, and recent studies suggest that stimulation of central oxytocin receptors selectively suppresses carbohydrate intake. The specific oxytocin projection sites and receptor populations involved in this response are as yet unidentified. We hypothesized that oxytocin receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) may play a role in limiting sucrose intake, because the VTA is known to influence palatable food intake. We first performed a dose response study in which we observed that intra-VTA oxytocin injection significantly suppressed intake of a 10% sucrose solution during a 30-min test session by 13.35% - 20.5% relative to vehicle treatment. Doses of intra-VTA oxytocin that suppressed sucrose intake had no effect on water intake. Next we examined the effects of two oxytocin receptor antagonists, (d(CH2)51,Tyr(Me)2,Orn8)-Oxytocin (OVT) and L-368,899. Each of these antagonists significantly increased 10% sucrose intake by 17% - 20.5% relative to vehicle when delivered directly into the VTA, at doses subthreshold for effect if injected into the cerebral ventricles. Finally, we observed that the effect of intra-VTA oxytocin to suppress 10% sucrose intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with L-368,899, supporting the suggestion that the VTA oxytocin treatment suppresses intake through action at oxytocin receptors. These findings support the suggestion that endogenous oxytocin action within the VTA suppresses sucrose intake. We conclude that oxytocin receptors in the VTA play a physiologic role in the control of sucrose ingestion. PMID:23548602

  20. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  1. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  2. Pharmaceutical micro-particles give amorphous sucrose higher physical stability.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Mahlin, Denny

    2011-05-16

    The aim of this study was to explore how pharmaceutical micro-sized filler particles affect the amorphous stability of sucrose in sucrose/filler particle composites produced by freeze-drying. Focus was put on the filler particles' properties crystallinity, hygroscopicity, hydrophobicity, and surface area, and their influence on physical stability of the amorphous phase. The micro-sized filler particles were examined with Blaine permeametry, gas adsorption, pycnometry, gravimetric vapour sorption, X-ray diffraction, and light microscopy before composites of sucrose and micro-sized filler particles were prepared by freeze-drying. The stability of the composites was examined with X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microcalorimetry. All composites were amorphous and showed higher stability compared to pure amorphous sucrose, which was evident from a delay in heat and moisture-induced crystallization. However, calcium carbonate and oxazepam micro-sized filler particles lost their ability to stabilize the amorphous sucrose when exposed to humidity. The dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) was higher for the composites, indicating the stabilization was mediated by a reduced molecular mobility of the amorphous phase. PMID:21356288

  3. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  4. Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F. [LQBB-Biomass Chemo Biotechnology Lab., Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-? resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets. PMID:21865170

  6. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael (MSU); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

  7. Non-invasive monitoring of sucrose mobilization from culm storage parenchyma by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian P; Purnell, Matthew P; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Cowin, Gary J; Galloway, Graham J; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2013-01-01

    Because sucrose stored in mature stalks (in excess of 40% of stalk dry weight) can be wholly mobilized to supply carbon for the growth of heterotrophic tissues, we propose that sucrose mobilization requires a net sink-to-source transition that acts in toto within sett internode storage parenchyma. Based on our data we propose that mobilization of sucrose from culm storage parenchyma requires minimal investment of metabolic resources, and that the mechanism of sucrose mobilization is metabolically neutral. By magnetic resonance spectroscopy and phloem-specific tracer dyes, strong evidence was found that sucrose is mobilized from sett storage parenchyma via phloem to the growing shoot tissue. An analysis of the enzyme activities involved in sucrose metabolism and glycolysis suggested that sucrose synthase activity is downregulated due to the effects of sucrose mobilization. Overall, metabolism in storage parenchyma shifts from futile cycling to a more quiescent state during sucrose mobilization. PMID:23470752

  8. Enhancement of cellulose production by expression of sucrose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Tomonori; Tonouchi, Naoto; Konishi, Teruko; Kojima, Yukiko; Tsuchida, Takayasu; Yoshinaga, Fumihiro; Sakai, Fukumi; Hayashi, Takahisa

    1999-01-01

    Higher plants efficiently conserve energy ATP in cellulose biosynthesis by expression of sucrose synthase, in which the high free energy between glucose and fructose in sucrose can be conserved and used for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. A mixture of sucrose synthase and bacterial cellulose synthase proceeded to form UDP-glucose from sucrose plus UDP and to synthesize 1,4-?-glucan from the sugar nucleotide. The mutant sucrose synthase, which mimics phosphorylated sucrose synthase, enhanced the reaction efficiency (Vmax/Km) on 1,4-?-glucan synthesis, in which the incorporation of glucose from sucrose was increased at low concentrations of UDP. Because UDP formed after glucosyl transfer can be directly recycled with sucrose synthase, UDP-glucose formed appears to show high turnover with cellulose synthase in the coupled reaction. The expression of sucrose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum not only changed sucrose metabolism but also enhanced cellulose production, in which UDP-glucose was efficiently formed from sucrose. Although the level of UDP-glucose in the transformant with mutant sucrose synthase cDNA was only 1.6-fold higher than that in plasmid-free cells, the level of UDP was markedly decreased in the transformant. The results show that sucrose synthase serves to channel carbon directly from sucrose to cellulose and recycles UDP, which prevents UDP build-up in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:9874763

  9. Enhancement of cellulose production by expression of sucrose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Tonouchi, N; Konishi, T; Kojima, Y; Tsuchida, T; Yoshinaga, F; Sakai, F; Hayashi, T

    1999-01-01

    Higher plants efficiently conserve energy ATP in cellulose biosynthesis by expression of sucrose synthase, in which the high free energy between glucose and fructose in sucrose can be conserved and used for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. A mixture of sucrose synthase and bacterial cellulose synthase proceeded to form UDP-glucose from sucrose plus UDP and to synthesize 1,4-beta-glucan from the sugar nucleotide. The mutant sucrose synthase, which mimics phosphorylated sucrose synthase, enhanced the reaction efficiency (Vmax/Km) on 1,4-beta-glucan synthesis, in which the incorporation of glucose from sucrose was increased at low concentrations of UDP. Because UDP formed after glucosyl transfer can be directly recycled with sucrose synthase, UDP-glucose formed appears to show high turnover with cellulose synthase in the coupled reaction. The expression of sucrose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum not only changed sucrose metabolism but also enhanced cellulose production, in which UDP-glucose was efficiently formed from sucrose. Although the level of UDP-glucose in the transformant with mutant sucrose synthase cDNA was only 1.6-fold higher than that in plasmid-free cells, the level of UDP was markedly decreased in the transformant. The results show that sucrose synthase serves to channel carbon directly from sucrose to cellulose and recycles UDP, which prevents UDP build-up in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:9874763

  10. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  11. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  12. Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Summary We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems – sus and scr – and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and sucrose-6-phosphate (S-6-P) hydrolase (susH). ScrR controls an adjacent PTS transporter (scrT), fructokinase (scrK) and second S-6-P hydrolase (scrH). sus and scr play niche-specific roles in virulence. The susH and sus locus mutants are attenuated in the lung, but dispensable in nasopharyngeal carriage. Conversely, the scrH and scr locus mutants, while dispensable in the lung, are attenuated for nasopharyngeal colonization. The scrH/susH double mutant is more attenuated than scrH in the nasopharynx, indicating SusH can substitute in this niche. Both systems are sucrose-inducible, with ScrH being the major in vitro hydrolase. The scrH/susH mutant does not grow on sucrose indicating that sus and scr are the only sucrose-metabolizing systems in S. pneumoniae. We propose a model describing hierarchical regulation of the scr and sus systems by the putative inducer, S-6-P. The transport and metabolism of sucrose or a related disaccharide thus contributes to S. pneumoniae colonization and disease. PMID:17880421

  13. Yeast expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

    2007-01-01

    Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

  14. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

  15. Method for converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three-stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  16. Vitrification solution without sucrose for cryopreservation in mouse blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Young Ju; Jeong, Ju Eun; Kim, Seung Chul; Ko, Gyoung Rae

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to investigate the survival rate of vitrified mouse blastocysts depending on the presence or absence of sucrose in vitrification solution. Methods Mouse two-cell embryos were collected and cultured to blastocysts. Two vitrification solutions were prepared. The control solution was composed of 25% glycerol, 25% ethylene glycol, and 0.5 M sucrose (G25E250.5S) containing 2.5 mL glycerol, 2.5 mL ethylene glycol, 2 mL SSS, and 0.855 g sucrose in 5 mL PB1. The experimental solution was composed of 25% glycerol and 25% ethylene glycol (G25E25) and contained 2.5 mL glycerol and 2.5 mL ethylene glycol in 5 mL PB1. Artificial shrinkage was conducted by aspirating the blastocoelic fluid using an ICSI pipette. To examine the effect of sucrose in the vitrification solution on the survival rate of mouse blastocysts, the shrunken-equilibrated blastocysts were rehydrated or vitrified after being exposed to one of the two vitrification solutions. After exposure and the vitrification-thawing process, the re-expansion rate and hatching rate were evaluated after 6 hours of in vitro culture. Results The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts exposed to vitrification solution with and without sucrose were not different in the experimental solution (without sucrose) (98%) and the control solution (with sucrose) (92%) (p>0.05). The hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (95%) than in the control solution (88%), but did not differ across two treatments (p>0.05). The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts vitrified in the control solution was 92% and 94%, respectively (p>0.05), and the hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (90%) than in the control solution (74%) (p<0.05). Conclusion Sucrose need not be added in vitrification solution for freezing of artificially shrunken mouse blastocysts. PMID:25309855

  17. Anharmonicity and hydrogen bonding in electrooptic sucrose crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, M. M.; Gierma?ska, J.

    1990-03-01

    The polarized absorption spectra of the sucrose crystal in the 5300 - 7300 cm -1 region have been measured. The assignments of all the eight OH stretching overtones are proposed and their mechanical anharmonicities are estimated. The discrepancies from the oriented gas model (OGM) in the observed relative band intensities, especially of the -CH vibrations, are assumed to be connected with vibronic couplings enhanced by the helical arrangement of molecules joined by hydrogen bondings. It seems that this kind of interactions might be important for the second harmonic generation (SHG) by the sucrose crystal.

  18. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  19. Forces in yeast flocculation.

    PubMed

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding. PMID:25515338

  20. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  1. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with the yeast viral p91/20S RNA ribonucleoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    García-Cuéllar, M P; Esteban, R; Fujimura, T

    1997-01-01

    20S RNA is a noninfectious viral single-stranded RNA found in most laboratory strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 20S RNA encodes a protein of 91 kDa (p91) that contains the common motifs found among RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from RNA viruses. p91 and 20S RNA are noncovalently associated in vivo, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex. We detected an RNA polymerase activity in p91/20S RNA complexes isolated by high-speed centrifugation. The activity was not inhibited by actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin. The majority of the in vitro products was 20S RNA and the rest was the complementary strands of 20S RNA. Because the extracts were prepared from cells accumulating 20S RNA over its complementary strands, these in vitro products reflect the corresponding activities in vivo. When the p91/20S RNA complexes were subjected to sucrose gradient centrifugation, the polymerase activity cosedimented with the complexes. Furthermore, an RNA polymerase activity was detected in the complex by an antibody-linked polymerase assay using anti-p91 antiserum, suggesting that p91 is present in the active RNA polymerase machinery. These results together indicate that p91 is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or a subunit thereof responsible for 20S RNA replication. PMID:8990396

  2. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry. PMID:17322210

  3. Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure

    PubMed Central

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  4. Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

    1989-06-01

    The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. PMID:2754015

  5. Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions Valeria Molinero, Tahir of a percolated sugar HBN network (between 33% and 40%) coincides with the experimental observation of a supramolec- ular hydrogen bonded network (HBN) [3]. Indeed MD simulations on sugar found a HBN in 15% w

  6. Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

  7. Investigating polymorphisms in membrane-associated transporter protein SLC45A2, using sucrose transporters as a model.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    Solute carrier family 45 member 2 encodes the melanosomal membrane protein, membrane?associated transporter protein (MATP), of unknown function, that is required for normal melanin synthesis. The present study analyzed the effects of two human MATP mutations, D93N, which causes oculocutaneous albinism 4 (OCA4), and L374F, which is correlated with light pigmentation in European populations. Corresponding mutations were produced in the related and well?characterized sucrose transporter from rice, OsSUT1, and transport activity was measured by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in addition to 14C?sucrose uptake in yeast. The mutation corresponding to D93N resulted in a complete loss of transport activity. The mutation corresponding to L374F resulted in a 90% decrease in transport activity, although the substrate affinity was unaffected. The results indicated that the D93N mutation causes OCA4 as a result of loss of MATP transport activity, and that the F374 allele confers significantly lower transport activity than L374. PMID:25760657

  8. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  9. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge. PMID:24481032

  10. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy R.; de Boer, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24018767

  11. Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

  12. Novel sucrose lipid produced by Serratia marcescens and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Pruthi; Swaranjit S. Cameotra

    2000-01-01

    Serratia marcescens MTCC 86 when grown on sucrose produced a novel sucrose lipid that was different from the amino lipid produced from n-alkane by other strains of S. marcescens. The sucrose lipid isolated by acetone precipitation technique was found to be predominantly a mixture of 3-(3?-hydroxytetradecanoyloxy)\\u000a decanoate and 3-(3?-hydroxyhexadecenoyloxy) decanoate. This sucrose lipid exhibited excellent emulsification activity with\\u000a a wide

  13. Evolutionary history of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 20 ascomyceteous yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comp...

  14. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma. Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and ?-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on ?-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil. PMID:24860825

  15. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and ? -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on ? -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil. PMID:24860825

  16. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  17. Virtual Yeast Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

  18. SUGARBEET ROOT SUCROSE SYNTHASE ISOFORMS DIFFER IN DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION, SUBUNIT COMPOSITION AND RESPONSE TO PH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sucrose synthase isoforms have been identified by activity stained isoelectric focused polyacrylamide electrophoresis in developing sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root. Sucrose synthase isoform I (SuSyI) was present from the early stages of development to maturity. Sucrose synthase isoform II (S...

  19. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  20. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Ackroff; Anthony Sclafani

    2011-01-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience

  1. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  2. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  3. Cryopreservation of yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A method is described that allows a wide range of yeast species to be stored in liquid nitrogen while maintaining a high level of viability. Yeast cultures are sealed in commercially available polypropylene straws after having been mixed with a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. Once placed in a secondary cryotube the temperature of the sealed straws is reduced slowly to -30 degrees C in a methanol bath over a period of up to 3 h. The straws are then transferred directly to the liquid nitrogen and placed in a racking system for long-term storage. PMID:18080465

  4. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  5. The genetics of a putative social trait in natural populations of yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bozdag, G O; Greig, D

    2014-01-01

    The sharing of secreted invertase by yeast cells is a well-established laboratory model for cooperation, but the only evidence that such cooperation occurs in nature is that the SUC loci, which encode invertase, vary in number and functionality. Genotypes that do not produce invertase can act as ‘cheats’ in laboratory experiments, growing on the glucose that is released when invertase producers, or ‘cooperators’, digest sucrose. However, genetic variation for invertase production might instead be explained by adaptation of different populations to different local availabilities of sucrose, the substrate for invertase. Here we find that 110 wild yeast strains isolated from natural habitats, and all contained a single SUC locus and produced invertase; none were ‘cheats’. The only genetic variants we found were three strains isolated instead from sucrose-rich nectar, which produced higher levels of invertase from three additional SUC loci at their subtelomeres. We argue that the pattern of SUC gene variation is better explained by local adaptation than by social conflict. PMID:25169714

  6. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  7. Genome evolution in yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

    2004-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

  8. Chemical genomics in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Many drugs have unknown, controversial or multiple mechanisms of action. Four recent 'chemical genomic' studies, using genome-scale collections of yeast gene deletions that were either arrayed or barcoded, have presented complementary approaches to identifying gene-drug and pathway-drug interactions. PMID:15345040

  9. Sucrose Monoester Micelles Size Determined by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Susana A.; Gratton, Enrico; Zanocco, Antonio L.; Lemp, Else; Gunther, German

    2011-01-01

    One of the several uses of sucrose detergents, as well as other micelle forming detergents, is the solubilization of different membrane proteins. Accurate knowledge of the micelle properties, including size and shape, are needed to optimize the surfactant conditions for protein purification and membrane characterization. We synthesized sucrose esters having different numbers of methylene subunits on the substituent to correlate the number of methylene groups with the size of the corresponding micelles. We used Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and two photon excitation to determine the translational D of the micelles and calculate their corresponding hydrodynamic radius, Rh. As a fluorescent probe we used LAURDAN (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene), a dye highly fluorescent when integrated in the micelle and non-fluorescent in aqueous media. We found a linear correlation between the size of the tail and the hydrodynamic radius of the micelle for the series of detergents measured. PMID:22216230

  10. Streptococcus mutans in a wild, sucrose-eating rat population.

    PubMed

    Coykendall, A L; Specht, P A; Samol, H H

    1974-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans, an organism implicated in dental caries and not previously found outside of man and certain laboratory animals, was isolated from the mouths of wild rats which ate sugar cane. The strains isolated fermented mannitol and sorbitol, and failed to grow in 6.5% NaCl or at 45 C. They formed in vitro plaques on nichrome wires when grown in sucrose broth. They also stored intracellular polysaccharide which could be catabolized by washed, resting cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid reassociations revealed two genetic types. One type shared extensive deoxyribonucleic acid base sequences with S. mutans strains HS6 and OMZ61, two members of a genetic type found in man and laboratory hamsters. The other type seemed unrelated to any S. mutans genetic type previously encountered. It is concluded that the ecological triad of tooth-sucrose-S. mutans is not a phenomenon unique to man and experimental animals. PMID:4601769

  11. Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

    2011-01-01

    The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

  12. The Regulation of Filamentous Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host–cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways—rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)—also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. PMID:22219507

  13. Stabilizing polymorphic transitions of tristearin using diacylglycerols and sucrose polyesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Hyun Oh; Alan R. McCurdy; Stephanie Clark; Barry G. Swanson

    2005-01-01

    The polymorphic transitions of synthesized tristearin in the presence of selected DAG or commercial sucrose polyesters (SPE)\\u000a were investigated using DSC and X-ray diffractiometry. The stabilizing effects of DAG and SPE on ? to ? transitions of tristearin\\u000a were dependent on the chemical structures of additives such as FA chain length, saturation of FA, positions and number of\\u000a FA on

  14. Central Melanocortins Regulate the Motivation for Sucrose Reward

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Rahul; van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Brans, Maike A. D.; van Rozen, Andrea J.; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J. A.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the melanocortin (MC) system in feeding behavior is well established. Food intake is potently suppressed by central infusion of the MC 3/4 receptor agonist ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), whereas the MC 3/4 receptor inverse-agonist Agouti Related Peptide (AGRP) has the opposite effect. MC receptors are widely expressed in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain regions, including nuclei involved in food reward and motivation, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area. This suggests that MCs modulate motivational aspects of food intake. To test this hypothesis, rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with ?-MSH or AGRP and their motivation for sucrose was tested under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Food motivated behavior was dose-dependently decreased by ?-MSH. Conversely, AGRP increased responding for sucrose, an effect that was blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist ?-flupenthixol. In contrast to progressive ratio responding, free intake of sucrose remained unaltered upon ?-MSH or AGRP infusion. In addition, we investigated whether the effects of ?-MSH and AGRP on food motivation were mediated by the NAc shell. In situ hybridization of MC3 and MC4 receptor expression confirmed that the MC4 receptor was expressed throughout the NAc, and injection of ?-MSH and AGRP into the NAc shell caused a decrease and an increase in motivation for sucrose, respectively. These data show that the motivation for palatable food is modulated by MC4 receptors in the NAc shell, and demonstrate cross-talk between the MC and dopamine system in the modulation of food motivation. PMID:25811380

  15. New phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose from Polygonum lapathifolium.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Kuroki, S; Kozuka, M; Konoshima, T

    2001-10-01

    Four new phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose, lapathosides A (1), B (2), C (3), and D (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygonum lapathifolium together with known esters, vanicoside B (5) and hydropiperoside (6). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectral (1D and 2D NMR and MS) analysis. Lapathoside A (1) and vanicoside B (2) showed significant inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation by tumor-promoters. PMID:11678656

  16. Effects of temperature and concentration on carboxymethylcellulose with sucrose rheology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cancela; E. Álvarez; R. Maceiras

    2005-01-01

    The carboxymethylcellulose is a typical hydrocolloid that has a wide application in many foodstuffs due to its specific rheological properties. In this paper, the rheological properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions (0.5–2.0%) without and with sucrose (20–40%) were measured at different temperatures (25–40°C). An empirical model was developed to relate the density and the power-law parameters to both concentration and temperature.

  17. Enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Braendlin, N

    1996-04-01

    A collaborative study was undertaken to compare the performance of Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar (DG18) with three other media widely used in food mycology, for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds. Oxytetracycline Glucose Yeast extract agar, (OGY), Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and Malt extract Yeast extract 50% Glucose agar (MY50G) were evaluated. Three reference samples (A, B, C) were prepared using skimmed milk powder inoculated with mixed lyophilized cultures of selected xerophilic yeasts and moulds, at levels around 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Yeast species used were Candida glucosophila, C. versatilis, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Z. rouxii, together with Eurotium spp. and some other moulds. Collaborators were asked to examine each sample twice, by dilution plating on the four media. Colonies were counted after 3, 5 and 7 days incubation at 25 degrees C. Fourteen participants from seven laboratories in six countries collaborated in this study. The ability of collaborators to detect and count yeasts after 5 and 7 days on DG18, DRBC and OGY varied depending on the sample. Few participants were able to count yeasts even after 7 days on MY50G. The overall results demonstrated that DG18 incubated 5 days at 25 degrees C was superior to the other three media tested for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in the presence of xerophilic moulds. PMID:8796421

  18. Effect of dietary copper and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, S.I.; Peterson, D.F.; Mason, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States) KCOM, Kirksville, MO (United States) Air Force/SAM/RZP, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The severity of copper (Cu) deficiency in the rat is enhanced by dietary sucrose. Possible interactive effects of Cu status and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet containing either glucose or sucrose, as compared with respective Cu-adequate controls. Catecholamines were analyzed by an HPLC method using 3,4-dihydroxybenxylamine as the internal standard. Cu deficiency caused pronounced decreases in norepinephrine and epinephrine, with no significant effect on dopamine, as expressed in nmoles/mg tissue. Dietary sucrose showed no appreciable effect on catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands were markedly enlarged in Cu-deficient rats, whether fed glucose or sucrose. Adrenal weights were not affected by dietary sucrose. Data indicate that the increased severity of copper deficiency due to sucrose feeding is not associated with changes in adrenal catecholamine output.

  19. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli in hypertonic sucrose media.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Taketo; Furukawa, Soichi; Narisawa, Naoki; Hagiwara, Chisato; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2009-06-01

    High osmotic environments produced by NaCl or sucrose have been used as reliable and traditional methods of food preservation. We tested, Escherichia coli as an indicator of food-contaminating bacterium, to determine if it can form biofilm in a hyperosmotic environment. E. coli K-12 IAM1264 did not form biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M NaCl. However, the bacterium formed biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M sucrose, although the planktonic growth was greatly suppressed. The biofilm, formed on solid surfaces, such as titer-plate well walls and glass slides, solely around the air-liquid interface. Both biofilm forming cells and planktonic cells in the hypertonic medium adopted a characteristic, fat and filamentous morphology with no FtsZ rings, which are a prerequisite for septum formation. Biofilm forming cells were found to be alive based on propidium iodide staining. The presence of 1 M sucrose in the food environment is not sufficient to prevent biofilm formation by E. coli. PMID:19447340

  20. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR. Generally, neither a history of sucrose intake nor a terminal bout of sucrose intake affected AMPA receptor abundance in the NAc PSD of AL subjects. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis, but the functional contribution of increased synaptic incorporation of AMPA receptors remains to be established. PMID:25800309

  1. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging. II. Analysis of desorbed polyphenol compounds from yeast lees.

    PubMed

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2006-05-31

    In the first part of this work, the analysis of the polyphenolic compounds remaining in the wine after different contact times with yeast lees during simulation of red wine aging was undertaken. To achieve a more precise view of the wine polyphenols adsorbed on lees during red wine aging and to establish a clear balance between adsorbed and remnant polyphenol compounds, the specific analysis of the chemical composition of the adsorbed polyphenolic compounds (condensed tannins and anthocyanins) after their partial desorbtion from yeast lees by denaturation treatments was realized in the second part of the study. The total recovery of polyphenol compounds from yeast lees was not complete, since a rather important part of the initial wine colored polyphenols, especially those with a dominant blue color component, remained strongly adsorbed on yeast lees, as monitored by color tristimulus and reflectance spectra measurements. All anthocyanins were recovered at a rather high percentage (about 62%), and it was demonstrated that they were not adsorbed in relation with their sole polarity. Very few monomeric phenolic compounds were extracted from yeast lees. With the use of drastic denaturing treatments, the total recovery of condensed tannins reached 83%. Such tannins extracted from yeast lees exhibited very high polymeric size and a rather high percentage of galloylated residues by comparison with initial wine tannins, indicating that nonpolar tannins were preferentially desorbed from yeast lees by the extraction treatments. PMID:16719509

  2. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  3. Hydrothermal decomposition of yeast cells for production of proteins and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lamoolphak, Wiwat; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Suphantharika, Manop; Muangnapoh, Chirakarn; Prommuag, Chattip; Shotipruk, Artiwan

    2006-10-11

    This study examines hydrothermal decomposition of Baker's yeast cells, used as a model for spent Brewer's yeast waste, into protein and amino acids. The reaction was carried out in a closed batch reactor at various temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. The reaction products were separated into water-soluble and solid residue. The results demonstrated that the amount of yeast residue decreased with increasing hydrolysis temperature. After 20 min reaction in water at 250 degrees C, 78% of yeast was decomposed. The highest amount of protein produced was also obtained at this condition and was found to be 0.16 mg/mg dry yeast. The highest amount of amino acids (0.063 mg/mg dry yeast) was found at the lowest temperature tested after 15 min. The hydrolysis product obtained at 200 degrees C was tested as a nutrient source for yeast growth. The growth of yeast cells in the culture medium containing 2 w/v% of this product was comparable to that of the cells grown in the medium containing commercial yeast extract at the same concentration. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using subcritical water to potentially decompose proteinaceous waste such as spent Brewer's yeast while recovering more useful products. PMID:16849032

  4. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

  5. Composition of the cell walls of several yeast species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Nguyen; G. H. Fleet; P. L. Rogers

    1998-01-01

    Cell walls, representing 26%–32% of the cell dry weight, were prepared from several strains of the yeasts Kloeckera apiculata, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii,Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extraction of the walls with potassium hydroxide at 4?°C, followed by saturation of the alkali-soluble extract with ammonium\\u000a sulphate gave fractions of mannoprotein, alkali-soluble glucan and alkali-insoluble glucan. Chitin was associated with the

  6. Partial purification and characterisation of sucrose synthase in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Wolfgang E; Rohwer, Johann M; Botha, Frederik C

    2005-01-01

    Three sucrose synthase (SuSy) (EC 2.4.1.13) forms were isolated from sugarcane leaf roll tissue. During anion exchange chromatography, one peak of activity (SuSyA) eluted during the wash step and the other peak (SuSyB) during the salt gradient phase at 180mM KCl concentration. A third form of activity (SuSyC), which also eluted at 180mM KCl, was also present in the leaf roll and replaced SuSyB depending on the season of the year. Substrate Km values, as well as sucrose breakdown/synthesis ratios, differed between these forms. For SuSyA, SuSyB, and SuSyC, respectively, Km values+/-SE (mM) were: 41.8+/-3.4, 109+/-23, and 35.9+/-2.3 for sucrose, 1.07+/-0.08, 0.214+/-0.039, and 0.00191+/-0.00019 for UDP, 6.62+/-1.55, 11.7+/-2.6, and 6.49+/-0.61 for fructose, and 3.59+/-0.37, 0.530+/-0.142, and 0.234+/-0.025 for UDP-glucose. Sucrose breakdown/synthesis ratios+/-SE were 0.0791+/-0.0199, 0.330+/-0.180, and 0.426+/-0.069 for SuSyA, SuSyB, and SuSyC, respectively. The ratio of the area of peak 1 (low breakdown/synthesis ratio) to the area of peak 2 (high breakdown/synthesis ratio) in sucrose accumulating tissue (internode 9) was 0.88, while in non-accumulating (leaf roll) tissue it was 14.5 at the same time of year. The molecular mass of the denatured subunits of all three forms was 94kDa by SDS-PAGE. A polyclonal antiserum raised against SuSyB cross-reacted with all three forms on an immunoblot, but only SuSyA and SuSyB were immunoinactivated by this serum. PMID:15700416

  7. Nitrosative stress and apoptosis in non-anemic healthy rats induced by intravenous iron sucrose similars versus iron sucrose originator.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Iron can both induce and inhibit nitrosative stress. Intracellular iron levels play an important role in nitric oxide (NO(•)) signaling mechanisms. Depending on various factors, such as the cell's redox state and transition metal levels, NO(•) generation may lead to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as well as both anti- and pro-apoptotic effects. Administration of intravenous iron sucrose originator (ISORIG) has been shown not to cause significant tyrosine nitration or significantly increased caspase 3 levels in non-anemic rats. In this study, the potential of several marketed iron sucrose similars (ISSs) to induce tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in non-anemic rats was assessed. Although the physico-chemical properties of most of the analyzed ISSs complied with the United States Pharmacopeia for iron sucrose injection, all ISSs resulted in higher levels of tyrosine nitration and increased the expression of caspase 3 versus ISORIG. Moreover, significant differences were detected in tissue iron distribution between ISORIG- and ISS-treated animals. In general, ISORIG resulted in higher levels of ferritin deposits versus ISSs whereas ISSs showed higher Prussian blue-stainable iron(III) deposits than ISORIG. This result suggests that some iron from ISSs bypassed the tightly regulated pathway through resident macrophages of the liver, spleen and bone marrow thus, ending up in the cellular compartment that favors oxidative and or nitrosative stress as well as apoptosis. The results also confirm that polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide carbohydrates, such as iron sucrose, cannot be fully characterized by physico-chemical methods alone. PMID:25609135

  8. Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P K; Das, J; Saha, K; Giri, S N; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1996-03-01

    Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of rhizome of N. nucifera was studied on normal body temperature and yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Yeast suspension (10 ml/kg, s.c.) increased rectal temperature after 19 hr of administration. The extract, in doses of 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg (po) produced significant dose dependent lowering of normal body temperature and yeast provoked elevation of body temperature in rats. The effect produced was comparable with the standard antipyretic drug, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, i.p.). PMID:8781041

  9. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport and Sucrose-Induced H+ Transport on the Tonoplast of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Getz, H. P.; Klein, M.

    1995-01-01

    Sucrose-induced changes of the energization state of the red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) vacuolar membrane were observed with the fluorescent dyes 6-chloro-9-{[4-(diethylamino)- 1-methylbutyl]-amino}-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride, as a pH monitor, and 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine (ACMA). Consequently, transient acidification of the surrounding suspension medium could be measured with a pH electrode. This signal was specific for Suc and was not seen for sorbitol, mannitol, or maltose. Sucrose-induced medium acidification was sensitive to the same inhibitors that were efficient in inhibiting sucrose transport, including the monoclonal antibodies TNP56-12 and C50-5-3. It was seen with vacuoles and vesicles energized with MgATP before sucrose was added but also with vacuoles not artificially energized previously. Using bafilomycin A1 for the inhibition of the vacuolar ATPase of vacuoles previously energized by MgATP, apparent Km values for H+ export from the vacuoles to the medium could be calculated taking into account the passive proton leak. Apparent Km values for H+ export determined from data obtained with pH measurements in the medium and with ACMA corresponded to those obtained previously for sucrose uptake. Comparing sucrose uptake rates with corresponding H+ export rates at the respective sucrose concentrations and at Km, a stoichiometry of approximately one proton per transported sucrose was estimated. PMID:12228372

  10. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  11. A rapid extraction method for glycogen from formalin-fixed liver.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mitchell A; Li, Shihan; Aroney, Samuel T N; Deng, Bin; Li, Cheng; Roura, Eugeni; Schulz, Benjamin L; Harcourt, Brooke E; Forbes, Josephine M; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-03-15

    Liver glycogen, a highly branched polymer, acts as our blood-glucose buffer. While past structural studies have extracted glycogen from fresh or frozen tissue using a cold-water, sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique, a method for the extraction of glycogen from formalin-fixed liver would allow the analysis of glycogen from human tissues that are routinely collected in pathology laboratories. In this study, both sucrose-gradient and formalin-fixed extraction techniques were carried out on piglet livers, with the yields, purities and size distributions (using size exclusion chromatography) compared. The formalin extraction technique, when combined with a protease treatment, resulted in higher yields (but lower purities) of glycogen with size distributions similar to the sucrose-gradient centrifugation technique. This formalin extraction procedure was also significantly faster, allowing glycogen extraction throughput to increase by an order of magnitude. Both extraction techniques were compatible with mass spectrometry proteomics, with analysis showing the two techniques were highly complementary. PMID:25542100

  12. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge N. A. Bogaert; Sofie L. Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either\\u000a alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast\\u000a species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans,\\u000a glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

  13. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and YeastLike Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge N. A. van Bogaert; Sofie L. de Maeseneire; Erick J. Vandamme

    2009-01-01

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and

  14. Expression profiling of sucrose metabolizing genes in Saccharum, Sorghum and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ramalashmi, K; Prathima, P T; Mohanraj, K; Nair, N V

    2014-10-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and soluble acid invertase (SAI; EC 3.2.1.26) are key enzymes that regulate sucrose fluxes in sink tissues for sucrose accumulation in sugarcane and sorghum. In this study, the expression profiling of sucrose-related genes, i.e. SPS, SuSy and SAI in two sets of hybrids viz., one from a Sorghum?×?Saccharum cross and the other from a Saccharum?×?Sorghum cross, high- and low-sucrose varieties, sweet and grain sorghum lines was carried out using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at monthly intervals. The results indicated differential expression of the three genes in high- and low-sucrose forms. Expression of SPS and SuSy genes was high in high-sucrose varieties, Saccharum?×?Sorghum hybrids and sweet sorghum and lower in low-sucrose varieties, Sorghum?×?Saccharum hybrids and grain sorghum. SAI showed a lower expression in high-sucrose varieties, Saccharum?×?Sorghum hybrids and sweet sorghum and higher expression in low-sucrose varieties, Sorghum?×?Saccharum hybrids and the grain sorghum. This study describes the positive association of SPS and SuSy and negative association of SAI on sucrose accumulation. This is the first report of differential expression profiling of SPS, SuSy and SAI in intergeneric hybrids involving sugarcane and sorghum, which opens the possibility for production of novel hybrids with improved sucrose content and with early maturity. PMID:25119544

  15. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Rizzi; Petra Erlemann; Ngoc-Anh Bui-Thanh; Hanswerner Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeastPichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity via ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. At physiological pH values the thermodynamic equilibrium constant was determined to be 0.575x1010 (l·mol-1). Product inhibiton studies are reported which clearly show that the kinetic mechanism of the xylose reductase is ordered-bi-bi with isomerisation of a stable enzyme form.

  16. Mammalian Homology to Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This site allows researchers to retrieve a yeast-against-mammal Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) report by entering a gene or ORF name into a search function. The supporting data were first summarized in a recent Science article which is provided via a link to the journal (Science, 22 July 1997; Issue 277: p.1259). Steve Chervitz of Stanford University maintains this site.

  17. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.

    PubMed

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

    2015-03-15

    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

  18. Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.

    PubMed

    Cuero, Raul; McKay, David S

    2013-07-10

    In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation. PMID:23665192

  19. Glutathione Production in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

    Glutathione, ? -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the ? -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

  20. Catabolism of Raffinose, Sucrose, and Melibiose in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 ?

    PubMed Central

    Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Charaoui-Boukerzaza, Sana

    2009-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi (Dickeya dadantii) is a plant pathogenic bacterium that has a large capacity to degrade the plant cell wall polysaccharides. The present study reports the metabolic pathways used by E. chrysanthemi to assimilate the oligosaccharides sucrose and raffinose, which are particularly abundant plant sugars. E. chrysanthemi is able to use sucrose, raffinose, or melibiose as a sole carbon source for growth. The two gene clusters scrKYABR and rafRBA are necessary for their catabolism. The phenotypic analysis of scr and raf mutants revealed cross-links between the assimilation pathways of these oligosaccharides. Sucrose catabolism is mediated by the genes scrKYAB. While the raf cluster is sufficient to catabolize melibiose, it is incomplete for raffinose catabolism, which needs two additional steps that are provided by scrY and scrB. The scr and raf clusters are controlled by specific repressors, ScrR and RafR, respectively. Both clusters are controlled by the global activator of carbohydrate catabolism, the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). E. chrysanthemi growth with lactose is possible only for mutants with a derepressed nonspecific lactose transport system, which was identified as RafB. RafR inactivation allows the bacteria to the assimilate the novel substrates lactose, lactulose, stachyose, and melibionic acid. The raf genes also are involved in the assimilation of ?- and ?-methyl-d-galactosides. Mutations in the raf or scr genes did not significantly affect E. chrysanthemi virulence. This could be explained by the large variety of carbon sources available in the plant tissue macerated by E. chrysanthemi. PMID:19734309

  1. The effects of sympathectomy and dexamethasone in rats ingesting sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Colín, Margarita; Villanueva, Iván; Piñón, Manuel; Racotta, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Both high-sucrose diet and dexamethasone (D) treatment increase plasma insulin and glucose levels and induce insulin resistance. We showed in a previous work (Franco-Colin, et al. Metabolism 2000; 49:1289-1294) that combining both protocols for 7 weeks induced less body weight gain in treated rats without affecting mean daily food intake. Since such an effect may be explained by an increase in caloric expenditure, possibly due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system by sucrose ingestion, in this work, and using 10% sucrose in the drinking water, male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were sympathectomized using guanethidine (Gu) treatment for 3 weeks. One of these groups of rats received D in the drinking water. Of the 2 groups not receiving Gu, one was the control (C) and the other received D. After 8 weeks a glucose tolerance test was done. The rats were sacrificed and liver triglyceride (TG), perifemoral muscle lipid, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the liver spleen, pancreas, and heart were determined. Gu-treated rats (Gu and Gu+D groups) showed less than 10% NE concentration compared to C and D rats, less daily caloric intake and body-weight gain, more sucrose intake, and better glucose tolerance. The area under the curve after glucose administration correlated significantly with the mean body weight gain of the rats, except for D group. Groups D (D and Gu+D) also showed less caloric intake and body-weight gain but higher liver weight and TG concentration and lower peripheral muscle mass. The combination of Gu+D treatments showed some peculiar results: negative body weight gain, a fatty liver, and low muscle mass. Though the glucose tolerance test had the worst results for the D group, it showed the best results in the Gu+D group. There were significant interactions for Guan X Dex by two-way ANOVA test for the area under the curve in the glucose tolerance test, muscle mass, and muscle lipids. The results suggest that dexamethasone catabolic effect is not caused by sympathetic activation. PMID:16585949

  2. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  3. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  4. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  5. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  6. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis ) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis ) may be safely used in food...

  7. Circadian rhythmicity in excised samanea pulvini: I. Sucrose-white light interactions.

    PubMed

    Simon, E; Satter, R L; Galston, A W

    1976-09-01

    The rhythmic movement of excised Samanea saman pulvini incubated in H(2)O or 50 mm sucrose was monitored during extended periods of white light (cool white fluorescent, 2,000 ft-c), darkness, or alternating white light (16 hr) and darkness (8 hr). In continuous white light, the rhythm damps at an intermediate angle after only one cycle, whether pulvini are incubated in sucrose or H(2)O. The rhythm also damps after the first cycle when darkened pulvini are incubated in H(2)O, but it persists for several cycles if sucrose is available. Sucrose depresses the mesor (average angle) during extended dark periods in Samanea, as in Albizzia julibrissin, but it increases the mesor if supplied during white light-dark cycles. With the latter irradiation schedule, oscillations persist for several cycles whether pulvini are supplied with H(2)O or sucrose, but closure is incomplete when pulvini are incubated in sucrose. PMID:16659690

  8. Tissue-specific expression of two genes for sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnd Sturm; Susanne Lienhard; Stephan Schatt; Markus Hardegger

    1999-01-01

    Sucrose synthase, which cleaves sucrose in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) into UDP-glucose and fructose, is thought to be a key determinant of sink strength of heterotrophic plant organs. To determine the roles of the enzyme in carrot, we characterized carrot sucrose synthase at the molecular level. Two genes (Susy*Dc1 and Susy*Dc2) were isolated. The deduced amino acid sequences

  9. Sucrose requirements and lipid utilization during germination of interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) somatic embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Carrier; J. E. Cunningham; D. C. Taylor; D. I. Dunstan

    1997-01-01

    Both somatic and excised zygotic embryos of interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmannii complex) required exogenous sucrose in the medium for germination in vitro. Over a period of 29 days on sucrose-containing medium germinants with roots and epicotyls developed from both kinds of embryo, and their content of linolenic acid (9,12,15-18:3) increased about six- to eightfold. Without added sucrose, embryos showed

  10. Original article A sucrose-DMSO extender for freezing rabbit semen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article A sucrose-DMSO extender for freezing rabbit semen JS Vicente MP Viudes (DMSO) (1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 M), egg yolk (0% of 10 v/v) and sugar (none, or 0.5 M of glucose, lactose, sucrose, or maltose). The sucrose and 1.75 DMSO improved sig- nificantly the post-thawing motility rate

  11. Antennal sucrose perception in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.): behaviour and electrophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shuichi Haupt

    2004-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms of antennal sucrose perception in the honey bee were analysed using behavioural and electrophysiological methods. Following sucrose stimulation of the tip of a freely moving antenna, the latency of proboscis extension was 320–340 ms, 80–100 ms after the first activity in muscle M17 controlling this response. When bees were allowed to actively touch a sucrose droplet with one antenna,

  12. Effects of sucrose, inoculum density, auxins, and aeration volume on ceil growth of Gymnema sylvestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Jung Lee; Mohammad Mobin; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2006-01-01

    To improve the cell protocol forCymnema sylvestre, we investigated the influence of initial sucrose concentration, inoculum density, and optimal concentrations of auxins (IBA\\u000a and NAA) in flask cultures, as well as the role of aeration volume in bioreactor cultures. Cell growth was enhanced 9-fold\\u000a when the medium was supplemented with 3% sucrose versus a sucrose-free environment. Increasing the inoculum density

  13. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments suggest that supplementation of yeast extract-YCW to broiler chicken diets increased animal performance by favouring intestinal mucosal development. PMID:20680875

  14. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Morales-López; E. Auclair; F. Van Immerseel; R. Ducatelle; F. García; J. Brufau

    2010-01-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308).2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4

  15. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    PubMed Central

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  16. Liquid sucrose bingeing in rats depends on the access schedule, concentration and delivery system.

    PubMed

    Wojnicki, F H E; Stine, J G; Corwin, R L W

    2007-11-23

    Previous studies have reported binge-type consumption of solid vegetable shortening in non-food deprived rats maintained on schedules of limited shortening access. The current study determined if limited access would promote binge-type consumption of sucrose solutions. Adult male rats (6 groups, n = 10 each) were provided with one of three different sucrose concentrations (3.2%, 10%, 32% w/v) for 2 h either everyday (Daily) or Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (Intermittent). A 'binge' during the 2-h access periods was operationally defined as Intermittent intakes significantly greater than Daily intakes. Sucrose initially was provided in a 100 ml glass tube equipped with a stainless-steel drinking spout. Under these conditions, there were no differences in sucrose intake between Daily and Intermittent groups at any of the concentrations. In contrast, when sucrose was provided in a modified 60 ml plastic syringe with the same drinking spout, intakes of the Intermittent groups consuming 3.2% and 10% sucrose were greater than those of the respective Daily groups, indicating that binge-type consumption of sucrose occurred. These results demonstrate that brief, intermittent access to low and moderate concentrations of sucrose can promote binge-type behavior, and the characteristics of the drinking apparatus can affect sucrose intake. PMID:17612580

  17. Original article The effect of sucrose on the development of hybrid

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    / sucrose / micropropagation / acclimatization / survival Résumé — Rôle du saccharose sur le/ saccharose / micropropagation / acclimatation / survie INTRODUCTION Widespread use of micropropagation to pro

  18. Mechanistic investigation of domain specific unfolding of human serum albumin and the effect of sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajeev; Sen, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to understand the unfolding mechanism of a multidomain protein, human serum albumin (HSA), in absence and presence of the sucrose by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with domain specific marker molecules and is further being substantiated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In water, the domain III of HSA found to unfold first followed by domains I and II as the concentration of GnHCl is increased in the medium. The sequential unfolding behavior of different domains of HSA remains same in presence of sucrose; however, a higher GnHCl concentration is required for unfolding, suggesting stabilizing effect of sucrose on HSA. Domain I is found to be most stabilized by sucrose. The stabilization of domain II is somewhat similar to domain I, but the effect of sucrose on domain III is found to be very small. MD simulation also predicted a similar behavior of sucrose on HSA. The stabilizing effect of sucrose is explained in terms of the entrapment of water molecules in between HSA surface and sucrose layer as well as direct interaction between HSA and sucrose. PMID:24038622

  19. Sucrose produces withdrawal and dopamine-sensitive reinforcing effects in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Charlie; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose produces physical dependence and reinforcing effects in rats. We hypothesized that similar effects could be demonstrated in planarians, the earliest animal with a centralized nervous system. We used two assays, one that quantifies withdrawal responses during drug absence as a reduction in motility and another that quantifies reinforcing effects using a conditioned place preference (CPP) design. In withdrawal experiments, planarians exposed to sucrose (1%) for 60 min and then tested in water for 5 min displayed reduced motility compared to water controls. Acute or continuous sucrose (1%) exposure did not affect motility. CPP experiments used a biased design to capitalize upon planarians’ natural preference for the dark (pretest, sucrose conditioning in the light, posttest). Planarians conditioned with sucrose (1%) displayed a greater preference shift than sucrose-naïve planarians. Glucose (0.1, 1%), but not the non-digestible disaccharide lactulose (0.1, 1%), also produced a greater preference shift than water-exposed planarians. Development of sucrose-induced CPP was inhibited when sucrose (1%) conditioning was conducted in combination with dopamine receptor antagonists SCH 23390 (1 µM) or sulpiride (1 µM). These results suggest that rewarding and reinforcing effects of sugar are highly conserved across species and that planarians offer an invertebrate model to provide insight into the pharmacological effects of sucrose and related sweeteners. PMID:23415661

  20. Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Wang, Liguang; Zheng, Sheng; Xie, Jiping; Bi, Yurong

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light and in dark were investigated. Sucrose suppressed the hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light, but stimulated elongation in dark. Application of paclobutrazol (PAC, a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor) impaired the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation, suggesting that endogenous GAs is required for sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark. Exogenous GA(3) application reversed the repression caused by PAC application, indicating that exogenous GA(3) could substitute, at least partially, for endogenous GAs in sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation. In addition, we found that GA 3-oxidase 1 (GA3ox1), encoding a key enzyme involved in endogenous bioactive GA biosynthesis, was up-regulated by sucrose in the dark, whereas GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1a (AtGID1a), encoding a GA receptor and playing an important role during GAs degradation to DELLA proteins (DELLAs, repressors of GA-induced plant growth), was down-regulated. These results imply that endogenous bioactive GA levels are expected to be enhanced, but the degradation of DELLAs was inhibited by sucrose in dark. Thus, our data suggest that the sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in the dark does not result from GA-induced degradation of DELLAs. We conclude that sucrose can stimulate hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark in a GA-dependent manner. PMID:20430474

  1. No evidence for the occurrence of substrate inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose synthase-1 (AtSUS1) by fructose and UDP-glucose.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Goizeder; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Etxeberria, Ed; Li, Jun; Montero, Manuel; Hidalgo, Maite; Sesma, María Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and NDP into the corresponding nucleotide-sugars and fructose. The Arabidopsis genome possesses six SUS genes (AtSUS1-6) that code for proteins with SuSy activity. As a first step to investigate optimum fructose and UDP-glucose (UDPG) concentrations necessary to measure maximum sucrose-producing SuSy activity in crude extracts of Arabidopsis, in this work we performed kinetic analyses of recombinant AtSUS1 in two steps: (1) SuSy reaction at pH 7.5, and (2) chromatographic measurement of sucrose produced in step 1. These analyses revealed a typical Michaelis-Menten behavior with respect to both UDPG and fructose, with Km values of 50 ?M and 25 mM, respectively. Unlike earlier studies showing the occurrence of substrate inhibition of UDP-producing AtSUS1 by fructose and UDP-glucose, these analyses also revealed no substrate inhibition of AtSUS1 at any UDPG and fructose concentration. By including 200 mM fructose and 1 mM UDPG in the SuSy reaction assay mixture, we found that sucrose-producing SuSy activity in leaves and stems of Arabidopsis were exceedingly higher than previously reported activities. Furthermore, we found that SuSy activities in organs of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 mutant were ca. 80-90% of those found in WT plants. PMID:22751299

  2. Multiple, Distinct Isoforms of Sucrose Synthase in Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, D.H. Paul; Barber, Lorraine; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Smith, Alison M.; Wang, Trevor L.; Martin, Cathie

    2001-01-01

    Genes encoding three isoforms of sucrose synthase (Sus1, Sus2, and Sus3) have been cloned from pea (Pisum sativum). The genes have distinct patterns of expression in different organs of the plant, and during organ development. Studies of the isoforms expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli show that they differ in kinetic properties. Although not of great magnitude, the differences in properties are consistent with some differentiation of physiological function between the isoforms. Evidence for differentiation of function in vivo comes from the phenotypes of rug4 mutants of pea, which carry mutations in the gene encoding Sus1. One mutant line (rug4-c) lacks detectable Sus1 protein in both the soluble and membrane-associated fractions of the embryo, and Sus activity in the embryo is reduced by 95%. The starch content of the embryo is reduced by 30%, but the cellulose content is unaffected. The results imply that different isoforms of Sus may channel carbon from sucrose towards different metabolic fates within the cell. PMID:11598239

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    PubMed Central

    RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID:21552715

  4. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ?-carotene, neurosporene, ?-zeacarotene, ?-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  5. Mass spectrometry-based method to investigate the natural selectivity of sucrose as the sugar transport form for plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hang; Wu, Yile; Liu, Wu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Jinming; Zhao, Yufen

    2015-04-30

    Sucrose is the carbon skeletons and energy vector for plants, which is important for plants growth. Among thousands of disaccharides in Nature, why chose sucrose for plants? In this paper, we analyzed the intrinsic structural characteristics of four sucrose isomers with different glycosidic linkage by mass spectrometry (MS) technique. Our results show that sucrose has the most labile glycosidic bond compared with other three isomers, which is helpful for releasing glucose and fructose unit. Besides, sucrose has the most stable integral structure, which is hard to dehydrate and degrade into fragments through losing one or three even four-carbon units, just as its three isomers. In other words, sucrose is more easily holds an integral structure during the transport process, whenever it is necessary, and sucrose can be cleaved into glucose and fructose easily. Besides, we also investigate the internal relationship of sucrose with K(+) by tandem mass spectrometry and viscosity measurement. The related results have shown that the K(+) can stabilize sucrose to a greater extent than the Na(+). Furthermore, under the same conditions, K(+) ions reduce the viscosity of sucrose-water system much more than Na(+). These results suggest that K(+) is a better co-transporter for sucrose. Of course, the transport of sucrose in plants is a very complicated process, which is involved in many proteins. This paper directly accounts for the basic structure feature of sucrose, and the results discovered could provide the novel insight for the answer why Nature chose sucrose for plants. PMID:25699973

  6. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Athanasios A. Koutinas

    2006-01-01

    Summary Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the

  7. Yeasts from ips sexdentatus (scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claire Pignal; C. Chararas; Michèle Bourgeay-Causse

    1988-01-01

    Yeasts from the digestive tract of Ips sexdentatus were isolated. Four strains, representing the different identified yeast species, were chosen. Their enzymatic activity on oligosaccharides, heterosides and polysaccharides was measured. Moreover, we showed that they excrete some B group vitamins which are necessary for the insect, unable to synthesize them.

  8. New and emerging yeast pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

  9. Modelling the Yeast Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Janji?, Vuk; Sharan, Roded; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    The topology behind biological interaction networks has been studied for over a decade. Yet, there is no definite agreement on the theoretical models which best describe protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Such models are critical to quantifying the significance of any empirical observation regarding those networks. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of yeast PPI networks in order to gain insights into their topology and its dependency on interaction-screening technology. We find that: (1) interaction-detection technology has little effect on the topology of PPI networks; (2) topology of these interaction networks differs in organisms with different cellular complexity (human and yeast); (3) clear topological difference is present between PPI networks, their functional sub-modules, and their inter-functional “linkers”; (4) high confidence PPI networks have more “geometrical” topology compared to predicted, incomplete, or noisy PPI networks; and (5) inter-functional “linker” proteins serve as mediators in signal transduction, transport, regulation and organisational cellular processes. PMID:24589662

  10. Cloning, Developmental, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Sucrose:Sucrose 1-Fructosyl Transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan Localization in Roots1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Van den Ende; An Michiels; Dominik Van Wonterghem; Rudy Vergauwen; AndreVan Laere

    Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus 86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was

  11. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC. PMID:25207825

  12. Repeated Cocaine Experience Facilitates Sucrose-Reinforced Operant Responding in Enriched and Isolated Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Emily D.; Gehrke, Brenda J.; Green, Thomas A.; Zentall, Thomas R.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether repeated cocaine exposure differentially affects sucrose-reinforced operant responding in rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) or an isolated condition (IC). Specifically, the performance of EC and IC rats pressing a lever for sucrose under a high fixed-ratio schedule (FR 30)…

  13. NUTRIENT YIELDS FROM IN VITRO FERMENTATIONS OF SUCROSE AND NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER BY MIXED RUMINAL MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of level of sucrose on nutrient yield by mixed ruminal microbes was evaluated in vitro in two 24 h fermentations in sealed vials. Isolated bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) NDF (130 mg) was incubated with sucrose (Suc; 65, 130, or 195 mg) in Goering/Van Soest buffer with 15% ruminal fluid ...

  14. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. PMID:25647756

  15. NEW INTRACELLULAR LOCATIONS AND PUTATIVE NOVEL FUNCTIONS FOR MAIZE SUCROSE SYNTHASES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioinformatics analysis of the three sucrose synthase (SuSy) proteins in maize predicts that the SH1 protein encoded by the shrunken1 locus has a mitochondrial targeting sequence at its N-terminus. An examiniation of putative sucrose synthase proteins reported from several plant species in t...

  16. Discrimination between the Tastes of Sucrose and Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Stapleton; M. Luellig; S. D. Roper; E. R. Delay

    2002-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion studies have demonstrated that rats conditioned to avoid monosodium glutamate (MSG) with amiloride added to reduce the intensity of the sodium component of MSG taste, will generalize an aversion for MSG to sucrose and vice versa. This suggests that taste transduction for sodium, sucrose and MSG may intersect at some point. Generalization of conditioned taste aversion indicates

  17. Poly(sucrose) micro particles preparation and their use as biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Turk, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    Crosslinked p(sucrose) micro particles were synthesized for the first time from sucrose in water-in-oil microemulsion. Using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as crosslinker via reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) p(sucrose) micro particles formed in a single step with very high yield (>90%). The particles have wide size distributions, and negative zeta potential, -27.30 mV, and can be made magnetic field responsive. P(sucrose) particles were shown to be degradable at pHs of 2.5 and 11. Dopamine and gallic acid were used as model drugs for absorption/release studies from p(sucrose) particles. Interestingly, it was shown that p(sucrose) microparticles can be a nutrient for Escherichia coli, and maybe used as a growth medium for other cells, bacteria and organisms. Additionally, the cytotoxic effect of p(sucrose) particles were determined as 26 and 32.5% dead cells against MDA MB-231 cancerous cells and L929 fibroblast cells at 100 ug/ml concentration, respectively. P(sucrose) particles can be safely used for in vivo applications. PMID:24583047

  18. Effect of pheromones, hormones, and handling on sucrose response thresholds of honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pankiw; R. E. Page Jr

    2003-01-01

    The responsiveness of bees to sucrose is an important indicator of honey bee foraging decisions. Correlated with sucrose responsiveness is forage choice behavior, age of first foraging, and conditioned learning response. Pheromones and hormones are significant components in social insect systems associated with the regulation of colony-level and individual foraging behavior. Bees were treated to different exposure regimes of queen

  19. Membrane Potentials of the Lobster Giant Axon Obtained by Use of the Sucrose-Gap Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED J. JULIAN; JOHN W. MOORE; DAVID E. GOLDMAN

    2010-01-01

    A method similar to the sucrose-gap technique introduced be St~pfli is described for measuring membrane potential and current in singly lobster giant axons (diameter about 100 micra). The isotonic sucrose solution used to perfuse the gaps raises the external leakage resistance so that the re- corded potential is only about 5 per cent less than the actual membrane po- tential.

  20. Water-solid interactions in amorphous maltodextrin-crystalline sucrose binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Toth, Scott J; Simpson, Garth J; Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline solids are commonly found together in a variety of pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, the influence of co-formulation of amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline sucrose (S) on moisture sorption, deliquescence, and glass transition (Tg) properties of powder blends was investigated. Individual components and binary mixtures of four different molecular weight MDs with sucrose in 1:1 w/w ratios were exposed to various relative humidity (RH) environments and their equilibrium and dynamic moisture contents were monitored. The deliquescence point (RH0) and dissolution behavior of sucrose alone and in blends was also monitored by polarized light microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging. In S:MD blends, the deliquescence RH of sucrose was lower than the RH0 of sucrose alone, and synergistic moisture sorption also occurred at RHs lower than the RH0. Intimate contact of sucrose crystals with the amorphous MDs resulted in complete dissolution of sucrose at RH?sucrose sensitizes the blend to moisture, potentially leading to deleterious changes in the formulation if storage conditions are not adequately controlled. PMID:23477494

  1. Fructansucrase enzymes and sucrose analogues: A new approach for the synthesis of unique fructo-oligosaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kralj; K. Buchholz; L. Dijkhuizen; J. Seibel

    2008-01-01

    Fructansucrase enzymes of lactic acid bacteria use the cheap compound sucrose (Glc-Fru) to synthesize a variety of poly- and oligosaccharide products. Recently, it has been shown that a variety of sucrose analogues (e.g. Gal-Fru, Man-Fru) can be efficiently synthesized. This has exciting potential for the development of novel (fructo) oligosaccharide derivatives.

  2. Impact of Weighting Agents and Sucrose on Gravitational Separation of Beverage Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratjika Chanamai; D. Julian McClements

    2000-01-01

    The influence of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation in 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsions was studied by measuring changes in the intensity of backscattered light from the emulsions with height. Emulsions with different droplet densities were prepared by mixing weighting agents (brominated vegetable oil (BVO), ester gum (EG), damar gum (DG), or sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)) with soybean

  3. Mineral balances in humans as affected by fructose, high fructose corn syrup and sucrose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao Ivaturi; Constance Kies

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of selected minerals when sugars were supplemented to basal diets was investigated in two separate, laboratory-controlled human feeding studies. Fructose-fed subjects had higher fecal excretions of iron and magnesium than did subjects fed sucrose. Apparent iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc balances tended to be less positive during the fructose feeding period as compared to balances during the sucrose

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL LOCALIZATION AND A PUTATIVE SIGNALING FUNCTION OF SUCROSE SYNTHASE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many organisms, an increasing number of proteins seem to play two or more unrelated roles. Here, we report that maize sucrose synthase (SUS) is distributed in organelles and may have additional roles besides sucrose catabolism. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that among the three maize SUS isofo...

  5. Nitroglycerin and Sucrose Permeability as Quality Markers for Reconstructed Human Epidermis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ponec; Paulette J. J. Wauben-Penris; Anita Burger; Johanna Kempenaar; Harry E. Boddé

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the epidermal permeability barrier of in vitro reconstructed epidermis, the penetration of nitroglycerin (NG) and sucrose were measured across human keratinocytes cultured at the air-liquid interface, using de-epidermized dermis (DED) as a substrate. In the presence of reconstructed epidermis on top of DED the penetration rate of sucrose is about 100 times and that of NG

  6. Diminished Reactivity of Postmature Human Infants to Sucrose Compared with Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of healthy 39-week-old infants, so-called term infants, and chronically stressed 42-week-old infants, so-called postmature infants, showed that sucrose was extremely effective in calming term infants but less effective in calming postmature infants. Results supported the hypothesis that sucrose engages an opioid system in infants. (BG)

  7. Reduction of sucrose preference by chronic unpredictable mild stress, and its restoration by a tricyclic antidepressant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Willner; A. Towell; D. Sampson; S. Sophokleous; R. Muscat

    1987-01-01

    Rats exposed chronically (5–9 weeks) to a variety of mild unpredictable stressors showed a reduced consumption of and preference for saccharin or sucrose solutions. Preference deficits took at least 2 weeks to develop and were maintained for more than 2 weeks after termination of the stress regime. Sucrose preference was unaffected by 1 week of treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant

  8. Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

  9. Sugar-mediated acclimation: the importance of sucrose metabolism in meristems.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Sebastien Christian; Vertommen, Annelies; Swennen, Rony; Witters, Erwin; Fortes, Claudia; Souza, Manoel T; Panis, Bart

    2010-10-01

    We have designed an in vitro experimental setup to study the role of sucrose in sugar-mediated acclimation of banana meristems using established highly proliferating meristem cultures. It is a first step toward the systems biology of a meristem and the understanding of how it can survive severe abiotic stress. Using the 2D-DIGE proteomic approach and a meristem-specific EST library, we describe the long-term acclimation response of banana meristems (after 2, 4, 8, and 14 days) and analyze the role of sucrose in this acclimation by setting up a control, a sorbitol, and a sucrose acclimation treatment over time. Sucrose synthase is the dominant enzyme for sucrose breakdown in meristem tissue, which is most likely related to its lower energy consumption. Metabolizing sucrose is of paramount importance to survive, but the uptake of sugar and its metabolism also drive respiration, which may result in limited oxygen levels. According to our data, a successful acclimation is correlated to an initial efficient uptake of sucrose and subsequently a reduced breakdown of sucrose and an induction of fermentation likely by a lack of oxygen. PMID:20738108

  10. Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns.

    PubMed

    Blass, E M; Watt, L B

    1999-12-01

    This experiment had three goals: 1. To identify the basis of sucking-induced analgesia in healthy, term, newborn humans undergoing the painful, routine, procedure of heel lance and blood collection. 2. To evaluate how taste-induced and sucking-induced analgesias combine to combat pain. 3. To determine whether facial grimacing was an accurate index of diminished pain, or whether it was linked to tissue trauma. We report that: 1. Sucking an unflavored pacifier was analgesic when and only when suck rate exceeded 30 sucks/min. 2. The combination of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking was remarkably analgesic; we saw no behavioral indication in nine of the ten infants that the heel lance had even occurred. 3. Grimacing was reduced to almost naught by procedures that essentially eliminated crying and markedly reduced heart rate during the blood harvesting procedure. PMID:10568870

  11. Octanol-water partition coefficient of glucose, sucrose, and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Mazzobre, María F; Román, María V; Mourelle, Ariel Feo; Corti, Horacio R

    2005-05-01

    The octanol-water partition coefficients (P) of glucose, sucrose, and trehalose were measured at temperatures between 5 and 20 degrees C using an enzymatic method. The measured log P is compared with calculated and experimental data previously reported. In the case of trehalose, the measured log P differs considerably from the theoretically estimated values and agrees with the expected value for a disaccharide. Some methods of assessing the partition coefficients are also analyzed and it is concluded that the atom/fragment contribution method overestimates the hydrophilicity of disaccharides and, probably in a larger extension, that of trisaccharides. The knowledge of P for these sugars is valuable both for basic or applied purposes, including food and biomolecules stabilization. PMID:15797137

  12. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  13. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  14. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  15. Lager yeast comes of age.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This "web of life" recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  16. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Do two intravenous iron sucrose preparations have the same efficacy?

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Ahmed; Leonard, Emmanuelle; Dansaert, Aurélie; Lafuma, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Background. Intravenous (i.v.) iron sucrose similar (ISS) preparations are available but clinical comparisons with the originator iron sucrose (IS) are lacking. Methods. The impact of switching from IS to ISS on anaemia and iron parameters was assessed in a sequential observational study comparing two periods of 27 weeks each in 75 stable haemodialysis (HD) patients receiving i.v. iron weekly and an i.v. erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) once every 2 weeks. Patients received IS in the first period (P1) and ISS in the second period (P2). Results. Mean haemoglobin value was 11.78 ± 0.99 g/dL during P1 and 11.48 ± 0.98 g/dL during P2 (P = 0.01). Mean serum ferritin was similar for both treatment periods (P1, 534 ± 328 ?g/L; P2, 495 ± 280 ?g/L, P = 0.25) but mean TSAT during P1 (49.3 ± 10.9%) was significantly higher than during P2 (24.5 ± 9.4%, P <0.0001). The mean dose of i.v. iron per patient per week was 45.58 ± 32.55 mg in P1 and 61.36 ± 30.98 mg in P2 (+34.6%), while the mean ESA dose was 0.58 ± 0.52 and 0.66 ± 0.64 ?g/kg/week, respectively (+13.8%). Total mean anaemia drug costs increased in P2 by 11.9% compared to P1. Conclusions. The switch from the originator IS to an ISS preparation led to destabilization of a well-controlled population of HD patients and incurred an increase in total anaemia drug costs. Prospective comparative clinical studies are required to prove that ISS are as efficacious and safe as the originator i.v. IS. PMID:21355067

  18. Studies of Impedance in Cardiac Tissue Using Sucrose Gap and Computer Techniques

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Frances V.; Stibitz, George R.; Huguenin, Jan

    1973-01-01

    Impedances of cardiac cells of an insect were determined as a function of time to test the effects of sucrose and oil as insulating media in a gap arrangement. Impedance values are shown to increase markedly with time when sucrose is used as the insulating agent. Although impedance values are steady when oil is used, it is suggested that a layer of trapped electrolyte provides a shunt pathway and seriously impairs the validity of the measurements. A quick wash with sucrose followed by oil does not alleviate the situation but leaves a layer of sucrose trapped at the tissue-medium interface into which ions diffuse. The hypotheses (a) that the diffusion of intracellular K+ into the sucrose would result in an increase in tissue impedance and (b) that a layer of trapped electrolyte under the oil film provides a shunt pathway are examined by computer analyses of a simple model. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1B PMID:4754198

  19. The construction and analysis of sucrose gradients for use with zonal rotors.

    PubMed

    Hirst, W; Cox, R A

    1976-11-01

    The rate of sedimentation of a particle in a sucrose solution depends on the viscosity and density of the medium. These two variables are related to the sucrose concentration and the temperature of the medium by new simple equations. These equations were used in a rapid iterative procedure that relates the distance moved by a zone in a continuous sucrose gradient to its sedimentation coefficient. It is shown by comparison with experiment that this iterative method allows the distance moved by a zone to be calculated rapidly. The method may therefore be used to optimize the separation of particles in a sucrose-gradient-centrifugation experiment. The method also allows the unknown sedimentation coefficients of several zones to be measured from a single sucrose-gradient-centrifugation experiment. PMID:793582

  20. A Requirement for Sucrose in Xylem Sap Flow from Dormant Maple Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert W.; Tyree, Melvin T.; Dixon, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    The response of excised stem segments of several tree species to freezing and thawing cycles was studied. All species studied (Thuja occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, and Betula papyrifera) except maple (Acer spp.) exuded sap while freezing and absorbed on thawing. Maple stems absorbed sap while freezing and exuded sap during the thaw only when sucrose was present in the vessel solution. Increased concentration of sucrose in the vessel sap led to increased exudation. In the absence of sucrose, maple stems absorbed sap on thawing. The presence of sucrose enhanced sap absorption during freezing cycles in maples. In general, large sugars, disaccharides and larger, could substitute for sucrose in the maple exudation response while sugar hexoses could not. The results are discussed in relation to the O'Malley-Milburn model (1983 Can J Bot 61: 3100-3106) of sap flow in maples. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16665468

  1. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  2. Thermolabile xylanase of the Antarctic yeast Cryptococcus adeliae : production and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Gomes; Isidore Gomes; Walter Steiner

    2000-01-01

    Xylanase production by the Antarctic psychrophilic yeast Cryptococcus adeliae was increased 4.3 fold by optimizing the culture medium composition using statistical designs. The optimized medium containing\\u000a 24.2 g l?1 xylan and 10.2 g l?1 yeast extract and having an initial pH of 7.5 yielded xylanase activity at 400 nkat (nanokatal) ml?1 after 168-h shake culture at 4?C. In addition, very

  3. Production of malic and succinic acids by sugar-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ok Taing; Kazuya Taing

    2007-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii V19 was grown in YPG medium (yeast extract, 0.5%, peptone, 1.0%, glucose, 10%). Fermented broth was purified through a series of ion-exchange columns and ODS column and the purified sample was TMS-esterified. Malic and succinic acids were identified with GC-MS analysis. The yeast was cultivated under various cultural conditions and quantitative determination of the organic acids was carried

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces a Yeast Substance that Exhibits Estrogenic Activity in Mammalian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, David; Stathis, Peter A.; Hirst, Margaret A.; Price Stover, E.; Do, Yung S.; Kurz, Walter

    1984-06-01

    Partially purified lipid extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a substance that displaces tritiated estradiol from rat uterine cytosol estrogen receptors. The yeast product induces estrogenic bioresponses in mammalian systems as measured by induction of progesterone receptors in cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and by a uterotrophic response and progesterone receptor induction after administration to ovariectomized mice. The findings raise the possibility that bakers' yeast may be a source of environmental estrogens.

  5. Performance of mycological media in enumerating desiccated food spoilage yeasts: an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Frandberg, E; Deak, T; Alzamora, S M; Chen, J; Guerrero, A S; López-Malo, A; Ohlsson, I; Olsen, M; Peinado, J M; Schnurer, J; de Siloniz, M I; Tornai-Lehoczki, J

    2001-10-22

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18) was originally formulated to enumerate nonfastidious xerophilic moulds in foods containing rapidly growing Eurotium species. Some laboratories are now using DG18 as a general purpose medium for enumerating yeasts and moulds, although its performance in recovering yeasts from dry foods has not been evaluated. An interlaboratory study compared DG18 with dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC), plate count agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (PCAC), tryptone glucose yeast extract chloramphenicol agar (TGYC), acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA), and orange serum agar (OSA) for their suitability to enumerate 14 species of lyophilized yeasts. The coefficient of variation for among-laboratories repeatability within yeast was 1.39% and reproducibility of counts among laboratories was 7.1%. The order of performance of media for recovering yeasts was TGYC > PCAC = OSA > APDA > DRBC > DG 18. A second study was done to determine the combined effects of storage time and temperature on viability of yeasts and suitability of media for recovery. Higher viability was retained at -18 degrees C than at 5 degrees C or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks, although the difference in mean counts of yeasts stored at -18 degrees C and 25 degrees C was only 0.78 log10 cfu/ml of rehydrated suspension. TGYC was equal to PCAC and superior to the other four media in recovering yeasts stored at -18 degrees C, 5 degrees C, or 25 degrees C for up to 42 weeks. Results from both the interlaboratory study and the storage study support the use of TGYC for enumerating desiccated yeasts. DG18 is not recommended as a general purpose medium for recovering yeasts from a desiccated condition. PMID:11759766

  6. Role of orexin/hypocretin in conditioned sucrose-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cason, Angie M.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. We reasoned that this system may be strongly engaged during periods of reward restriction, including food restriction. Objectives This study examined the involvement of the orexin (Orx) system in responding for sucrose, and in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished sucrose-seeking, in ad libitum fed vs. food-restricted male subjects. Methods Sprague Dawley rats (n=108) were trained to self-administer sucrose, and we determined the effects of pretreatment with the OxR1 receptor antagonist SB 334867 (SB; 10–30 mg/kg) on fixed ratio (FR) or progressive ratio (PR) sucrose self-administration, as well as on cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking. Finally, expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in Orx neurons was examined after self-administration, late extinction or cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking. Results SB decreased lever responding (by about 1/3) and the number of reinforcers earned during FR, and less so during PR, schedules and decreased cue-induced reinstatement to sucrose-seeking to extinction levels, predominately in food-restricted rats. Additionally, Fos expression in Orx neurons in perifornical and dorsomedial hypothalamus was increased during extinction. Conclusions These results indicate that signaling at the OxR1 receptor is involved in pronounced sucrose reinforcement, and reinstatement of sucrose-seeking elicited by sucrose-paired cues, in food-restricted subjects. These findings lead us to conclude that conditioned activation of Orx neurons increases motivation for food reward during food restriction. PMID:23096770

  7. Escherichia coli W shows fast, highly oxidative sucrose metabolism and low acetate formation.

    PubMed

    Arifin, Yalun; Archer, Colin; Lim, SooA; Quek, Lake-Ee; Sugiarto, Haryadi; Marcellin, Esteban; Vickers, Claudia E; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-11-01

    Sugarcane is the most efficient large-scale crop capable of supplying sufficient carbon substrate, in the form of sucrose, needed during fermentative feedstock production. However, sucrose metabolism in Escherichia coli is not well understood because the two most common strains, E. coli K-12 and B, do not grow on sucrose. Here, using a sucrose utilizing strain, E. coli W, we undertake an in-depth comparison of sucrose and glucose metabolism including growth kinetics, metabolite profiling, microarray-based transcriptome analysis, labelling-based proteomic analysis and (13)C-fluxomics. While E. coli W grew comparably well on sucrose and glucose integration of the omics, datasets showed that during growth on each carbon source, metabolism was distinct. The metabolism was generally derepressed on sucrose, and significant flux rearrangements were observed in central carbon metabolism. These included a reduction in the flux of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway branch, an increase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and a reduction in the glyoxylate shunt flux due to the dephosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. But unlike growth on other sugars that induce cAMP-dependent Crp regulation, the phosphoenol-pyruvate-glyoxylate cycle was not active on sucrose. Lower acetate accumulation was also observed in sucrose compared to glucose cultures. This was linked to induction of the acetate catabolic genes actP and acs and independent of the glyoxylic shunt. Overall, the cells stayed highly oxidative. In summary, sucrose metabolism was fast, efficient and led to low acetate accumulation making it an ideal carbon source for industrial fermentation with E. coli W. PMID:25125039

  8. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production

    PubMed Central

    Dusotoit-Coucaud, Anaïs; Brunel, Nicole; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Lacointe, André; Julien, Jean-Louis; Chrestin, Hervé; Sakr, Soulaïman

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel®) on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Methods Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Key Results Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. Conclusion The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees. PMID:19567416

  9. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 Allocates Carbon into Wood Fibers1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-01-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H+ symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after 13CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more 13C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers. PMID:24170204

  10. Sucrose and Cytokinin Modulation of WPK4, a Gene Encoding a SNF1-Related Protein Kinase from Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Koizumi, Nozomu; Kusano, Tomonobu; Sano, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    WPK4, a gene encoding a putative protein kinase, was initially identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and shown to be up-regulated by light, nutrient deprivation, and cytokinins. To confirm that WPK4 has protein kinase activity, the protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. The purified protein exhibited autophosphorylation activity and phosphorylated both myelin basic protein and a peptide fragment of rice 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Levels of WPK4 transcripts in wheat seedlings were increased and decreased by the removal and addition of sucrose (Suc), respectively, to the culture medium. The introduction of the N-terminal kinase region of WPK4 into the yeast snf1 mutant cells, which cannot utilize Suc as a carbon source, rescued growth in Suc-containing medium. Cytokinins up-regulated the accumulation of WPK4 transcripts, but their effects were cancelled by the addition of Suc. Our results suggest that Suc negatively regulates the signaling pathway in which transcriptional activation of WPK4 is mediated by cytokinins. PMID:10557229

  11. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Verma, P K; Islam, M N; Grisham, M P; Jain, R; Sharma, A; Roopendra, K; Singh, K; Singh, P; Verma, I; Solomon, S

    2015-05-01

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell wall (CWI) invertases are important. Expression of these enzymes was compared in an early (CoJ64) and late (BO91) maturing sugarcane variety using end-point and qRT-PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR at four crop stages revealed high CWI expression in upper internodes of CoJ64, which declined significantly in both top and bottom internodes with maturity. In BO91, CWI expression was high in top and bottom internodes and declined significantly only in top internodes as the crop matured. Overall, CWI expression was higher in CoJ64 than in BO91. During crop growth, there was no significant change in SPS expression in bottom internodes in CoJ64, whereas in BO91 it decreased significantly. Apart from a significant decrease in expression of SuSy in mature bottom internodes of BO91, there was no significant change. Similar SAI expression was observed with both end-point and RT-PCR, except for significantly increased expression in top internodes of CoJ64 with maturity. SAI, being a major sucrose hydrolysing enzyme, was also monitored with end-point PCR expression in internode tissues of CoJ64 and BO91, with higher expression of SAI in BO91 at early crop stages. Enzyme inhibitors, e.g. manganese chloride (Mn(++) ), significantly suppressed expression of SAI in both early- and late-maturing varieties. Present findings enhance understanding of critical sucrose metabolic gene expression in sugarcane varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage. Thus, through employing these genes, improvement of sugarcane sucrose content is possible. PMID:25311688

  12. Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

    1989-06-06

    The four exercises presented here use basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their fulluse is intended for a senior-level molecular genetics (or similar) course; however, Experiments 1, 2, and 4 are appropriate for lower-level courses. It is expected that the instructor will have some familiarity with the concepts and terminology of recombinant DNA technology and with yeast genetics.

  13. COMPARISON OF SCUROSE CATABOLISM IN ROOTS OF THREE BETA VULGAR L GENOTYPES WITH DIFFERENT YIELD AND SUCROSE ACCUMULATING CAPACITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose catabolism is a major determinant of sink strength in nearly all plants and affects sucrose partitioning to growing sinks as well as sink size and carbohydrate content. Three major enzyme families are responsible for sucrose catabolism in sugarbeet roots: acid invertase, alkaline invertase ...

  14. Gibberellins, jasmonate and abscisic acid modulate the sucrose-induced expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Loreti; Giovanni Povero; Giacomo Novi; Cinzia Solfanelli; Amedeo Alpi; Pierdomenico Perata

    2008-01-01

    Summary • Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in the physiology of plants. Both sucrose and hormones regulate anthocyanin synthesis. Here, the interplay between sucrose and plant hormones was investigated in the expression of sucrose-regulated genes coding for anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes in Arabidopsis seedlings.  The expression pattern of 14 genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway,

  15. WHOLE CINNAMON AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS AMELIORATE SUCROSE-INDUCED BLOOD PRESSURE ELEVATIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agents (nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs) that favorably influence the insulin system by enhancing insulin sensitivity and/or reducing circulating insulin concentrations have been shown to lower blood pressure (BP). Recently, it was reported that cinnamon has the potential to favorably inf...

  16. Aphanomyces effects on carbohydrate impurities and sucrose extractability in postharvest sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet roots with rot caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides often are incorporated into storage piles even though effects of disease on processing properties are unknown. Roots with Aphanomyces root rot were harvested from six fields over 2 years. For each field, roots with similar disease symptom...

  17. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  18. Study of amyloids using yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Shewmaker, Frank; McGlinchey, Ryan; Edskes, Herman K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism in such fields as the cell cycle, regulation of transcription, protein trafficking and cell biology, primarily because of its ease of genetic manipulation. This is no less so in the area of amyloid studies. The endogenous yeast amyloids described to date include prions, infectious proteins (Table 1), and some cell wall proteins (1). and amyloids of humans and a fungal prion have also been studied using the yeast system. Accordingly, the emphasis of this chapter will be on genetic, biochemical, cell biological and physical methods particularly useful in the study of yeast prions and other amyloids studied in yeast. We limit our description of these methods to those aspects which have been most useful in studying yeast prions, citing more detailed expositions in the literature. Volumes on yeast genetics methods (2–4), and on amyloids and prions (5, 6) are useful, and Masison has edited a volume of Methods on “Identification, analysis and characterization of fungal prions” which covers some of this territory (7). We also outline some useful physical methods, pointing the reader to more extensive and authoratative descriptions. PMID:22528100

  19. Sucrose Synthase Localization during Initiation of Seed Development and Trichome Differentiation in Cotton Ovules.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, K. D.; Hendrix, D. L.; Radin, J. W.; Koch, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    Sucrose synthase in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ovules was immunolocalized to clarify the relationship between this enzyme and (a) sucrose import/utilization during initiation of seed development, (b) trichome differentiation, and (c) cell-wall biosynthesis in these rapidly elongating "fibers." Analyses focused on the period immediately before and after trichome initiation (at pollination). Internal tissues most heavily immunolabeled were the developing nucellus, adjacent integument (inner surface), and the vascular region. Little sucrose synthase was associated with the outermost epidermis on the day preceding pollination. However, 1 d later, immunolabel appeared specifically in those epidermal cells at the earliest visible phase of trichome differentiation. The day following pollination, these cells had elongated 3- to 5-fold and showed a further enhancement of sucrose synthase immunolabel. Levels of sucrose synthase mRNA also increased during this period, regardless of whether pollination per se had occurred. Timing of onset for the cell-specific localization of sucrose synthase in young seeds and trichome initials indicates a close association between this enzyme and sucrose import at a cellular level, as well as a potentially integral role in cell-wall biosynthesis. PMID:12228669

  20. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat and sucrose under limited access conditions.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Wojnicki, Francis H

    2009-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and opioids are implicated in impulse control, addiction and binge eating. Recent evidence suggests that sucrose alters the effects of GABAergic, dopaminergic, and opioid receptor ligands on consumption of a fatty food in a rat limited-access binge protocol. This study determined the independent effects of fat and sucrose on the efficacy of these ligands under limited-access conditions. Nonfood-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats had 1 h access to fat (vegetable shortening) or sucrose (3.2, 10, or 32% w/v). Half had intermittent access (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) and half had daily access. Effects of baclofen (GABAB agonist), SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), raclopride (D2 antagonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist) were assessed. Baclofen and naltrexone reduced fat intake regardless of the access schedule. Baclofen had no effect on sucrose intake; naltrexone reduced sucrose intake at higher doses than were required to reduce fat intake. Raclopride stimulated fat intake in intermittent-access rats and had no effect in daily-access rats; raclopride reduced sucrose intake in all groups. SCH 23390 reduced intake in a nonspecific manner. The results indicate the involvement of GABAB receptors in fat but not sucrose intake, and of D2 receptor dysfunction in rats with a history of bingeing on fat. PMID:19724193

  1. Promotion of Flowering in Brassica campestris L. cv Ceres by Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Douglas J. C.; Bodson, Monique; Bernier, Georges

    1984-01-01

    Flower initiation of the quantitative long-day plant Brassica campestris cv Ceres was earlier and at a lower final leaf number when sucrose was added to the medium in which plants were grown in sterile culture. The optimal concentration of sucrose was 40 to 80 millimolar. This flower-promoting effect of sucrose was not osmotic, as mannitol, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol were not effective at equal osmotic potentials. Seedlings grown heterotrophically after treatment with 4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3-(2H)-pyridazinone to prevent chlorophyll accumulation were also induced to form flower primordia earlier as the sucrose concentration in the medium was increased up to 80 millimolar. Inclusion of 4 millimolar sodium nitrate in the culture medium of green plants did not reduce the flower-promoting effects of sucrose but delayed initiation in plants grown without added sucrose. Removal of CO2 during a single main or supplementary light period, or both, greatly reduced flower initiation. It is concluded that sucrose may be an important controlling factor determining floral initiation in Brassica. PMID:16663739

  2. Companion-Cell Specific Localization of Sucrose Synthase in Zones of Phloem Loading and Unloading.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, K. D.; Koch, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    An immunohistochemical approach was used in maize (Zea mays) and citrus (Citrus paradisi) to address the previously noted association between sucrose synthase and vascular bundles and to determine the localization of the low but detectable levels of sucrose synthase that remain in leaves after the import-export transition. Sucrose synthase protein was immunolocalized at the light microscope level using paraffin sections reacted with rabbit sucrose synthase polyclonal antisera and gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. Immunolabel was specifically observed in phloem companion cells of minor and intermediate veins in mature leaves of both species. Similar localization was apparent in the midrib of mature citrus leaves, with additional labeling in selected files of phloem parenchyma cells. A clear companion-cell specificity was evident in the phloem unloading zone of citrus fruit, where high activity of sucrose synthase has been demonstrated in vascular bundles during periods of rapid import. Sucrose synthase protein was not associated with adjacent cells surrounding the vascular strands in this tissue. The companion-cell specificity of sucrose synthase in phloem of both importing and exporting structures of these diverse species implies that this may be a widespread association and underscores its potential importance to the physiology of vascular bundles. PMID:12231741

  3. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (P<0.05). Chronic pain during early life impaired short-term memory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (P<0.05). Sucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. PMID:25846434

  4. Considerations for using sucrose to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth E

    2010-05-01

    Preterm and critically ill newborns admitted to a NICU undergo repeated skin-breaking procedures that are necessary for their survival. Sucrose is rapidly becoming the accepted clinical standard nonpharmacologic intervention for managing acute procedural pain for these infants. Although shown to be safe in single doses, only 4 studies have evaluated the effects of repeated doses of sucrose over relatively short periods of time. None has examined the use of sucrose throughout the NICU stay, and only 1 study evaluated the neurodevelopmental outcomes after repeated doses of sucrose. In that study, infants born at <31 weeks' gestational age and exposed to >10 doses per day in the first week of life were more likely to show poorer attention and motor development in the early months after discharge from the NICU. Results of studies in animal models have suggested that the mechanism of action of sucrose is through opioid pathways; however, in human infants, little has been done to examine the physiologic mechanisms involved, and the findings reported thus far have been ambiguous. Drawing from the growing animal literature of research that has examined the effects of chronic sugar exposure, we describe alternative amine and hormone pathways that are common to the processing of sucrose, attention, and motor development. In addition, a review of the latest research to examine the effects of repeated sucrose on pain processing is presented. These 2 literatures each can inform the other and can provide an impetus to initiate research to examine not only the mechanisms involved in the calming mechanisms of sucrose but also in the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of repeated sucrose in those infants born extremely preterm or critically ill. PMID:20403938

  5. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S.; Lundy, Robert F.; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H2O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  6. Effect of lemon extract on foodborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Speranza, B; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2007-08-01

    A quantitative investigation was conducted on the antimicrobial effect of lemon extract against some food spoilage microorganisms: yeasts, Bacillus species, and lactic acid bacteria. Growth kinetics and dose-response profiles were determined from experimental data obtained with a suitable macrodilution methodology based on a turbidimetric technique. Growth and no-growth status of microbial suspensions were expressed in terms of noninhibitory concentration (NIC) and MIC. Lemon extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of the investigated vegetative cells and spores of microorganisms; effects were similar for bacteria and yeasts. The NICs for all microorganisms were very small, at around 10 ppm. Based on MICs, among the Bacillus species, the more resistant was Bacillus licheniformis. For yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the least resistant, and similar results were obtained for Pichia subpelliculosa. Candida lusitaniae had an MIC of more than 100 ppm. Both Lactobacillus species were more resistant to lemon extract; concentrations necessary to provoke complete inhibition were approximately 150 ppm. PMID:17803147

  7. Synthesis of a sucrose dimer with enone tether; a study on its functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Pakulski, Zbigniew; Gajda, Norbert; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Frelek, Jadwiga; Cmoch, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Summary The reaction of appropriately functionalized sucrose phosphonate with sucrose aldehyde afforded a dimer composed of two sucrose units connected via their C6-positions (‘the glucose ends’). The carbonyl group in this product (enone) was stereoselectively reduced with zinc borohydride and the double bond (after protection of the allylic alcohol formed after reduction) was oxidized with osmium tetroxide to a diol. Absolute configurations of the allylic alcohol as well as the diol were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy using the in situ dimolybdenum methodology. PMID:24991275

  8. Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use

    PubMed Central

    Rudenga, KJ; Small, DM

    2011-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether exposure to artificial sweeteners degrades the predictive relationship between sweet taste and its post-ingestive consequences. Here we tested whether brain response to caloric sucrose is influenced by individual differences in self-reported artificial sweetener use. Twenty-six subjects participated in fMRI scanning while consuming sucrose solutions. A negative correlation between artificial sweetener use and amygdala response to sucrose ingestion was observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior. PMID:22178008

  9. Transport of sugars, including sucrose, by the msm transport system of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Sutcliffe, I C; Russell, R R; Ferretti, J J

    1993-10-01

    The range of substrates transported by the sugar-binding protein-dependent msm (multiple sugar metabolism) system of S. mutans was investigated. By determining the ability of unlabeled sugar to compete with radiolabeled melibiose transport, we have demonstrated that the transported sugars included a number of carbohydrates structurally related to raffinose. A model accommodating these results has been devised which accounts for the sugars transported by the msm transport system. Competition with radiolabeled melibiose transport indicated sucrose to be an msm substrate. This was confirmed by examination of uptake of radiolabeled sucrose in scrAB mutants lacking the sucrose-specific phosphotransferase system. PMID:8408880

  10. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  11. Riboneogenesis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Clasquin, Michelle F.; Melamud, Eugene; Singer, Alexander; Gooding, Jessica R.; Xu, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiping; Cui, Hong; Campagna, Shawn R.; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Caudy, Amy A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Gluconeogenesis converts three carbon units into glucose. Here we identify an analogous pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting three carbon units into ribose, a component of nucleic acids and nucleotides. This riboneogenic pathway involves the enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SHB17), whose activity was identified based on accumulation of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate in the corresponding knockout strain. We determined the crystal structure of Shb17 in complex with sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate, and found that the sugar is bound in the closed furan form in the active site. Like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate is produced by aldolase, in this case from erythrose 4-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Hydrolysis of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate by SHB17 provides an energetically favorable input to the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to drive ribose production. Flux through SHB17 is enhanced under conditions when ribose demand is high relative to demand for NADPH, including during ribosome biogenesis in metabolically synchronized yeast cells. Thus, riboneogenesis provides a thermodynamically-driven route of ribose production uncoupled from formation of NADPH. PMID:21663798

  12. The Spatial Distribution of Sucrose Synthase Isozymes in Barley.

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, J.; Carbonero, P.

    1997-01-01

    The sucrose (Suc) synthase enzyme purified from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots is a homotetramer that is composed of 90-kD type 1 Suc synthase (SS1) subunits. Km values for Suc and UDP were 30 mM and 5 [mu]M, respectively. This enzyme can also utilize ADP at 25% of the UDP rate. Anti-SS1 polyclonal antibodies, which recognized both SS1 and type 2 Suc synthase (SS2) (88-kD) subunits, and antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide, LANGSTDNNFV, which were specific for SS2, were used to study the spatial distribution of these subunits by immunoblot analysis and immunolocalization. Both SS1 and SS2 were abundantly expressed in endosperm, where they polymerize to form the five possible homo- and heterotetramers. Only SS1 homotetramers were detected in young leaves, where they appeared exclusively in phloem cells, and in roots, where expression was associated with cap cells and the vascular bundle. In the seed both SS1 and SS2 were present in endosperm, but only SS1 was apparent in the chalazal region, the nucellar projection, and the vascular bundle. The physiological implications for the difference in expression patterns observed are discussed with respect to the maize (Zea mays L.) model. PMID:12223688

  13. Decoding Neural Circuits that Control Compulsive Sucrose Seeking.

    PubMed

    Nieh, Edward H; Matthews, Gillian A; Allsop, Stephen A; Presbrey, Kara N; Leppla, Christopher A; Wichmann, Romy; Neve, Rachael; Wildes, Craig P; Tye, Kay M

    2015-01-29

    The lateral hypothalamic (LH) projection to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been linked to reward processing, but the computations within the LH-VTA loop that give rise to specific aspects of behavior have been difficult to isolate. We show that LH-VTA neurons encode the learned action of seeking a reward, independent of reward availability. In contrast, LH neurons downstream of VTA encode reward-predictive cues and unexpected reward omission. We show that inhibiting the LH-VTA pathway reduces "compulsive" sucrose seeking but not food consumption in hungry mice. We reveal that the LH sends excitatory and inhibitory input onto VTA dopamine (DA) and GABA neurons, and that the GABAergic projection drives feeding-related behavior. Our study overlays information about the type, function, and connectivity of LH neurons and identifies a neural circuit that selectively controls compulsive sugar consumption, without preventing feeding necessary for survival, providing a potential target for therapeutic interventions for compulsive-overeating disorder. PMID:25635460

  14. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

    1994-10-14

    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input. PMID:7973617

  15. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  16. Sucrose in cyanobacteria: from a salt-response molecule to play a key role in nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Kolman, María A; Nishi, Carolina N; Perez-Cenci, Macarena; Salerno, Graciela L

    2015-01-01

    In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes. PMID:25569239

  17. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 ?m plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  18. Nuclear Transport of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin ??. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin ?, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells. PMID:25333764

  19. Effects of bovine somatotropin (rbSt) concentration at different moisture levels on the physical stability of sucrose in freeze-dried rbSt/sucrose mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sarciaux, J M; Hageman, M J

    1997-03-01

    The inherent instability of many proteins during freeze-drying and storage necessitates the addition of excipients to protect the proteins. It is emphasized in the literature that lyophilized sugar/protein composites should be stored at temperatures below their glass transition temperature (T(g)) to prevent crystallization of excipients. The influence of bovine somatotropin (rbSt) concentration on inhibition of sucrose crystallization at different relative humidities (RH) was of interest. Thermally modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) was used to measure T(g) and sucrose crystallization temperatures (T(c)) of the composites. Sorption isotherms of the various sucrose/rbSt mixtures were determined gravimetrically with a controlled atmosphere microbalance (CAM) and verified by Karl Fischer analysis of selected samples. The CAM was also used to determine lag times and sucrose crystal growth rates by monitoring weight losses resulting from water liberation upon crystallization of sucrose at 23 degrees C. Results obtained by MDSC indicate that the T(c) increased linearly from approximately 110 degrees C for pure sucrose to approximately 140 degrees C with 20% rbSt at very low water content (<0.1%). Similarly, at 22% RH (4.4% H2O), T(c) increased from approximately 70 degrees C to 120 degrees C. In neither case was T(g) impacted significantly by increasing protein from 0 to 20%. No T(c) could be noted for samples with > or = 30% rbSt in nonisothermal conditions. Plasticization by water decreased both T(g) and T(c) quite similarly but didn't impact the noted effect of protein on T(c). Induction time for sucrose crystallization (i.e. nucleation) at approximately 45% RH (23 degrees C) increased almost 10-fold by addition of 10% rbSt, whereas rates of water loss due to crystallization decreased by no more than 2-3-fold. The overall results strongly indicate that formulations of higher protein concentration will be more resistant to sucrose crystallization and thus more robust when transiently exposed to storage temperatures above their T(g). PMID:9050807

  20. The reward value of sucrose in leptin-deficient obese mice.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Ana I; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Sordillo, Aylesse; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Leptin-deficient patients report higher "liking" ratings for food, and leptin replacement therapy normalizes these ratings even before weight loss is achieved. Since animals cannot report their ratings, we studied the relationship between leptin and food reward in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice using a optogenetic assay that quantifies the reward value of sucrose. In this assay, mice chose between one sipper dispensing the artificial sweetener sucralose coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and another sipper dispensing sucrose. We found that the reward value of sucrose was high under a state of leptin deficiency, as well as at a dose of leptin that does not suppress food intake (12.5 ng/h). Treatment with higher doses of leptin decreased the reward value of sucrose before weight loss was achieved (100 ng/h), as seen in leptin-deficient patients. These results phenocopy in mice the behavior of leptin-deficient patients. PMID:24567906

  1. Microplate assay for rapid determination of sucrose, glucose, fructose and raffinose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for the quantification of carbohydrates in sugarbeet roots have limitations. Polarimetry and refractometry measure only sucrose content and are inaccurate with deteriorated roots. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) quantify all simple carbohy...

  2. Sucrose (table sugar) permeability as a diagnostic test for equine gastric ulcers

    E-print Network

    O'Conor, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric ulceration in horses is high, often reaching 90% depending on population and level of training. Endoscopic examination is the only means of definitive diagnosis. The hypothesis of this study was that urinary sucrose...

  3. The reward value of sucrose in leptin-deficient obese mice?

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Ana I.; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Sordillo, Aylesse; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin-deficient patients report higher “liking” ratings for food, and leptin replacement therapy normalizes these ratings even before weight loss is achieved. Since animals cannot report their ratings, we studied the relationship between leptin and food reward in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice using a optogenetic assay that quantifies the reward value of sucrose. In this assay, mice chose between one sipper dispensing the artificial sweetener sucralose coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and another sipper dispensing sucrose. We found that the reward value of sucrose was high under a state of leptin deficiency, as well as at a dose of leptin that does not suppress food intake (12.5 ng/h). Treatment with higher doses of leptin decreased the reward value of sucrose before weight loss was achieved (100 ng/h), as seen in leptin-deficient patients. These results phenocopy in mice the behavior of leptin-deficient patients. PMID:24567906

  4. Modeling Sucrose Hydrolysis in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solutions at Pretreatment Conditions for Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, S.; Wickramasinghe, R.; Nagle, N. J.; Schell, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and herbaceous feedstocks may contain appreciable levels of sucrose. The goal of this study was to evaluate the survivability of sucrose and its hydrolysis products, fructose and glucose, during dilute sulfuric acid processing at conditions typically used to pretreat lignocellulose biomass. Solutions containing 25 g/l sucrose with 0.1-2.0% (w/w) sulfuric acid concentrations were treated at temperatures of 160-200 C for 3-12 min. Sucrose was observed to completely hydrolyze at all treatment conditions. However, appreciable concentrations of fructose and glucose were detected and glucose was found to be significantly more stable than fructose. Different mathematical approaches were used to fit the kinetic parameters for acid-catalyzed thermal degradation of these sugars. Since both sugars may survive dilute acid pretreatment, they could provide an additional carbon source for production of ethanol and other bio-based products.

  5. The effects of fruiting positions on cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  6. The Effects of Fruiting Positions on Cellulose Synthesis and Sucrose Metabolism during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fiber Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Jingran; Lv, Fengjuan; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll positions on a fruiting branch vary in their contribution to yield and fiber quality. Fiber properties are dependent on deposition of cellulose in the fiber cell wall, but information about the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism between these fruiting positions is lacking. Therefore, two cotton cultivars with different sensitivities to low temperature were tested in 2010 and 2011 to quantify the effect of fruit positions (FPs) on fiber quality in relation to sucrose content, enzymatic activities and sucrose metabolism. The indices including sucrose content, sucrose transformation rate, cellulose content, and the activities of the key enzymes, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), acid invertase (AI) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) which inhibit cellulose synthesis and eventually affect fiber quality traits in cotton fiber, were determined. Results showed that as compared with those of FP1, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate of FP3 were all decreased, and the variations of cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by FPs in Sumian 15 were larger than those in Kemian 1. Under FP effect, activities of SPS and AI in sucrose regulation were decreased, while SuSy activity in sucrose degradation was increased. The changes in activities of SuSy and SPS in response to FP effect displayed different and large change ranges between the two cultivars. These results indicate that restrained cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in distal FPs are mainly attributed to the changes in the activities of these enzymes. The difference in fiber quality, cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in response to FPs in fiber cells for the two cotton cultivars was mainly determined by the activities of both SuSy and SPS. PMID:24586807

  7. EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATION AND WATER AND SUCROSE DIFFUSIVITY IN OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF PINEAPPLE SLABS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Waliszewski; J. L. Delgado; M. A. García

    2002-01-01

    The weight and water loss of 6 mm thick pineapple slabs (one of a six part of slice) were analyzed during osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70°C), sucrose concentrations (50, 60 and 70°Bx) and pH's (6, 7 and 8), in 3 experimental design. These results were fitted to a modified Azuara equation to obtain water

  8. ROLE OF INITIAL SUCROSE AND PH LEVELS ON NATURAL, HYDROGEN-PRODUCING, ANAEROBE GERMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Van Ginkel; ShihWu Sung; Ling Li

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic batch cultures were established to assess natural anaerobic sporulation, germination, and hydrogen production. Heat-shocked soil inocula obtained from a potato field was cultured using sucrose as the substrate. Eleven batch experimental results suggested that baking was an excellent heat-shock treatment to select for spore forming hydrogen-producing bacteria i.e. clostridia from the soil. Sucrose could induce clostridial spore germination and

  9. The significance of an increased RQ after sucrose ingestion during prolonged aerobic exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. S. Benadé; C. R. Jansen; G. G. Rogers; C. H. Wyndham; N. B. Strydom

    1973-01-01

    Four well-trained male subjects worked for periods of 6 h on bicycle ergometers at work loads requiring about 47% of their maximal aerobic capacity. In one series of studies they received only water; in a second series they received 100 g of sucrose containing 100 µc U-C14-labelled sucrose at the beginning of the fourth hour of work. In a third

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrate esters of fatty acid (I) esterification of sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Seino; Tsuyoshi Uchibori; Toshiyuki Nishitani; Sachiko Inamasu

    1984-01-01

    The authors attempted to synthesize carbohydrate esters of fatty acids enzymatically in order to overcome the problems associated\\u000a with the chemical processes for the synthesis of commercial sucrose esters. The enzymes used were lipases from microorganisms\\u000a belonging toRhyzopus, Enterbacterium, Aspergillus, Pseudomonas, Chromobacterium, Candida, Mucor andPenicillium. Fatty acids (stearic, oleic and linoleic) and carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol) used for

  11. Analysis of sucrose synthase genes in citrus suggests different roles and phylogenetic relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Komatsu; Takaya Moriguchi; Kazuhiko Koyama; Mitsuo Omura; Tomoya Akihama

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was 2-fold; first, a molecularuevolutionary characterization of three sucrose synthase genes from citrus, and second, an analysis of their differential expression related to potential physiological function. Three non-allelic genes (CitSUS1, CitSUSA and CitSUS2) encoding sucrose synthase were isolated from citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Phylogenetic analysis from the deduced amino acid sequences showed that CitSUS1

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    ORIGINAL PAPER Evolutionarily engineered ethanologenic yeast detoxifies lignocellulosic biomass with subsequent fermentation of ethanol, posing significant challenges for a sustainable cellulosic ethanol conversion industry. Numerous yeast genes were found to be associated with the inhibitor tolerance. However

  13. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  14. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Bacteria, Yeast and Chemicals on Human Skin HealthDay April ... the distribution and quantity of metabolites, peptides, lipids, bacteria, yeast, proteins, chemicals and more. As expected, many ...

  15. Enzymatic process for the fractionation of baker's yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Blecker, Christophe; Thonart, Philippe

    2014-11-15

    ?-Glucans, homopolymers of glucose, are widespread in many microorganisms, mushrooms and plants. They have attracted attention because of their bioactive and medicinal functions. One important source of ?-glucans is the cell wall of yeasts, especially that of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several processes for the isolation of ?-glucans, using alkali, acid or a combination of both, result in degradation of the polymeric chains. In this paper, we have an enzymatic process for the isolation of glucans from yeast cell walls. As a result, ?-glucans were obtained in a yield of 18.0% of the original ratio in the yeast cell walls. Therefore, this isolation process gave a better yield and higher ?-glucan content than did traditional isolation methods. Furthermore, results showed that each extraction step of ?-glucan had a significant effects on its chemical properties. PMID:24912704

  16. A thiamine-regulatable epitope-tagged protein expression system in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fission yeast, has been a popular and useful model system for investigating the mechanisms of biological processes for a long time. To facilitate purification, localization, and functional analysis of gene products, a wide range of expression vectors have been developed. Several of these vectors utilize the inducible/repressible promoter systems and enable the episomal expression of proteins as fusion proteins with epitope tags attached to their N terminus or C terminus.This chapter provides a detailed protocol for expression of the epitope-tagged proteins from thiamine-regulatable nmt promoter in fission yeast. The yeast culture conditions and procedures for yeast transformation, expression induction, preparation of whole-cell extracts, and analysis of epitope-tagged protein expression by Western blotting are described. PMID:22160912

  17. A media design program for lactic acid production coupled with extraction by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate industrial media for lactic acid fermentation to reduce the cost of nitrogen sources. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was successfully used at 5% (v/v) in batch fermentations. Use of soluble CSL improved the productivity approximately 20% with an advantage of clearer fermentation broth. Yeast extract (YE)-complemented CSL media further increased the productivity. It was found that 3.1 g L(-1) yeast extract and 5% CSL could be an effective substitute for 15 g L(-1) yeast extract in 10% glucose medium. Spent brewery yeast was also used as a sole nitrogen source equivalent to 5% CSL. Lactic acid was recovered by electrodialysis from the cell free broth. Depleted cell free broth supplemented with 5 g L(-1) of yeast extract performed reasonably in batch cultures. Reuse of the fermentation broth may reduce the cost of raw materials as well as minimize the fermentation wastes. PMID:15939279

  18. Cdc42 Oscillations in Yeasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Felipe O. Bendezu (Switzerland; University of Lausanne REV)

    2012-12-04

    A fundamental problem in cell biology is how cells define one or several discrete sites of polarity. Through mechanisms involving positive and negative feedback, the small Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42 breaks symmetry in round budding yeast cells to define a single site of polarized cell growth. However, it is not clear how cells can define multiple sites of polarization concurrently. We discuss a study in which rod-shaped fission yeast cells, which naturally polarize growth at their two cell ends, exhibited oscillations of Cdc42 activity between these sites. We compare these findings with similar oscillatory behavior of Cdc42 detected in budding yeast cells and discuss the possible mechanism and functional outputs of these oscillations.

  19. Post-translational regulation of sucrose transporters by direct protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Krügel, Undine; Kühn, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose transporters are essential membrane proteins for the allocation of carbon resources in higher plants and protein–protein interactions play a crucial role in the post-translational regulation of sucrose transporters affecting affinity, transport capacity, oligomerization, localization, and trafficking. Systematic screening for protein interactors using sucrose transporters as bait proteins helped identifying several proteins binding to sucrose transporters from apple, Arabidopsis, potato, or tomato using the split ubiquitin system. This mini-review summarizes known sucrose transporter-interacting proteins and their potential function in plants. Not all of the identified interaction partners are postulated to be located at the plasma membrane, but some are predicted to be endoplasmic reticulum-residing proteins such as a protein disulfide isomerase and members of the cytochrome b5 family. Many of the SUT1-interacting proteins are secretory proteins or involved in metabolism. Identification of actin and actin-related proteins as SUT1-interacting proteins confirmed the observation that movement of SUT1-containing intracellular vesicles can be blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization using specific inhibitors. Manipulation of expression of these interacting proteins represents one possible way to modify resource allocation by post-translational regulation of sucrose transporters. PMID:23847641

  20. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats

    PubMed Central

    Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating. PMID:25610366

  1. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (? 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

  2. The thermodynamic analysis of protein stabilization by sucrose and glycerol against pressure-induced unfolding.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Kangcheng; Xu, Chunhe; Li, Tingting; Li, Jiong; Lange, Reinhard; Balny, Claude

    2003-04-01

    We have studied the reaction native left arrow over right arrow denatured for the 33-kDa protein isolated from photosystem II. Sucrose and glycerol have profound effects on pressure-induced unfolding. The additives shift the equilibrium to the left; they also cause a significant decrease in the standard volume change (DeltaV). The change in DeltaV was related to the sucrose and glycerol concentrations. The decrease in DeltaV varied with the additive: sucrose caused the largest effect, glycerol the smallest. The theoretical shift of the half-unfolding pressure (P1/2) calculated from the net increase in free energy by addition of sucrose and glycerol was lower than that obtained from experimental mea- surements. This indicates that the free energy change caused by preferential hydration of the protein is not the unique factor involved in the protein stabilization. The reduction in DeltaV showed a large contribution to the theoretical P1/2 shift, suggesting that the DeltaV change, caused by the sucrose or glycerol was associated with the protein stabilization. The origin of the DeltaV change is discussed. The rate of pressure-induced unfolding in the presence of sucrose or glycerol was slower than the refolding rate although both were significantly slower than that observed without any stabilizers. PMID:12694178

  3. Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

  4. Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9.

    PubMed

    Lin, I Winnie; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Gase, Klaus; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kessler, Danny; Klinkenberg, Peter M; Gorder, Molly K; Hou, Bi-Huei; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Carter, Clay J; Baldwin, Ian T; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-04-24

    Angiosperms developed floral nectaries that reward pollinating insects. Although nectar function and composition have been characterized, the mechanism of nectar secretion has remained unclear. Here we identify SWEET9 as a nectary-specific sugar transporter in three eudicot species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa (extrastaminal nectaries) and Nicotiana attenuata (gynoecial nectaries). We show that SWEET9 is essential for nectar production and can function as an efflux transporter. We also show that sucrose phosphate synthase genes, encoding key enzymes for sucrose biosynthesis, are highly expressed in nectaries and that their expression is also essential for nectar secretion. Together these data are consistent with a model in which sucrose is synthesized in the nectary parenchyma and subsequently secreted into the extracellular space via SWEET9, where sucrose is hydrolysed by an apoplasmic invertase to produce a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The recruitment of SWEET9 for sucrose export may have been a key innovation, and could have coincided with the evolution of core eudicots and contributed to the evolution of nectar secretion to reward pollinators. PMID:24670640

  5. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044

  6. Evaluation of Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Supercritical Fluid Extract of Leaves of Vitex negundo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was tested for its antimicrobial potential and was compared with that of ethanol extract, ether extract and hydrodistilled oil of leaves. The chemical constituents of extracts were studied by chromatographic techniques. Extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast Candida albicans. Extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Supercritical fluid extract exhibited good antibacterial potential. PMID:21695000

  7. Components of the yeast spindle and spindle pole body

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Yeast spindle pole bodies (SPBs) with attached nuclear microtubles were enriched approximately 600-fold from yeast cell extracts. 14 mAbs prepared against this enriched SPB fraction define at least three components of the SPB and spindle. Immunofluorescent staining of yeast cells showed that throughout the cell cycle two of the components (110 and 90 kD) were localized exclusively to the SPB region, and the other (80 kD) was localized both to the SPB region and to particulate dots in short spindles. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed and extended most of these findings. Thus the 110-kD component was localized to a layer in the SPB just to the nuclear side of the plane of the inner nuclear membrane. The 90-kD component was localized in a layer across the cytoplasmic face of intact SPBs, and, in SPBs where nuclear microtubules were removed by extraction with DEAE-dextran, the 90-kD component was also found in an inner nuclear layer close to where spindle microtubules emerge. In intact SPBs with attached nuclear microtubules the anit-80-kD mAb labels microtubules, particularly those close to the SPB. These results begin to provide a preliminary molecular map of the SPB and should also enable the corresponding genes to be isolated. PMID:2229181

  8. Sucrose Octasulfate Selectively Accelerates Thrombin Inactivation by Heparin Cofactor II*

    PubMed Central

    Sarilla, Suryakala; Habib, Sally Y.; Kravtsov, Dmitri V.; Matafonov, Anton; Gailani, David; Verhamme, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Inactivation of thrombin (T) by the serpins heparin cofactor II (HCII) and antithrombin (AT) is accelerated by a heparin template between the serpin and thrombin exosite II. Unlike AT, HCII also uses an allosteric interaction of its NH2-terminal segment with exosite I. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS) accelerated thrombin inactivation by HCII but not AT by 2000-fold. SOS bound to two sites on thrombin, with dissociation constants (KD) of 10 ± 4 ?m and 400 ± 300 ?m that were not kinetically resolvable, as evidenced by single hyperbolic SOS concentration dependences of the inactivation rate (kobs). SOS bound HCII with KD 1.45 ± 0.30 mm, and this binding was tightened in the T·SOS·HCII complex, characterized by Kcomplex of ?0.20 ?m. Inactivation data were incompatible with a model solely depending on HCII·SOS but fit an equilibrium linkage model employing T·SOS binding in the pathway to higher order complex formation. Hirudin-(54–65)(SO3?) caused a hyperbolic decrease of the inactivation rates, suggesting partial competitive binding of hirudin-(54–65)(SO3?) and HCII to exosite I. Meizothrombin(des-fragment 1), binding SOS with KD = 1600 ± 300 ?m, and thrombin were inactivated at comparable rates, and an exosite II aptamer had no effect on the inactivation, suggesting limited exosite II involvement. SOS accelerated inactivation of meizothrombin 1000-fold, reflecting the contribution of direct exosite I interaction with HCII. Thrombin generation in plasma was suppressed by SOS, both in HCII-dependent and -independent processes. The ex vivo HCII-dependent process may utilize the proposed model and suggests a potential for oversulfated disaccharides in controlling HCII-regulated thrombin generation. PMID:20053992

  9. Sorption of grape proanthocyanidins and wine polyphenols by yeasts, inactivated yeasts, and yeast cell walls.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Sieczkowski, N; Roi, S; Vernhet, A

    2015-01-21

    Inactivated yeast fractions (IYFs) can be used in enology to improve the stability and mouthfeel of red wines. However, information concerning the mechanisms involved and the impact of the IYF characteristics is scarce. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate interactions between grape proanthocyanidin fractions (PAs) or wine polyphenols (WP) and a commercial yeast strain (Y), the inactivated yeast (IY), the yeast submitted to autolyzis and inactivation (A-IY), and the cell walls obtained by mechanical disruption (CW). High affinity isotherms and high adsorption capacities were observed for grape PAs and whole cells (Y, IY, and A-IY). Affinity and adsorbed amount were lower with wine PAs, due to chemical changes occurring during winemaking. By contrast to whole cells, grape PAs and WP adsorption on CW remained very low. This raises the issue of the part played by cell walls in the interactions between yeast and proanthocyanidins and suggests the passage of the latter through the wall pores and their interaction with the plasma membrane. PMID:25575250

  10. Yeast: A Research Organism for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manney, Thomas R.; Manney, Monta L.

    1992-01-01

    Explains why laboratory strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are particularly suited for classroom science activities. Describes the sexual life cycle of yeast and the genetic system with visible mutations. Presents an overview of activities that can be done with yeast and gives a source for teachers to obtain more information. (PR)

  11. ESTUDIO DE LA VARIACIÓN DE LA COMPOSICIÓN DE LOS POLISACÁRIDOS CONTENIDOS EN LA PARED CELULAR DE LA LEVADURA SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE VARIATION STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE POLYSACCHARIDES CONTAINED IN THE CELLULAR WALL OF THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solis Pacheco

    2005-01-01

    The cellular wall of yeasts represents between 20%-30% of a cell's dry weight. It is made of complex polysaccharides from ?-glucans, mannoproteins and chitin. The composition of polysaccharides contained in the cellular wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113 was studied, and a variation effect in the carbon source (glucose, sucrose, galactose, maltose, mannose, ethanol) and pH (3, 4, 5, 6)

  12. Sucrose synthase activity does not restrict glycolysis in roots of transgenic potato plants under hypoxic conditions

    PubMed

    Biemelt; Hajirezaei; Melzer; Albrecht; Sonnewald

    1999-11-01

    The effect of hypoxia on root development and carbon metabolism was studied using potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants as a model system. Hypoxia led to a cessation of root elongation, and finally to the death of meristematic cells. These changes were accompanied by a 4- to 5-fold accumulation of hexoses, suggesting that insufficient carbohydrate supply was not the cause of cell death. In addition, prolonged hypoxia (96 h) resulted in a 50% increase in activity of most glycolytic enzymes studied and the accumulation of glycerate-3-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. This indicates that endproduct utilisation may restrict metabolic flux through glycolysis. As expected, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) and pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) increased during hypoxia. Apart from the enzymes of ethanolic fermentation the activity of sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) was enhanced. To investigate the in-vivo significance of this increase, transgenic plants with reduced SuSy activity were analysed. Compared to untransformed controls, transgenic plants showed a reduced ability to resume growth after re-aeration, emphasising the crucial role of SuSy in the toleration of hypoxia. Surprisingly, analysis of glycolytic intermediates in root extracts from SuSy antisense plants revealed no change as compared to wildtype plants. Therefore, limitation of glycolysis is most likely not responsible for the observed decreased ability for recovery after prolonged oxygen starvation. We assume that the function of SuSy during hypoxia might be to channel excess carbohydrates into cell wall polymers for later consumption rather than fuelling glycolysis. PMID:10592031

  13. Ethanol fermentation of energy beets by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Steven Green, V; Ge, Xumeng; Savary, Brett J; Xu, Jianfeng

    2014-03-01

    Specialized varieties of sugar beets (Energy Beets™) are being developed for producing industrial sugars in Arkansas' Mississippi River Delta. To evaluate their suitability for producing regional fermentation feedstocks, we report initial cultivation trials and ethanol fermentation of raw beet juice and combined juice with pulp mash (JPM) liquefied with enzymes, comparing ethanol yields under different regimes by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts. Nine varieties produced root yields averaging 115Mg/ha and 18.5% sucrose contents. Raw beet juice fermentation yielded ethanol up to 0.48g/g (sugar). JPM was directly fermented through either a sequential (SeqSF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. For both yeast types, SSF was a more efficient process than SeqSF, with ethanol yields up to 0.47g/g (sugar) and volumetric productivity up to 7.81g/L/h. These results indicate the self-flocculating yeast is suitable for developing efficient bioprocesses to ferment industrial sugar from energy beets. PMID:24462879

  14. Storage of Brewing Yeasts by Liquid Nitrogen Refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, A. M.; Stewart, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many yeast strains are difficult to maintain in culture in a stable state, and long-term preservation by lyophilization, which has proved useful for other fungi, has given poor results with brewing yeasts. As an alternative to continuous subculture, which maximizes strain variability, various methods of cryogenic storage were investigated. Yeast strains were frozen with or without cryoprotectants (such as glycerol or inositol) and stored at -196 C. Recovery after warming was estimated from plate counts, and survivors were screened to detect changes in the frequency of morphological types, respiratory-deficient mutants, and glycerol-sensitive mutants. Strains varied in their sensitivity to freezing, and survival was modified by the growth medium, the freezing munstrua, and the freezing conditions. Suspension of cells in 10% (vol/vol) glycerol, cooled at 1 C/min, warmed rapidly and plated on malt-yeast extract-glucose-peptone agar produced the highest percentage of viable colonies with a minimal change in metabolic characteristics. In two of the strains tested, no significant increase in mutation rate was detected under any of the treatments; the strains were maintained in a stable state and were metabolically comparable to unfrozen strains. In one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum after some freezing treatments, the percentage of respiratory-deficient mutants increased markedly, the fermentation rate declined, and a loss of flocculation occurred. The freezing parameters which increased the level of respiratory-deficient cells should be avoided in maintaining this strain. Maintenance of cultures of brewing yeasts by cryogenic storage has several advantages over other preservation techniques: the method is simple and reproducible, the cultures have remained stable over a 3-year test period, and the viability is high. PMID:16349973

  15. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  16. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  17. Fly meets yeast: Checking correct orientation of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gislene; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

    2011-01-01

    Cell division is generally thought to be a process that produces an exact copy of the mother cell by precisely replicating its genomic DNA, doubling organelles, and segregating them into two cells. Yet, many cell types from bacteria to human cells divide asymmetrically to generate daughter cells with distinct characteristics. Such asymmetric divisions are fundamental to a cell’s life span, embryonic development, and stem cell homeostasis. Asymmetric division requires coordination of cellular asymmetry and the cell division machinery. Accumulating evidence suggests that the basic molecular mechanisms that govern this process are conserved from yeast to humans. In this review, we highlight similarities in the mechanisms of asymmetric cell division in yeast and Drosophila male germline stem cells, in the hope of extracting the common themes underlying many systems. PMID:21705221

  18. Yeasts from phylloplane and their capability to produce indole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Koowadjanakul, Nampueng

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts were isolated from the phylloplane of various plant species collected from seven provinces in Thailand. A total of 114 yeast strains and 10 strains of a yeast-like fungus were obtained by enrichment isolation from 91 out of 97 leaf samples (93.8 %). On the basis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene sequence similarity, 98 strains were identified to be of 36 yeast species in 18 genera belonging to Ascomycota viz. Candida, Clavispora, Cyberlindnera, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Kodamaea, Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Meyrozyma, Pichia, Starmerella, Torulaspora and Wickerhamomyces, and to Basidiomycota viz. Sporidiobolus and Trichosporon. Three strains were found to represent two novels Candida species which were previously described as C. sirachaensis and C. sakaeoensis. Ten strains of yeast-like fungus were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans of the phylum Ascomycota. Ascomycetous yeast species accounted altogether for 98.0 % of the 98 strains. The prevalent species was Candida tropicalis with a low frequency of isolation (14.3 %). Diversity of yeasts other than ballistoconidium-forming yeast in phylloplane in a tropical country in Asia has been reported for the first time. All strains obtained were accessed for the capability to produce IAA and result revealed that 39 strains in 20 species, one strain each of an undescribed and a novel species, and two unidentified strains showed the capability of producing IAA when cultivated in yeast extract peptone dextrose broth supplemented with 0.1 % L-tryptophan. All five strains of Candida maltosa produced relatively high concentrations of IAA. PMID:22886557

  19. Loss of the two major leaf isoforms of sucrose-phosphate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana limits sucrose synthesis and nocturnal starch degradation but does not alter carbon partitioning during photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Volkert, Kathrin; Debast, Stefan; Voll, Lars M; Voll, Hildegard; Schießl, Ingrid; Hofmann, Jörg; Schneider, Sabine; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-10-01

    Sucrose (Suc)-phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyses one of the rate-limiting steps in the synthesis of Suc in plants. The Arabidopsis genome contains four annotated SPS genes which can be grouped into three different families (SPSA1, SPSA2, SPSB, and SPSC). However, the functional significance of this multiplicity of SPS genes is as yet only poorly understood. All four SPS isoforms show enzymatic activity when expressed in yeast although there is variation in sensitivity towards allosteric effectors. Promoter-reporter gene analyses and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR studies indicate that no two SPS genes have the same expression pattern and that AtSPSA1 and AtSPSC represent the major isoforms expressed in leaves. An spsa1 knock-out mutant showed a 44% decrease in leaf SPS activity and a slight increase in leaf starch content at the end of the light period as well as at the end of the dark period. The spsc null mutant displayed reduced Suc contents towards the end of the photoperiod and a concomitant 25% reduction in SPS activity. In contrast, an spsa1/spsc double mutant was strongly impaired in growth and accumulated high levels of starch. This increase in starch was probably not due to an increased partitioning of carbon into starch, but was rather caused by an impaired starch mobilization during the night. Suc export from excised petioles harvested from spsa1/spsc double mutant plants was significantly reduced under illumination as well as during the dark period. It is concluded that loss of the two major SPS isoforms in leaves limits Suc synthesis without grossly changing carbon partitioning in favour of starch during the light period but limits starch degradation during the dark period. PMID:24994761

  20. Molecular Genetic Analysis in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel D. Burke (Seton Hall University; )

    1990-01-01

    This resource provides techniques and protocols used in basic and advanced procedures of recombinant DNA technology to perform molecular genetic analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Students will be exposed to techniques such as transformation, restriction endonuclease digestion, electrophoresis and Southern blot analysis.

  1. Barcoding the Yeasts – Which Genes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old style yeast identification, as many know, is an onerous process requiring determination of growth reactions on 60-100 different media. Once completed, there is still a high degree of uncertainty about species identity. With the determination of sequences for domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of the nucl...

  2. Yeast Proteomics and Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Snyder, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of biological processes as well as human diseases has improved greatly thanks to studies on model organisms such as yeast. The power of scientific approaches with yeast lies in its relatively simple genome, its facile classical and molecular genetics, as well as the evolutionary conservation of many basic biological mechanisms. However, even in this simple model organism, systems biology studies, especially proteomic studies had been an intimidating task. During the past decade, powerful high-throughput technologies in proteomic research have been developed for yeast including protein microarray technology. The protein microarray technology allows the interrogation of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-small molecule interaction networks as well as post-translational modification networks in a large-scale, high-throughput manner. With this technology, many groundbreaking findings have been established in studies with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which could have been unachievable with traditional approaches. Discovery of these networks has profound impact on explicating biological processes with a proteomic point of view, which may lead to a better understanding of normal biological phenomena as well as various human diseases. PMID:20728591

  3. Concentration-Dependent Effects of Rhodiola Rosea on Long-Term Survival and Stress Resistance of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: The Involvement of YAP 1 and MSN2/4 Regulatory Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Burdyliuk, Nadia I; Izers'ka, Lilia I; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-01-01

    Concentration-dependent effects of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on long-term survival and stress resistance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. At low concentrations, R. rosea aqueous extract extended yeast chronological lifespan, enhanced oxidative stress resistance of stationary-phase cells and resistance to number stressors in exponentially growing cultures. At high concentrations, R. rosea extract sensitized yeast cells to stresses and shortened yeast lifespan. These biphasic concentration-responses describe a common hormetic phenomenon characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Yeast pretreatment with low doses of R. rosea extract enhanced yeast survival and prevented protein oxidation under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Positive effect of R. rosea extract on yeast survival under heat shock exposure was not accompanied with changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of oxidized proteins. The deficiency in transcriptional regulators, Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1, abolished the positive effect of low doses of R. rosea extract on yeast viability under stress challenges. Potential involvement of Msn2/Msn4 and Yap1 regulatory proteins in realization of R. rosea beneficial effects is discussed. PMID:24659935

  4. Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activity in leptin resistant sucrose-drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Apolzan, John W

    2015-01-01

    Rats offered 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow and water become leptin resistant therefore we investigated the effect of sucrose solution consumption on leptin signaling. In Experiment 1 rats were resistant to 3rd ventricle injections of1.5 ?g leptin after 36 days of sucrose and western blot indicated that resistance was associated with increased basal levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3). In Experiment 2 rats were resistant to a peripheral injection of 2mg leptin/kg after 26 days of sucrose. Immunohistochemistry indicated that increased basal pSTAT3 was limited to the medial and lateral arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Increased availability of glucose and fructose can stimulate the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which O-GlcNAc-modifies proteins. This has the potential to change protein bioactivity. We tested whether this pathway could account for the leptin resistance. There was no increase in the expression of HBP enzymes in tissues from sucrose rats in Experiment 1, however, direct activation of the HBP with a 3h intravenous infusion of 30 ?mol/kg/min glucosamine significantly increased hypothalamic pSTAT3. Although sucrose consumption and activation of the HBP both increase hypothalamic pSTAT3 experiments described here did not provide evidence of a direct link between sucrose consumption, HBP activity and leptin resistance. Unexpectedly, we found that the HBP enzyme glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) in liver and O-GlcNAcase in hypothalamus were increased 30min after leptin injection in leptin responsive animals, implying a complex interaction between activity of the HBP and leptin responsiveness. PMID:25446204

  5. Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Shin, Jihoon; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    A sucrose utilization pathway was established in Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB11599 and R. eutropha 437-540 by introducing the Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E sacC gene that encodes ?-fructofuranosidase. These engineered strains were examined for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)], respectively, from sucrose as a carbon source. It was found that ?-fructofuranosidase excreted into the culture medium could hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose, which were efficiently used as carbon sources by recombinant R. eutropha strains. When R. eutropha NCIMB11599 expressing the sacC gene was cultured in nitrogen-free chemically defined medium containing 20?g/L of sucrose, a high P(3HB) content of 73.2?wt% could be obtained. In addition, R. eutropha 437-540 expressing the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene and the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene accumulated P(3HB-co-21.5?mol% LA) to a polymer content of 19.5?wt% from sucrose by the expression of the sacC gene and the Escherichia coli ldhA gene. The molecular weights of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-21.5?mol%LA) synthesized in R. eutropha using sucrose as a carbon source were 3.52?×?10(5) (Mn ) and 2.19?×?10(4) (Mn ), respectively. The engineered R. eutropha strains reported here will be useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sucrose, one of the most abundant and relatively inexpensive carbon sources. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 638-643. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25258020

  6. [Heterologous interferons synthesis in yeast Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Padkina, M V; Parfenova, L V; Gradoboeva, A E; Sambuk, E V

    2010-01-01

    The HuIFNA16, HuIFNB, and BoIFNG genes encoding human [alpha]16, beta-interferons and bovine gamma-interferon were cloned under the control of the yeast Pichia pastoris AOX1 gene promoter. The yeast strains producing heterologous interferons intracellularly and extracellularly were constructed. There was no effect of high level of heterologous protein synthesis on the yeast P. pastoris cell growth, unlike yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The considerable part of the heterologous interferons was detected in the yeast P. pastoris soluble protein fraction but not in the "inclusion bodies." The treatment of human beta-interferon with endoglycosidase H showed that protein was expressed in glycosilated and unglycosilated forms. On the strength of these data, the hypothesis was suggested that the more effective heterologous gene expression in yeast P. pastoris and enhanced resistance of the methylotrophic yeast to negative effects of recombinant proteins was due to the special features of its metabolism. PMID:20873170

  7. Effects of a live yeast culture and enzymes on in vitro ruminal fermentation and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Kreck, E M; Tung, R S; Hession, A O; Sheperd, A C; Cohen, M A; Swain, H E; Leedle, J A

    1997-09-01

    Live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) grew best on malt extract agar and required incubation under aerobic conditions to maximize the number of viable cells. In sterile, anaerobic ruminal fluid that had been supplemented with malt extract, yeast cells remained viable and metabolically active for up to 48 h, as indicated by the production of ethanol. A supplement containing live yeast and enzymes was fed twice daily with a diet of 50:50 (wt/wt) forage to concentrate (dry matter basis) to continuous fermentors inoculated with mixed ruminal microorganisms. The supplement had no effect on major fermentation acids or pH. After the last supplement with yeast was fed, numbers of yeast immediately decreased in the fermentors and were not detectable after 24 h. In the first of two lactation experiments, Holstein cows in midlactation were offered a diet with corn silage as the primary forage source. Half of the cows received a top-dressing based on corn that contained 10 g/d of the yeast and enzyme supplement. The supplement had no effect on milk production, milk composition, or dry matter intake. In a second lactation experiment, high producing cows in early lactation were fed 0, 10, and 20 g/d of the supplement. Cows fed the control diet produced 36.4 kg of milk/d, and milk production was 39.3 and 38.0 kg/d from cows fed 10 and 20 g of yeast/d, respectively. PMID:9313146

  8. Identification of new genes involved in disaccharide fermentation in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Zimmermann; N. A. Khan; N. R. Eaton

    1973-01-01

    Maltose non-fermenting mutants were obtained from strains carrying a MAL4 allele which permits constitutive synthesis of maltase. Cells carrying this allele are able to utilize sucrose in the absence of the “classical” sucrose genes. All maltose non-fermenting mutants were also sucrose non-fermenters. Eight mutants had become maltase negative; 19 mutants could still form maltase constitutively.

  9. High-Definition Macromolecular Composition of Yeast RNA-Processing Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevan J. Krogan; Wen-Tao Peng; Gerard Cagney; Mark D. Robinson; Robin Haw; Gouqing Zhong; Xinghua Guo; Xin Zhang; Veronica Canadien; Dawn P. Richards; Bryan K. Beattie; Atanas Lalev; Wen Zhang; Armaity P. Davierwala; Sanie Mnaimneh; Andrei Starostine; Aaron P. Tikuisis; Jorg Grigull; Nira Datta; James E. Bray; Timothy R. Hughes; Andrew Emili; Jack F. Greenblatt

    2004-01-01

    Summary molecular complexes known or predicted to be involved in the synthesis and processing of noncoding RNAs in A remarkably large collection of evolutionarily con- yeast. Unlike all previous biochemical studies of pre- served proteins has been implicated in processing of ribosomal processing, we utilized prefractionation by noncoding RNAs and biogenesis of ribonucleopro- high-speed centrifugation to deplete extracts of larger

  10. Methanol metabolism in yeasts: Regulation of the synthesis of catabolic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Egli; J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; W. Harder; A. Fiechter

    1980-01-01

    The regulation of the synthesis of four dissimilatory enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, namely alcohol oxidase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and catalase was investigated in the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Kloeckera sp. 2201. Enzyme profiles in cell-free extracts of the two organisms grown under glucose limitation at various dilution rates, suggested that the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by

  11. CPTC and NIST-sponsored Yeast Reference Material Now Publicly Available

    Cancer.gov

    Posted on February 15, 2010 The yeast protein extract (RM8323) developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the auspices of NCI's CPTC initiative is currently available to the public at https://www-s.nist.gov/srmors/view_detail.cfm?srm=8323.

  12. Acylated sucroses and acylated quinic acids analogs from the flower buds of Prunus mume and their inhibitory effect on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    The methanolic extract from the flower buds of Prunus mume, cultivated in Zhejiang Province, China, showed an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the methanolic extract, five acylated sucroses, mumeoses A-E, and three acylated quinic acid analogs, 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid ethyl ester, and mumeic acid-A and its methyl ester, were isolated together with 13 known compounds. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were also investigated. Acylated quinic acid analogs substantially inhibited melanogenesis. In particular, 5-O-(E)-feruloylquinic acid methyl ester exhibited a potent inhibitory effect [inhibition (%): 21.5±1.0 (P<0.01) at 0.1 ?M]. Moreover, its biological effect was much stronger than that of the reference compound, arbutin [inhibition (%): 10.6±0.6 (P<0.01) at 10 ?M]. Interestingly, the obtained acylated quinic acid analogs displaying melanogenesis inhibitory activity showed no cytotoxicity [cell viability >97% at 10 ?M]. It is concluded that acylated quinic acid analogs are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:23693120

  13. Behavioral and circuit basis of sucrose rejection by Drosophila females in a simple decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hui; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich

    2015-01-28

    Drosophila melanogaster egg-laying site selection offers a genetic model to study a simple form of value-based decision. We have previously shown that Drosophila females consistently reject a sucrose-containing substrate and choose a plain (sucrose-free) substrate for egg laying in our sucrose versus plain decision assay. However, either substrate is accepted when it is the sole option. Here we describe the neural mechanism that underlies females' sucrose rejection in our sucrose versus plain assay. First, we demonstrate that females explored the sucrose substrate frequently before most egg-laying events, suggesting that they actively suppress laying eggs on the sucrose substrate as opposed to avoiding visits to it. Second, we show that activating a specific subset of DA neurons triggered a preference for laying eggs on the sucrose substrate over the plain one, suggesting that activating these DA neurons can increase the value of the sucrose substrate for egg laying. Third, we demonstrate that neither ablating nor inhibiting the mushroom body (MB), a known Drosophila learning and decision center, affected females' egg-laying preferences in our sucrose versus plain assay, suggesting that MB does not mediate this specific decision-making task. We propose that the value of a sucrose substrate- as an egg-laying option-can be adjusted by the activities of a specific DA circuit. Once the sucrose substrate is determined to be the lesser valued option, females execute their decision to reject this inferior substrate not by stopping their visits to it, but by actively suppressing their egg-laying motor program during their visits. PMID:25632118

  14. Sucrose acceptance, discrimination and proboscis responses of honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.) in the field and the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir Mujagic; Joachim Erber

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies in honey bees have shown positive correlations between sucrose responsiveness, division of labour and learning.\\u000a We tested the relationships between sucrose acceptance and discrimination in the field and responsiveness in the laboratory.\\u000a Based on acceptance in the field three groups of bees were differentiated: (1) bees that accept sucrose concentrations >10%,\\u000a (2) bees that accept some but not

  15. A Membrane-Associated Form of Sucrose Synthase and Its Potential Role in Synthesis of Cellulose and Callose in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehudit Amor; Candace H. Haigler; Sarah Johnson; Melody Wainscott; Deborah P. Delmer

    1995-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13; sucrose + UDP rightleftharpoons UDPglucose + fructose) has always been studied as a cytoplasmic enzyme in plant cells where it serves to degrade sucrose and provide carbon for respiration and synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and starch. We report here that at least half of the total SuSy of developing cotton fibers (Gossypium hirsutum) is

  16. Effect of Diet on Preference and Intake of Sucrose in Obese Prone and Resistant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duca, Frank A.; Swartz, Timothy D.; Covasa, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Increased orosensory stimulation from palatable diets and decreased feedback from gut signals have been proposed as contributing factors to obesity development. Whether altered taste functions associated with obesity are common traits or acquired deficits to environmental factors, such as a high-energy (HE)-diet, however, is not clear. To address this, we examined preference and sensitivity of increasing concentrations of sucrose solutions in rats prone (OP) and resistant (OR) to obesity during chow and HE feeding and measured lingual gene expression of the sweet taste receptor T1R3. When chow-fed, OP rats exhibited reduced preference and acceptance of dilute sucrose solutions, sham-fed less sucrose compared to OR rats, and had reduced lingual T1R3 gene expression. HE-feeding abrogated differences in sucrose preference and intake and lingual T1R3 expression between phenotypes. Despite similar sucrose intakes however, OP rats consumed significantly more total calories during 48-h two-bottle testing compared to OR rats. The results demonstrate that OP rats have an innate deficit for sweet taste detection, as illustrated by a reduction in sensitivity to sweets and reduced T1R3 gene expression; however their hyperphagia and subsequent obesity during HE-feeding is most likely not due to altered consumption of sweets. PMID:25329959

  17. Effects of sucrose and sorbitol on cement-based stabilization/solidification of toxic metal waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linghong; Catalan, Lionel J J; Larsen, Andrew C; Kinrade, Stephen D

    2008-03-01

    The effects of sucrose or sorbitol addition on the hydration, unconfined compressive strength and leachability of Portland cement pastes containing 1% Pb and 1% Zn were studied as a function of time. Whereas Pb and Zn were found to shorten the time to achieve maximum hydration of Portland cement, the combination of these metals with 0.15 wt% sucrose or 0.40 wt% sorbitol retarded the setting of cement by at least 7 and 28 days, respectively, without affecting the strength at 56 days. The leachability of Pb and Zn evaluated by the TCLP 1311 protocol at 56 and 71 days was slightly reduced or unchanged by the addition of sucrose or sorbitol. SEM-EDS and XRD analyses revealed that ettringite precipitation was favored whereas the formation of CSH gel, which accounts for most of the strength of hydrated cement, was delayed in cement pastes containing both metals and sucrose or sorbitol. These results indicate that controlled additions of sucrose or sorbitol can add flexibility to the handling of cement-treated metal waste, particularly when it needs to be transported by truck or pipeline between the treatment plant and the disposal site, without affecting its long-term performance. PMID:17629400

  18. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations. PMID:24983658

  19. Iron sucrose accelerates early atherogenesis by increasing superoxide production and upregulating adhesion molecules in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-11-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-?B signaling. We then measured mononuclear-endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-?B/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD. PMID:24722448

  20. Impact of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation of beverage emulsions.

    PubMed

    Chanamai, R; McClements, D J

    2000-11-01

    The influence of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation in 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsions was studied by measuring changes in the intensity of backscattered light from the emulsions with height. Emulsions with different droplet densities were prepared by mixing weighting agents [brominated vegetable oil (BVO), ester gum (EG), damar gum (DG), or sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)] with soybean oil prior to homogenization. Sedimentation or creaming occurred when the droplet density was greater than or lower than the aqueous phase density, respectively. The weighting agent concentrations required to match the oil and aqueous phase densities were 25 wt % BVO, 55 wt % EG, 55 wt % DG, and 45 wt % SAIB. The efficiency of droplet reduction during homogenization also depended on weighting agent type (BVO > SAIB > DG, EG) due to differences in oil phase viscosity. The influence of sucrose (0-13 wt %) on the creaming stability of 1 wt % soybean oil-in-water emulsions was also examined. Sucrose increased the aqueous phase viscosity (retarding creaming) and increased the density contrast between droplets and aqueous phase (accelerating creaming). These two effects largely canceled one another so that the creaming stability was relatively insensitive to sucrose concentration. PMID:11087519

  1. Resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking in free-feeding rats.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R; Sweeney, Mary M

    2015-02-15

    Resurgence is relapse of an extinguished operant response following the removal of alternative reinforcement. In animal models of resurgence to date, rats have been food deprived and food is used as the source of alternative reinforcement. Thus, when the alternative reinforcer is removed, the only remaining source of food during experimental sessions is no longer available. Acute food deprivation is known to produce reinstatement of drug seeking, thus such deprivation has been suggested a potential mechanism of resurgence. The present experiments examined whether resurgence of sucrose and cocaine seeking could be obtained with rats that were not food deprived. Free-feeding rats were trained to press a lever for either sucrose (Experiment 1) or cocaine infusions (Experiment 2). Next, lever pressing was extinguished and an alternative response (nose poking) was reinforced with sucrose. When nose poking was also placed on extinction, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking was observed. Thus, resurgence of both sucrose and cocaine seeking can be obtained in rats that are not food restricted and it appears unlikely that an acute hunger state is responsible for resurgence. In addition, the present procedures for studying resurgence in the absence of interpretive complexities introduced by the use of food-deprivation may prove useful for further investigations of the neurobiological mechanisms of resurgence. PMID:25446761

  2. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred

    2015-04-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders. PMID:25776039

  3. Electrical stimulation of the lateral habenula produces an inhibitory effect on sucrose self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Alexander; Lax, Elad; Dikshtein, Yahav; Abraham, Lital; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2011-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays a role in prediction of negative reinforcement, punishment and aversive responses. In the current study, we examined the role that the LHb plays in the regulation of negative reward responses and aversion. First, we tested the effect of intervention in LHb activity on sucrose reinforcing behavior. An electrode was implanted into the LHb and rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (20%; 16 days) until at least three days of stable performance were achieved (as represented by the number of active lever presses in self-administration cages). Rats subsequently received deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the LHb, which significantly reduced sucrose self-administration levels. In contrast, lesion of the LHb increased sucrose-seeking behavior, as demonstrated by a delayed extinction response to substitution of sucrose with water. Furthermore, in a modified non-rewarding conditioned-place-preference paradigm, DBS of the LHb led to aversion to the context associated with stimulation of this brain region. We postulate that electrical stimulation of the LHb attenuates positive reward-associated reinforcement by natural substances. PMID:20955718

  4. Heavy-ion-induced sucrose radicals investigated using EPR and UV spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of a sucrose dosimeter for estimating both linear energy transfer (LET) and the absorbed dose of heavy ion and X-ray radiation was investigated. The stable free radicals were produced when sucrose was irradiated with heavy ions, such as helium, carbon, silicon and neon ions, and when the X-ray radiation was similar to the obtained electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, which were ?7 mT wide and composed of several hyperfine structures. In addition, the total spin concentration resulting from heavy-ion irradiation increased linearly as the absorbed dose increased, and decreased logarithmically as the LET increased. These empirical relations imply that the LET at a certain dose can be determined from the spin concentration. For sucrose and alanine, both cross-sections following C-ion irradiation with a 50 Gy dose were ?1.3 × 10(-12) [?m(2)], taking into account the molecular size of the samples. The values of these cross-sections imply that multiple ionizing particles were involved in the production of stable radicals. Furthermore, UV absorbance at 267 nm of an aqueous solution of irradiated sucrose was found to linearly increase with increasing absorbed dose. Therefore, the EPR and UV results suggest that sucrose can be a useful dosimeter for heavy-ion irradiation. PMID:25480828

  5. Electrospun gelatin nanofibers: a facile cross-linking approach using oxidized sucrose.

    PubMed

    Jalaja, K; James, Nirmala R

    2015-02-01

    Gelatin nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning with minimal toxicity from solvents and cross-linking agents. Electrospinning was carried out using a solvent system based on water and acetic acid (8:2, v/v). Acetic acid concentration was kept as minimum as possible to reduce the toxic effects. Electrospun gelatin nanofibers were cross-linked with oxidized sucrose. Sucrose was oxidized by periodate oxidation to introduce aldehyde functionality. Cross-linking with oxidized sucrose could be achieved without compromising the nanofibrous architecture. Cross-linked gelatin nanofibers maintained the fibrous morphology even after keeping in contact with aqueous medium. The morphology of the cross-linked nanofibrous mats was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidized sucrose cross-linked gelatin nanofibers exhibited improved thermal and mechanical properties. The nanofibrous mats were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cell viability using L-929 fibroblast cells. The results confirmed that oxidized sucrose cross-linked gelatin nanofibers were non-cytotoxic towards L-929 cells with good cell viability. PMID:25478965

  6. Control of jejunal sucrase and maltase activity by dietary sucrose of fructose in man

    PubMed Central

    Rosensweig, Norton S.; Herman, Robert H.

    1968-01-01

    The specific effect of dietary sugars on jejunal disaccharidase activity in seven normal nonfasted male volunteers was studied. The sugars tested were sucrose, maltose, lactose, glucose, fructose, and galactose. Comparisons were made of the effects of each sugar in an isocaloric liquid diet. In all subjects, sucrose feeding, as compared to glucose feeding, significantly increased jejunal sucrase (S) and maltase (M) activities, but not lactase (L) activity. The S/L and M/L ratios increased to a significant degree. Fructose feeding, in two subjects, gave results similar to sucrose when comparing fructose and glucose diets. One subject was fed lactose, galactose, and maltose. These sugars, compared to glucose, did not increase disaccharidase activity. Fructose appears to be the active principle in the sucrose molecule. These results demonstrate that specific dietary sugars can alter enzyme activity in the small intestine of man in a specific fashion. Sucrose and fructose are able to regulate sucrase and maltase activity. Dietary alteration of intestinal enzymes may represent a suitable system for studying the regulation of enzyme activity in man. PMID:5676520

  7. Medicinal flowers. XXXVIII. structures of acylated sucroses and inhibitory effects of constituents on aldose reducatase from the flower buds of Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Tamura, Haruka; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the flower buds of Prunus mume, cultivated in Zhejiang province, China, showed an inhibitory effect on aldose reductase. From the methanolic extract, five new acylated sucroses, mumeoses F-J, were isolated together with 29 known compounds. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on aldose reductase were also investigated. Acylated quinic acid analogs, which are one of the major compounds of the flower buds of P. mume, were shown to substantially inhibit aldose reductase. In particular, mumeic acid-A was found to exhibit a potent inhibitory effect [IC50=0.4?µm]. PMID:23546004

  8. Biosynthesis of Sucrose and Mannitol as a Function of Leaf Age in Celery (Apium graveolens L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jeanine M.; Fellman, John K.; Loescher, Wayne H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in 14CO2 labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately. PMID:16665852

  9. Antimicrobial activity of millingtonia hortensis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jetty, A; Iyengar, D S

    2000-01-01

    Polar extracts of the leaves of Millingtonia hortensis showed good antimicrobial activity. Twenty different bacterial strains and two yeast cultures were used. The aqueous alcohol extract showed good activity against all microbes tested, particularly Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium , both Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 6.25 µg/ml. The activity is compared with known antibiotics such as gentamycin and nystatin. PMID:21214454

  10. Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, J.N.; Ireland, R.S.; Margaritis, A.; Lachance, M.A.

    1985-12-01

    Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined, 36 produced more than 1 g of ethanol liter/sup -1/ from 20 g of D-xylose liter/sup -1/, all under aerated conditions. Closer examination of the strains indicated that their time courses of D-xylose fermentation followed different patterns. Some strains produced more biomass than ethanol, and among these, ethanol may or may not be assimilated rapidly after depletion of D-xylose. Others produced more ethanol than biomass, but all catabolized ethanol after carbohydrate exhaustion. Ethanol production appeared best at low pH values and under mild aeration. Possible correlations between the nutritional profiles of the yeasts and their ability to produce ethanol from D-xylose were explored by multivariate analysis. D-Xylose appeared slightly better utilized by yeasts which rate poorly in terms of fermentation. The fermentation of D-glucose had no bearing on D-xylose fermentation. No specific nutritional trait could discriminate well between better D-xylose fermentors and other yeasts.

  11. Improving energetics of triacylglyceride extraction from wet oleaginous microbes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Robert M; McCurdy, Alex T; Ogborn, Mariah K; Wahlen, Bradley D; Quinn, Jason C; Pease, Leonard F; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    Oleaginous microbes can upgrade carbon to lipids, which can be used as a feedstock to produce renewable replacements for petroleum-based compounds. Efficient extraction of lipids from oleaginous microbes typically involves dewatering and drying of the biomass. Problematically, drying often requires an amount of energy approaching that available from the cells. Here, we report an approach for the high efficiency extraction of triacylglycerides (TAG) from wet oleaginous microbes, bypassing the drying process. Solvent candidates for extraction of wet oleaginous biomass were identified using ASPEN's databases to determine an activity based selectivity coefficient. Optimal extraction conditions were determined which resulted in >91% extraction of TAG from yeast, bacteria, and microalgae. Experimental data was integrated into system models to evaluate the energetics of the processes compared to traditional extraction methods. The net energy ratio (NER) of a traditional dry solvent extraction is 0.84, whereas the approach presented here has a NER of 0.34 for yeast. PMID:25000397

  12. Expanding xylose metabolism in yeast for plant cell wall conversion to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yu, Vivian Yaci; Lin, Yuping; Chomvong, Kulika; Estrela, Raíssa; Park, Annsea; Liang, Julie M; Znameroski, Elizabeth A; Feehan, Joanna; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su; Glass, N Louise; Cate, Jamie Hd

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable biofuel production from renewable biomass will require the efficient and complete use of all abundant sugars in the plant cell wall. Using the cellulolytic fungus Neurospora crassa as a model, we identified a xylodextrin transport and consumption pathway required for its growth on hemicellulose. Reconstitution of this xylodextrin utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that fungal xylose reductases act as xylodextrin reductases, producing xylosyl-xylitol oligomers as metabolic intermediates. These xylosyl-xylitol intermediates are generated by diverse fungi and bacteria, indicating that xylodextrin reduction is widespread in nature. Xylodextrins and xylosyl-xylitol oligomers are then hydrolyzed by two hydrolases to generate intracellular xylose and xylitol. Xylodextrin consumption using a xylodextrin transporter, xylodextrin reductases and tandem intracellular hydrolases in cofermentations with sucrose and glucose greatly expands the capacity of yeast to use plant cell wall-derived sugars and has the potential to increase the efficiency of both first-generation and next-generation biofuel production. PMID:25647728

  13. Structural effects of exposure of smooth muscle in sucrose gap apparatus.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Posey-Daniel, V; Jager, L P; Berezin, I; Jury, J

    1987-01-01

    Structural changes were studied over time of a smooth muscle tissue (opossum esophagus circular muscle) exposed in various compartments of a functioning single sucrose gap. The tissues in the Krebs-perfused compartment were qualitatively normal, possessing nerve profiles with little damage, normal appearing smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal as well as gap junctions between muscle cells and interstitial cells. However, in the sucrose compartment tissues had serious damage to smooth muscle, interstitial cells and nerves, and normal gap junctions disappeared. There was also damage to all these structures in tissues exposed to KCl, but most striking was the disappearance of most interstitial cells. These studies raise serious questions about the assumptions underlying the basis for functioning of multicellular tissues in the sucrose gap. PMID:3812667

  14. Sucrose and invertases, a part of the plant defense response to the biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tauzin, Alexandra S.; Giardina, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose is the main form of assimilated carbon which is produced during photosynthesis and then transported from source to sink tissues via the phloem. This disaccharide is known to have important roles as signaling molecule and it is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. Essential for plant growth and development, sucrose is engaged in plant defense by activating plant immune responses against pathogens. During infection, pathogens reallocate the plant sugars for their own needs forcing the plants to modify their sugar content and triggering their defense responses. Among enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose and alter carbohydrate partitioning, invertases have been reported to be affected during plant-pathogen interactions. Recent highlights on the role of invertases in the establishment of plant defense responses suggest a more complex regulation of sugar signaling in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25002866

  15. Chin rub CRs may reflect conditioned sickness elicited by a lithium-paired sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Parker, L A; MacLeod, K B

    1991-12-01

    Rats were given a single conditioning trial in which 20% sucrose solution was paired with an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lithium chloride (127.2 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or physiological saline. Thirty min before a subsequent 10-min taste reactivity (TR) test and a 1-h conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) test the rats were injected IP with either the antiemetic agent, trimethobenzamide (5 mg/kg) [corrected] or with physiological saline solution. The lithium-paired, but not the amphetamine- or saline-paired, sucrose solution elicited the aversive TR responses of chin rubs, paw pushes and gapes. Trimethobenzamide suppressed the aversive TR response of chin rubs in the lithium-conditioned group, but not in a group given unconditionally aversive quinine solution. The CTA test was not sensitive to the antiemetic properties of trimethobenzamide, although the drug enhanced sucrose preference overall. The results suggest that chin rub responses may measure conditioned sickness. PMID:1667827

  16. Microbiological counts during beet sugar extraction.

    PubMed

    Robles-Gancedo, S; López-Díaz, T M; Otero, A

    2009-06-01

    In order to discover the main microbial populations present throughout the process of beet sugar extraction and to identify the steps where possible control measures could be implemented, four Spanish beet sugar extraction factories were investigated. Eighteen stages were sampled at each factory and analyzed for several microbial groups and physicochemical parameters. Beets, cossettes, and diffusion juices were the most contaminated samples during beet sugar extraction, and mesophiles, thermophiles, and yeasts were the most numerous microbiota. Differences in contamination among factories and among stages of the sugar extraction process were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Beets and cossettes showed high numbers of mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria, with gum-forming bacteria and yeasts being at levels of >6 log CFU/g. Diffusion juices were highly contaminated with aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and thermophiles. Beet-washing water, equipment, and air were also important sources of contamination; in contrast, diffusion water showed moderate levels of microorganisms due to the acid treatment performed. Gum-forming bacteria, which are present at high levels from the first step of the extraction, survive the diffusion process and remain in the diffusion juice, where they may produce "gums" responsible for obstruction of filters. Thermophiles were present, although at levels lower than expected in most samples. Other microbial groups, particularly yeasts, may also contribute to the destruction of sugar. No biocides were used during the beet sugar extraction in the factories investigated. PMID:19610351

  17. An indirect assay for volatile compound production in yeast strains

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Davide; Walther, Andrea; Trost, Kajetan; Vrhovsek, Urska; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Traditional flavor analysis relies on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Here we describe an indirect method coupling volatile compound formation to an ARO9-promoter-LacZ reporter gene. The resulting ?-galactosidase activity correlated well with headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS/SPME) GC-MS data, particularly with respect to the formation of rose flavor. This tool enables large-scale screening of yeast strains and their progeny to identify the most flavor active strains. PMID:24424137

  18. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Simcock, Nicola K.; Gray, Helen E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body’s nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee’s nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1 M sucrose or 1 M sucrose containing 100 mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24 h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

  19. Trehalulose synthase native and carbohydrate complexed structures provide insights into sucrose isomerization.

    PubMed

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2007-09-21

    Various diseases related to the overconsumption of sugar make a growing need for sugar substitutes. Because sucrose is an inexpensive and readily available d-glucose donor, the industrial potential for enzymatic synthesis of the sucrose isomers trehalulose and/or isomaltulose from sucrose is large. The product specificity of sucrose isomerases that catalyze this reaction depends essentially on the possibility for tautomerization of sucrose, which is required for trehalulose formation. For optimal use of the enzyme, targeting controlled synthesis of these functional isomers, it is necessary to minimize the side reactions. This requires an extensive analysis of substrate binding modes and of the specificity-determining sites in the structure. The 1.6-2.2-A resolution three-dimensional structures of native and mutant complexes of a trehalulose synthase from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45 mimic successive states of the enzyme reaction. Combined with mutagenesis studies they give for the first time thorough insights into substrate recognition and processing and reaction specificities of these enzymes. Among the important outcomes of this study is the revelation of an aromatic clamp defined by Phe(256) and Phe(280) playing an essential role in substrate recognition and in controlling the reaction specificity, which is further supported by mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, this study highlights essential residues for binding the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties. The introduction of subtle changes informed by comparative three-dimensional structural data observed within our study can lead to fundamental modifications in the mode of action of sucrose isomerases and hence provide a template for industrial catalysts. PMID:17597061

  20. Iron sucrose augments homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, H; Huang, X; Zhang, Q; Katz, SD

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous iron is commonly used in conjunction with erythropoietic agents to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Iron has been proposed to promote oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular tissues. We studied the acute effects of intravenous iron sucrose on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in the brachial artery of normal human subjects. In all, 40 healthy subjects received intravenous iron sucrose 100 mg or placebo over 30 min immediately before ingestion of 100 mg/kg of oral methionine in a double-blind, randomized study. Flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation in the brachial artery, serum markers of iron stores, and homocysteine and nitrotyrosine levels were measured before and after study drug administration. Intravenous iron significantly increased transferrin saturation and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) when compared with placebo. Flow-mediated dilation significantly decreased from baseline 1 h after administration of iron sucrose when compared with placebo (from 6.66±0.47 to 1.93±0.35% after iron sucrose vs from 6.00±0.40 to 5.61±0.46% after placebo, P<0.001), but did not differ between groups at 4 h (1.10±0.39 vs 1.33±0.51%). Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation, and homocysteine and 3-nitrotyrosine levels did not differ after administration of iron sucrose and placebo. Intravenous administration of iron sucrose in the setting of transient hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine ingestion significantly increased transferrin saturation and plasma levels of NTBI and significantly attenuated flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery when compared with placebo. This potential mechanistic link between intravenous iron and endothelial dysfunction warrants further study of cardiovascular effects of intravenous iron in anemic chronic kidney disease populations. PMID:16395269

  1. Iron Sucrose Promotes Endothelial Injury and Dysfunction and Monocyte Adhesion/Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Kamanna, Vaijinath S.; Ganji, Shobha H.; Shelkovnikov, Stanislav; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Intravenous (IV) iron preparations are widely used in the management of anemia in ESRD populations. Recent changes in reimbursement policy have dramatically increased the use of IV iron to lower the use of costly erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. These preparations are frequently administered with insufficient attention to the total body iron stores or presence of inflammation which is aggravated by excess iron. Endothelial injury and dysfunction are critical steps in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. IV iron preparations raise plasma non-transferrin-bound iron which can promote oxidative stress, endothelial damage and dysfunction. We explored the effect of an IV iron preparation on endothelial cells, monocytes and isolated arteries. Methods Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of iron sucrose (10–100 ?g/ml) for 4–24 h. Endothelial cell morphology, viability, and monocyte adhesion were tested. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine in normal rat thoracic aorta rings preincubated with iron sucrose (200 ?g/ml). Results In contrast to the control HAEC which showed normal cobblestone appearance, cells treated with iron sucrose (50–100 ?g/ml) for 4 h showed loss of normal morphological characteristics, cellular fragmentation, shrinkage, detachment, monolayer disruption and nuclear condensation/fragmentation features signifying apoptosis. HAEC exposure to iron sucrose (10–100 ?g/ml) increased monocyte adhesion 5- to 25-fold. Incubation in media containing 200 ?g/ml iron sucrose for 3 h caused marked reduction in the acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta. Conclusion Pharmacologically relevant concentration of iron sucrose results in endothelial injury and dysfunction and marked increase in monocyte adhesion. PMID:22212390

  2. Early postnatal overnutrition increases adipose tissue accrual in response to a sucrose-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Granado, Miriam; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2012-06-15

    Both overnutrition and an incorrect nutrient balance have contributed to the rise in obesity. Moreover, it is now clear that poor nutrition during early life augments the possibility of excess weight gain in later years. Our aim was to determine how neonatal overnutrition affects later responses to a sucrose-enriched diet and whether this varies depending upon when the diet is introduced in postnatal life. Male Wistar rats raised in litters of four or 12 pups were given a 33% sucrose solution instead of water from weaning (day 21) or postnatal day (PND) 65. All rats received normal chow ad libitum until they were euthanized on PND 80. Body weight (BW) and food and liquid intake were monitored throughout the study. Fat mass, adipocyte morphology, serum biochemical and hormonal parameters, and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA levels were measured at study termination. Neonatal overnutrition increased food intake, BW, and leptin levels, induced adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased total ghrelin levels. The sucrose-enriched diet increased total energy intake, adipose accrual, and leptin, adiponectin, and acylated ghrelin levels but decreased BW. Most of these responses were accentuated in neonatally overnourished rats, which also had increased insulin and triglyceride levels. However, long-term sucrose intake induced adipocyte hypertrophy in rats from normal-sized litters but not in neonatally overfed rats. The results reported here indicate that neonatal overnutrition increases the detrimental response to a diet rich in sucrose later in life. Moreover, the timing and duration of the exposure to a sucrose-enriched diet alter the adverse metabolic outcomes. PMID:22510708

  3. Yeast ?-glucosidase inhibitory phenolic compounds isolated from Gynura medica leaf.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1-7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC(50) values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  4. Yeast ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast ?-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  5. Yeast prion [PSI+] lowers the levels of mitochondrial prohibitins.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Jacek; Towpik, Joanna; Graczyk, Damian; Kistowski, Micha?; Rubel, Tymon; Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Langridge, James; Hughes, Chris; Dadlez, Micha?; Boguta, Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    We report proteomic analyses that establish the effect of cytoplasmic prion [PSI(+)] on the protein complement of yeast mitochondria. A set of 44 yeast mitochondrial proteins whose levels were affected by [PSI(+)] was identified by two methods of gel-free and label-free differential proteomics. From this set we focused on prohibitins, Phb1 and Phb2, and the mitochondrially synthesized Cox2 subunit of cytochrome oxidase. By immunoblotting we confirmed the decreased level of Cox2 and reduced mitochondrial localization of the prohibitins in [PSI(+)] cells, which both became partially restored by [PSI(+)] curing. The presence of the [PSI(+)] prion also caused premature fragmentation of mitochondria, a phenomenon linked to prohibitin depletion in mammalian cells. By fractionation of cellular extracts we demonstrated a [PSI(+)]-dependent increase of the proportion of prohibitins in the high molecular weight fraction of aggregated proteins. We propose that the presence of the yeast prion causes newly synthesized prohibitins to aggregate in the cytosol, and therefore reduces their levels in mitochondria, which in turn reduces the stability of Cox2 and possibly of other proteins, not investigated here in detail. PMID:19695293

  6. Novel structural features in Candida albicans hyphal glucan provide a basis for differential innate immune recognition of hyphae versus yeast.

    PubMed

    Lowman, Douglas W; Greene, Rachel R; Bearden, Daniel W; Kruppa, Michael D; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A; Soldatov, Dmitriy V; Ensley, Harry E; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G; Williams, David L

    2014-02-01

    The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. (1)H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1?3,1?6) ?-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or "closed chain" structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast ?-glucan. In addition to the expected (1?3), (1?6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1? processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae. PMID:24344127

  7. Evidence That Sucrose Loaded into the Phloem of a Poplar Leaf Is Used Directly by Sucrose Synthase Associated with Various  Glucan Synthases in the Stem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruko Konishi; Yasunori Ohmiya; Takahisa Hayashi

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (SuSy) is believed to function in channeling UDP-Glc from Suc to various -glucan synthases. We produced transgenic poplars (Populus alba) overexpressing a mutant form (S11E) of mung bean (Vigna radiata) SuSy, which appeared in part in the microsomal membranes of the stems. Expression of SuSy in these membranes enhanced the incorporation of radioactive Suc into cellulose, together

  8. Pheromone Signaling Pathways in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henrik G. Dohlman (University of North Carolina; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics REV)

    2006-12-05

    The actions of many extracellular stimuli are elicited by complexes of cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complexes. Analysis of haploid yeast cells and their response to peptide mating pheromones has produced important advances in the understanding of G protein and MAPK signaling mechanisms. Many of the components, their interrelationships, and their regulators were first identified in yeast. Examples include definitive demonstration of a positive signaling role for G protein ?? subunits, the discovery of a three-tiered structure of the MAPK module, development of the concept of a kinase-scaffold protein, and the discovery of the first regulator of G protein signaling protein. New and powerful genomic, proteomic, and computational approaches available in yeast are beginning to uncover new pathway components and interactions and have revealed their presence in unexpected locations within the cell. This updated Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling includes several major revisions to this prototypical signal response pathway.

  9. Effect of non-sucrose sweet tasting solution on neonatal heel prick responses.

    PubMed

    Ramenghi, L A; Griffith, G C; Wood, C M; Levene, M I

    1996-03-01

    A substance commercially described as 'sugar free,' used as a sweetener for paracetamol suspension, was evaluated on measures of neonatal pain. Sixty infants were randomly allocated to receive one of four solutions before heel stab blood sampling: sterile water (placebo); 25 or 50% sucrose (weight/volume); and the commercial sweet-tasting solution. There was a significant reduction in crying time and pain score 3 minutes after the painful stimulus in all groups compared with the controls. It is concluded that this sweet-tasting solution has analgesic effects as potent as those of concentrated sucrose solutions. PMID:8777661

  10. Strain differences in Sucrose- and Fructose-Conditioned Flavor Preferences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Alexander; Aviel, Michael; Koen, Michael; Gurgov, Simon; Acosta, Vanessa; Israel, Michael; Kakuriev, Leonid; Guskova, Elena; Fuzailov, Isabelle; Touzani, Khalid; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors strongly influence the intake and preference for sugar and saccharin solutions in inbred mouse strains. The present study determined if genetic variance also influences the learned preferences for flavors added to sugar solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) are produced in rodents by adding a flavor (CS+) to a sugar solution and a different flavor (CS?) to a saccharin solution (CS?) in one-bottle training trials; the CS+ is subsequently preferred to the CS? when both are presented in saccharin solutions in two-bottle tests. With some sugars (e.g., sucrose), flavor preferences are reinforced by both sweet taste and post-oral nutrient effects, whereas with other sugars (e.g., fructose), sweet taste is the primary reinforcer. Sucrose and fructose were used in three experiments to condition flavor preferences in one outbred (CD-1) and eight inbred strains which have “sensitive” (SWR/J, SJL/J, C57BL/10J, C57BL/6J) or “sub-sensitive” (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, 129P3/J) sweet taste receptors (T1R2/T1R3). Food-restricted mice of each strain were trained (1 h/day) to drink flavored 16% sucrose (CS+16S, Experiment 1), 16% fructose (CS+16F, Experiment 2) or 8% fructose + 0.2% saccharin (CS+8F, Experiment 3) solutions on five alternate days and a differently flavored saccharin solution (0.05% or 0.2%, CS?) on the other five alternating days. The CS+ and CS? flavors were presented in 0.2% saccharin for two-bottle testing over six days. All strains preferred the CS+16S to CS? although there were significant strain differences in the magnitude and persistence of the sucrose preference. The strains also differed in the magnitude and persistence of preferences for the CS+16F and CS+8F flavors over the CS? with two strains failing to prefer the fructose-paired flavors. Sucrose conditioned stronger preferences than did fructose which is attributed to differences in the taste and post-oral actions of the sugars. These differential training intakes may not have influenced the sucrose-CFP because of the post-oral reinforcing actions of sucrose. Overall, sweet sensitive and sub-sensitive mice did not differ in sucrose-CFP, but unexpectedly, the sub-sensitive mice displayed stronger fructose-CFP. This may be related to differential training intakes of CS+ and CS? solutions: sweet sensitive mice consumed more CS? than CS+ during training while sub-sensitive mice consumed more CS+. PMID:21945373

  11. Membrane association of sucrose synthase: changes during the graviresponse and possible control by protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) plays an important role in sucrose degradation and occurs both as a soluble and as a membrane-associated enzyme in higher plants. We show that membrane association can vary in vivo in response to gravistimulation, apparently involving SuSy dephosphorylation, and is a reversible process in vitro. Phosphorylation of SuSy has little effect on its activity but decreases its surface hydrophobicity as reported with the fluorescent probe bis-ANS. We postulate that phosphorylation of SuSy (and perhaps other membrane proteins) is involved in the release of the membrane-bound enzyme in part as a result of decreased surface hydrophobicity.

  12. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum.

    PubMed

    Hewetson, Michael; Aaltonen, Kaisa; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Sankari, Satu

    2014-03-01

    A simple and accurate method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum that can be applied to sucrose permeability testing in the horse was developed and validated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The assay provided an acceptable degree of linearity, accuracy, and precision at concentrations of sucrose as low as 2.34 ?mol/l and as high as 20.45 ?mol/l. Percentage recovery of sucrose from serum ranged from 89% to 102%; repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 3.6% to 6.7% and 4.1% to 9.3%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.73 ?mol/l. No interfering peaks were observed except lactose, which gave 2 peaks, one of which overlapped partially with sucrose. To evaluate the suitability of the method for quantifying sucrose in serum samples from horses with naturally occurring gastric ulceration, 10 horses with and without naturally occurring gastric ulceration were subjected to sucrose permeability testing. All horses demonstrated an increase in serum sucrose concentration over time following oral administration of sucrose; however, the increase from baseline was significant for horses with gastric ulceration at 45 min (P = 0.0082) and 90 min (P = 0.0082) when compared with healthy horses. It was concluded that gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is a valid method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum and can be applied directly to the analysis of sucrose in equine serum as part of a larger validation study aimed at developing a blood test for the diagnosis of gastric ulcers in horses. PMID:24518277

  13. Characterization of the AINV gene and the encoded invertase from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Böer, Erik; Wartmann, Thomas; Luther, Bianka; Manteuffel, Renate; Bode, Rüdiger; Gellissen, Gerd; Kunze, Gotthard

    2004-08-01

    The invertase-encoding of AINV gene Arxula adeninivorans was isolated and characterized. The gene includes a coding sequence of 2700 bp encoding a putative 899 amino acid protein of 101.7 kDa. The identity of the gene was confirmed by a high degree of homology of the derived amino acid sequence to that of alpha-glucosidases from different sources. The gene activity is regulated by carbon source. In media supplemented with sucrose induction of the AINV gene and accumulation of the encoded invertase in the medium was observed. In addition the extracellular enzyme level is influenced by the morphological status of the organism, with mycelia secreting the enzyme in titres higher than those observed in budding yeasts. The enzyme characteristics were analysed from isolates of native strains as well as from those of recombinant strains expressing the AINV gene under control of the strong A. adeninivorans -derived TEF1 promoter. For both proteins a molecular mass of 600 kDa was determined, a pH optimum at pH 4.5 and a temperature optimum at 55 degrees C. The preferred substrates for the enzyme included the ss-D-fructofuranosides sucrose, inulin and raffinose. Only a weak enzyme activity was observed for the alpha-D-glucopyranosides maltotriose, maltose and isomaltose. Thus the invertase primarily is a ss-fructosidase and not an alpha-glucosidase as suggested by the homology to such enzymes. PMID:15280646

  14. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  15. Biopharmaceutical discovery and production in yeast.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Michael A; Stadheim, Terrance A

    2014-12-01

    The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates. PMID:25014890

  16. Metabolic engineering of malolactic wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Husnik, John I; Volschenk, Heinrich; Bauer, Jurgen; Colavizza, Didier; Luo, Zongli; van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2006-07-01

    Malolactic fermentation is essential for the deacidification of high acid grape must. We have constructed a genetically stable industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by integrating a linear cassette containing the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease gene (mae1) and the Oenococcus oeni malolactic gene (mleA) under control of the S. cerevisiae PGK1 promoter and terminator sequences into the URA3 locus of an industrial wine yeast. The malolactic yeast strain, ML01, fully decarboxylated 5.5 g/l of malate in Chardonnay grape must during the alcoholic fermentation. Analysis of the phenotype, genotype, transcriptome, and proteome revealed that the ML01 yeast is substantially equivalent to the parental industrial wine yeast. The ML01 yeast enjoys 'Generally Regarded As Safe' status from the FDA and is the first genetically enhanced yeast that has been commercialized. Its application will prevent the formation of noxious biogenic amines produced by lactic acid bacteria in wine. PMID:16621641

  17. Physiological properties of some yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Oprean, Letitia; Gaspar, Enikö; Lengyel, Ecaterina; Cristea, V

    2006-06-01

    Twenty yeast strains have recently been isolated in pure cultures from natural and industrial sources and identified based mainly on physiological properties. The majority of the strains (15) are alcohologenic belonging to the genus Saccharomyces and comprise two brewer's (beer) yeast strains (S. carlsbergensis= S. uvarum A and B), two baker's yeast strains (S. cerevisiae CA and CP), one spirit yeast strain (S. cerevisiae CF) and ten wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus = S. ellipsoideus 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9; S. oviformis 2, 5 and 7; and S. uvarum 10). The other 5 yeast strains belong to different species: Kloeckera apiculate, Candida mycoderma (Mycoderma vini), Pichia membranaefaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Torulopsis holmii, respectively. PMID:16841476

  18. Production of Antihypertensive Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Enriched Edible Yeast Using Gugija (Lycium chinesis Mill)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ran; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Won-Jong; Kim, Ha-Kun; Kwak, Hahn-Shik

    2010-01-01

    To produce bioactive compound enriched yeast using medicinal Gugiga (Lycium chinensis Mill), several edible Saccharomyces species were cultured in Gugija extracts added yeast extract, peptone and dextrose medium (GE - YEPD medium) at 30? for 24 hr, and their growth were determined. Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae K-7 and Sacchromyces cerevisiae ACTC 7904 were better than those of the other yeasts. Two yeasts were selected and then determined their some physiological functionalities after cultivated the yeasts in the GE - YEPD medium and compared those grown on YEPD medium. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of S. cerevisiae K-7 grown on GE - YEPD medium was about 20% higher than that grown on YEPD medium. Superoxide dismutase-like activity of S. cerevisiae ACTC 7904 was also about 12% more high. However, the other physiological functionalities were almost same or lower. Optimal addition concentration of Gugija extract was 10%, and maximally growth and ACE inhibitory activity of S. cerevisiae K-7 were shown when the strain was cultured in 10% Gugija extracts containing YEPD medium at 30? for 12 hr. PMID:23956656

  19. Screening for l -arabinose fermenting yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. Dien; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Badal C. Saha; Rodney J. Bothast

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of pentose sugars (d-xylose andl-arabinose) derived from hemi-cellulose is essential for the economic conversion of biomass to ethanol. Xylose-fermenting\\u000a yeasts were discovered in the 1980s, but to date, no yeasts have been found that fermentl-arabinose to ethanol in significant quantities. We have screened 116 different yeasts for the ability to fermentl-arabinose and have found the following species able to

  20. Characterisation of yeast microbial fuel cell with the yeast Arxula adeninivorans as the biocatalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas D. Haslett; Frankie J. Rawson; Frèdèric Barriëre; Gotthard Kunze; Neil Pasco; Ravi Gooneratne; Keith H. R. Baronian

    2011-01-01

    Yeast microbial fuel cells have received little attention to date. Yeast should be ideal MFC catalyst because they are robust, easily handled, mostly non-pathogenic organisms with high catabolic rates and in some cases a broad substrate spectrum. Here we show that the non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninvorans transfers electrons to an electrode through the secretion of a reduced molecule that is