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1

Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.  

PubMed Central

A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice.

Skaar, I; Stenwig, H

1996-01-01

2

MUTANTS OF YEAST DEFECTIVE IN SUCROSE UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of sucrose as a source of carbon and energy in yeast (Sac- charomyces) is controlled by the classical SUC genes, which confer the ability to produce the sucrose-degrading enzyme invertase ( MORTIMER and HAW- THORNE 1969). Mutants of S. cereuisiae strain S288C (SuCZ+) unable to grow anaerobically on sucrose, but still able to use glucose, were isolated. Two major

MARIAN CARLSON; BARBARA C. OSMOND; DAVID BOTSTEIN

1981-01-01

3

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

4

SUCROSE INVERSION BY BAKERS' YEAST AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE  

PubMed Central

Inversion of sucrose by bakers' yeast follows the same course as inversion catalyzed by yeast invertase. Rate of inversion increases exponentially with temperature; the temperature characteristic in the Arrhenius equation is 10,700 below 13–17°C., and 8,300 above that temperature. Temperature inactivation occurs above 40°C. The effects of temperature upon rate of inversion were the same using Fleischmann's yeast cake, the same yeast killed with toluene, and a pure strain (G. M. No. 21062) of bakers' yeast. The last differed from the other two only in the fact that its critical temperature was 13°C. as compared with 17°C. for the others. The catalytic inversion is associated with enzyme activity inside the cell, not in the medium, and is independent of any vital processes inside the cell such as respiration and fermentation. Since invertase activity is the same inside the cell as it is after extraction, it appears possible to relate the temperature characteristics for physiological processes to the catalytic chemical systems which determine their rate. At least two enzymes are capable of inverting sucrose in the yeast cell. The familiar yeast invertase (µ = 10,700) is active below 13–17°C. while a second enzyme (M = 8,300) plays the dominant role above that temperature.

Sizer, Irwin W.

1938-01-01

5

Study of the Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Concentration on Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in Yeast Extract Sucrose Medium  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species on agricultural commodities. AFB1 biosynthesis is affected by jasmonic acid and also by its methylester (MeJA), a plant growth regulator derived from linoleic acid. This study reports the effect of MeJA on the growth of A. parasiticus and AFB1 output in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium when added at three different concentrations; namely, 10?2?M, 10?4?M, and 10?6?M. AFB1 determination was performed by immunoaffinity and HPLC. MeJA at 10?4 and 10?6 M concentrations had no significant effect on mycelial growth but did affect AFB1 production after the 7th day of incubation; on the 12th day, AFB1 production was increased by 212.7% and 141.6% compared to the control samples (addition of 10?6?M and 10?4?M MeJA, resp.). Treatment of A. parasiticus cultures with 10?2?M MeJA inhibited mycelial growth and AFB1 production as well. These results suggest that the effect of MeJA on AFB1 biosynthesis by A. parasiticus depends on the MeJA concentration used.

Meimaroglou, Dido Maria; Galanopoulou, Dia; Markaki, Panagiota

2009-01-01

6

Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different carbohydrates in industrial processes. However, glucose and sucrose are always consumed first. The presence of these sugars causes repression of gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, respiration and the uptake of less- preferred carbohydrates. Glucose and sucrose also trigger unexpected, hormone-like effects, including the activation of cellular growth, the mobilization of storage compounds and

Kevin J. Verstrepen; Dirk Iserentant; Philippe Malcorps; Guy Derdelinckx; Patrick Van Dijck; Joris Winderickx; Isak S. Pretorius; Johan M. Thevelein; Freddy R. Delvaux

2004-01-01

7

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

8

Stimulation of lactobacilli during alcoholic fermentation: action of sucrose hydrolysis by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria especially their stimulation in mixed culture with yeast was studied. In alcoholic fermentation of molasses worts, bacterial growth was stimulated as the yeast inoculum size increase. The consumption of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) liberated during hydrolysis of sucrose by yeast is proposed as a major factor accounting for this phenomenon.

J. J. Essia Ngang; E. Wolniewicz; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

1992-01-01

9

Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 115(3), 191-197, 2009 Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol pro- duction strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w\\/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammon- ium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were

Messias Miranda Júnior; Margareth Batistote; Eduardo Maffud Cilli; José Roberto Ernandes

2009-01-01

10

Continuous alcoholic fermentation of sucrose using flocculating yeast. The limits of invertase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary At high flow rates, the continuous alcoholic fermentation of sucrose in a laboratory fermenter with internal cell recycle, using a strongly flocculating yeast can be limited by the substrate hydrolysis. This system is sensitive to glucose catabolic repression and to mineral deficiency. The release of invertase activity in the medium is negligible. From theoretical and experimental considerations, the hydrolysis

A. Fontana; C. Ghommidh; J. P. Guiraud; J. M. Navarro

1992-01-01

11

Extracts of common buckwheat bran prevent sucrose digestion.  

PubMed

Buckwheat has been shown to have various health benefits such as reduction of hypertension and improvement of hypercholesterolemia; however, its effect on diabetes has not been fully elucidated. In this study, buckwheat bran extracts (BBE) inhibited sucrase activity in vitro more effectively than buckwheat. Balb/c mice pretreated with BBE showed dose-dependent reductions of blood glucose, greater than those observed with control mice, within 60 min following oral sucrose administration. Blood glucose levels in mice pretreated with buckwheat extracts were also significantly lower compared to those in control mice within 30 min following oral administration of sucrose. However, rutin, one of the abundant polyphenols of BBE, did not lower blood glucose level. Our data indicate that components of BBE other than rutin have inhibitory activity against sucrase in vivo. These results suggest that BBE could have beneficial effects on diabetes. PMID:22472288

Hosaka, Toshio; Nii, Yoshitaka; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takahiro; Tamanaha, Aya; Yamasaka, Yukiko; Sasaga, Sayaka; Edazawa, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shuto, Emi; Okahisa, Naoki; Iwata, Shinya; Sakai, Tohru

2011-01-01

12

Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.  

PubMed

During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. PMID:22041027

Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

2011-10-14

13

Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze–thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain.

Yu Sasano; Yutaka Haitani; Iwao Ohtsu; Jun Shima; Hiroshi Takagi

14

How can temperature affect reverse micellar extraction using sucrose fatty acid ester?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reverse micellar extraction of lysozyme using sucrose fatty acid ester was found to be greatly affected by the temperature in the extraction process. For example, lysozyme was perfectly extracted from the feed aqueous phase to the reverse micellar organic phase at 25°C, while it was not extracted at 5°C at all. After entrapping lysozyme into the reverse micelles, lysozyme

Hidetaka Noritomi; Naoki Kojima; Satoru Kato; Kunio Nagahama

2006-01-01

15

Application of sucrose fatty acid ester to reverse micellar extraction of lysozyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse micellar extraction of lysozyme has been carried out using an organic solution containing a mixture of monoester and polyester of sucrose fatty acid ester. The forward extraction of lysozyme from the feed aqueous phase to the reverse micellar organic phase of the mixture of monoester and polyester of sucrose fatty acid ester at pH 7.2 was strongly dependent upon the

Hidetaka Noritomi; Hiroshi Kowata; Naoki Kojima; Satoru Kato; Kunio Nagahama

2006-01-01

16

BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M182: Malt Extract Agar - (Yeasts and Molds) (MEAYM). January 2001. ... M182 Malt Extract Agar for Yeasts and Molds (MEAYM). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

17

BAM Media M151: Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M151: Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract Broth (TPGY). ... M151 Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast Extract Broth (TPGY). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

18

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

2010-01-01

19

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172...Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this...

2013-04-01

20

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.  

PubMed

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions. PMID:18712551

Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2008-08-20

21

Games microbes play: The game theory behind cooperative sucrose metabolism in yeast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of cooperation is a central challenge to our understanding of evolution. Microbial interactions can be manipulated in ways that animal interactions cannot, thus leading to growing interest in microbial models of cooperation and competition. In order for the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to grow on sucrose, the disaccharide must first be hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase. This hydrolysis reaction is performed outside of the cytoplasm in the periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. Here we demonstrate that the vast majority (˜99%) of the monosaccharides created by sucrose hydrolysis diffuse away before they can be imported into the cell, thus making invertase production and secretion a cooperative behavior [1]. A mutant cheater strain that does not produce invertase is able to take advantage of and invade a population of wildtype cooperator cells. However, over a wide range of conditions, the wildtype cooperator can also invade a population of cheater cells. Therefore, we observe coexistence between the two strains in well-mixed culture at steady state resulting from the fact that rare strategies outperform common strategies---the defining features of what game theorists call the snowdrift game. A simple model of the cooperative interaction incorporating nonlinear benefits explains the origin of this coexistence. Glucose repression of invertase expression in wildtype cells produces a strategy which is optimal for the snowdrift game---wildtype cells cooperate only when competing against cheater cells. In disagreement with recent theory [2], we find that spatial structure always aids the evolution of cooperation in our experimental snowdrift game. [4pt] [1] Gore, J., Youk, H. & van Oudenaarden, A., Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009) [0pt] [2] Hauert, C. & Doebeli, M., Nature 428, 643 -- 646 (2004)

Gore, Jeff

2010-03-01

22

The effect of pH, sodium chloride, sucrose, sorbate and benzoate on the growth of food spoilage yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, concentration of NaCl, concentration of sucrose and concentrations of sorbic and benzoic acids on growth were examined for 30 strains of food spoilage yeasts, representingDebaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Kloeckera apiculata, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia anomalaandSaccharomyces cerevisiae.Zygosaccharomyces bailiidid not grow at pH 7.0 andZ. rouxii, Kl. apiculataandP. membranaefaciensdid not grow at pH

W Praphailong; G. H Fleet

1997-01-01

23

SUC1 and SUC2: two sucrose transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana; expression and characterization in baker's yeast and identification of the histidine-tagged protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An important, most likely essential step for the long distance transport of sucrose in higher plants is the energy-dependent, uncoupler-sensiUve loading into phloem cells via a sucrose-H + symporter. This paper describes functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of two cDNAs encoding energy-dependent sucrose transporters from the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliane, SUCl and SUC2. Yeast cells transformed with vectors

Norbert Sauer; JLirgen Stolz

1994-01-01

24

In Situ Biphasic Extractive Fermentation for Hexanoic Acid Production from Sucrose by Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 702410.  

PubMed

Hexanoic acid production by a bacterium using sucrose as an economic carbon source was studied under conditions in which hexanoic acid was continuously extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 702410, selected from five M. elsdenii strains, produced 4.69 g l(-1) hexanoic acid in a basal medium containing sucrose. Production increased to 8.19 g l(-1) when the medium was supplemented by 5 g l(-1) sodium butyrate. A biphasic liquid-liquid extraction system with 10 % (v/v) alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as a solvent was evaluated in a continuous stirred-tank reactor held at pH 6. Over 90 % (w/w) of the hexanoic acid in a 0.5 M aqueous solution was transferred to the extraction solvent within 10 h. Cell growth was not significantly inhibited by direct contact of the fermentation broth with the extraction solvent. The system produced 28.42 g l(-1) of hexanoic acid from 54.85 g l(-1) of sucrose during 144 h of culture, and 26.52 and 1.90 g l(-1) of hexanoic acid was accumulated in the extraction solvent and the aqueous fermentation broth, respectively. The productivity and yield of hexanoic acid were 0.20 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.50 g g(-1) sucrose, respectively. PMID:23754557

Choi, Kieun; Jeon, Byoung Seung; Kim, Byung-Chun; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

2013-06-11

25

The Extraction and Assay of 1-Kestose:Sucrose Fructosyl Transferase from Leaves of Wheat.  

PubMed Central

Isolating the enzymes responsible for fructan synthesis in plants has been hampered by unsuitable assays used during purification. It is believed that there are two enzymes necessary for fructan synthesis in higher plants, one initiating synthesis utilizing sucrose as donor and the other elaborating the polymer using fructan oligomers as donor. In this paper, a rapid quantitative assay is described to measure the latter fructosyl transfer. The activity was absent from leaves that were not synthesizing fructan. Activity in crude extracts showed a hyperbolic dependence upon sucrose concentration. Activity against 1-kestose showed a pronounced optimum, suggesting that self-transfer also occurred.

Pollock, C. J.; Housley, T. L.

1993-01-01

26

Forward and backward extractions of cytochrome c using reverse micellar system of sucrose fatty acid ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of solvent, pH, and ionic strength on the reverse micellar extraction of cytochrome c have been examined, when sucrose fatty acid esters were employed as surfactants of reverse micelles. The transparent and stable reverse micellar organic phase was formed, when the mixture of isooctane and n-butanol (7:3 v\\/v) was used as the bulk organic phase. The high forward extraction

Hidetaka Noritomi; Saori Ito; Naoki Kojima; Satoru Kato; Kunio Nagahama

2006-01-01

27

Extremely Rapid Extraction of DNA from Bacteria and Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple and rapid method for extracting genomic DNA from Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts is presented. In this method, bacteria or yeasts are lysed directly by phenol and the supernatant is extracted with chloroform to remove traces of phenol. The supernatant contains DNA that is suitable for molecular analyses, such as PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and genomic

Hai-Rong Cheng; Ning Jiang

2006-01-01

28

Functional genomics of commercial baker's yeasts that have different abilities for sugar utilization and high-sucrose tolerance under different sugar conditions.  

PubMed

In the modern baking industry, high-sucrose-tolerant (HS) and maltose-utilizing (LS) yeast were developed using breeding techniques and are now used commercially. Sugar utilization and high-sucrose tolerance differ significantly between HS and LS yeasts. We analysed the gene expression profiles of HS and LS yeasts under different sucrose conditions in order to determine their basic physiology. Two-way hierarchical clustering was performed to obtain the overall patterns of gene expression. The clustering clearly showed that the gene expression patterns of LS yeast differed from those of HS yeast. Quality threshold clustering was used to identify the gene clusters containing upregulated genes (cluster 1) and downregulated genes (cluster 2) under high-sucrose conditions. Clusters 1 and 2 contained numerous genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, respectively. The expression level of the genes involved in the metabolism of glycerol and trehalose, which are known to be osmoprotectants, in LS yeast was higher than that in HS yeast under sucrose concentrations of 5-40%. No clear correlation was found between the expression level of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectants and the intracellular contents of the osmoprotectants. The present gene expression data were compared with data previously reported in a comprehensive analysis of a gene deletion strain collection. Welch's t-test for this comparison showed that the relative growth rates of the deletion strains whose deletion occurred in genes belonging to cluster 1 were significantly higher than the average growth rates of all deletion strains. PMID:17724779

Tanaka-Tsuno, Fumiko; Mizukami-Murata, Satomi; Murata, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Toshihide; Ando, Akira; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

2007-10-01

29

Spray Drying of Extracts from Red Yeast Fermentation Broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red yeast rice is a pigmented material that is traditionally used in Asia as a food colorant. In addition to food applications, red yeast rice is known in traditional Chinese medicine for its therapeutic actions. The aim of this work was to study the quality interactions during spray drying of extracts from the Monascus ruber van Tiegham fermentation broth. The

C. C. C. Teixeira; G. A. Teixeira; L. A. P. Freitas

2011-01-01

30

Utilisation of spent brewer's yeast for yeast extract production by autolysis: The effect of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, autolysis was induced by incubating cell suspensions of spent brewer's yeast at elevated temperatures of 45, 50, 55 and 60°C with a reaction time ranging from 8 to 72h. Contents and yields of solid, ?-amino nitrogen, protein and carbohydrate were determined. It can be said that optimum temperature and time for the production of yeast extract was

Hasan Tanguler; Huseyin Erten

2008-01-01

31

The Effect of Different Temperatures on Autolysis of Baker's Yeast for the Production of Yeast Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the optimum autolysis conditions for the production of yeast extract, which is used to give a meaty flavor to food products and to increase their nutritional value. Autolysis was induced by incubating baker's yeast cell suspensions at different temperatures (45, 50, 55, and 60 °C) with a reaction time ranging from 8 to 72 h.

Hasan TANGÜLER; Hüseyin ERTEN

32

21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of...

2009-04-01

33

Safer DNA extraction from plant tissues using sucrose buffer and glass fiber filter.  

PubMed

For some plant species, DNA extraction and downstream experiments are inhibited by various chemicals such as polysaccharides and polyphenols. This short communication proposed an organic-solvent free (except for ethanol) extraction method. This method consists of an initial washing step with STE buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA), followed by DNA extraction using a piece of glass fiber filter. The advantages of this method are its safety and low cost. The purity of the DNA solution obtained using this method is not necessarily as high as that obtained using the STE/CTAB method, but it is sufficient for PCR experiments. These points were demonstrated empirically with two species, Japanese speedwell and common dandelion, for which DNA has proven difficult to amplify via PCR in past studies. PMID:22695723

Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishio, Takayuki

2012-06-14

34

Inhibition of Spoiling Yeasts of Fruit Juices through Citrus Extracts.  

PubMed

This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-10-01

35

The Influence of Exogenous Nutrients on the Abundance of Yeasts on the Phylloplane of Turfgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted to assess the effect of foliar applications of various nutrient solutions on the phylloplane\\u000a yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In the first three experiments, increasing concentrations of sucrose (2–16%), yeast extract (0.5–2.5%), and sucrose\\u000a plus yeast extract (2.5–18.5% total) were applied and the yeast colony forming units (cfu) enumerated 14 h later by dilution

Shannon Nix-Stohr; Leon L. Burpee; James W. Buck

2008-01-01

36

Tuber-specific expression of a yeast invertase and a bacterial glucokinase in potato leads to an activation of sucrose phosphate synthase and the creation of a sucrose futile cycle.  

PubMed

Fluxes were investigated in growing tubers from wild-type potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv.Desiree) and from transformants expressing a yeast invertase in the cytosol under the control of the tuber-specific patatin promoter either alone (EC 3.2.1.26;U-IN2-30) or in combination with a Zymomonas mobilis glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.2; GK3-38) by supplying radiolabelled [14C]sucrose, [14C]glucose or [14C]fructose to tuber discs for a 90-min pulse and subsequent chase incubations of 4 and 12 h, and by supplying [14C]fructose for 2 h and 4 h to intact tubers attached to the mother plant. Contrary to the expectation that this novel route for sucrose degradation would promote starch synthesis,the starch content decreased in the transgenic lines.Labelling kinetics did not reveal whether this was due to changes in the fluxes into or out of starch. However,they demonstrated that glycolysis is enhanced in the transgenic lines in comparison to the wild type. There was also a significant stimulation of sucrose synthesis,leading to a rapid cycle of sucrose degradation and resynthesis. The labelling pattern indicated that sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) was responsible for the enhanced recycling of label into sucrose. In agreement, there was a 4-fold and 6-fold increase in the activation status of SPS in U-IN2-30 and GK3-38,respectively, and experiments with protein phosphatase inhibitors indicated that this activation involves enhanced dephosphorylation of SPS. It is proposed that this activation of SPS is promoted by the elevated glucose 6-phosphate levels in the transgenic tubers.These results indicate the pitfalls of metabolic engineering without a full appreciation of the metabolic system and regulatory circuits present in the tissue under investigation. PMID:19402252

Trethewey, R N; Riesmeier, J W; Willmitzer, L; Stitt, M; Geigenberger, P

1999-04-01

37

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

2011-07-01

38

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces...for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from...

2012-07-01

39

Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet\\u000a molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation\\u000a of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by

Mahnaz Sharifia; Keikhosro Karimi; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2008-01-01

40

Immunoblotting histones from yeast whole-cell protein extracts.  

PubMed

Histones are small basic proteins that are core components of chromatin. As such, they are essential for cell viability and genomic stability and their levels are tightly controlled. In addition, histone tails are subject to extensive posttranslational modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, that play critical roles in many cellular processes. To quickly screen for alterations in histone levels and/or their modifications in yeast mutants under different growth conditions, we present a fast and reliable protocol for whole-cell protein extract preparation and immunoblotting. PMID:23818662

Rossmann, Marlies P; Stillman, Bruce

2013-07-01

41

Systematic identification of yeast proteins extracted into model wine during aging on the yeast lees.  

PubMed

Total protein and protein-associated mannan concentrations were measured, and individual proteins were identified during extraction into model wines over 9 months of aging on the yeast lees following completion of fermentations by seven wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In aged wines, protein-associated mannan increased about 6-fold (+/-66%), while total protein only increased 2-fold (+/-20%), which resulted in a significantly greater protein-associated mannan/total protein ratio for three strains. A total of 219 proteins were identified among all wine samples taken over the entire time course. Of the 17 "long-lived" proteins detected in all 9 month samples, 13 were cell wall mannoproteins, and four were glycolytic enzymes. Most cytosolic proteins were not detected after 6 months. Native mannosylated yeast invertase was assayed for binding to wine tannin and was found to have a 10-fold lower affinity than nonglycosylated bovine serum albumin. Enrichment of mannoproteins in the aged model wines implies greater solution stability than other yeast proteins and the possibility that their contributions to wine quality may persist long after bottling. PMID:20108898

Rowe, Jeffrey D; Harbertson, James F; Osborne, James P; Freitag, Michael; Lim, Juyun; Bakalinsky, Alan T

2010-02-24

42

Quantitative evaluation of intracellular metabolite extraction techniques for yeast metabolomics.  

PubMed

Accurate determination of intracellular metabolite levels requires well-validated procedures for sampling and sample treatment. Several methods exist for metabolite extraction, but the literature is contradictory regarding the adequacy and performance of each technique. Using a strictly quantitative approach, we have re-evaluated five methods (hot water, HW; boiling ethanol, BE; chloroform-methanol, CM; freezing-thawing in methanol, FTM; acidic acetonitrile-methanol, AANM) for the extraction of 44 intracellular metabolites (phosphorylated intermediates, amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides) from S. cerevisiae cells. Two culture modes were investigated (batch and chemostat) to check for growth condition dependency, and three targeted platforms were employed (two LC-MS and one GC/MS) to exclude analytical bias. Additionally, for the determination of metabolite recoveries, we applied a novel approach based on addition of (13)C-labeled internal standards at different stages of sample processing. We found that the choice of extraction method can drastically affect measured metabolite levels, to an extent that for some metabolites even the direction of changes between growth conditions can be inverted. The best performances, in terms of efficacy and metabolite recoveries, were achieved with BE and CM, which yielded nearly identical levels for the metabolites analyzed. According to our results, AANM performs poorly in yeast and FTM cannot be considered adequate as an extraction method, as it does not ensure inactivation of enzymatic activity. PMID:19653633

Canelas, André B; ten Pierick, Angela; Ras, Cor; Seifar, Reza M; van Dam, Jan C; van Gulik, Walter M; Heijnen, Joseph J

2009-09-01

43

[Determination of dimethylformamide in food additive sucrose esters of fatty acids using solid-phase extraction].  

PubMed

A simple method using Florisil cartridges was developed for the determination of dimethylformamide (DMF) in sucrose esters of fatty acids present in sugar esters (SuE) and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) used as food additives. SuE was dissolved in acetone and loaded on a Florisil cartridge. SAIB was dissolved in hexane, loaded on a Florisil cartridge and washed with 10% acetone in hexane. The columns were eluted with acetone and DMF in the eluates was determined by GC with an FID detector. Recoveries of DMF at the level of 0.5-100 micrograms/g were 93.3-102.6%. The determination limit was 0.5 microgram/g. PMID:11998317

Haneishi, Nahoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Yasuno, Tetsuko; Hagiwara, Teruhiko; Kabashima, Zyunichiro; Araki, Rie; Kamata, Kunihiro

2002-02-01

44

Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole

Mónica Herrero; Luis A. García; Mario Díaz

2003-01-01

45

Phenolics-rich extracts from Silybum marianum and Prunella vulgaris reduce a high-sucrose diet induced oxidative stress in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study tested the effects of phenolics-rich extracts from the plants Silybum marianum (silymarin) and Prunella vulgaris (PVE) on blood and liver antioxidant status and lipoprotein metabolism. Hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats fed on standard diet (STD) or high-sucrose diet (HSD, 70cal% of sucrose) for two weeks were used. HSD doubled plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased plasma VLDL-TAG and VLDL-cholesterol

Nina Škottová; Ludmila Kazdová; Olena Oliyarnyk; Rostislav Ve?e?a; Lucie Sobolová; Jitka Ulrichová

2004-01-01

46

Occurrence and Growth of Yeasts in Yogurts  

PubMed Central

Yogurts purchased from retail outlets were examined for the presence of yeasts by being plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar. Of the 128 samples examined, 45% exhibited yeast counts above 103 cells per g. A total of 73 yeast strains were isolated and identified as belonging to the genera Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Debaryomyces, and Sporobolomyces. Torulopsis candida and Kluyveromyces fragilis were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Torulopsis versatilis. The growth of yeasts in yogurts was related to the ability of the yeasts to grow at refrigeration temperatures, to ferment lactose and sucrose, and to hydrolyze milk casein. Most yeast isolates grew in the presence of 100 ?g of sorbate and benzoate preservatives per ml. Higher yeast counts from yogurts were obtained when the yogurts were plated onto oxytetracycline malt extract agar than when they were plated onto acidified malt extract agar.

Suriyarachchi, V. R.; Fleet, G. H.

1981-01-01

47

Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids.  

PubMed

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dich!orobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623396

Armenante, P M; Fava, F; Kafkewitz, D

1995-07-20

48

Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the absence of yeast extract and a noninhibitory kinetics in the presence of yeast extract. Similar results were obtained for CPE3. The presence of yeast extract also resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of the strains for the chlorobenzoic acids they degraded.

Armenante, P.M. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science; Fava, F. [Univ. di Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science; Kafkewitz, D. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1995-07-20

49

Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with\\u000a the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools.\\u000a Both phosphate and yeast extract

Clarice M. A. Chagas; Talita L. Honorato; Gustavo A. S. Pinto; Geraldo A. Maia; Sueli Rodrigues

2007-01-01

50

Combined effect of crude herbal extracts, pH and sucrose on the survival of Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati in orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sukkasem, D., Hongpattarakere, T. and H-Kittikun, A. Combined effect of crude herbal extracts, pH and sucrose on the survival of Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati in orange juice Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2007, 29(3) : 793-800 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of cinnamon and clove compared with potassium sorbate against food

Daorin Sukkasem; Tipparat Hongpattarakere

2007-01-01

51

Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts. I. Chemosystematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix

Jørn Smedsgaard; Jens Christian Frisvad

1997-01-01

52

Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata

S. Weckesser; K. Engel; B. Simon-Haarhaus; A. Wittmer; K. Pelz; C. M. Schempp

2007-01-01

53

In vitro and in vivo satietogenic effect of yeast extracts and control of food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast extracts, by their nutritional characteristics, have a high potential as a source of biologically active molecules and\\u000a functional food ingredients. In this work, in vitro and in vivo satietogenic effect of yeast extracts was examined. The in\\u000a vitro results obtained for the first time showed that a yeast extract strongly stimulated the secretion of cholecystokinin\\u000a (CCK) from endocrine STC-1

Lucie Catiau; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Didier Guillochon; Rozenn Ravallec

54

Defensive and secondary metabolism in Astragalus chrysochlorus cell cultures, in response to yeast extract stressor.  

PubMed

In this study it was aimed to investigate inducibility of secondary metabolism in Astragalus chrysochlorus by yeast extract which is known to cause the synthesis of defensive phenolic metabolites. Cell suspension cultures of Astragalus chrysochlorus responded to elicitor treatment (10 gl(-1) yeast extract) by increasing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL E.C. 4.3.1.5) activity the key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Yeast extract was added on 13th day in the cultures when cells were at early stage of logarithmic phase. The highest PAL activity (2.71 U microg protein(-1) min(-1)) was measured at 36 hr after addition of yeast extract and increasing of total phenolics accompanied with 221 microg g(-1) value as fresh weight (FW). Total phenolic content reached maximum value, 343.86 microg g(-1) FW, at 48 hr while control's value was 162 microg g(-1) FW. Maximum PAL activity and total phenolic content were 2.88 and 2.12 times higher than the controls of A. chrysochlorus cells, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a positive correlation between induced PAL activity and accumulation of total phenolics. It is considered that early defense response given to environmental stressors such as biotic and abiotic factors by upregulation of phenolic branch of secondary metabolism occurs in A. chrysochlorus with addition of yeast extract. PMID:20112863

Cakir, Ozgur; Ari, Sule

2009-01-01

55

Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks.2.?White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000?mg\\/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added;

E. Gurbuz; T. Balevi; V. Kurtoglu; Y. Oznurlu

2011-01-01

56

Growth promoting substance in yeast extract for methylotrophic growth of Candida boidinii.  

PubMed

A growth-promoting substance (GPS) for methylotrophic yeasts was purified from yeast extract. The purified GPS showed growth promotion by reducing the lag time of the growth of methylotrophic Candida boidinii, while the growth rate at the exponential phase was the same as that of growth without GPS. GPS was finally identified to be L-proline by the criteria of instrumental analysis and chemical shift assignments. PMID:16926518

Adachi, Osao; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Toyama, Hirohide; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2006-08-01

57

Yeast Extract Stimulates Glucose Metabolism and Inhibits Lipolysis in Rat Adipocytes in Vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods contain bioactive components that contribute to optimal health. Food-grade yeast may contain components that enhance cellular glucose metabolism. We tested the effect of brewer's yeast (Saccha- romyces cerevisiae) extract (YE), in vitro on rat fat cell glucose transport, glucose metabolism to lipid, and lipolysis. YE was fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography on a C18 open column using ammonium acetate (0.05

Neile K. Edens; Lisa A. Reaves; Marti S. Bergana; Irene L. Reyzer; Patrick O'Mara; Jeffrey H. Baxter; Maureen K. Snowden

58

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...

2013-04-01

59

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...

2010-01-01

60

21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...content of the finished ingredient as a concentrate or dry material is: (1) Less than 10,000 organisms/gram by aerobic plate count. (2) Less than 10 yeasts and molds/gram. (3) Negative for Salmonella, E. coli, coagulase...

2009-04-01

61

Kefir-yeast technology: Industrial scale-up of alcoholic fermentation of whey, promoted by raisin extracts, using kefir-yeast granular biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial scale-up of whey fermentation, promoted by raisin extracts, using free kefir-yeast cells is reported. The fermented whey would be exploited as raw material to produce kefir-like whey-based drinks, potable and fuel alcohol, as well as kefir-yeast biomass for use as baker's yeast. The scale-up process involved the development of a technology transfer scheme from lab-scale experiments to a successive

Athanasios A. Koutinas; Ilias Athanasiadis; Argyro Bekatorou; Costas Psarianos; Maria Kanellaki; Nikolaos Agouridis; Georgios Blekas

2007-01-01

62

Chromatin Assembly in a Yeast Whole-Cell Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple in vitro system that supports chromatin assembly was developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assembly reaction is ATP-dependent, uses soluble histones and assembly factors, and generates physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We analyze the pathway of histone recruitment into nucleosomes, using this system in combination with genetic methods for the manipulation of yeast. This analysis supports the model of sequential recruitment of H3/H4 tetramers and H2A/H2B dimers into nucleosomes. Using a similar approach, we show that DNA ligase I can play an important role in template repair during assembly. These studies demonstrate the utility of this system for the combined biochemical and genetic analysis of chromatin assembly in yeast.

Schultz, Michael C.; Hockman, Darren J.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; Garinther, Wendy I.; Altheim, Brent A.

1997-08-01

63

Polypeptide nature of growth requirement in yeast extract for Thermoplasma acidophilum.  

PubMed Central

The active component(s) in yeast extract required by Thermoplasma acidophilum for growth is polypeptide in nature. A fraction from yeast extract was isolated and partially characterized as one or more peptides of molecular weight about 1,000 containing 8 to 10 amino acids. Although it was composed largely of basic and dicarboxylic amino acids, only one amino group per molecule was free. The polypeptide(s) appeared to bind avidly to cations. No other organic compounds except glucose were needed by Thermoplasma. Among several hundred known compounds tested, only glutathione plus Fe2+ or Fe3+, clostridial ferredoxin, and spinach ferredoxin elicited any growth response.

Smith, P F; Langworthy, T A; Smith, M R

1975-01-01

64

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

65

GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

66

Enzyme-assisted extraction of lipids directly from the culture of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.  

PubMed

Lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms are a potential feedstock for biodiesel production and chemical synthesis. Yet, the costs of microbial lipids remain high, partially because the lipid recovery process is tedious and costly. In the present study, enzyme-assisted extraction of lipids from the culture of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was carried out. With a heat pre-treatment with microwave, enzymatic treatment with the recombinant ?-1,3-glucomannanase, plMAN5C, and extraction with ethyl acetate, 96.6% of the total lipids were extracted from R. toruloides cells at room temperature and atmospheric pressure directly from the culture without dewatering. Therefore, this process could significantly reduce energy consumption and costs for lipids extraction from the yeast. PMID:22361072

Jin, Guojie; Yang, Fan; Hu, Cuimin; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

2012-02-06

67

Properties of anaerobic granular sludge as affected by yeast extract, cobalt and iron supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of yeast extract (YE), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) on anaerobic bacterial granules grown in eight laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors was investigated using a factorial design. The experiment was performed in three periods in which different chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates were applied to the reactors. The COD digestion rate and the specific activity of

Chun Fang Shen; Naim Kosaric; Roman Blaszczyk

1993-01-01

68

Extracting Regulatory Sites from the Upstream Region of Yeast Genes by Computational Analysis of Oligonucleotide Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a simple and fast method allowing the isolation of DNA binding sites for transcription factors from families of coregulated genes, with results illustrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although conceptually simple, the algorithm proved efficient for extracting, from most of the yeast regulatory families analyzed, the upstream regulatory sequences which had been previously found by experimental analysis. Furthermore, putative

J. van Helden; B. Andre; J. Collado-Vides

2002-01-01

69

GASTROINTESTINAL MATURATION IS ACCELERATED IN TURKEY POULTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE YEAST EXTRACT (ALPHAMUNE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alphamune is a yeast extract antibiotic alternative that has been shown to stimulate the immune system and increase BW in pigs. The influence of Alphamune on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of turkey poults has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamun...

70

A rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from yeasts and fungi isolated from Agave fourcroydes.  

PubMed

A simple and easy protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different yeast and filamentous fungal species is described. This method involves two important steps: first, the disruption of cell walls by mechanical means and freezing; and second, the extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The absorbance ratios (A(260)/A(280)) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. The main objective of this procedure is to extract pure DNA from yeast and filamentous fungi, including those with high contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. The yield and quality of the DNAs obtained were suitable for micro/minisatellite primer-polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting as well as for the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA. PMID:16691008

Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Lappe, Patricia; Ulloa, Miguel; Quijano-Ramayo, Andrés; Cáceres-Farfán, Mirbella; Larqué-Saavedra, Alfonso; Perez-Brito, Daisy

2006-05-01

71

A DNA extraction and purification method for several yeast genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity and other branches of biological research require rapid and inex- pensive methods to extract and purify DNA, able to process several samples simultaneous- ly, thus allowing an extensive approach to the molecular study of diversity in nature. One problem is the necessity of choosing between rapid methods able to produce relatively crude products or time-consuming procedure yielding nucleic acids

G. CARDINALI; A. BOLANO; A. MARTINI

2001-01-01

72

Inhibition of Candida albicans yeast-hyphal transition and biofilm formation by Solidago virgaurea water extracts.  

PubMed

Xerostomia is a decrease of saliva secretion, which can unbalance the oral microflora, mainly to the benefit of Candida albicans. The aim of the present study was to find a plant extract that could create an unfavourable environment for Candida, and would, therefore, be appropriate for use in a dry-mouth daily-care mouthwash. Water extract from the herbaceous plant Solidago virgaurea (Goldenrod) was selected due to its saponin content (plant detergents). Saponin concentrations reached 0.7 and 0.95 mg ml(-1) in S. virgaurea subsp. virgaurea and S. virgaurea subsp. alpestris extracts, respectively. C. albicans was grown in liquid medium and cells were counted by microscopic examination after 0, 4 and 24 h of incubation. Solidago extracts did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans (four strains), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius or Enterococcus faecalis. When inocula were incubated with Solidago extract for 4 and 24 h, we observed a decrease in Candida yeast-hyphal transition. Candida biofilms were then prepared in microtitre plates and treated with plant extracts at 0 h, to estimate biofilm formation, or at 18 h to estimate the effect of the saponin on pre-formed biofilms. Biofilm formation and pre-formed biofilms were both strongly inhibited. In conclusion, the S. virgaurea extract was efficient against two key virulence factors of C. albicans: the yeast-hyphal transition phase and biofilm formation. PMID:22422572

Chevalier, Marlène; Medioni, Etienne; Prêcheur, Isabelle

2012-03-15

73

Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a textbook chapter on sucrose and related oligosaccharides. Contents include the industrial production of sugar (sucrose) from sugarcane and sugarbeet, physical and chemical properties of sucrose including conformation studies, various analyses of sucrose, current commercial and anticipated ...

74

Utilization capability of sucrose, raffinose and inulin and its less-sensitiveness to glucose repression in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042  

PubMed Central

Kluyveromyces marxianus possesses a useful potential to assimilate a wide variety of substrates at a high temperature, but the negative effect by coexisting glucose is critical for utilization of biomass containing various sugars. Such a negative effect on the activity of inulinase, which is the sole enzyme to hydrolyze sucrose, raffinose and inulin, has been demonstrated in K. marxianus without analysis at the gene level. To clarify the utilization capability of sucrose, raffinose and inulin and the glucose effect on inulinase in K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042, its growth and metabolite profiles on these sugars were examined with or without glucose under a static condition, in which glucose repression evidently occurs. Consumption of sucrose was not influenced by glucose or 2-deoxyglucose. On the other hand, raffinose and inulin consumption was hampered by glucose at 30°C but hardly hampered at 45°C. Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, increase in glucose concentration had no effect on sucrose utilization. These sugar-specific glucose effects were consistent with the level of inulinase activity but not with that of the KmINU1 transcript, which was repressed in the presence of glucose via KmMig1p. This inconsistency may be due to sufficient activity of inulinase even when glucose is present. Our results encourage us to apply K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042 to high-temperature ethanol fermentation with biomass containing these sugars with glucose.

2011-01-01

75

Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.  

PubMed

Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture. PMID:23196255

Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond

2012-10-22

76

Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics during aerobic biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monod or Andrews kinetic parameters describing the growth of Pseudomonas sp. CPE2 strain on 2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid, and Al-caligenes sp. CPE3 strain on 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-chlorobenzoic acid were determined from batch and continuous growth experiments conducted in the presence or absence of yeast extract (50 mg\\/L). Strain CPE2 displayed inhibitory growth kinetics in the

Piero M. Armenante; Fabio Fava; David Kafkewitz

1995-01-01

77

Induction of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures by yeast extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient increase in rosmarinic acid (RA) content in cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon was observed after addition of yeast extract (YE) to the suspension cultures, reaching a maximum at 24 hr. The highest increase of the RA content (2.5-fold) was obtained when 6-day-old cells in the exponential growth phase were treated with YE. Preceding the induced RA accumulation, phenylalanine

Hajime Mizukami; Terumi Ogawa; Hiromu Ohashi; Brian E. Ellis

1992-01-01

78

Coupling of killer virus transcription with translation in yeast cell-free extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmically inherited killer virus of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae expresses its dsRNA genome via apparently uncapped viral transcripts produced in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Virions of this naturally temperature-sensitive virus can be added to cell-free translational extracts of uninfected yeast cells resulting in a reaction in which viral transcription and transla- tion are coupled at 15 °C in vitro.

Francis P. Barbone; Michael J. Leibowitz

1991-01-01

79

Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

Holmes, R.L.

1982-04-01

80

Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.  

PubMed

Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat

2012-06-20

81

Irreversible Metabolic Transitions: The Glucose 6Phosphate Metabolism in Yeast Cell-Free Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state and dynamic behavior of a partial glycolytic reaction sequence are investigated in cell-free extracts of yeast. Pyruvate kinase, adenylate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate isomerase cooperate to a multienzyme system centered around the 6-phosphofructokinase (6-PFK) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) cycle. The reaction system operates under thermodynamically open conditions maintained by a continuous supply of substrates, i.e., glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P),

Marie-Agnès Coevoet; Jean-François Hervagault

1997-01-01

82

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement of a tolerance. This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food commodities when applied/used for the...

2013-07-01

83

Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol  

PubMed Central

Chlorhexidine (Cx) augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (?-cd) inclusion compounds, termed Cx:?-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:?-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a.) was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 ?g/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:?-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:?-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing ?-cd concentrations (1.71 ×103; 1.4 ×103; 3.45 ×103, and 3.74 ×103 CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:?-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of ?-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:?-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:?-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding.

Teixeira, K. I. R.; Araujo, P. V.; Sinisterra, R. D.; Cortes, M. E.

2012-01-01

84

Insect cuticle and yeast extract effects on germination, growth, and production of hydrolytic enzymes by Nomuraea rileyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval cuticle ofHelicoverpa (Heliothis)zea and yeast extract added to a minimal medium (MM) induced germination of conidia ofNomuraea rileyi whereas sterile distilled water or MM alone did not. Yeast extract increased mycelial yield, but when cuticle was added, mycelial yield significantly decreased. Proteases and chitinases ofN. rileyi were only expressed when cuticle was added to the MM.

G. N. El-Sayed; C. M. Ignoffo; T. D. Leathers; S. C. Gupta

1993-01-01

85

Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min

1997-01-01

86

Sucrose metabolism in plastids.  

PubMed

The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experiments suggest substantial Suc entry into plastids. The enzyme levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis efficiently synthesizes fructan from Suc. Targeting of this enzyme to the plastids of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants leads to high-level fructan accumulation in chloroplasts and amyloplasts, respectively. Moreover, introduction of this enzyme in amyloplasts leads to an altered starch structure. Expression of the yeast invertase in potato tuber amyloplasts results in an 80% reduction of total Suc content, showing efficient hydrolysis of Suc by the plastidic invertase. These observations suggest that Suc can enter plastids efficiently and they raise questions as to its function and metabolism in this organelle. PMID:11161049

Gerrits, N; Turk, S C; van Dun, K P; Hulleman, S H; Visser, R G; Weisbeek, P J; Smeekens, S C

2001-02-01

87

High chromium yeast supplementation improves glucose tolerance in pigs by decreasing hepatic extraction of insulin.  

PubMed

Twenty Landrace x Yorkshire cross pigs (body wt, 47.9+/-2.9 kg) were used to evaluate effects of dietary high chromium (Cr) yeast supplementation on plasma kinetics of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Pigs were provided free access to either a control diet (C) containing 204 microg Cr/kg or a diet supplemented with an additional 200 microg Cr/kg as high Cr yeast (CR) for between 23 and 30 d. After overnight food deprivation, dextrose (500 g/L) was infused through a jugular vein catheter at a dose of 0.5 g glucose/kg body weight with an infusion rate of 10 g glucose/min within 6 min. High Cr yeast supplementation did not affect body weight gain or food intake. There were no differences in fasting plasma concentrations of either glucose or C-peptide, although basal plasma concentration of insulin tended to be higher in pigs fed CR (P<0.10). Plasma glucose concentrations were lower (P<0.01) at postinfusion times 5, 10, 15 and 20 min in pigs fed CR. Plasma insulin concentrations in pigs fed CR were higher (P<0.05) at 2 and 0 min before the completion of dextrose infusion. However, the increase in plasma insulin concentrations was not accompanied by a comparable elevation in plasma C-peptide concentrations. The 30-min (postinfusion) area of plasma glucose concentrations tended to be lower (P<0.10) in pigs fed CR, but there were no differences in 30-min areas of either plasma insulin or plasma C-peptide concentrations between treatments. Plasma clearance rates of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were higher and their half-lives shorter (P<0.05) in pigs fed CR. In conclusion, dietary high Cr yeast supplementation improved glucose tolerance, possibly through a decrease in hepatic extraction of insulin. PMID:10801929

Guan, X; Matte, J J; Ku, P K; Snow, J L; Burton, J L; Trottier, N L

2000-05-01

88

Chemistry and genotoxicity of caramelized sucrose.  

PubMed

Caramelization of a 1% sucrose solution at 180 degrees C accompanied characteristic changes in pH, Mr, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence values as well as increased reducing power activity after 40-60 min. Similar changes occurred to sucrose heated at 150 degrees C, after 150-240 min. Bioactivity of caramelized sucrose samples was tested for mutagenic activity, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA-98 and TA-100, respectively, as well as the Saccharomyces D7 yeast strain for mitotic recombination and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) to assess clastogenicity. Caramelized sucrose expressed no mutagenicity in the TA-98 strain, but gave positive (p < 0.05) results with the TA-100, base-pair substitution strain. Similarly, mitotic recombination in the Saccharomyces D7 yeast strain and clastogenic activity in CHO cells were induced when exposed to caramelized sucrose. In the all cases, preincubation with S-9 reduced (p < 0.05) the mutagenic activities of caramelized sucrose. Fractionation of the caramelized sucrose into volatile and nonvolatile compounds was performed and tested for clastogenicity using CHO cells. Volatile components contributed approximately 10% to total clastogenicity, which was enhanced by the presence of S-9. Nonvolatile components recovered, consisting of relatively lower Mr, gave highest (p < 0.05) clastogenic activity, denoting that higher Mr caramel colors are relatively free of this property. PMID:17103379

Kitts, David D; Wu, C H; Kopec, A; Nagasawa, T

2006-12-01

89

Flavins contained in yeast extract are exploited for anodic electron transfer by Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

Cyclic voltammograms of yeast extract-containing medium exhibit a clear redox peak around -0.4V vs. Ag|AgCl. Fermentative bacterium Lactococcus lactis was hereby shown to exploit this redox compound for extracellular electron transfer towards a graphite anode using glucose as an electron donor. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that this may be a flavin-type compound. The ability of L. lactis to exploit exogenous flavins for anodic glucose oxidation was confirmed by tests where flavin-type compounds were supplied to the bacterium in well defined media. Based on its mid-point potential, riboflavin can be regarded as a near-optimal mediator for microbially catalyzed anodic electron transfer. Riboflavin derivative flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was also exploited by L. lactis as a redox shuttle, unlike flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), possibly due to the absence of a specific transporter for the latter. The use of yeast extract in microbial fuel cell media is herein discouraged based on the related unwanted artificial addition of redox mediators which may distort experimental results. PMID:19717350

Masuda, Masaki; Freguia, Stefano; Wang, Yung-Fu; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji

2009-08-20

90

Manipulation of heterogeneity product in 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by using yeast extract as nitrogen source.  

PubMed

Manipulation of product heterogeneity was attempted by using yeast extract as nitrogen source in Alternaria alternata S-f6 transformation process of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. When the nitrogen source of NaNO(3) was replaced by yeast extract, the heterogeneity of biotransformation products was significantly varied from a single product (i.e., 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone) to four podophyllum derivates. According to the kinetics of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6, the starting substrate of 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin was preferentially transformed to produce 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with an oxidation reaction. By the further comparison of products configuration, 4?-caprinoyl-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (3) was produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) instead of 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2), which might be produced from 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxone (1) with the isomerization of lactone. Finally, 4'-demethylisopicropodophyllone (2) was hydrolyzed to produce 3?-hydroxymethyl-(6, 7)-dioxol-4-one-naphthalene (4). This work shows new information on the 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin biotransformation process by A. alternata S-f6 and provides a foundation for further studies on the structural diversification of a bioactive natural lead compound. PMID:21706170

Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

2011-06-25

91

[Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].  

PubMed

Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed. PMID:16886437

Krajewska-Ku?ak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W

2001-01-01

92

A novel fluorescent assay for sucrose transporters  

PubMed Central

Background We have developed a novel assay based on the ability of type I sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) to transport the fluorescent coumarin ?-glucoside, esculin. Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is routinely used for the heterologous expression of SUTs and does not take up esculin. Results When type I sucrose transporters StSUT1 from potato or AtSUC2 from Arabidopsis were expressed in yeast, the cells were able to take up esculin and became brightly fluorescent. We tested a variety of incubation times, esculin concentrations, and buffer pH values and found that for these transporters, a 1 hr incubation at 0.1 to 1 mM esculin at pH 4.0 produced fluorescent cells that were easily distinguished from vector controls. Esculin uptake was assayed by several methods including fluorescence microscopy, spectrofluorometry and fluorescence-activiated cell sorting (FACS). Expression of the type II sucrose transporter OsSUT1 from rice did not result in increased esculin uptake under any conditions tested. Results were reproduced successfully in two distinct yeast strains, SEY6210 (an invertase mutant) and BY4742. Conclusions The esculin uptake assay is rapid and sensitive and should be generally useful for preliminary tests of sucrose transporter function by heterologous expression in yeast. This assay is also suitable for selection of yeast showing esculin uptake activity using FACS.

2012-01-01

93

Contributions of sucrose synthase and invertase to the metabolism of sucrose in developing leaves: estimation by alternate substrate utilization  

SciTech Connect

The relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to initial cleavage of phloem-imported sucrose was calculated for sink leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv Wye) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. monohybrid). Invertase from yeast hydrolyzed sucrose 4200 times faster than 1'-deoxy-1'-fluorosucrose (FS) while sucrose cleavage by sucrose synthase from developing soybean leaves proceeded only 3.6 times faster than cleavage of FS.(/sup 14/C)Sucrose and (/sup 14/C)FS, used as tracers of sucrose, were transported at identical rates to developing leaves through the phloem. The rate of label incorporation into insoluble products varied with leaf age from 3.4 to 8.0 times faster when (/sup 14/C)sucrose was supplied than when (/sup 14/C)FS was supplied. The discrimination in metabolism was related to enzymatic discriminations against FS to calculate the relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to sucrose cleavage. In the youngest soybean leaves measured, 4% of final laminar length (FLL), all cleavage was by sucrose synthase. Invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 47% by 7.6% FLL, increased to 54% by 11% FLL, then declined to 42% for the remainder of the import phase. In sugar beet sink leaves at 30% FLL invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 58%.

Schmalstig, J.G.; Hitz, W.D.

1987-10-01

94

Effectiveness of modified yeast cell wall extracts to reduce aflatoxin B1 absorption in dairy ewes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of a modified yeast cell wall extract preparation (YCW) on the excretion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in feces, urine, and milk of dairy ewes fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Sixteen ewes in mid-lactation were assigned to 4 treatment groups: control, AF (60 ?g of AFB1/kg of feed), YCW (2 g/kg of feed), and AF+YCW. The trial consisted of a short-term (3-d) exposure period followed by a long-term (21-d) exposure period. At the end of each exposure period, milk, urine, and feces were collected over 72 h. The treatments did not affect feed intake, milk production, milk composition, or body weight. The presence of AFM1 was detected in all matrices, whereas AFB1 was only present in feces. Daily excretion was higher following long-term exposure and reached 26.9 ?g of AFB1/d in feces, 37.2 ?g of AFM1/d in feces, and 10.7 ?g of AFM1/d in urine. Supplementation with YCW was effective in increasing aflatoxin excretion in feces in the long-term exposure (up to 156% increase). The effect was accompanied by a trend of decreasing urinary excretion of AFM1. In contrast, the addition of YCW to the contaminated diet did not affect the transfer of aflatoxins from feed to milk under the present experimental conditions with low-producing ewes. The transfer rates of AFM1 in milk ranged from 0.24 to 0.54%. In conclusion, feed supplementation with YCW reduced the absorption of AFB1 and increased the elimination of AFB1 and AFM1 in ewe feces. Yeast cell wall extract could be used to protect ruminants from chronic exposure to aflatoxins present in feeds. PMID:22032384

Firmin, S; Morgavi, D P; Yiannikouris, A; Boudra, H

2011-11-01

95

Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n?=?840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n?=?210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000?mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500?mg/kg YE?+?500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60?d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW?+?YE groups during the 60?d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60?d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE?+?YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW?+?YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60?d growing period. PMID:22029790

Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

2011-10-01

96

The effect of yeast extract supplementation on the production of lactic acid from whey permeate by Lactobacillus helueticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and continuous two-stage cultures have been conducted in order to determine the effect of yeast extract (YE) on the homolactic fermentation of whey permeate byLactobacillus helveticus. Supplementation with YE had a significant effet on lactic acid concentration, volumetric productivity, and substrate conversion, but not on lactic acid yield. Volumetric productivity in the first stage increased from 2 to 9

A. Aeschlimann; U. von Stockar

1990-01-01

97

Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

98

The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThe prevention of cardiovascular risk, as occurs in lipoprotein disorders, is required since childhood. Aim of the study was to evaluate, in a group of children affected by primary dyslipidemia, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols.

O. Guardamagna; F. Abello; V. Baracco; B. Stasiowska; F. Martino

2011-01-01

99

Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose (?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-fructofuranoside) is the most common low-molecular-weight sugar found in the plant kingdom. It is ubiquitously known as common table sugar and primarily produced industrially from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris); the basics of the industrial manufacture of sucrose are outlined in this chapter. Commercial sucrose has a very high purity (> 99.9%) making it one of the purest organic substances produced on an industrial scale. Value-addition to sucrose via chemical and biotechnological reactions is becoming more important for the diversification of the sugar industry to maintain the industries' competitiveness in a world increasingly turning to a bio-based economy. The basis for the chemical reactivity of sucrose is the eight hydroxyl groups present on the molecule, although, sucrose chemical reactivity is regarded as difficult. Increasing use of enzymatic biotechnological techniques to derivatize sucrose is expected, to add special functionalities to sucrose products like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Analysis of sucrose by colorimetric, enzymatic, oxidation-reduction and chromatography methods are discussed. Oligosaccharides related to sucrose are outlined in detail and include sucrose-based plant, honey and in vitro oligosaccharides.

Eggleston, Gillian

100

Yeast extract mediated autoinduction of lacUV5 promoter: an insight.  

PubMed

We report a simple and cost-effective autoinducible media component responsible for the autoinduction of proteins in Escherichia coli under lacUV5 promoter system. Yeast extract (YE) at high concentration was found to stimulate the expression of T7 RNA polymerase in BL21(DE3) cells while such an effect was not seen in BL21A1 cells. A systematic study on the effect of varying concentrations of YE indicated several folds higher expression of genes viz., human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhGCSF), human interferon alpha 2b (rhIFN-alpha2b) and Staphylokinase (rSAK) in BL21(DE3) cells in the absence of any specific inducer like IPTG or additional lactose. Additional investigations on the inducible component of the YE revealed the presence of significant amount of endogenous lactose as the contributory factor for the observed autoinduction phenomenon. This paper highlights the easy scalability of the use of the present media component for large-scale production in biotechnology industry. PMID:19666150

Nair, Rahul; Salvi, Pankaj; Banerjee, Sampali; Raiker, Veena A; Bandyopadhyay, Suman; Soorapaneni, Sudheerbabu; Kotwal, Prakash; Padmanabhan, Sriram

2009-08-08

101

Evaluation of the yeast-extract signaling pathway leading to silymarin biosynthesis in milk thistle hairy root culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of silymarin, a potent antihepatotoxic compound, from the dried fruits of Silybum marianum L. Gaertn in hairy root cultures can be stimulated by a yeast extract elicitor. These results correlated with culture time,\\u000a and the biosynthesis reached a maximum of 0.47 mg g?1 DW by 72 h after culture (2-fold higher than the control). Lipoxygenase activity and linoleic acid content were

Tahereh Hasanloo; Roshanak Sepehrifar; Hassan Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Shams

2009-01-01

102

Silver toxicity to ferrous iron and pyrite oxidation and its alleviation by yeast extract in cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ferrous-ion oxidation byThiobacillusferrooxidans was inhibited by 10-6 M Ag+ while a slight inhibition of growth was apparent with 10-7 M Ag+. The threshold toxic concentration was the seme for four different test strains. While prolonged lag phases resulted from culture exposure to Ag+, Fe2+ oxidation rates after the onset of growth showed little variation under these conditions. Yeast extract

Olli H. Tuovinen; Jaakko Puhakka; Paula Hiltunen; Katherine M. Dolan

1985-01-01

103

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Azotobacter vinelandii UWD using swine wastewater: Effect of supplementing glucose, yeast extract, and inorganic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of adding glucose, yeast extract, and inorganic salts to swine wastewater (SWW) in a batch\\u000a culture on the production of a biodegradable plastic, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). A bacterial strain, Azotobacter vinelandii UWD, was used to produce PHA without limiting the non-carbon nutrients. The addition of glucose (30 g\\/L) to the SWW medium\\u000a increased the level of

Hee Wook Ryu; Kyung Suk Cho; Philip R. Goodrich; Chang-Ho Park

2008-01-01

104

SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN FROM Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous YEAST: CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION USING PEAT EXTRACT AS SUBSTRATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly Phaffia rhodozyma) is a promising microbial producer of the carotenoid astaxanthin. This is a carotenoid found in the flesh of salmon. There are several studies about the use of this yeast as a compound of salmon feed. Moreover an astaxanthin source, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a protein source. In this work, continuous fermentations of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

M. Vázquez; F. Diniz; A. M. Martin

1996-01-01

105

In VitroCulture of TrichogrammaSpp. on Artificial Diets Containing Yeast Extract and Ultracentrifuged Chicken Egg Yolk but Devoid of Insect Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma minutumRiley andTrichogramma brassicaeBezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were culturedin vitrofrom eggs to adults on artificial diets, which contained no insect components. The diets contained ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk, milk, Grace's insect medium, and yeast extract. The most important components were the yeast extract and ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk. Addition of the sediment of ultracentrifuged chicken egg yolk to a diet containing

Zhong-Neng Xie; Zhi-Xin Wu; William C. Nettles; Guadalupe Saldaña; Donald A. Nordlund

1997-01-01

106

Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate\\/yeast extract medium. Part I. multiple factor kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty pH-controlled batch cultures with Lactobacillus helveticus were carried out in whey permeate-yeast extract medium according to a composite design with three factors: pH setpoint, and yeast extract and initial whey permeate concentrations. Growth and production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Richards and Luedeking and Piret models, respectively, and analyzed statistically with response surfaces. The maximum specific

Adolf Willem Schepers; Jules Thibault; Christophe Lacroix

2002-01-01

107

Sugar (sucrose) holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey “water and diluted sugar” easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose

E. L Ponce-Lee; A. Olivares-Perez; I. Fuentes-Tapia

2004-01-01

108

Sucrose and Hyperlipidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weanling rats were fed, for 50 days, diets containing starch, sucrose, maltose, fructose or glucose. When compared with the effects of the high-starch diet, diets containing the sugars promoted a substantial, and similar, rise in plasma lipids. Hepatic lipogenesis was increased by all the sugars, sucrose and maltose having an equal effect. Lipogenesis in adipose tissue was, however, depressed by

D. J. Naismith; I. A. Rana

1974-01-01

109

Sucrose and Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mechanisms by which sucrose could influence behavior are reviewed. Firstly there is food intolerance. There are dozens of foods to which an adverse reaction has been demonstrated, although a reaction to sucrose is less frequent than many other foods. A second possible mechanism is hypoglycemia. There is evidence that a tendency to develop low blood glucose levels, but higher

David Benton

2008-01-01

110

[The radioprotective properties of a lipocarotenoid extract of Rhodotorula glutinis yeasts].  

PubMed

The dynamics of formation of lipids and carotinoids by the Rh. glutinis yeast and the influence of the culture's age on the composition of the product were studied. The composition of a lipocarotinoid complex isolated from the yeast (at a stage of its stationary growth) was determined. It was shown that this complex lipocarotinoid preparation produces a normalizing effect on the parameters of the lipid-transport system and peroxide oxidation of blood serum lipids of irradiated rats. PMID:9102128

Zalashko, M V; Koroleva, I F; Salokhina, G A; Chirkin, A A

111

A rapid, radiometric assay for sucrose synthase  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of sucrose synthase in maize root tips have required development of a means to circumvent the rapid decline of activity observed after extraction dialysis and either synthetic or degradative assays. Several protease inhibitors were tested; although PMSF increased initial activity, no inhibitor prevented the drop in activity with time. Western blot analysis indicated that activity decline was not associated with protein degradation. Therefore, a procedure was developed which (1) shortened extraction-to-assay period from ca. 24 hours to 7 minutes, (2) simplified previous assays and (3) reduced the amount of tissue required. Extract was desalted with spun columns and the {sup 14}C-UDPG product recovered with DEAE ion exchange paper. The minute quantities of product recovered can be concealed by the presence of trace impurities in the {sup 14}C-sucrose utilized. DEAE ion exchange paper was used to remove interfering radio-labelled compounds from the {sup 14}C-sucrose prior to assay.

Duke, E.R.; McCarty, D.R.; Hannah, L.C.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1990-05-01

112

Sucrose Metabolism in Plastids1  

PubMed Central

The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experiments suggest substantial Suc entry into plastids. The enzyme levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis efficiently synthesizes fructan from Suc. Targeting of this enzyme to the plastids of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants leads to high-level fructan accumulation in chloroplasts and amyloplasts, respectively. Moreover, introduction of this enzyme in amyloplasts leads to an altered starch structure. Expression of the yeast invertase in potato tuber amyloplasts results in an 80% reduction of total Suc content, showing efficient hydrolysis of Suc by the plastidic invertase. These observations suggest that Suc can enter plastids efficiently and they raise questions as to its function and metabolism in this organelle.

Gerrits, Nathalie; Turk, Stefan C.H.J.; van Dun, Kees P.M.; Hulleman, Stephan H.D.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Weisbeek, Peter J.; Smeekens, Sjef C.M.

2001-01-01

113

A Novel Sucrose Synthase Pathway for Sucrose Degradation in Cultured Sycamore Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Enzymes of sucrose degradation and glycolysis in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells were assayed and characterized in crude extracts and after partial purification, in an attempt to identify pathways for sucrose catabolism. Desalted cell extracts contained similar activities (20-40 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) of sucrose synthase, neutral invertase, glucokinase, fructokinase, phosphofructokinase, and UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase (assayed with 2 micromolar pyrophosphate (PPi). PPi-linked phosphofructokinase activity was virtually dependent upon fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and the maximum activity exceeded that of ATP-linked phosphofructokinase. Hexokinase activity, with glucose as substrate, was highly specific for ATP, whereas fructokinase activity was relatively nonspecific. At 1 millimolar nucleoside triphosphate, fructokinase activity decreased in the order: UTP > ATP > CTP > GTP. We propose two pathways for sucrose degradation. One involves invertase action, followed by classical glycolysis of hexose sugars, and the other is a novel pathway initiated by sucrose synthase. The Km for sucrose of sucrose synthase was severalfold lower than that of neutral invertase (15 versus 65 millimolar), which may determine carbon partitioning between the two pathways. The sucrose synthase pathway proposed involves cycling of uridylates and PPi. UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, which is shown to be an effective `PPi-scavenger,' would consume PPi and form UTP. The UTP could be then utilized in the UTP-linked fructokinase reaction, thereby forming UDP for sucrose synthase. The source of PPi is postulated to arise from the back reaction of PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Sycamore cells contained a substantial endogenous pool of PPi (about 3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, roughly 1/10 the amount of ATP in these cells), and sufficient fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (0.09 nanomole per gram fresh weight) to activate the PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Possible regulation and energetic differences between the sucrose synthase and invertase pathways are discussed.

Huber, Steven C.; Akazawa, Takashi

1986-01-01

114

Simple method for the extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carotenoid pigments from red yeasts (Basidiomycota, Fungi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the extraction of carotenoid pigments from frozen wet cells of red yeasts (Basidiomycota) and their analysis by reversed-phase HPLC using a C18 column and a water\\/acetone solvent system is described. Typical red yeast carotenoids belonging to an oxidative series from the monocyclic ?-carotene to 2-hydroxytorularhodin and from the bicyclic ?-carotene to astaxanthin were separated. Pigment identity

Roland W. S. Weber; Heidrun Anke; Paolo Davoli

2007-01-01

115

Extractive biocatalysis: A powerful tool in selectivity control in yeast biotransformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of absorbing resins on the yeast reduction of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds is reported. Enantioselectivity, chemoselectivity and space-time yields of the biotransformation are impressively enhanced. The distribution of substrates and products between the resin and the water phase shows that the improved selectivity has to be attributed to the control of substrate concentration.The effect of absorbing resins on the

Paola D'Arrigo; Claudio Fuganti; Giuseppe Pedrocchi Fantoni; Stefano Servi

1998-01-01

116

Sub-lethal concentrations of Muscari comosum bulb extract suppress adhesion and induce detachment of sessile yeast cells.  

PubMed

The formation of yeast biofilm on food industry equipment can lead to serious hygiene problems and economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. This study explored the ability of a sub-lethal concentration of the bulb extract of Muscari comosum to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans and subsequent biofilm development by this fungus. The HPLC profile of the ethanolic bulb extract showed phenolic constituents, which were found to undergo Folin-Ciocalteu reagent reduction. Prior to the adhesion tests, it was shown that up to 4000 mg l(-1) of natural extract did not adversely affect fungal growth nor did it act as a carbon energy source for C. albicans. Mathematical models predicted that 4000 mg l(-1) and 700 mg l(-1) of bulb extract would cause more than 98% reduction in fungal coverage on abiotic surfaces, without killing the planktonic cells. When added to C. albicans biofilm, the natural extract was shown to induce the dispersion of sessile cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23061484

Villa, Federica; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Cappitelli, Francesca; Giussani, Barbara; Bassoli, Angela

2012-01-01

117

21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion, then clarified and evaporated. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c)...

2013-04-01

118

Sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis: formation of a levan  

PubMed Central

1. Molar growth-yield coefficients of Zymomonas mobilis for glucose, fructose, glucose plus fructose, and sucrose are reported. Yield coefficients for sucrose are appreciably lower than those for the equivalent concentrations of glucose plus fructose. 2. Only 2·6% of [U-14C]glucose supplied in the growth medium is incorporated into cell substance by Z. mobilis utilizing glucose as the energy source. 3. During growth on sucrose a levan is formed. It has been characterized and shown to resemble other bacterial levans. 4. Levan formation from sucrose could be demonstrated with both washed cell suspensions and cell extracts of Z. mobilis. 5. Sucrose phosphorylase could not be demonstrated in extracts of the organism.

Dawes, E. A.; Ribbons, D. W.; Rees, D. A.

1966-01-01

119

Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening plant extracts for antifungal activity is increasing due to demand for new antifungal agents, but the testing methods present many challenges. Standard broth microdilution methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of available antifungal agents are available now, but these methods are optimised for single compounds instead of crude plant extracts. In this study we evaluated the standard NCCLS method as

Manjuan Liu; Veronique Seidel; David R. Katerere; Alexander I. Gray

2007-01-01

120

The extraction of liquid, protein molecules and yeast cells from paper through surface acoustic wave atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper has been proposed as an inexpensive and versatile carrier for microfluidics devices with abilities well beyond simple capillary action for pregnancy tests and the like. Unlike standard microfluidics devices, extracting a fluid from the paper is a challenge and a drawback to its broader use. Here, we extract fluid from narrow paper strips using surface acoustic wave (SAW) irradiation

Aisha Qi; Leslie Yeo; James Friend; Jenny Hob

2010-01-01

121

Growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus in batch and membrane bioreactor: influence of yeast extract and Tryptone enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of the medium with yeast extract (20 g.l ) and Tryptone (40 g.l ) increased the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosusand its production of lactic acid in both batch and cell-recycle cultures without affecting glucose consumption and the lactic acid production rate.

A. Olmos-Dichara; F. Ampe; J.-L. Uribelarrea; A. Pareilleux; G. Goma

1997-01-01

122

Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

123

INFLUENCE OF HEN AGE ON THE RESPONSE OF TURKEY POULTS TO COLD STRESS, ESCHERICHIA COLI CHALLENGE, AND TREATMENT WITH A YEAST EXTRACT ANTIBIOTIC ALTERNATIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Two duplicated battery trials were conducted to evaluate a standardized Yeast Extract feed supplement, (Alphamune™) in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of one-week-old turkeys. Trial 1 used day-old male Hybrid Converter poults from 33-week-old hens in their 2nd week of lay. Trial 2 used ...

124

Preparation and characterization of a novel sludge conditioner by Microbial flocculant (MBF) extracted from waste yeast with nano SiO2 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial flocculant (MBF) was extracted from waste yeast and used as a sludge conditioner with nano SiO2 particles. The effects of the new composite material on sludge dewatering characteristics were investigated. The equivalent concentration of MBF was defined as the mole number of adsorbed Cu 2+ per volume solution. An equivalent concentration of 712 ?mol\\/L MBF can be extracted under

Chijun Zhou; Quan Zhou

2011-01-01

125

Sucrose Metabolism in Plastids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experiments suggest substantial Suc entry into plastids. The enzyme levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis efficiently synthesizes

Nathalie Gerrits; Stefan C. H. J. Turk; Dun van K. P. M; H. D. Hulleman; Richard G. F. Visser; Peter J. Weisbeek; Sjef C. M. Smeekens

2001-01-01

126

Extraction of cell surface-associated proteins from living yeast cells.  

PubMed

To extract cell surface-associated proteins from living fungal cells, reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are often used. We show here that both compounds are moderately lipophilic and may perturb the plasma membrane, thus causing the release of cytosolic proteins, especially at high extraction temperatures. To avoid artifacts, we recommend using (a) a low concentration of the reducing agent for only a short period of time, and (b) an extraction temperature of 4 degrees C to protect the integrity of the plasma membrane. Similarly, biotinylation of cell surface proteins should be carried out at low temperatures in the absence of dimethylsulphoxide. PMID:17397128

Klis, Frans M; de Jong, Marian; Brul, Stanley; de Groot, Piet W J

2007-04-01

127

Extractability of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesized by Bacillus flexus cultivated in organic and inorganic nutrient media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus flexus was isolated from local soil sample and identified by molecular methods. In inorganic nutrient medium (IM) containing sucrose\\u000a as carbon source, yield of biomass and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) were 2 g\\/l and 1 g\\/l (50% of biomass), respectively. Substitution\\u000a of inorganic nitrogen by peptone, yeast extract or beef extract resulted in biomass yields of 4.1, 3.9 and 1.6 g\\/l,

M. S. Divyashree; T. R. Shamala

2010-01-01

128

Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

129

THE SHAPE OF SUCROSE MOLECULES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The shape properties of sucrose have many important ramifications. They are responsible for its sweet taste, for its crystallization behavior and for many of the intermolecular interactions that are unique to sucrose. The shapes of sucrose are conveniently described in terms of the extent of rotat...

130

Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

131

From shake flasks to bioreactors: survival of E. coli cells harboring pGST–hPTH through auto-induction by controlling initial content of yeast extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high content of yeast extract in complex media can cause auto-induction of phage T7 RNA polymerase and the consequent expression\\u000a of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) during long-term cultivation. Our study demonstrated that the auto-induction of recombinant protein varied in different\\u000a vectors harboring heterologous genes. Trx, GST, and their fusion proteins such as GST–human parathyroid hormone (hPTH), expressed

Lianghui Jia; Hairong Cheng; Hengwei Wang; Huairong Luo; Hua Yan

2011-01-01

132

Optimizing Conditions for the Growth ofLactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in Tryptone-Yeast Extract-Glucose Medium by Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth ofLactobacillus caseiYIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was

SEJONG OH; SUNGSUE RHEEM; JAEHUN SIM; SANGKYO KIM; ANDYOUNGJIN BAEK

1995-01-01

133

Determination of Cd(II) and Cd-metallothioneins in biological extracts using baker’s yeast and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a sorbent material to separate Cd(II) and Cd-metallothionein complex (Cd-MT) has been explored. Solid–liquid phase extractions\\u000a were carried out in batch mode and the main parameters of the process (pH, temperature, time of incubation, amount of biomass\\u000a and analyte) were evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the yeast quantitatively retain (94 ? 5%) the Cd(II) while

Amauri A. Menegário; Paulo S. Tonello; Priscila A. Biscaro; Ana L. Brossi-Garcia

2007-01-01

134

Optimizing conditions for the growth of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose medium by using response surface methodology.  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to find optimum conditions of tryptone, yeast extract, glucose, Tween 80, and incubation temperature for the growth of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 and to assess the effects of these factors by use of response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for allocation of treatment combinations. A second-order polynomial regression model, which was used at first for analysis of the experiment, had a significant lack of fit. Therefore, cubic and quartic terms were incorporated into the regression model through variable selection procedures. Effects involving incubation temperature, yeast extract, glucose, and tryptone were significant, whereas the only significant effect involving Tween 80 was the interaction effect between temperature and Tween 80. It turned out that growth of L. casei YIT 9018 was most strongly affected by the incubation temperature. Estimated optimum conditions of the factors for growth of L. casei YIT 9018 are as follows: tryptone, 3.04%; yeast extract, 0.892%; glucose, 1.58%; Tween 80, 0%; incubation temperature, 35 degrees C.

Oh, S; Rheem, S; Sim, J; Kim, S; Baek, Y

1995-01-01

135

Sucrose translocation in Pseudomonas saccharophila  

SciTech Connect

Unlike many microorganisms, P. saccharophila is capable of growth on sucrose but not on glucose or fructose without prior mutation. For the wild-type sucrose uptake into cells requires induction by substrate and this is accompanied by the appearance of a membrane-bound protein with an apparent MW of approx. 84kDa. A constitutive, overproducer of this protein has been isolated and as expected this mutant transports sucrose in an amplified manner. Scatchard analysis of /sup 3/H-sucrose binding to cytoplasmic membranes reveals an apparent K/sub D/ of about 1.0..mu..M for both mutant and wild-type. In contrast mutant membranes contain 5-6 times more binding sites than the wild-type membranes. 6'-deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-4-azido)benzamido-sucrose (6'-HABS), a sucrose analogue, has been used to identify the protein responsible for sucrose binding. When cytoplasmic membranes are irradiated in the presence of /sup 125/I-6'-HABS, a significant portion of the radioactivity is found covalently associated with the 84kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Importantly, labeling of this band is largely prevented when unlabeled sucrose is present during photolysis. The authors believe that the 84kDa protein may be a sucrose permease and efforts are underway to reconstitute it in a functional form.

Liu, D.F.; Hitz, W.D.; Giaquinta, R.T.; Viitanen, P.V.

1986-05-01

136

Evaluation of Kluyveromyces marxianus as baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus (NRRL-Y-2415 and NRRL-Y-1109) were assessed as baker's yeasts comparing them with two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated respectively from compressed yeast and active dry yeast. Strains were tested for dough proofing activity in lean dough and rich doughs (prepared with sucrose, lactose or whey) and sensory evaluation of breads. In rich doughs containing lactose or

R. Caballero; P. Olguín; A. Cruz-Guerrero; F. Gallardo; M. García-Garibay; L. Gómez-Ruiz

1995-01-01

137

Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of a plant-extractive compound on lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice have synergistic benefits on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. In this double-blinded study, adult subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive a plant-extractive compound or a placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Both total cholesterol (5.4 ± 0.8 to 4.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.4 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < .001) were significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extractives, and the magnitudes of reduction were significantly greater than in the placebo group (-1.0 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6mmol/L, P < .001; -0.7 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001). The reduction in the fasting triglycerides level was significantly greater in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs -0.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P = .039). There was also a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of subjects with hypertensive criteria in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (P = .040). In conclusion, the plant extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice were effective in reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plant extractives also showed potential for reducing triglyceride and normalizing blood pressure. PMID:22348456

Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Hsien-Tung; Sheu, Wayne H-H

2012-02-01

138

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2009-07-01

139

40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

2010-07-01

140

Genes associated to sucrose content  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Modern sugarcane cultivars are complex hybrids resulting from crosses among several species of the Saccharum genus. Traditional breeding methods have been extensively employed in different countries along the past decades to develop varieties with increased sucrose yield, and resistant to plagues and diseases. Conventional varietal improvement is, however, limited by the narrow pool of suitable markers. In this sense, molecular genetics is seen as a promising tool to assist in the process of molecular marker identification. The present invention concerns the identification of 348 genes associated with sucrose content in sugarcane plants. The genes were found to be differentially expressed when high sucrose and low sucrose plants and populations of plants were compared and/or when high and low sucrose internodes were compared. The expression data was obtained using cDNA microarray and quantitative PCR technologies. The genes identified can be used to identify, distinguish, characterize and/or develop plants with increased sucrose content. More preferably SEQ ID Nos: 1 to 203 should be useful as molecular markers. SEQ ID Nos: 204 to 228 are given as controls or examples of genes never associated with sucrose content. SEQ ID Nos. 1-203 and SEQ ID Nos. 229 to 373 can be targeted in the development of transgenic or non-transgenic varieties with increased sucrose content.

Souza; Glaucia Mendes (Sao Paulo, BR); Papini-Terzi; Flavia Stal (Sao Paulo, BR); Rocha; Flavia Riso (Sao Paulo, BR); Waclawovsky; Alessandro Jaquiel (Sao Paulo, BR); Vencio; Ricardo Zorzetto Nicollielo (Sao Paulo, BR); Marques; Joselia Oliveira (Sao Paulo, BR); de Maria Felix; Juliana (Campinas, BR); Teixeira; Marcelo Menossi (Campinas, BR); Buckeridge; Marcos (Rua do Matao, BR); Pereira de Souza; Amanda (Rua do Matao, BR); Ulian; Eug nio Cesar (Piracicaba, BR)

2010-06-08

141

DSC study of sucrose melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early endothermic peak at ?150°C was observed for crystalline sucrose by differential scanning calorimetry. The enthalpy at this temperature was found to vary with recrystallised sucrose from different sources. The addition of mineral salts to recrystallisation solutions decreased the enthalpy of the peak at around 150°C, whereas the absence of salts increased it. The presence of organic solvents and

Stephen T. Beckett; M. Grazia Francesconi; Peter M. Geary; Grahame Mackenzie; Aurélia P. E. Maulny

2006-01-01

142

Coarse control of sucrose-phosphate synthase in leaves: Alterations of the kinetic properties in response to the rate of photosynthesis and the accumulation of sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been investigated whether diurnal rhythms of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) are involved in controlling the rate of photosynthetic sucrose synthesis. Extracts were prepared from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves and assayed for enzyme activity. The activity of SPS increased in parallel with a rising rate of photosynthesis, and was increased by feeding mannose and

Mark Stitt; Ingo Wilke; Regina Feil; Hans W. Heldt

1988-01-01

143

Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.  

PubMed

In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-04-14

144

Evolution of plant sucrose uptake transporters.  

PubMed

In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that types I and II are localized to the plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but they are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue) loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I) mutant. This indicates that type I and II SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable) phloem loading transporter capabilities independently. PMID:22639641

Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B; Ward, John M

2012-02-15

145

Evolution of Plant Sucrose Uptake Transporters  

PubMed Central

In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that types I and II are localized to the plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but they are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue) loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I) mutant. This indicates that type I and II SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable) phloem loading transporter capabilities independently.

Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B.; Ward, John M.

2012-01-01

146

Effects of nitrogen supplementation on yeast (Candida utilis) biomass production by using pineapple (Ananas comosus) waste extracted medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w\\/v). Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05) increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial

A. Rosma

147

Simultaneous production of sugars and ethanol from inulin rich-extracts in a chemostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete fermentation of inulin-containing extracts by Saccharomyces diastaticus allows the simultaneous production of ethanol and syrups with increased fructose content. The yeast strain used ferments sucrose and inulin small polymers but does not easily ferment inulin large polymers. After batch fermentation a production of 62.5 g\\/L ethanol and 75 g\\/L of sugars containing up to 94 % fructose can be

S. Schorr-Galindo; C. Ghommidh; J. P. Guiraud

1995-01-01

148

A Four-Hour Yeast Bioassay for the Direct Measure of Estrogenic Activity in Wastewater without Sample Extraction, Concentration, or Sterilization  

PubMed Central

The assay described here represents an improved yeast bioassay that provides a rapid yet sensitive screening method for EDCs with very little hands-on time and without the need for sample preparation. Traditional receptor-mediated reporter assays in yeast were performed twelve to twenty four hours after ligand addition, used colorimetric substrates, and, in many cases, required high, non-physiological concentrations of ligand. With the advent of new chemiluminescent substrates a ligand-induced signal can be detected within thirty minutes using high picomolar to low nanomolar concentrations of estrogen. As a result of the sensitivity (EC50 for estradiol is ~ 0.7 nM) and the very short assay time (2-4 hours) environmental water samples can typically be assayed directly without sterilization, extraction, and concentration. Thus, these assays represent rapid and sensitive approaches for determining the presence of contaminants in environmental samples. As proof of principle, we directly assayed wastewater influent and effluent taken from a wastewater treatment plant in the El Paso, TX area for the presence of estrogenic activity. The data obtained in the four-hour yeast bioassay directly correlated with GC-mass spectrometry analysis of these same water samples.

Balsiger, Heather A.; de la Torre, Roberto; Lee, Wen-Yee; Cox, Marc B.

2010-01-01

149

Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose

Dianpeng Xu; S.-J. S. Sung; S. Shijean; C. C. Black

1989-01-01

150

Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

151

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND -: Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations

Flávia S Papini-Terzi; Flávia R Rocha; Ricardo ZN Vêncio; Juliana M Felix; Diana S Branco; Alessandro J Waclawovsky; Luiz EV Del Bem; Carolina G Lembke; Maximiller DL Costa; Milton Y Nishiyama; Renato Vicentini; Michel GA Vincentz; Eugênio C Ulian; Marcelo Menossi; Glaucia M Souza

2009-01-01

152

Estimation of sucrose esters (E473) in foods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for estimating the content in foods of the emulsifying additive E473, sucrose esters of fatty acids. The analytical approach taken to estimate the complex mixtures that comprise this additive involved, selective solvent extraction of the intact esters using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate, alkaline hydrolysis of the esters to liberate sucrose, and then GC-MS

M. J. Scotter; L. Castle; D. P. T. Roberts

2006-01-01

153

Sucrose Synthase in Wild Tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily meas- ured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers. To check for novel characteristics, the wild tomato fruit sucrose synthase was purified, by (NH&SO, fraction and chromatography with

Jindong Sun; Tadeusz Loboda; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Clanton C. Black

1992-01-01

154

Response of wheat sourdough parameters to temperature, NaCl and sucrose variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation temperature, NaCl level and sucrose level of a wheat sourdough were varied according to a Box–Behnken response surface design. The effect on yeast increase, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increase and sourdough acidity was investigated. Yeast and LAB growth increased with temperature in the range from 15°C to 27°C. Optimum growth temperature of two Candida milleri strains, isolated earlier from

Lauri Simonson; Hannu Salovaara; Matti Korhola

2003-01-01

155

Effect of Scenedesmus Acuminatus Green Algae Extracts on the Development of Candida Lipolytic Yeast in Gas Condensate-Containing Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons durin...

B. I. Bilmes G. A. Kasymova V. I. Runov N. N. Karavayeva

1980-01-01

156

Sucrose Phosphatase Associated with Vacuole Preparations from Red Beet, Sugar Beet, and Immature Sugarcane Stem 12  

PubMed Central

The specific phosphatase, sucrose phosphate phosphohydrolase (sucrose phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.24) was present in vacuole preparations from storage tissue of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivar Kawemono), and immature sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid, cultivar NCO 310). In red beet vacuole preparations the specific activity of sucrose phosphatase, using the naturally occurring vacuole marker, betanin, as reference, was higher than the specific activity of cytoplasmic markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that sucrose phosphatase is associated with the vacuoles. High speed centrifugation of lysed vacuoles did not result in precipitation of the enzyme indicating that the enzyme is not tightly bound to the tonoplast. Sucrose phosphatase was more sensitive to inhibition by sodium vanadate and less sensitive to ammonium molybdate than was the nonspecific phosphatase which was also present in the extracts. Sucrose phosphatase might be part of the group translocator proposed recently to operate in the tonoplast of sugarcane and red beet.

Hawker, John S.; Smith, Genevieve M.; Phillips, Hilary; Wiskich, Joseph T.

1987-01-01

157

Involvement of sucrose synthase in sucrose synthesis during mobilization of fructans in dormant Jerusalem artichoke tubers.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of sucrose synthase and sucrose-phosphate synthase to sucrose synthesis in dormant tubers of Jerusalem artichokes was determined. Feeding dormant tubers alternatively with mixtures of [14C]glucose and unlabeled fructose, and [14C]glucose and [14C]fructose has shown that sucrose synthase contributes ca. 95-97% to sucrose synthesis. This is the first report of sucrose synthesis in Jerusalem artichokes dormant tubers. PMID:11074271

Noël; Pontis

2000-11-01

158

DSC study of sucrose melting.  

PubMed

An early endothermic peak at approximately 150 degrees C was observed for crystalline sucrose by differential scanning calorimetry. The enthalpy at this temperature was found to vary with recrystallised sucrose from different sources. The addition of mineral salts to recrystallisation solutions decreased the enthalpy of the peak at around 150 degrees C, whereas the absence of salts increased it. The presence of organic solvents and polysaccharides in solution had a minor effect compared to the inorganic impurities. The peak was also depleted by increasing the amount of stirring and temperature at which recrystallisation was performed. PMID:16916498

Beckett, Stephen T; Francesconi, M Grazia; Geary, Peter M; Mackenzie, Grahame; Maulny, Aurélia P E

2006-08-17

159

Featured Molecules: Sucrose and Vanillin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WebWare molecules of the month for April relate to the sense of taste. Apple Fool, the JCE Classroom Activity, mentions sucrose and vanillin and their use as flavorings. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

2003-04-01

160

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using

S. Ailouni; M. K. Hamdy; R. T. Toledo

1987-01-01

161

Sucrose synthase isoforms in cultured tobacco cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant enzyme sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and fructose. The enzyme exists in different isoforms and is both located in the cytosol, membrane-bound and associated to the actin cytoskeleton. We here investigate sucrose synthase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 heterotrophic cell suspensions. Two different isoforms of sucrose

Sandra Matic; Hans-Erik Åkerlund; Einar Everitt; Susanne Widell

2004-01-01

162

Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

1988-01-01

163

Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran.

Lucía Gutiérrez; María del Puerto Morales; Francisco José Lázaro

2005-01-01

164

Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran.

Gutiérrez, Lucía; del Puerto Morales, María; José Lázaro, Francisco

2005-05-01

165

Comparison of different extraction methods for simultaneous determination of B complex vitamins in nutritional yeast using LC/MS-TOF and stable isotope dilution assay.  

PubMed

The application of LC/MS-TOF method combined with stable isotope dilution assay was studied for determination of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine in food. Nutritional yeast powder was used as a model food matrix. Acid extraction was compared with various enzymatic treatments in ammonium formate buffer to find a suitable method for the conversion of more complex vitamers into the same forms as the used isotope-labeled internal standards. The enzyme preparations ?-amylase, takadiastase, ?-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase were all able to liberate thiamine and riboflavin. The diastatic enzyme preparations ?-amylase and takadiastase also expressed proteolytic side activities resulting in the formation of small peptides which interfered with the mass spectra of thiamine and riboflavin. Liberation of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid from NAD(+) and CoA, respectively, could not be achieved with any of the studied enzyme preparations. Hydrochloric acid extraction at 121 °C for 30 min was found to be destructive to pantothenic acid, but increased the liberation of pyridoxal. PMID:23150051

Hälvin, Kristel; Paalme, Toomas; Nisamedtinov, Ildar

2012-11-13

166

Rapid Extraction of Genomic DNA from Medically Important Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi by High-Speed Cell Disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of DNA extraction from different fungal pathogens are often time-consuming and require the use of toxic chemicals. DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult due to cell walls or capsules that are not readily susceptible to lysis. We therefore investigated a new and rapid DNA isolation method using high-speed cell disruption (HSCD) incorporating chaotropic reagents and lysing

FRANK-MICHAEL C. MULLER; KATHERINE E. WERNER; MIKI KASAI; ANDREA FRANCESCONI; STEPHEN J. CHANOCK; THOMAS J. WALSH

1998-01-01

167

Characterization of sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes of Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular proteins of Zymomonas mobilis were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein maps drawn up. One of these proteins showed sucrose-hydrolyzing activity, as indicated by activity staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was purified from the extracellular extract of a glucose fermentation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using a two-step procedure. The molecular mass of the protein was 46 kDa

Laurence Preziosi; Gérard P. F. Michel; Jacques Baratti

1990-01-01

168

Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose and sugarbeet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To produce hydrogen by fermentation of biomass, a continuous process using a non-sterile substrate with a readily available mixed microflora is desirable. This work investigates a simple batch start-up procedure at pH 5.2 and 32°C, using anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and continuous hydrogen production from refined sucrose, pulped sugarbeet and a water extract of sugarbeet. Without heat treating the sludge,

I. Hussy; F. R. Hawkes; R. Dinsdale; D. L. Hawkes

2005-01-01

169

Inhibition by Natural Dietary Substances of Gastrointestinal Absorption of Starch and Sucrose in Rats 2. Subchronic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase (bean and hibiscus extracts) and sucrase (L-arabinose) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels. The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption (so-called \\

Harry G. Preuss; Bobby Echard; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney Stohs

170

Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. (Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI (USA))

1990-05-01

171

Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.6649, P = 0.8658, P = 0.7465, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.7238), Zn (P = 0.2564), Mn (P = 0.8878), Co (P = 0.7097), or Se (P = 0.5877) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were greater at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.0407) and collection (P = 0.0054) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.0115) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0211) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.0012) and CTRL (P = 0.0212). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.0095) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance. PMID:23736057

Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

2013-06-01

172

Inbred mouse strain survey of sucrose intake.  

PubMed

Mouse strain differences for intake of sucrose and saccharin have been reported across studies, and some of these differences have been related to variants of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene. However, several methodological concerns remain, including use of relatively few strains and/or a limited number of palatable concentrations in previous analyses. The present study examined strain differences in sucrose intake among 11 inbred (A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL6/J, C57BL10/J, DBA/2J, SJL/J, SWR/J, 129P3/J) and one outbred (CD-1) mouse strains across nine different sucrose concentrations (0.0001-20%) using two-bottle 24-h preference tests which controlled for sucrose concentration presentation effects, sucrose and water bottle positions, and measurement of kilocalorie intake as sucrose or chow. A/J, C57BL/6J, CD-1 and SWR/J strains consumed the greatest (11.6-22 ml) amount of sucrose, whereas the A/J, C57BL/10J, SJL/J and SWR/J strains consumed the greatest (44-56%) percentages of kilocalories as sucrose. The AKR/J, CBA/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J strains consumed the least (6.9-7.9 ml) amount of sucrose, and displayed lower (20-30%) percentages of kilocalories consumed as sucrose. Whereas A/J, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J, CD-1, SWR/J and SJL/J strains all displayed the most pronounced compensatory decreases in chow intake as the percentage of kilocalories consumed as sucrose increased, the AKR/J, C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J strains failed to significantly alter chow intake even at high sucrose concentrations. There was a paucity of significant correlations in the percentage of sucrose intake between sucrose concentrations, but percentage of sucrose intake at lower concentrations did correlate with previous descriptions of saccharin intake and variants of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene. These data demonstrate clear mouse strain differences across a range of measures in sucrose intake across a wide range of concentrations, but caution against extrapolating between extremely high and low concentrations. The identification of strains with diverging abilities to regulate kilocalorie intake when presented with high sucrose concentrations may lead to the successful QTL mapping of this trait. PMID:15996693

Lewis, Sarah R; Ahmed, Sabrina; Dym, Cheryl; Khaimova, Eleonora; Kest, Benjamin; Bodnar, Richard J

2005-08-01

173

Degradation of endogenous fructose during catabolism of sucrose and mannitol in halophilic archaebacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism of fructose arising endogenously from sucrose or mannitol was studied in halophilic archaebacteria Haloarcula vallismortis and Haloferax mediterranei. Activities of the enzymes of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway and Pentose Phosphate (PP) pathway were examined in extracts of cells grown on sucrose or mannitol and compared to those grown on fructose and glucose. Sucrase and NAD-specific mannitol dehydrogenase

Wijaya Altekar; Vidhya Rangaswamy

1992-01-01

174

Molecular Control of Sucrose Utilization in Escherichia coli W, an Efficient Sucrose-Utilizing Strain  

PubMed Central

Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the W?cscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in W?cscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations.

Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K.

2013-01-01

175

Improved synthesis of sucrose fatty acid monoesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The base-catalyzed synthesis of four sucrose fatty acid esters (caprylate, laurate, myristate, and palmitate) was performed\\u000a in dimethylsulfoxide by transesterification of sucrose with the corresponding vinyl esters using disodium hydrogen phosphate\\u000a as catalyst. In using a molar ratio sucrose\\/vinyl ester 4?1 and mild reaction conditions (40°C and atmospheric pressure),\\u000a yields were higher than 85%. The isolated sucroesters had a higher

M. Angeles Cruces; Francisco J. Plou; Manuel Ferrer; Manuel Bernabé; Antonio Ballesteros

2001-01-01

176

Estimation of sucrose esters (E473) in foods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method was developed for estimating the content in foods of the emulsifying additive E473, sucrose esters of fatty acids. The analytical approach taken to estimate the complex mixtures that comprise this additive involved, selective solvent extraction of the intact esters using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate, alkaline hydrolysis of the esters to liberate sucrose, and then GC-MS measurement of the liberated sucrose using GC-MS after acidic hydrolysis to glucose and fructose and then silylation. The method was developed to aid future estimates of intake of this food additive. The method determines the total sucrose esters content of a food sample and does not attempt to discrimination between individual sucrose esters when present as a mixture in a food sample. A single (average) factor is used to convert the liberated sucrose content into sucrose ester content. The method was applied to analysis of eight different food types (including bakery wares, sugar confectionery, dairy product, margarine, meat pies and a sauce) spiked with 0.5-1% of a mixture of three sucrose esters that spanned the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) range 1-16. The limit of quantification was around 50 mg kg-1, which is more than adequate for these additives. The analytical recovery rate was 73-106% with an average of 91%. The precision of the method (RSD) was 6-18% (n = 3-20 for each food type) with an average RSD of 11%. The main analytical uncertainty is the conversion factor used to express sucrose ester content from the amount of sucrose liberated. The method is also applicable to sucroglycerides (E474). PMID:16766452

Scotter, M J; Castle, L; Roberts, D P T

2006-06-01

177

Characteristics Of Vacuum Deposited Sucrose Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11) were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique (p ~ 10-5 torr). The surface morphology was putted into evidence by FT-IR and SEM analysis. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent sucrose layer. The biological tests (e.g., cell morphology and cell viability evaluated by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenise activity with MTT assay) confirm the properties of sucrose thin films as bioactive material. The human fetal osteoblast system grown on thin sucrose film was used for the determination of cell proliferation, cell viability and cell morphology studies.

Ungureanu, F.; Predoi, D.; Ghita, R. V.; Vatasescu-Balcan, R. A.; Costache, M.

178

p33-Independent Activation of a Truncated p92 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus in Yeast Cell-Free Extract  

PubMed Central

Plus-stranded RNA viruses replicate in membrane-bound structures containing the viral replicase complex (VRC). A key component of the VRC is the virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which should be activated and incorporated into the VRC after its translation. To study the activation of the RdRp of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small tombusvirus of plants, we used N-terminal truncated recombinant RdRp, which supported RNA synthesis in a cell-free yeast extract-based assay. The truncated RdRp required a cis-acting RNA replication element and soluble host factors, while unlike the full-length TBSV RdRp, the truncated RdRp did not need the viral p33 replication cofactor or cellular membranes for RNA synthesis. Interestingly, the truncated RdRp used 3?-terminal extension for initiation and terminated prematurely at an internal cis-acting element. However, the truncated RdRp could perform de novo initiation on a TBSV plus-strand RNA template in the presence of the p33 replication cofactor, cellular membranes, and soluble host proteins. Altogether, the data obtained with the truncated RdRp indicate that this RdRp still requires activation, but with the participation of fewer components than with the full-length RdRp, making it suitable for future studies on dissection of the RdRp activation mechanism.

Pogany, Judit

2012-01-01

179

Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  

PubMed

Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation. PMID:23757382

Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

2013-06-10

180

Combined effects of pH, yeast extract, carbohydrates and di-ammonium hydrogen citrate on the biomass production and acidifying ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain, isolated from table olives, in a batch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four variables-five levels Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to model the individual and interactive effects\\u000a of carbohydrates (lactose or maltose), yeast extract, di-ammonium hydrogen citrate and pH on the biomass production (Abs600 nm), viable and cultivable cell number and acidifying ability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from table olives “Bella di Cerignola”. pH values were modeled

A. Bevilacqua; M. R. Corbo; M. Mastromatteo; M. Sinigaglia

2008-01-01

181

A transferable sucrose utilization approach for non-sucrose-utilizing Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

Sucrose has economic and environmental advantages over glucose as a feedstock for bioprocesses. E. coli is widely used in industry, but the majority of current industrial E. coli strains cannot utilize sucrose. Previous attempts to transfer sucrose catabolic capabilities into non-sucrose-utilizing strains have met with limited success due to low growth rates on sucrose and phenotypic instability of the engineered strains. To address these problems, we developed a transferrable sucrose utilization cassette which confers efficient sucrose catabolism when integrated onto the E. coli chromosome. The cassette was based on the csc genes from E. coli W, a strain which grows very quickly on sucrose. Both plasmid-borne expression and chromosomal integration of a repressor-less sucrose utilizing cassette were investigated in E. coli strains K-12, B and C. In contrast to previous studies, strains harboring chromosomal cassettes could grow at the same rate as they do on glucose. Interestingly, we also discovered that spontaneous chromosomal integration of the csc genes was required to allow efficient growth from plasmid-transformed strains. The ability to engineer industrial strains for efficient sucrose utilization will allow substitution of sucrose for glucose in industrial fermentations. This will encourage the use of sucrose as a carbon source and assist in transition of our petrochemical-based economy to a bio-based economy. PMID:21907272

Bruschi, Michele; Boyes, Simon J; Sugiarto, Haryadi; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

2011-09-01

182

Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo  

SciTech Connect

Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

1987-04-01

183

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

2009-01-01

184

Decreased sucrose content triggers starch breakdown and respiration in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To change the hexose-to-sucrose ratio within phloem cells, yeast-derived cytosolic invertase was expressed in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree) plants under control of the rolC pro- moter. Vascular tissue specific expression of the transgene was verified by histochemical detection of invertase activity in tuber cross-sections. Vegetative growth and tuber yield of transgenic plants was unal- tered as compared to

Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei; Frederik Bornke; Martin Peisker; Yasuhiro Takahata; Jens Lerchl; Ara Kirakosyan; Uwe Sonnewald

2003-01-01

185

A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

186

“Sucrose analgesia”: absorptive mechanism or taste perception?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains unclear whether “sucrose analgesia” is related to a pre- or postabsorptive mechanism. In a double blind cross over study sucrose reduced the pain response of preterm infants exposed to heel prick blood samples only when it was administered into the mouth. It was ineffective when administered intragastrically.

Luca A Ramenghi; David J Evans; Malcolm I Levene

1999-01-01

187

Internalization of Sucrose by Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus  

PubMed Central

When sucrose is present in the external medium, it is internalized by Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus. Sucrose internalization, as determined by both natural abundance (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and [(sup14)C]sucrose uptake, is directly proportional to external sucrose levels. The uptake is energy independent and exhibits kinetic behavior consistent with a simple passive diffusion process. In the presence of 0.2 M sucrose, methanogenesis is inhibited as the NaCl concentration in the external medium is increased. Growth, as determined by protein content, is inhibited by 0.2 M sucrose when the external NaCl concentration is 1.4 M. These results are important because they show that (i) sucrose cannot be used as a noncharged solute to replace NaCl in experiments to evaluate how external osmotic strength affects the internal solute composition of M. thermolithotrophicus, and (ii) sucrose cannot be used as an impermeable marker for the extracellular volume in experiments to measure the intracellular volume of M. thermolithotrophicus.

Ciulla, R.; Krishnan, S.; Roberts, M. F.

1995-01-01

188

Sucrose consumption in Thai undergraduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly added sugar diets have been associated with various health problems such as dental caries, dyslipidemia, obesity and poor quality of life. Unfortunately, sugar consumption, especially sucrose, has increased continu- ously worldwide. The purpose of the study was to examine sources of sugar consumption and amount of added sucrose consumed in Thai undergraduate students. This study was carried out at

Limthong Promdee; Jindarat Trakulthong

189

Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.  

SciTech Connect

This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose for an additional 20 h. Sucrose transport activity was higher than the water control in both staurosporine/water- and staurosporine/sucrose-fed leaves. In contrast, sucrose transport activity was only 40% of the water control in sucrose-fed leaves. Taken together, these results showed that a phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathway is involved in sucrose-mediated regulation of BvSUT1 gene expression, sucrose transport activity, and ultimately phloem loading. Publications originating from this work: Vaughn MW, GN. Harrington, and DR Bush 2002. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10876-10880 Ransom-Hodgkins W, MW Vaughn, and DR Bush 2003. Protein phosphorylation mediates a key step in sucrose-regulation of the expression and transport activity of a beet proton-sucrose symporter. Planta 217:483-489 Harrington GN and Bush DR 2003. The bifunctional role of hexokinase in metabolism and glucose signaling. Plant Cell 15: 2493-2496

Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

2002-08-06

190

Dry yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yeast is a type of eukaryotic organism that can live in a dormant state. It can be activated from its dormant state by water and sugar. The yeast uses the sugar to grow and produces carbon dioxide gas as a byproduct.

Ranveig Thattai (None;)

2005-09-27

191

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS Sexually transmitted infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet What is a vaginal yeast ... on vaginal yeast infections What is a vaginal yeast infection? A vaginal yeast infection is irritation of ...

192

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this...

2009-04-01

193

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2010-01-01

194

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this...

2010-01-01

195

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

196

Enzyme Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial subtilisin preparation was used in pyridine to catalyze the regioselective conversion of sucrose and fatty acid vinyl esters into the 1?-O-acyl sucrose derivatives. The 1?-O-laury sucrose, 1?-O-myristyl sucrose and 1?-O-stearyl sucrose were obtained as the major products of these reactions. The 1?,6-di-O-acyl sucrose derivatives were also obtained as minor products. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of each of

Tulay Polat; Hélène G. Bazin; Robert J. Linhardt

1997-01-01

197

A Method of isolating Protoplasts from Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NEW approach to the structure and functions of the cell surface of certain bacteria was revealed when Weibull1 showed that, in the presence of sucrose, lysozyme dissolves the cell-wall, leaving the protoplast essentially intact. Various attempts have since been made to isolate protoplasts from bacteria normally insensitive to lysozyme2 and also from yeast. Thus Necas3 showed that spontaneously autolysing

A. A. Eddy; D. H. Williamson

1957-01-01

198

Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds  

SciTech Connect

Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

Xu, Dianpeng; Sung, Shijean, S.; Black, C.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1989-04-01

199

Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

John M. Ward

2009-03-31

200

Transport of sucrose, not hexose, in the phloem  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that glucose and fructose are essentially absent in mobile phloem sap. However, this paradigm has been called into question, especially but not entirely, with respect to species in the Ranunculaceae and Papaveraceae. In the experiments in question, phloem sap was obtained by detaching leaves and placing the cut ends of the petioles in an EDTA solution. More hexose than sucrose was detected. In the present study, these results were confirmed for four species. However, almost identical results were obtained when the leaf blades were removed and only petiole stubs were immersed. This suggests that the sugars in the EDTA solution represent compounds extracted from the petioles, rather than sugars in transit in the phloem. In further experiments, the leaf blades were exposed to 14CO2 and, following a chase period, radiolabelled sugars in the petioles and EDTA exudate were identified. Almost all the radiolabel was in the form of [14C]sucrose, with little radiolabelled hexose. The data support the long-held contention that sucrose is a ubiquitous transport sugar, but hexoses are essentially absent in the phloem stream.

Liu, David D.; Chao, Wesley M.; Turgeon, Robert

2012-01-01

201

Cinnamon extract inhibits ?-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background ?-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast ?-glucosidase and rat-intestinal ?-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast ?-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 ?g/ml and mammalian ?-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 ?g/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats respectively, compared to the control. On the other hand, in rats that received glucose and cinnamon extract, postprandial hyperglycemia was not effectively suppressed, which indicates that the observed postprandial glycemic amelioration is majorly due to ?-glucosidase inhibition. Conclusions The current study demonstrates one of the mechanisms in which cinnamon bark extract effectively inhibits ?-glucosidase leading to suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ induced diabetic rats loaded with maltose, sucrose. This bark extract shows competitive, reversible inhibition on ?-glucosidase enzyme. Cinnamon extract could be used as a potential nutraceutical agent for treating postprandial hyperglycemia. In future, specific inhibitor has to be isolated from the crude extract, characterized and therapeutically exploited.

2011-01-01

202

Counting Yeast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)|

Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

1998-01-01

203

Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

204

New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation at higher sugar concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian alcohol factories at the end of the sugar cane crop season. They were selected by their capacity of fermenting concentrated sugar cane syrup as well as high sucrose concentrations in synthetic medium with a conversion efficiency of 89–92%. The strains were identified asSaccharomycescerevisiae.

M. C. Bertolini; J. R. Ernandes; C. Laluce

1991-01-01

205

Nonenzymatic Browning in Model Systems Containing Sucrose.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Freeze-dried systems containing sucrose and organic acids were found to undergo rapid nonenzymatic browning, even at low relative humidities. Addition of protein reduced the rate of browning, especially at low humidities. It was determined that the browni...

M. Karel T. P. Labuza

1968-01-01

206

27 CFR 21.131 - Sucrose octaacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sucrose octaacetate is an organic acetylation product occurring as a white or cream-colored powder having an intensely bitter taste. (b) Free acid (as acetic acid). Maximum percentage 0.15 by weight when determined by the following...

2013-04-01

207

Hydrolysis of Sucrose by Heterogeneous Catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of sucrose by solid catalysts was investigated using polarimetry. Silica included heteropoly acid was used as a catalyst. At the optimizing conditions the activation parameters have been evaluated using the Arrhenius and Eyring plots.

H. Iloukhani; S. Azizian; N. Samadani

2002-01-01

208

Wine Yeast Preferment for Enhancing Bread Aroma and Flavor1 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 73(l):45-50 A liquid preferment containing water, flour, sucrose, and wine yeast most interesting aroma. Compared to bread made by the sponge-and- was optimized to enhance bread aroma and flavor by time and tempera- dough process, crumb and crust of bread prepared from preferment with ture of prefermentation and yeast and flour concentration. Thirteen Flor Sherry yeast contained more

C. M. McKINNON; P. GELINAS; R. E. SIMARD

209

Bacterial sucrose isomerases: properties and structural studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their significant role in food industry, sucrose isomerases are good candidates for rational protein engineering. Hence,\\u000a specific modifications in order to modify substrate affinity and selectivity, product specificity but also to adapt their\\u000a catalytic properties to particular industrial process conditions, is interesting. Our work on the structural studies of the\\u000a sucrose isomerase, MutB, which presents the first structural

Moez Rhimi; Richard Haser; Nushin Aghajari

2008-01-01

210

Molecular physiology of higher plant sucrose transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose is the primary product of photosynthetic CO2 fixation that is used for the distribution of assimilated carbon within higher plants. Its partitioning from the site of synthesis to different sites of storage, conversion into other storage compounds or metabolic degradation involves various steps of cell-to-cell movement and transport. Many of these steps occur within symplastic domains, i.e. sucrose moves

Norbert Sauer

2007-01-01

211

Vesicles from sucrose fatty acid esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been confirmed, from observations with an electron microscope after staining negatively with aqueous uranyl acetate\\u000a solutions and using a flourescent microscope, that sucrose fatty acid esters form closed vesicles. The range of particle size\\u000a of the vesicle, consisting of chromatographically fractionated sucrose dilaurate, was apparently 70–700 nm in the longer diameter\\u000a of individual vesicles based on the transmission

Yutaka Ishigami; Hajime Machida

1989-01-01

212

Inbred mouse strain survey of sucrose intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse strain differences for intake of sucrose and saccharin have been reported across studies, and some of these differences have been related to variants of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene. However, several methodological concerns remain, including use of relatively few strains and\\/or a limited number of palatable concentrations in previous analyses. The present study examined strain differences in sucrose intake

Sarah R. Lewis; Sabrina Ahmed; Cheryl Dym; Eleonora Khaimova; Benjamin Kest; Richard J. Bodnar

2005-01-01

213

Dietary Garcinia cambogia does not modify skin properties of mice with or without excessive sucrose intake.  

PubMed

The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake. PMID:16041770

Oikawa, Daichi; Hirakawa, Hachidai; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Shiba, Nobuya; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2005-04-01

214

Evidence for Circadian Regulation of Starch and Sucrose Synthesis in Sugar Beet Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Starch accumulation and sucrose synthesis and export were measured in leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) during a period of prolonged irradiance in which illumination was extended beyond the usual 14-hour day period. During much of the 14-hour day period, approximately 50% of the newly fixed carbon was distributed to sucrose, about 40% to starch, and less than 10% to hexose. Beginning about 2 hours before the end of the usual light period, the portion of newly fixed carbon allocated to sucrose gradually increased, and correspondingly less carbon went to starch. By the time the transition ended, about 4 hours into the extension of the light period, nearly 90% of newly fixed carbon was incorporated into sucrose and little or none into starch. Most of the additional sucrose was exported. Gradual cessation of starch accumulation was not the result of a futile cycle of simultaneous starch synthesis and degradation. Neither was it the result of a decrease in the extractable activity of adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase or phosphoglucose isomerase, enzymes important in starch synthesis. Nor was there a notable change in control metabolites considered to be important in regulating starch synthesis. Starch accumulation appeared to decrease markedly because of an endogenous circadian shift in carbon allocation, which occurred in preparation for the usual night period and which diverted carbon from the chloroplast to the cytosol and sucrose synthesis.

Li, Bin; Geiger, Donald R.; Shieh, Wen-Jang

1992-01-01

215

Identification of sucrose binding, membrane proteins using a photolyzable sucrose analog. [P. saccharophila  

SciTech Connect

The sucrose derivative 6'-deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-4-azido)benzamidosucrose (6'-HABS) was prepared from sucrose (via 6'-deoxy-6'-aminosucrose) and 4-amino-salicylic acid. 6'-HABS is a competitive inhibitor of sucrose influx into protoplasts from developing soybean cotyledons and of sucrose binding to membranes from the bacteria P. saccharophila. The Ki for inhibition in the soybean protoplasts was 75..mu..M. 6'-Deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-3-/sup 125/Iodo-4-azido)benzamidosucrose was prepared by lactoperoxidase iodination of 6'-HABS. Upon photolysis in the presence of membranes from P saccharophila, label from the photoprobe is incorporated into a sucrose inducible polypeptide of mass 84 KD in SDS-PAGE. The polypeptide is protected from labeling by the inclusion of sucrose in the photolysis mixture. Photolysis conditions which lead to specific labeling of the sucrose protectable polypeptide in bacterial membranes also give sucrose protectable labeling of a 66 KD polypeptide in microsomal preparations made from developing soybeans. The possibility that this is a sucrose transporting protein is being tested.

Ripp, K.G.; Liu, D.F.; Viitanen, P.; Hitz, W.D.

1986-04-01

216

Sucrose for procedural pain management in infants.  

PubMed

The use of oral sucrose has been the most extensively studied pain intervention in newborn care to date. More than 150 published studies relating to sweet-taste-induced calming and analgesia in human infants have been identified, of which 100 (65%) include sucrose. With only a few exceptions, sucrose, glucose, or other sweet solutions reduced pain responses during commonly performed painful procedures in diverse populations of infants up to 12 months of age. Sucrose has been widely recommended for routine use during painful procedures in newborn and young infants, yet these recommendations have not been translated into consistent use in clinical practice. One reason may be related to important knowledge and research gaps concerning analgesic effects of sucrose. Notably, the mechanism of sweet-taste-induced analgesia is still not precisely understood, which has implications for using research evidence in practice. The aim of this article is to review what is known about the mechanisms of sucrose-induced analgesia; highlight existing evidence, knowledge gaps, and current controversies; and provide directions for future research and practice. PMID:23045554

Harrison, Denise; Beggs, Simon; Stevens, Bonnie

2012-10-08

217

Transgenic cotton over-producing spinach sucrose phosphate synthase showed enhanced leaf sucrose synthesis and improved fiber quality under controlled environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Prior data indicated that enhanced availability of sucrose, a major product of photosynthesis in source leaves and the carbon source for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in fiber sinks, might improve fiber quality under abiotic stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, a family of transgenic cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 312 elite) was produced that over-expressed spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) because of its role in regulation of sucrose synthesis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic tissues. A family of 12 independent transgenic lines was characterized in terms of foreign gene insertion, expression of spinach SPS, production of spinach SPS protein, and development of enhanced extractable V (max) SPS activity in leaf and fiber. Lines with the highest V (max) SPS activity were further characterized in terms of carbon partitioning and fiber quality compared to wild-type and transgenic null controls. Leaves of transgenic SPS over-expressing lines showed higher sucrose:starch ratio and partitioning of (14)C to sucrose in preference to starch. In two growth chamber experiments with cool nights, ambient CO(2) concentration, and limited light below the canopy, the transgenic line with the highest SPS activity in leaf and fiber had higher fiber micronaire and maturity ratio associated with greater thickness of the cellulosic secondary wall. PMID:17287885

Haigler, Candace H; Singh, Bir; Zhang, Deshui; Hwang, Sangjoon; Wu, Chunfa; Cai, Wendy X; Hozain, Mohamed; Kang, Wonhee; Kiedaisch, Brett; Strauss, Richard E; Hequet, Eric F; Wyatt, Bobby G; Jividen, Gay M; Holaday, A Scott

2007-02-08

218

BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M153: Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract. January 2001. ... M153 Trypticase Soy Agar with 0.6% Yeast Extract (TSAYE). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

219

Sucrose is a Signal Molecule in Assimilate Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton-sucrose symporter mediates the key transport step in the resource distribution system that allows many plants to function as multicellular organisms. In the results reported here, we identify sucrose as a signaling molecule in a previously undescribed signal-transduction pathway that regulates the symporter. Sucrose symporter activity declined in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from leaves fed exogenous sucrose via the

Tzyy-Jen Chiou; Daniel R. Bush

1998-01-01

220

Sucrose utilisation in bacteria: genetic organisation and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose is the most abundant disaccharide in the environment because of its origin in higher plant tissues, and many Eubacteria possess catalytic enzymes, such as the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolases and sucrose phosphorylases, that enable them to metabolise this carbohydrate in a regulated manner. This review describes the range of gene architecture, uptake systems, catabolic activity and regulation of the sucrose-utilisation regulons

Sharon J. Reid; Valerie R. Abratt

2005-01-01

221

Arg188 in rice sucrose transporter OsSUT1 is crucial for substrate transport  

PubMed Central

Background Plant sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) are H+/sucrose symporters related to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). SUTs are essential for plant growth but little is known about their transport mechanism. Recent work identified several conserved, charged amino acids within transmembrane spans (TMS) in SUTs that are essential for transport activity. Here we further evaluated the role of one of these positions, R188 in the fourth TMS of OsSUT1, a type II SUT. Results The OsSUT1(R188K) mutant, studied by expression in plants, yeast, and Xenopus oocytes, did not transport sucrose but showed a H+ leak that was blocked by sucrose. The H+ leak was also blocked by ?-phenyl glucoside which is not translocated by OsSUT1. Replacing the corresponding Arg in type I and type III SUTs, AtSUC1(R163K) and LjSUT4(R169K), respectively, also resulted in loss of sucrose transport activity. Fluorination at the glucosyl 3 and 4 positions of ?-phenyl glucoside greatly decreased transport by wild type OsSUT1 but did not affect the ability to block H+ leak in the R188K mutant. Conclusion OsSUT1 R188 appears to be essential for sucrose translocation but not for substrate interaction that blocks H+ leak. Therefore, we propose that an additional binding site functions in the initial recognition of substrates. The corresponding Arg in type I and III SUTs are equally important. We propose that R188 interacts with glucosyl 3-OH and 4-OH during translocation.

2012-01-01

222

Yeast production from virgin grape marc  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative utilization of virgin grape marc (VGM) to produce SCP from S. cerevisiae is reported. A simple extraction method of fresh grape marc produces a sugar-rich solution; through fed-batch fermentation, a high-value yeast biomass instead of a low-value product like ethanol can be produced.Productivity and quality of yeast are similar to these obtainable from molasses. The convenience of yeast

R. B. Lo Curto; M. M. Tripodo

2001-01-01

223

Initiation and promotion of colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats by 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in thermolyzed sucrose.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that thermolyzed sucrose in the diet promotes the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat. HPLC analysis of the light caramel colored product showed that it contained 1% 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), confirmed by mass and NMR spectroscopy. To determine whether HMF was responsible for the promotion of ACF by thermolyzed sucrose, 45 F344 female rats were initiated with the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), and a week later were randomized to four groups receiving AIN-76 diets containing untreated sucrose, 20% thermolyzed sucrose, 20% butanol extracted thermolyzed sucrose (HMF free) or 1% HMF. Thermolyzed sucrose in the diet led to larger ACF as previously observed. Thermolyzed sucrose extracted to remove HMF, did not affect ACF size, but 1% HMF added to the diet led to a larger ACF both with relation to average size and number of ACF of larger sizes (P < 0.05). To determine whether HMF had initiating effects, 172 female F344 rats were given water, HMF (at doses to 300 mg/kg) or AOM (5 mg/kg) by gavage twice and the total number of ACF was scored 30 days later. The results demonstrated that HMF induces ACF in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.02), though the effect was much weaker than that of AOM. We conclude that sugar heated under household cooking conditions may act as both an initiator and a promoter of colon cancer because of the presence of HMF. PMID:8472346

Zhang, X M; Chan, C C; Stamp, D; Minkin, S; Archer, M C; Bruce, W R

1993-04-01

224

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

225

Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological, biochemical and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 days) induced a stable (>24 hr) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 hr) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7-day protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a non-caloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multi-step GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose.

Tukey, David S.; Ferreira, Jainne M.; Antoine, Shannon O.; D'amour, James A.; Ninan, Ipe; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K.; Hartner, Diana T.; Guarini, Carlo B.; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F.; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S.; Mahajan, Shahana S.; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C.; Carr, Kenneth D.; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B.

2013-01-01

226

Yeast Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

2002-11-01

227

Transforming wheat vacuolar invertase into a high affinity sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Vacuolar invertases (VIs) degrade sucrose to glucose and fructose. Additionally, the fructan plant wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains different fructosyltransferases (FTs), which have evolved from VIs by developing the capacity to bind sucrose or fructans as acceptor substrates. Modelling studies revealed a hydrogen bonding network in the conserved WMNDPNG motif of VIs, which is absent in FTs.  In

Lindsey Schroeven; Willem Lammens; André Van Laere; Wim Van den Ende

2008-01-01

228

Effect of neem leaf extract and neem oil on Penicillium growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production.  

PubMed

In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachtaindica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ? 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation. PMID:22069528

Mossini, Simone A G; Arrotéia, Carla C; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

2009-07-23

229

Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production  

PubMed Central

In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ? 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation.

Mossini, Simone A. G.; Arroteia, Carla C.; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

2009-01-01

230

A novel sucrose phosphorylase from the metagenomes of sucrose-rich environment: isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

Sucrose phosphorylase, an important enzyme mainly involved in the generic starch and sucrose pathways, has now caught the attention of researchers due to its transglycosylation activity. A novel sucrose phosphorylase, unspase, has been isolated, and its transglycosylation properties were characterized. Compared with Bisp, the sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis, unspase had two deleted regions in its C: -terminal. These deleted regions were probably equivalent to the important five-stranded anti-parallel ?-sheet domain in sucrose phosphorylase. Unspase has a k(m) of 21.12 mM, a V(max) of 69.24 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) and a k(cat) of 31.19 s(-1) with sucrose as substrate. In 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer, unspase transferred the glycosyl moiety to L-arabinose, D-fructose and L-sorbose. Much to our surprise, unspase can catalyze the transglycosylation in which a glycosyl moiety was transferred to L-arabinose in the presence of phosphate, which is an interesting exception to the generally accepted fact that transglycosylation can only occur under the condition of phosphate absence. The final yield of the transglycosylation product (37.9 %) in phosphate buffer was even higher than that (5.8 %) in MOPS buffer. This is a novel phenomenon that a sucrose phosphorylase can catalyze a transglycosylation reaction in the presence of phosphate. PMID:22806728

Du, Liqin; Yang, Hui; Huo, Yunlong; Wei, Hang; Xu, Yuanjin; Wei, Yutuo; Huang, Ribo

2012-06-29

231

Fermentation of molasses using a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3: simplex optimisation of media supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molasses as a substrate for ethanol production by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was investigated at 45°C. A maximum ethanol concentration of 7.4% (v\\/v) was produced from unsupplemented molasses at a concentration\\u000a of 23% (v\\/v). The effect on ethanol production of increasing the sucrose concentration in 23% (v\\/v) molasses was determined.\\u000a Increased sucrose concentration had

S. Gough; O. Flynn; C. J. Hack; R. Marchant

1996-01-01

232

Effects of sucrose on the extracellular matrix of plaque-like biofilm formed in vivo, studied by proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that sucrose promotes changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of plaque-like biofilm (PLB), but its effect on protein expression has not been studied in vivo. Therefore, the protein compositions of ECM of PLB formed with and without sucrose exposure were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). For this purpose, a crossover study was conducted during two phases of 14 days each, during which a volunteer wore a palatal appliance containing eight enamel blocks for PLB accumulation. In each phase, a 20% sucrose solution or distilled and deionized water (control) were extraorally dripped onto the blocks 8x/day. On the 14th day, the PLB were collected, the ECM proteins were extracted, separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, digested by in-gel trypsin and MALDI-TOF MS analyzed. In the ECM of PLB formed under sucrose exposure, the following changes compared with the control PLB were observed: (1) the presence of upregulated proteins that may be involved in bacterial response to environmental changes induced by sucrose and (2) the absence of calcium-binding proteins that may partly explain the low inorganic concentration found in ECM of PLB formed under sucrose exposure. The findings showing that sucrose affected the ECM protein composition of PLB in vivo provide further insight into the unique cariogenic properties of this dietary carbohydrate. PMID:18832830

Paes Leme, A F; Bellato, C M; Bedi, G; Cury, A A Del Bel; Koo, H; Cury, J A

2008-10-03

233

Selective determination of sucrose based on electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer modified multiwall carbon nanotubes/glassy carbon electrode.  

PubMed

A novel and selective electrochemical sensor was successfully developed for the determination of sucrose by integrating electropolymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer with multiwall carbon nanotubes. The sensor was prepared by electropolymerizing of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of template, sucrose, on a multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode. The sensor preparation conditions including sucrose concentration, the number of CV cycles in the electropolymerization step, pH of incubation solution, extraction time of template from the imprinted film and the incubation time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A mixture of acetonitrile/acetic acid was used to remove the template. Hexacyanoferrate(II) was used as a probe to characterize the sensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Capturing of sucrose by the modified electrode causes decreasing the response of the electrode to hexacyanoferrate(II). Calibration curve was obtained in the sucrose concentration range of 0.01-10.0 mmol L(-1) with a limit of detection 3 ?mol L(-1). This sensor provides an efficient way for eliminating interferences from compounds with similar structures to sucrose. The sensor was successfully used to determine sucrose in sugar beet juices with satisfactory results. PMID:23706246

Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Ensafi, Ali A; Kadivar, Mahdi

2013-05-04

234

Single-cell protein production from Jerusalem artichoke extract by a recently isolated marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After crude protein of the marine yeast strains maintained in this laboratory was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we\\u000a found that the G7a strain which was identified to be a strain of Cryptococcus aureus according to the routine identification and molecular methods contained high level of protein and could grow on a wide range\\u000a of carbon sources. The optimal

Lingmei Gao; Zhenming Chi; Jun Sheng; Xiumei Ni; Lin Wang

2007-01-01

235

Dental caries: Possible sugar substitutes for sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of sucrose, fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)§, and equal weights of fructose and glucose in cakes containing fat and prepared by the solution method of mixing. Cakes prepared with glucose scored lowest in all sensory attributes.According to objective measurements of product quality, cakes made with monosaccharides were smaller, more easily broken and more

Charlotte M. Thompson; Kaye Funk; Rachel Schemmel; Olaf Mickelsen

1974-01-01

236

Intravenous iron sucrose: Establishing a safe dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now recognized that the majority of patients on epoetin therapy require intravenous (IV) iron supplementation to maximize the response to treatment. Of the IV iron preparations available, iron sucrose has proved its efficacy and safety; however, there are no guidelines or systematic studies examining the optimum safe dosage regimen for this compound. The aim of the present study

Georgina Chandler; Jatinder Harchowal; Iain C. Macdougall

2001-01-01

237

Sucrose transporter plays a role in phloem loading in CMV-infected melon plants that are defined as symplastic loaders.  

PubMed

Based on the high density of plasmodesmata interconnecting the intermediary cells and their neighboring phloem parenchyma or bundle-sheath cells, and based on the insensitivity to the sucrose transport inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS), cucurbits have been concluded to be symplastic loaders. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length sequence of sucrose transporter gene (CmSUT1) from melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Hale's best jumbo). In vitro experiments confirmed that the identified gene product has sucrose transporter activity in baker's yeast. Healthy and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected melon plants were employed to examine sucrose transporter activity in planta. Pretreatment with PCMBS inhibited loading of newly fixed ¹?CO? into minor veins of CMV-infected plants. Moreover, CMV infection caused significant increase in CmSUT1 transcripts expression, mainly in vascular bundles of minor veins, which was associated with elevated sucrose content in phloem sap collected from source-leaf petioles. We propose that cucurbit plants contain the machinery for apoplastic phloem loading and that CMV infection causes a quantitative shift in the mode by which photoassimilates are loaded into the sieve tube. PMID:21241389

Gil, Lidor; Yaron, Imry; Shalitin, Dror; Sauer, Norbert; Turgeon, Robert; Wolf, Shmuel

2011-03-01

238

The Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sucrose from Starch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most abundant food sugar is sucrose and world demand for sucrose and other sweeteners has outstripped production. Commercial processes have been developed for enzymic production of glucose-fructose mixtures from cornstarch. This report very briefly de...

S. J. Kelly L. G. Butler R. G. Squires

1976-01-01

239

BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M191: Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). May 2004. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M191 Vibrio vulnificus sucrose Agar (VPSA). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

240

Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis  

SciTech Connect

General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate at high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. The metabolic quotients for sucrose utilization, qs, and ethanol production, qp (g/g.hr), are unsuitable for describing sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis as the logarithmic phase of growth precedes the phase of highest substrate utilization (g/liter.hr) and ethanol production (g/liter.hr) in batch culture. (Refs. 10).

Lyness, E.; Doelle, H.W.

1981-07-01

241

Individual isohedons in sucrose-sodium chloride and sucrose-saccharin gustatory areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies with need free rats have relied upon the group up-and-down method to determine hedonic equality and to plot isohedons within a stimulus area. The present study shows that isohedons can be plotted for individual Ss within the sucrose-sodium chloride and sucrose-saccharin stimulus areas by using a brief exposure preference technique. Isohedons for individual Ss are similar in form

P. T. Young

1963-01-01

242

Intracellular sucrose communicates metabolic demand to sucrose transporters in developing pea cotyledons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic inter-relationships in sinks between sucrose compartmentation\\/metabolism and phloem unloading\\/ translocation are poorly understood. Developing grain legume seeds provide tractable experimental systems to explore this question. Metabolic demand by cotyledons is communicated to phloem unloading and ultimately import by sucrose withdrawal from the seed apoplasmic space via a turgor-homeostat mechanism. What is unknown is how metabolic demand is communicated to

Yuchan Zhou; Katie Chan; Trevor L. Wang; Cliff L. Hedley; Christina E. Offler; John W. Patrick

2009-01-01

243

Defunctionalization of fructose and sucrose: Iron-catalyzed production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose and sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient iron-catalyzed production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sugar is reported. The dehydration of fructose and sucrose has been studied in the presence of different iron salts and co-catalysts. As a result, it was found that fructose and sucrose could be efficiently and selectively converted to HMF using a combination of environmentally friendly FeCl3 and tetraethyl ammonium bromide (Et4NBr)

Xinli Tong; Mengran Li; Ning Yan; Yang Ma; Paul J. Dyson; Yongdan Li

2011-01-01

244

Screening of novel yeast inulinases and further application to bioprocesses.  

PubMed

Inulin is a carbohydrate composed of linear chains of ?-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is one of the most interesting materials among unconventional and renewable raw materials, with levels of inulin reaching 50-80% of dry matter. Inulin or inulin-rich materials can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce glucose and fructose syrups that can be used in bioprocesses. In this study, several microbial strains were isolated and their ability to inulinase biosynthesis was evaluated. The novel yeast strain Talf1, identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, was the best inulinase producer, attaining 8.67U/ml of inulinase activity when JA juice was used as the inducer substrate. Z. bailii strain Talf1 and/or its enzymatic crude extract were further applied for bioethanol production and biodesulfurization (BDS) processes, using inulin and JA juice as carbon source. In a consolidated bioprocessing for ethanol production from 200g/l inulin, Z. bailii strain Talf1 was able to produce 67g/l of ethanol. This ethanol yield was improved in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, with the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 and the Talf1 inulinases, achieving a production of 78g/l ethanol. However, the highest ethanol yield (?48%) was obtained in a SSF process from JA juice (?130g/l fermentable sugars), where the S. cerevisiae produced 63g/l ethanol. Relatively to the dibenzothiophene BDS tests, the Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B achieved a desulfurization rate of 4.8?M/h within a SSF process using Talf1 inulinases and JA juice, highlighting the potential of JA as a less expensive alternative carbon source. These results showed the high potential of Z. bailii strain Talf1 inulinases as a versatile tool for bioprocesses using inulin-rich materials. PMID:23419675

Paixão, Susana M; Teixeira, Pedro D; Silva, Tiago P; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Alves, Luís

2013-02-16

245

Regulation of sucrose to starch conversion in growing potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing potato tubers have been used as a model system to investigate the regulation of starch syn- thesis. Results indicate that sucrose degradation and starch synthesis are controlled via regulatory signals in response to sucrose and oxygen avail- ability. (i) Sucrose leads to a co-ordinated up-regu- lation of sucrose synthase and ADP-glucose phosphorylase at the transcriptional and post-tran- scriptional level.

Peter Geigenberger

2003-01-01

246

PCR Primers for identification of high sucrose Saccharum genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progeny of a cross between high sucrose sugarcane clone S. officinarum ‘Gungera’ and a low sucrose clone S. spontaneum ‘SES 603’ resulted in interspecific hybrids that were named as ISH-1 to ISH-29 and graded on the basis of sucrose content.\\u000a Hybrids ISH-1, ISH-5, ISH-17 and ISH-23 were selected as very high sucrose (65 to 100 mg\\/g tissue) genotypes, whereas

Vandana Vinayak; Ashok K. Dhawan; V. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

247

Bifunctional sucrose phosphate synthase/phosphatase is involved in the sucrose biosynthesis by Methylobacillus flagellatus KT.  

PubMed

The aerobic obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus KT was shown to synthesize sucrose in the presence of 0.5-2% NaCl in the growth medium. In the genome of this bacterium, an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a predicted 84-kD polypeptide homologous to the plant and cyanobacterial sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs) was found. Using heterologous expression of the putative sps gene in Escherichia coli, followed by affinity chromatography, pure recombinant protein SPS-His6 was obtained. The enzyme catalyzed two reactions: conversion of fructose 6-phosphate and UDP-glucose into sucrose 6-phosphate and hydrolysis of sucrose 6-phosphate to sucrose. The bifunctional sucrose phosphate synthase/phosphatase (SPS/SPP) was a 340 kDa homotetrameric Mg(2+) -dependent enzyme activated by fructose 1,6-phosphate2 and ATP but inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1-phosphate, AMP and inorganic phosphate. The amino acid sequence of the protein had a C-terminal domain homologous to SPPs. This correlated with the absence of the spp gene in the M. flagellatus chromosome. The ORFs homologous to the M. flagellatus SPS were found in the genomes of another obligate methylotroph Methylovorus glucosetrophus as well as the lithoautotrophic bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis whose genomes lacked the spp genes. Thus, data extending the knowledge of biochemical properties of bacterial SPSs have been obtained. PMID:23865613

But, Sergey Y; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Trotsenko, Yuri A

2013-08-12

248

Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength.  

PubMed Central

Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activities of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at 0 to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but not acid invertase, was found to be positively correlated with tomato fruit relative growth rate and with starch content in the pericarp tissue. A similar association between sucrose synthase activity and starch accumulation was also evident in the basal portion of the stem. Heat-shock treatments, which inhibited the increase in sucrose synthase activity at the beginning of the light period and had no effect on acid invertase activity, were used to examine the importance of sucrose synthase in relation to sucrose metabolism and starch synthesis. After the heat-shock treatment, concomitantly with the suppressed sucrose synthase activity relative to the controls, there was a reduction in sucrose cleavage and starch accumulation. These data substantiate the conclusion that, during the early phases of tomato fruit development, sucrose synthase rather than acid invertase is the dominant enzyme in metabolizing imported sucrose, which in turn plays a part in regulating the import of sucrose into the fruit.

Wang, F.; Sanz, A.; Brenner, M. L.; Smith, A.

1993-01-01

249

Sucrose and caloric intake by normal and diabetic monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-bottle 24-hr preference tests with monkeys were conducted with sucrose and sodium saccharine solutions. Both sapid solutions were accepted. Sucrose ingestion modified caloric intake but saccharine consumption did not. The response of 2 diabetic Ss to sucrose solutions was similar to that of 4 normal Ss. (23 ref.)

Owen Maller; C. L. Hamilton

1968-01-01

250

Sucrose Synthase, Starch Accumulation, and Tomato Fruit Sink Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrasting evidence has accumulated regarding the role of acid invertase and sucrose synthase in tomato fruit sink establishment and maintenance. In this work the relationships among the activi- ties of sucrose synthase and acid invertase, Lycopersicon esculen- tum Mil1 cv UC-82B fruit growth, and starch accumulation were analyzed in fruit at O to 39 d after anthesis. Sucrose synthase, but

Fei Wang; Alan Smith

251

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are derived from sucrose and edible tallow or hydrogenated edible tallow or edible vegetable oils. The only solvents which may be used in the preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters are...

2013-04-01

252

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

2008-01-01

253

High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density increase was shown to quickly saturate with cell mass attached on the electrode. Based on recent modelling data that suggested that the electrode currents might be limited by the poor electrical conductivity of the anode, the power density versus electrical conductivity of a yeast-immobilized anode was investigated. Introduction of high aspect ratio carbon fiber filaments to the immobilization matrix increased the electrical conductivity of the anode. Although a higher electrical conductivity clearly led to an increase in power densities, it was shown that the principal limitation to power density increase was coming from proton transfer limitations in the immobilized anode. Partial overcoming of the gradients lead a power density of ca. 250 microW cm-2, which is the highest reported for yeast powered MFCs. A yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cell was investigated as a power source for low power sensors using raw tree sap. It was shown that yeast can efficiently utilize the sucrose present in the raw tree sap to produce electricity when excess salt is added to the medium. Therefore the salinity of a potential energy source is an important consideration when MFCs are being considered for energy harvesting from natural sources.

Ganguli, Rahul

254

Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays  

PubMed Central

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil.

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

2012-01-01

255

Assessment of extracts from red yeast rice for herb-drug interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays.  

PubMed

Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions ("untreated" preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed ("treated" preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

2012-03-02

256

COMPARISON OF SUCROSE CATABOLISM IN ROOTS OF THREE BETA VULGARIS L. GENOTYPES WITH DIFFERENT YIELD AND SUCROSE ACCUMULATING CAPACITIES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose catabolism is a major determinant of sink strength in nearly all plants and affects sucrose partitioning to growing sinks as well as sink size and carbohydrate content. Three enzyme families are responsible for nearly all sucrose catabolism in sugarbeet roots: acid invertase, alkaline inve...

257

Sucrose–water mixture: From thermodynamics to solution structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the structure of sucrose–water mixture? I employ an exact statistical thermodynamic theory (Kirkwood–Buff theory) to calculate information regarding sucrose–water, water–water and sucrose–sucrose interactions solely from volumetric and osmometric data. We found that (i) Long-ranged hydration structure, beyond the first hydration shell, influences thermodynamics; (ii) The inferred minimum of the activity coefficient of water at the high sucrose concentration is due to the increases in the self association of water. These findings from a rigorous theory are consistent with previous simulation studies.

Shimizu, Seishi

2013-09-01

258

Identification of Actively Filling Sucrose Sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain actively filling plant sucrosesinkssuchas a seed, a tuber, ora rootcan beidentified bymeasuring theuridine di- phosphate andpyrophosphate-dependent metabolism ofsu- crose.Sucrolysis inbothactive andquiescent sucrosesinks was tested andsucrosesynthase was found to bethepredominant sucrosebreakdown activity. Sucrolysis viainvertases was low andsecondary inbothtypesofsinks. Sucrose synthase activity dropped markedly, greater thanfivefold, inquiescent sinks. The tests areconsistent withthehypothesis thatthesucrosefilling activity, i.e. thesinkstrength, oftheseplant sinks canbemeas- uredbytesting theuridine

Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dian-Peng Xu; C. C. Black

1989-01-01

259

Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose*  

PubMed Central

The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study, however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems.

Leinen, K.M.; Labuza, T.P.

2006-01-01

260

Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose.  

PubMed

The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study, however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems. PMID:16421962

Leinen, K M; Labuza, T P

2006-02-01

261

Sucrose Uptake by Sugar Beet Tap Root Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Sucrose uptake by discs of mature sugar beet root tissue incubated in [14C]-sucrose exhibited nonsaturating kinetics over the concentration range of 1 to 500 millimolar. Uptake was inhibited by dinitrophenol, sodium cyanide, low O2, and penetrating sulfhydryl inhibitors. ATPase inhibitors, sodium fluoride, and oligomycin reduced uptake by 20 and 40%, respectively. Uptake as asymmetrically labeled sucrose ([14C]glucose) occurred with approximately 80% retention of asymmetry, indicating a nonhydrolytic pathway. Uptake was against a concentration gradient and required metabolic energy. Glucose and fructose uptake exhibited typical saturation kinetics but rates of uptake were lower than that of sucrose, particularly at high concentration. Glucose strongly inhibited the uptake of sucrose and fructose but sucrose and fructose had little effect on the rate of glucose uptake. It is proposed that a major protion of the sucrose movement between its free space and vacuole occurs via a nonsaturating carrier at sites where the plasmalemma and tonoplast are appressed.

Wyse, Roger

1979-01-01

262

Yeast strains from Livingston Island, Antarctica.  

PubMed

Five yeast strains were isolated from soil and moss samples from the Livingston Island (Antarctica) and identified according to morphological cultural and physiological characteristics. All strains had an optimum growth temperature of 15 degrees C: none grew above 25 degrees C. They assimilated D-glucose, D-galactose, sucrose, cellobiose, trehalose, 2-keto-D-gluconate, D-xylose, D-ribose and melezitose. Four of them were nonfermentative, only one, which formed pseudomycelium fermented glucose, galactose, trehalose. Two strains were identified as pink-red yeasts belonging to genus Rhodotorula--R. minuta and R. mucilaginosa; two were related to the genus Cryptococcus--C. albidus and C. laurentii; one was Candida oleophila. PMID:11899471

Pavlova, K; Grigorova, D; Hristozova, T; Angelov, A

2001-01-01

263

Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with ³²P in the presence of (γ-³²P) ATP. In this in vitro system, ³²P incorporation into light-activated

J. L. A. Huber; S. C. Huber; T NIELSEN

1989-01-01

264

Refolding of denatured lysozyme by water-in-oil microemulsions of sucrose fatty acid esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-in-oil (w\\/o) microemulsion of sucrose fatty acid ester was used to renature denatured hen egg white lysozyme without\\u000a aggregation. After lysozyme was denatured in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride for 24 h, the resultant denatured lysozyme was held\\u000a in the microemulsion, overnight at 25°C. Renatured lysozyme was transferred from the microemulsion phase to the recovery aqueous\\u000a phase by conventional liquid-liquid extraction. The enzymatic

Hidetaka Noritomi; Tsubasa Takasugi; Satoru Kato

2008-01-01

265

Refolding of denatured lysozyme by water-in-oil microemulsions of sucrose fatty acid esters.  

PubMed

Water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion of sucrose fatty acid ester was used to renature denatured hen egg white lysozyme without aggregation. After lysozyme was denatured in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride for 24 h, the resultant denatured lysozyme was held in the microemulsion, overnight at 25 degrees C. Renatured lysozyme was transferred from the microemulsion phase to the recovery aqueous phase by conventional liquid-liquid extraction. The enzymatic activity of the recovered lysozyme was 93%. PMID:18066501

Noritomi, Hidetaka; Takasugi, Tsubasa; Kato, Satoru

2007-12-08

266

Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of sucrose monocaprate and sucrose monolaurate.  

PubMed

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) ionization of sucrose monocaprate and sucrose monolaurate in the presence of Na+ ions shows the formation of both [M+Na]+ and [M - H]- ions. The [M+Na]+ ions undergo charge-remote fragmentations when collisionally activated at high translational energy. These charge-remote fragmentations are useful for the structural determination of the acyclic part of the glycolipid. In the negative ion mode both sucrose esters yield anions which can be attributed to the saccharide and lipid components of these glycolipids. Structural characterization of the fatty acid can be achieved as the released carboxylate anions undergo charge-remote fragmentations that are consistent with the ion chemistry of [M - H]- anions from FAB-ionized free fatty acids. PMID:8507673

de Koster, C G; Pajarron, A M; Heerma, W; Haverkamp, J

1993-05-01

267

Yeast-Air Balloons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a yeast-air balloon to get a better idea of what yeast can do. Learners discover that the purpose of leaveners like yeast is to produce the gas that makes bread rise. Learners discover that as yeast feeds on sugar, it produces carbon dioxide which slowly fills the balloon.

Exploratorium, The

2012-03-10

268

A Feast for Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 6 of the PDF, learners investigate yeast. Learners prepare an experiment to observe what yeast cells like to eat. Learners feed the yeast cells various ingredients in plain bread--water, flour, sugar, and salt--to discover yeast's favorite food.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

269

Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.  

PubMed

The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 degrees C). After the mutant was grown in the yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over 61% of the total protein could be released from the cells treated at 37 degrees C. The mutant cells grown in the yacon extract still contained high level of essential amino acids and other nutrients. This means that the yacon extract could be used as the medium for growth of the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant which contained high content of crude protein. PMID:19727833

Zhao, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Tong; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Hong

2009-09-01

270

Sugar Content and Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Milled Rice Grain  

PubMed Central

Most rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in the United States were selected for endosperm starch properties and not soluble sugar content. The minor pool of soluble sugar may affect the qualities of rice as a food. Some cultivar variation in soluble sugar content was detected in milled grain, essentially the starchy endosperm, of long grain varieties. Milled grain of cultivars Lemont and Texmati had a soluble sugar content of 0.21 and 0.35% (w/w), respectively, on a fresh weight basis. The dorsal portion of the milled grain contained the greatest amount of soluble sugar, approximately tenfold the amount found in the central core of the grain. Extracts of the milled grain contained sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) activities, which were separated by anion exchange chromatography. The presence of sucrose-phosphate synthase in the rice endosperm suggested a mechanism for sucrose accumulation which might be involved in carbon partitioning during grain development. Images Figure 3

Smyth, Douglas A.; Prescott, Henry E.

1989-01-01

271

Fermentation Studies on Extracts of Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Strain CFCC 8 fermented 10% w/v sucrose-equivalent fodd...

J. M. Smith

1983-01-01

272

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

273

PFGSE–NMR study of the self-diffusion of sucrose fatty acid monoesters in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micellization of pure monosubstituted sucrose fatty acid esters in water, namely sucrose octanoate, sucrose decanoate, sucrose laurate, sucrose dodec-5-cis-enoate, sucrose myristate, and sucrose palmitate, has been investigated by means of two NMR methods, pulsed field gradient spin-echo NMR (PFGSE–NMR), giving access to the self-diffusion coefficients of free molecules and micelles in solution, and the ERETIC method (electronic reference to

Valérie Molinier; Bernard Fenet; Juliette Fitremann; Alain Bouchu; Yves Queneau

2005-01-01

274

Sucrose application causes hormonal changes associated with potato tuber induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stems of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dianella) were immersed in solutions containing water (control), sucrose, glucose, paclobutrazol, and gibberellic\\u000a acid. The effects of these treatments on the ethylene release, levels of endogenous gibberellins, glucose, sucrose, and starch\\u000a were correlated with tuberization of nodal cuttings, excised from potato stems. Paclobutrazol and sucrose improved the percent\\u000a of tuberization and\\/or increased

Ivan Šimko

1994-01-01

275

Improved synthesis of sucrose fatty acid monoesters under ultrasonic irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose fatty acid esters were synthesized by the transesterification of sucrose with aliphatic esters under ultrasound irradiation in good yield (?73%). The optimum reaction conditions for the transesterification reaction include a molar ratio of sucrose to fatty acid ethyl ester of 2:1 and the use of a 13%mol anhydrous K2CO3 catalyst. The optimum reaction temperature was set at 70°C, the

Dan Huang; Xue Jiang; Hao Zhu; Xiaorong Fu; Kangrong Zhong; Weidong Gao

2010-01-01

276

Sucrose ester nanodispersions: microviscosity and viscoelastic properties.  

PubMed

Sucrose esters have the potential to enhance both drug solubility and drug absorption. They are therefore alternatives to the widely used glycerides in the formulation of lipid-based drug delivery systems. A simple production of aqueous nanosized drug carrier systems consisting of amphiphilic sucrose fatty acid esters using exclusively nontoxic materials has been achieved. By only using 2 wt% of the emulsifier a high viscosity of the sample could be reached. Diverse history of fabrication led to the differences in the macroviscosity of SE dispersions with equal chemical composition. Combining the well-established oscillating rheology with the electron paramagnetic resonance technique, three orders of magnitude difference in macroviscosity between the dispersions containing 2 wt% of the amphiphilic SE were obtained, whereas the viscosities at the molecular level were all close to the viscosity of water. Viscoelastic behaviour could also be shown for these systems. TEM experiments visualized coexisting irregular micelles and lamellar structures in the SE dispersions. The results are important to understand the complex LDDS based on amphiphilic SE. PMID:18588974

Ullrich, Sebastian; Metz, Hendrik; Mäder, Karsten

2008-06-06

277

Amino acid supplementation reveals differential regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 and Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 143  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose medium were compared to yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with several common amino acids. Yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan was found to significantly reduce...

278

Inhibition by Natural Dietary Substances of Gastrointestinal Absorption of Starch and Sucrose in Rats and Pigs: 1. Acute Studies  

PubMed Central

Rapid gastrointestinal absorption of refined carbohydrates (CHO) is linked to perturbed glucose-insulin metabolism that is, in turn, associated with many chronic health disorders. We assessed the ability of various natural substances, commonly referred to as “CHO blockers,” to influence starch and sucrose absorption in vivo in ninety-six rats and two pigs. These natural enzyme inhibitors of amylase/sucrase reportedly lessen breakdown of starches and sucrose in the gastrointestinal tract, limiting their absorption. To estimate absorption, groups of nine SD rats were gavaged with water or water plus rice starch and/or sucrose; and circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals thereafter. For each variation in the protocol a total of at least nine different rats were studied with an equal number of internal controls on three different occasions. The pigs rapidly drank CHO and inhibitors in their drinking water. In rats, glucose elevations above baseline over four hours following rice starch challenge as estimated by area-under-curve (AUC) were 40%, 27%, and 85% of their internal control after ingesting bean extract, hibiscus extract, and l-arabinose respectively in addition to the rice starch. The former two were significantly different from control. L-Arabinose virtually eliminated the rising circulating glucose levels after sucrose challenge, whereas hibiscus and bean extracts were associated with lesser decreases than l-arabinose that were still significantly lower than control. The glucose elevations above baseline over four hours in rats receiving sucrose (AUC) were 51%, 43% and 2% of control for bean extract, hibiscus extract, and L-arabinose, respectively. Evidence for dose-response of bean and hibiscus extracts is reported. Giving the natural substances minus CHO challenge caused no significant changes in circulating glucose concentrations, indicating no major effects on overall metabolism. A formula combining these natural products significantly decreased both starch and sucrose absorption, even when the CHO were given simultaneously. These results support the hypothesis that the enzyme inhibitors examined here at reasonable doses can safely lower the glycemic loads starch and sucrose.

Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

2007-01-01

279

Comparison of melibiose utilizing baker's yeast strains produced by genetic engineering and classical breeding.  

PubMed

Yeast strains currently used in the baking industry cannot fully utilize the trisaccharide raffinose found in beet molasses due to the absence of melibiase (alpha-galactosidase) activity. To overcome this deficiency, the MEL1 gene encoding melibiase enzyme was introduced into baker's yeast by both classical breeding and recombinant DNA technology. Both types of yeast strains were capable of vigorous fermentation in the presence of high levels of sucrose, making them suitable for the rapidly developing Asian markets where high levels of sugar are used in bread manufacture. Melibiase expression appeared to be dosage-dependent, with relatively low expression sufficient for complete melibiose utilization in a model fermentation system. PMID:10063644

Vincent, S F; Bell, P J; Bissinger, P; Nevalainen, K M

1999-02-01

280

Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Acid Invertase as Determinants of Sucrose Concentration in Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits 1  

PubMed Central

Fruits of orange-fleshed and green-fleshed muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different times throughout development to evaluate changes in metabolism which lead to sucrose accumulation, and to determine the basis of differences in fruit sucrose accumulation among genotypes. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose saccharides, hexoses and starch, as well as activities of the sucrose metabolizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and acid and neutral invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) were measured. Sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities were relatively low (1.7 ± 0.3 micromole per hour per gram fresh weight and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively) and changed little throughout fruit development. Acid invertase activity decreased during fruit development, (from as high as 40 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) in unripe fruit, to undetectable activity in mature, ripened fruits, while SPS activity in the fruit increased (from 7 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) to as high as 32 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight. Genotypes which accumulated different amounts of sucrose had similar acid invertase activity but differed in SPS activity. Our results indicate that both acid invertase and SPS are determinants of sucrose accumulation in melon fruit. However, the decline in acid invertase appears to be a normal function of fruit maturation, and is not the primary factor which determines sucrose accumulation. Rather, the capacity for sucrose synthesis, reflected in the activity of SPS, appears to determine sucrose accumulation, which is an important component of fruit quality.

Hubbard, Natalie L.; Huber, Steven C.; Pharr, D. Mason

1989-01-01

281

Comparison of Yeast Growth in Mesquite Wood Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Hot-water extracts of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) wood were assayed for their total carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and glucose content. These hydrolysates were then used as complete media for yeast growth. A total of 10 strains of yeasts were evaluated for their biomass production in the mesquite wood hydrolysates. Levels of utilizable carbohydrate proved to be the limiting factor for yeast growth in the hydrolysates.

Stanlake, Gary J.

1986-01-01

282

Transport and Sorting of the Solanum tuberosum Sucrose Transporter SUT1 Is Affected by Posttranslational Modification[W  

PubMed Central

The plant sucrose transporter SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose transport activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of redox reagents. Redox-dependent sucrose transport activity was confirmed electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes with SUT1 from maize (Zea mays). Localization studies of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that an oxidative environment increased the targeting of SUT1 to the plasma membrane where the protein concentrates in 200- to 300-nm raft-like microdomains. Using plant plasma membranes, St SUT1 can be detected in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Importantly, in yeast and in plants, oxidative reagents induced a shift in the monomer to dimer equilibrium of the St SUT1 protein and increased the fraction of dimer. Biochemical methods confirmed the capacity of SUT1 to form a dimer in plants and yeast cells in a redox-dependent manner. Blue native PAGE, chemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, as well as the analysis of transgenic plants with reduced expression of St SUT1, confirmed the dimerization of St SUT1 and Sl SUT1 (from Solanum lycopersicum) in planta. The ability to form homodimers in plant cells was analyzed by the split yellow fluorescent protein technique in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and protoplasts. Oligomerization seems to be cell type specific since under native-like conditions, a phloem-specific reduction of the dimeric form of the St SUT1 protein was detectable in SUT1 antisense plants, whereas constitutively inhibited antisense plants showed reduction only of the monomeric form. The role of redox control of sucrose transport in plants is discussed.

Krugel, Undine; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Langbein, Jennifer; Wiederhold, Elena; Liesche, Johannes; Friedrich, Thomas; Grimm, Bernhard; Martinoia, Enrico; Poolman, Bert; Kuhn, Christina

2008-01-01

283

Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation  

SciTech Connect

After pulse labeling of a source leaf with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of /sup 14/C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of /sup 14/C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced (/sup 14/C)sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved.

Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

1986-06-01

284

Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm  

PubMed Central

Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice) than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening) culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's) than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81%) recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis) and primarily through a path that includes an apoplasmic step. In contrast, much of the sucrose is transferred through a symplasmic path in growing internode (axillary branch) tissue. These results contrast with the probable symplasmic path in mature culm of the closely related species, sugarcane. Phylogenetic variability exists in the compartmental path of radial transfer of sucrose in culms of the andropogonoid grasses.

Tarpley, Lee; Vietor, Donald M

2007-01-01

285

Biosynthesis of Levan, a Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharide, in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (?suc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both ?suc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast. PMID:24147008

Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A; Tai, Siew L; Bauer, Florian F

2013-10-11

286

Biosynthesis of Levan, a Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharide, in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially important polymers, referred to as fructans, which are used as a source of prebiotic fibre. For levan, specifically, this market remains untapped, since no viable production strategy has been established. Synthesis of levan is catalysed by a group of enzymes, referred to as levansucrases, using sucrose as substrate. Heterologous expression of levansucrases has been notoriously difficult to achieve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a strategy, this study used an invertase (?suc2) null mutant and two separate, engineered, sucrose accumulating yeast strains as hosts for the expression of the levansucrase M1FT, previously cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Intracellular sucrose accumulation was achieved either by expression of a sucrose synthase (Susy) from potato or the spinach sucrose transporter (SUT). The data indicate that in both ?suc2 and the sucrose accumulating strains, the M1FT was able to catalyse fructose polymerisation. In the absence of the predicted M1FT secretion signal, intracellular levan accumulation was significantly enhanced for both sucrose accumulation strains, when grown on minimal media. Interestingly, co-expression of M1FT and SUT resulted in hyper-production and extracellular build-up of levan when grown in rich medium containing sucrose. This study presents the first report of levan production in S. cerevisiae and opens potential avenues for the production of levan using this well established industrial microbe. Furthermore, the work provides interesting perspectives when considering the heterologous expression of sugar polymerizing enzymes in yeast.

Franken, Jaco; Brandt, Bianca A.; Tai, Siew L.; Bauer, Florian F.

2013-01-01

287

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... infection is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys don't get vaginal yeast infections, ...

288

Preparation and performance of immobilized yeast cells in columns containing no inert carrier. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizosaccharomyes pombe was cultivated in a medium of glucose (10 g\\/l), malt extract (3 g\\/l), yeast extract (3 g\\/l), and bactopeptone (5 g\\/l) to form flocs. More than 95% of the cell population were flocculated. Variation in glucose concentration (from 10 to 11 g\\/l) did not affect flocculation. Yeast extract helped induce flocculation. Application of the immobilized yeast for the

H. Y. Hsiao; L. C. Chiang; C. M. Yang; L. F. Chen; G. T. Tsao

1983-01-01

289

Effects of sucrose and urea on soy hull pectic polysaccharide gel induced by D-glucono-1,5-lactone.  

PubMed

Gelation properties of pectic polysaccharide extracted with ammonium oxalate from soybean hulls assisted by microwave were seldom studied. Water mobility in soy hull pectic polysaccharide (SHPP) was firstly studied by low field NMR. D-Glucono-1,5-lactone (GDL) and sucrose both could decrease spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of SHPP solutions which indicated the SHPP network formed. Rheological analysis conformed that SHPP gel was formed induced by GDL and enhanced by sucrose. Urea can increase T2 and collapse the network of SHPP. TGA was used to draw the profiles of water desorption from SHPP solutions or gels, during heating at a controlled rate. It was found that sucrose increased the bound water content and urea acted a conversely role. Hydrogen bond is the main force to maintain SHPP gel network. PMID:23987379

Liu, He; Li, Qinghua; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jun; Liu, Junshan; Geng, Ping; He, Yutang

2013-06-29

290

SUGARBEET SUCROSE SYNTHASE GENE EXPRESSION IS ORGAN-SPECIFIC, DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED, AND AFFECTED BY ABIOTIC STRESSES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase is the predominant sucrose degrading activity in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root and is believed to have roles in carbohydrate partitioning to the root during production and sucrose loss during storage. Two genes, sugarbeet sucrose synthase 1 (SBSS1) and sugarbeet sucrose synthas...

291

Labdanes and sucrose esters from Physalis sordida.  

PubMed

Eight new compounds, labdanes 2-4, homoergostane 10, and sucrose esters 12-15, were isolated from aerial parts of Physalis sordida together with several known compounds. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic evidence and chemical transformations. The structure of 10 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of its methyl ester. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 12-15 was evaluated using the TPA-induced mouse ear edema test. Compounds 12 (IC(50) 0.26 mumol/ear) and 15 (IC(50) 0.24 mumol/ear) showed anti-inflammatory activity similar to that of indomethacin (IC(50) 0.24 mumol/ear). PMID:20575572

Pérez-Castorena, Ana-L; Martínez, Mahinda; Maldonado, Emma

2010-07-23

292

Yeast Infection during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Yeast infection during pregnancy: Are over-the-counter treatments ...

293

Yeast Infection (Vaginal)  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection (vaginal) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/yeast-infection/DS01182 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing ...

294

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

295

Yeast Based Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

296

Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used molecular dynamics simulations to determine the sucrose hydrogen bond network (HBN) in amorphous sucrose with 0–50% w\\/w water. We find that the onset of a percolated sugar HBN network (between 33% and 40%) coincides with the experimental observation of the decoupling of viscosity and probe diffusion for these mixtures. The analysis of the free volume (FV) in these

Valeria Molinero; Tahir Ça??n; William A. Goddard III

2003-01-01

297

Effects of enzyme concentration on oligofructan synthesis from sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low concentrations of partially purified fructosyltransferase, only trisaccharide products were detected. At higher enzyme concentrations, larger oligofructans were detected. Depending upon enzyme concentration, the results indicated either sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase activity exclusively, or a more complex fructan polymerizing system. Consequences for the interpretation of fructosyltransferase data are discussed.

Andrew J. Cairns

1995-01-01

298

Iron sucrose: The oldest iron therapy becomes new  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parenteral iron preparations are now available. This article focuses on iron sucrose, a hematinic, used more widely than any other for more than five decades, chiefly in Europe and now available in North America. Iron sucrose has an average molecular weight of 34 to 60 kd, and after intravenous (IV) administration, it distributes into a volume equal to that

Jerry Yee; Anatole Besarab

2002-01-01

299

Sucrose Control of Phytochrome A Signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of the Arabidopsis plastocyanin (PC) gene is developmentally controlled and regulated by light. During seedling development, PC gene expression is transiently induced, and this induction can be repressed by sucrose. In transgenic seedlings carrying a PC promoter-luciferase fusion gene, the luciferase-induced in vivo luminescence was similarly repressed by sucrose. From a mutagenized population of such transgenic seedlings, we

Paul P. Dijkwel; Peter J. Weisbeek; Nam-Hai Chua; Sjef C. M. Smeekensag

1997-01-01

300

Novel sucrose transposons from plant strains of Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from vegetable products transferred the ability to ferment sucrose in conjugation experiments with the recipient strain L. lactis MG1614. Nisin production and sucrose fermentation were transferred together from two strains, but transfer also occurred from several other strains which did not produce nisin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that all transconjugants had acquired large chromosomal insertions

William J. Kelly; Graham P. Davey; Lawrence J. H. Ward

2000-01-01

301

Sucrose Metabolism in Netted Muskmelon Fruit during Development  

PubMed Central

Sugar content and composition are major criteria used in judging the quality of netted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus) fruit. Sugar composition and four enzymes of sucrose metabolism were determined in `Magnum 45' muskmelon fruit at 10-day intervals beginning 10 days after pollination (DAP) until full-slip (35 DAP). Sugar content increased in both outer (green) mesocarp and inner (orange) mesocarp between 20 and 30 DAP. The major proportion of total increase in sugar was attributed to sucrose accumulation. The large increase in sucrose relative to glucose and fructose was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in acid invertase activity, which was highest in both tissues at 10 and 20 DAP, and increases in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase activities. The green tissue had a lower proportion of total sugar as sucrose, greater invertase activity, and less SPS activity than the orange tissue. Changes in relative sucrose content were highly correlated with changes in enzyme activity. The results strongly suggest that increases in the proportion of sucrose found in melon fruit were associated with a decline in acid invertase activity and an increase in SPS activity approximately 10 days before full-slip. Therefore, these enzymes apparently play a key role in determining sugar composition and the quality of muskmelon fruit.

Lingle, Sarah E.; Dunlap, James R.

1987-01-01

302

A decomposition study of the EPR spectrum of irradiated sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the EPR spectra of irradiated sugars are very complex because of their multicomponent character. In this study we applied a multivariate statistical method called MLCFA, maximum likelihood common factor analysis, and it predicted at least six components contributing to the total EPR spectrum of irradiated sucrose. Three dominant components have already been isolated in an irradiated sucrose single

G. Vanhaelewyn; J. Sadlo; F. Callens; W. Mondelaers; D. De Frenne; P. Matthys

2000-01-01

303

Lager brewing yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lager brewing yeast is a group of closely related strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus\\/S. carlsbergensis used for lager beer production all over the world, making it one of the most important industrial yeasts. The pure cultivation\\u000a of yeast was established in the early 1880’s with immediate practical success for lager brewing yeast. However, almost a century\\u000a would elapse before its genetics

Yukiko Kodama; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jørgen Hansen

304

How does sucrose stabilize the native state of globular proteins?  

PubMed

It is well known that sucrose stabilizes the native state of globular proteins against both chemical denaturants and temperature. A largely accepted explanation of sucrose-induced stabilization is not yet emerged. It is shown that the same theoretical approach able to rationalize the occurrence of cold denaturation, the contrasting role of GdmCl and Gdm(2)SO(4), and the TMAO counteraction of urea denaturing activity [PCCP 12 (2010) 14245; PCCP 13 (2011) 12008; PCCP 13 (2011) 17689] works well also in the case of sucrose. The solvent-excluded volume effect plays the fundamental role because sucrose addition to water causes a marked increase in volume packing density due to the large size of sucrose molecules, that act as crowding agents. PMID:22085755

Graziano, Giuseppe

2011-11-06

305

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and responding for sucrose reward.  

PubMed

Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) lesions in rodents lead to increased sucrose consumption, but the psychological deficit behind this remains uncertain. To understand better the relationship between consumption of, and motivation for, sucrose, the authors trained rats to traverse a runway for 20% or 4% sucrose solution; after 7 days, concentrations were reversed. Control rats consumed more 20% than 4% sucrose solution and promptly altered run times in response to concentration change. PPTg-lesioned rats consumed normal quantities of 4% but more 20% sucrose solution than controls and took longer to alter their runway time following the concentration change. These data suggest that lesions of the PPTg do not alter motivation per se and might be better understood as inducing a response selection deficit. PMID:16768608

Ainge, James A; Keating, Glenda L; Latimer, Mary P; Winn, Philip

2006-06-01

306

[Yeasts contaminating salmon roe].  

PubMed

Quantitative and species compositions of yeast contaminating eggs, fry and fingerlings of Salmo gairdneri Rich under artificial breeding have been studied. Prevalence of species of genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus and Debaryomyces is noted. Yeast isolated from perished eggs and sick fry do not possess pathogenic properties. Certain strains of yeast make stimulating effect on the studied microorganisms. PMID:8983527

Nagornaia, S S; Ignatova, E A; Isaeva, N M; Davydov, O N; Podgorski?, V S

307

Sucrose helps regulate cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

A test was carried out to see if sucrose could regulate cold-acclimation-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis. In plants and excised leaves, sucrose caused an increase in GUS activity, as a reporter for the activity of the cold-responsive COR78 promoter. This increase was transient at 21 °C but lasted for at least 4 d at 4 °C in continuous darkness. However, at 4 °C with a 16 h photoperiod, GUS activity was similarly high with solutions lacking sucrose or with different concentrations of sucrose. In peeled lower epidermis in the cold dark environment, 40 mM sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance to substantially above that in the controls, but sorbitol had no effect. Similarly to the cold and dark conditions, sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance in the epidermis in the warm light and warm dark environments, but not in a cold light environment. Sucrose had much less effect on COR78 transcript abundance in leaves without the lower epidermis. Thus sucrose regulates expression of COR78, possibly mainly in the epidermis, at the level of transcription. Furthermore, 40 mM sucrose at 4 °C for 24 h in constant darkness was sufficient to give the same GUS activity as in fully acclimated plants of the same age in a 16 h photoperiod, although by 48 h, GUS activity had become intermediate between control and fully cold-acclimated plants. Thus sucrose has a regulatory role in the acclimation of whole plants to cold and this may be important during diurnal dark periods.

Rekarte-Cowie, Iona; Ebshish, Omar S.; Mohamed, Khalifa S.; Pearce, Roger S.

2008-01-01

308

Multisite phosphorylation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase  

SciTech Connect

Spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase is phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro on serine residues. Phosphorylation of SPS in vivo yields twelve major phosphopeptides after a tryptic digest and two dimensional mapping. The in vivo labeling of three of these SPS P-peptides is reduced in illuminated leaves where the extracted enzyme is activated relative to that of dark leaves. Two of these inhibitory sites are phosphorylated as well when SPS is inactivated in vitro using ({sup 32}P)ATP. In vivo phosphorylation of two other sites is enhanced during mannose feeding of the leaves (in light or dark) which produces the highest activation state of SPS. Overall, the results confirm that light-dark regulation of SPS activity occurs as a result of regulatory seryl-phosphorylation and involves a balance between phosphorylation of sites which inhibit or stimulate activity. Regulation of the SPS protein kinase that inhibits activity is relatively unaffected by phosphate but inhibited by G1c 6-P (IC{sub 50}{approx}5 mM), which may explain the control of SPS activation state by light-dark signals.

Huber, J.L.; Huber, S.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1990-05-01

309

A high-performance liquid chromatography-based radiometric assay for sucrose-phosphate synthase and other UDP-glucose requiring enzymes  

SciTech Connect

A method for product analysis that eliminates a problematic step in the radiometric sucrose-phosphate synthase assay is described. The method uses chromatography on a boronate-derivatized high-performance liquid chromatography column to separate the labeled product, (14C)sucrose phosphate, from unreacted uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate-(14C)glucose (UDP-Glc). Direct separation of these compounds eliminates the need for treatment of the reaction mixtures with alkaline phosphatase, thereby avoiding the problem of high background caused by contaminating phosphodiesterase activity in alkaline phosphatase preparations. The method presented in this paper can be applied to many UDP-Glc requiring enzymes; here the authors show its use for determining the activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in plant extracts.

Salvucci, M.E.; Crafts-Brandner, S.J. (University of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1991-05-01

310

Comparison of ten media for the enumeration of yeasts in dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten selective mycological media were evaluated for their suitability to enumerate yeasts in six different dairy products. Although variability was observed in counts obtained for individual dairy products, no significant overall differences (p > 0.05) were observed among the 10 selective plating media. Antibiotic-supplemented media such as oxytetracycline glucose yeast agar (OGY), yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGC), rose bengal

J. J. Welthagen; B. C. Viljoen

1997-01-01

311

77 FR 18827 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose Injection; Availability AGENCY: Food...Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose.'' The recommendations provide specific...new drug applications (ANDAs) for iron sucrose injection. DATES: Although you can...

2012-03-28

312

40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...tolerance is established for residues of sucrose octanoate esters...

2009-07-01

313

40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...tolerance is established for residues of sucrose octanoate esters...

2010-07-01

314

40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...tolerance is established for residues of sucrose octanoate esters...

2012-07-01

315

40 CFR 180.1222 - Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1222 Sucrose octanoate esters; exemption from the...tolerance is established for residues of sucrose octanoate esters...

2011-07-01

316

Prions in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-? aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions.

Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

2012-01-01

317

Genetic Engineering of Yeasts for Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol. Progress Report, April 1-October 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report summarizes research on expression of xylose isomerase protein in S. cerevisiae, aggregation of xylose isomerase in yeast extracts, solubilization of yeast-made xylose isomerase, and disulfide bond content compared to the E. coli enzym...

1985-01-01

318

GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS profiling of sucrose esters from Nicotiana tabacum and N. rustica.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied for the first time to the analysis of the sucrose esters from the surface of Nicotiana L. leaves. The profiles obtained for the model plant N. tabacum were similar to those from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. The most reproducible results were obtained using a dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. The main advantage of this method is that crude plant extracts can be analysed without sample clean-up. GC-MS analysis of Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) extracts revealed the presence of three types of sucrose esters. All identified compounds had three C4-C8 acyl chains substituting the glucose moiety, while the fructose part of the molecule was substituted with 0, 1, or 2 acetyl groups. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the sucrose ester fraction revealed the presence of compounds not eluting from a GC column. Combining the data from both GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS experiments, we obtained a full sucrose ester profile, which is based on the molecular weight of the compounds and on the number of acyl chains in the molecule. PMID:23923618

Hali?ski, ?ukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

319

Long Distance Translocation of Sucrose, Serine, Leucine, Lysine, and Carbon Dioxide Assimilates  

PubMed Central

To determine the selectivity of movement of amino acids from source leaves to sink tissues in soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. `Wells'), 14C-labeled serine, leucine, or lysine was applied to an abraded spot on a fully expanded trifoliolate leaflet, and an immature sink leaf three nodes above was monitored with a GM tube for arrival of radioactivity. Comparisons were made with 14C-sucrose and 14CO2 assimilates. Radioactivity was detected in the sink leaf for all compounds applied to the source leaflet. A heat girdle at the source leaf petiole essentially blocked movement of applied compounds, suggesting phloem transport. Transport velocities were similar (ranged from 0.75 to 1.06 cm/min), but mass transfer rates for sucrose were much higher than those for amino acids. Hence, the quantity of amino acids entering the phloem was much smaller than that of sucrose. Extraction of source, path, and sink tissues at the conclusion of the experiments revealed that 80 to 90% of the radioactivity remained in the source leaflet. Serine was partially metabolized in the transport path, whereas lysine and leucine were not. Although serine is found in greater quantities than leucine and lysine in the source leaf and path of soybeans, applied leucine and lysine were transported at comparable velocities and in only slightly lower quantities than was applied serine. Thus, no selective barrier against entry of these amino acids into the phloem exists.

Housley, Thomas L.; Peterson, David M.; Schrader, Larry E.

1977-01-01

320

Isolation and characterization of ethanol tolerant yeast strains  

PubMed Central

Yeast strains are commonly associated with sugar rich environments. Various fruit samples were selected as source for isolating yeast cells. The isolated cultures were identified at Genus level by colony morphology, biochemical characteristics and cell morphological characters. An attempt has been made to check the viability of yeast cells under different concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol tolerance of each strain was studied by allowing the yeast to grow in liquid YEPD (Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose) medium having different concentrations of ethanol. A total of fifteen yeast strains isolated from different samples were used for the study. Seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from different fruit sources were screened for ethanol tolerance. The results obtained in this study show a range of tolerance levels between 7%-12% in all the stains. Further, the cluster analysis based on 22 RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) bands revealed polymorphisms in these seven Saccharomyces strains.

Tikka, Chiranjeevi; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Atluri, Navya; Raghavulu, Praveen Chakravarthi Veera; yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Mannur, Ismail Shaik; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Aluru, Sudheer; K, Narasimha Varma; Bhaskar, Matcha

2013-01-01

321

Temperature-dependent dimorphism of the yeast Arxula adeninivorans Ls3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arxula adeninivorans Ls3 is described as an ascomycetous, arthroconidial, anamorphic, xerotolerant yeast, which was selected from wood hydrolysates in Siberia. By using minimal salt medium or yeast-extract-peptone-medium with glucose or maltose as carbon source it was shown that this yeast is able to grow at up to 48° C. Increasing temperatures induce changes in morphology from the yeast phase to

Thomas Wartmann; Annette Kriager; Klaus Adler; Bui Minh Duc; Irene Kunze; Gotthard Kunze

1995-01-01

322

High performance liquid chromatographic separation of sucrose fatty acid esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of sucrose fatty acid esters always results in complex mixtures. Two procedures for quantitative analysis of\\u000a sucrose monoesters, respectively sucrose diesters, by means of high performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns,\\u000a are described. A mixture of methanol and water (85:15, v\\/v) was used for the separation of the monoesters, while methanol,\\u000a ethyl acetate and water (65:25:10, v\\/v\\/v) was

M. E. A. P. Jaspers; F. F. van Leeuwen; H. J. W. Nieuwenhuis; G. M. Vianen

1987-01-01

323

Enhancement of [14C]Sucrose Export from Source Leaves of Vicia faba by Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on sucrose export from source leaves was studied in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants trimmed of all but one source and one sink leaf. GA3 (10 micromolar) applied to the source leaf, enhanced export of [14C]sucrose (generated by 14CO2 fixation) to the root and to the sink leaf. Enhanced export was observed with GA treatments as short as 35 minutes. When GA3 was applied 24 hours prior to the 14CO2 pulse, the enhancement of sucrose transport toward the root was abolished but transport toward the upper sink leaf was unchanged. The enhanced sucrose export was not due to increased photosynthetic rate or to changes in the starch/sucrose ratio within the source leaf; rather, GA3 increased the proportion of sucrose exported. After a 10-min exposure to [14C]GA3, radioactivity was found only in the source leaf. Following a 2 hour exposure to [14C]GA3, radioactivity was distributed along the entire stem and was present in both the roots and sink leaf. Extraction and partitioning of GA metabolites by thin layer chromatography indicated that there was a decline in [14C]GA3 in the lower stem and root, but not in the upper stem. This pattern of metabolism is consistent with the disappearance of the GA3 effect in the lower stem with time after treatment. We conclude that in the short term, GA3 enhances assimilate export from source leaves by increasing phloem loading. In the long term (24 hours), the effect of GA3 is outside the source leaf. GA3 accumulates in the apical region resulting in enhanced growth and thus greater sink strength. Conversely, GA3 is rapidly metabolized in the lower stem thus attenuating any GA effect.

Aloni, Beny; Daie, Jaleh; Wyse, Roger E.

1986-01-01

324

Effect of vanadate on proton-sucrose cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons  

SciTech Connect

The effects of orthovanadate on the uptake of sucrose by Ricinus cotyledons and on sucrose-coupled proton influx were measured in order to gain insight into the relationship to the plasma membrane proton pump. Vanadate had no effect on short-term sucrose uptake. In long-term experiments (> 30 min) sucrose uptake was progressively inhibited, but only at high external sucrose concentrations. Vanadate did not affect proton efflux pumping in the absence of sucrose and neither did it change the initial rate of sucrose-coupled proton influx. However, it enhanced the maximal level of sucrose-induced alkalization of the medium at all sucrose concentrations tested. This is interpreted as an inhibiting effect of vanadate on the proton pump that recycles protons during sucrose-proton cotransport. The sensitivity towards vanadate indicates that this proton pump is an ATPase. A second proton-translocating system, that is insensitive to vanadate, is postulated to function in the absence of sucrose.

Vreugdenhil, D.; Spanswick, R.M.

1987-07-01

325

Abstinence-dependent transfer of lithium chloride-induced sucrose aversion to a sucrose-paired cue in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Responding for a drug- or sucrose-paired cue increases over forced abstinence (incubation of craving). If the incentive value of a cue depends on the incentive value of the primary reward, devaluing the primary reward should reduce cue reactivity. Objectives We investigated whether conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to sucrose would transfer to a sucrose-paired cue after 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence and whether CTA after 1 day of forced abstinence would affect incubation of craving. Materials and methods Rats self-administered 10% sucrose paired with a tone + light cue for 10 days. After 1 (Exp.1) or 30 (Exp.2) days of forced abstinence, rats received two home-cage pairings of sucrose with either LiCl (65 mg/kg, IP) to produce CTA or saline as a control. Two days later, rats responded for the cue alone. The following day, sucrose consumption was assessed in the same operant conditioning chamber. Exp.1 rats were tested again 1 month later to determine if CTA would affect incubation of craving. Results Exp.1: CTA after 1 day of forced abstinence did not attenuate cue reactivity when tested immediately after CTA, nor did the treatment affect incubation of craving or incubation of sucrose consumption. Exp.2: CTA after 1 month of forced abstinence resulted in a significant reduction in cue reactivity. Conclusion The incentive values of sucrose and the conditioned representation of sucrose increase over an extended period of forced abstinence. This incubation appears to facilitate the transfer of an aversion to the primary reward to the conditioned cue.

Harkness, John H.; Webb, Sierra

2010-01-01

326

21-135S024 Iron sucrose Clinpharm PREA  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Generic Name: Iron Sucrose Injection, USP Formulation: 20 mg/mL sterile solution for injection OCP Reviewers: Bahru A Habtemariam, Pharm.D ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

327

Effect of Fire-Extinguishing Agents on Combustion of Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sucrose and cellulose are both carbohydrates of basically similar composition, the very materials which have been found to be most effective in preventing flaming combustion of cellulose are also effective in causing sugar cubes to support flame.

A. Broido

1961-01-01

328

Improved synthesis of sucrose fatty acid monoesters under ultrasonic irradiation.  

PubMed

Sucrose fatty acid esters were synthesized by the transesterification of sucrose with aliphatic esters under ultrasound irradiation in good yield (73%). The optimum reaction conditions for the transesterification reaction include a molar ratio of sucrose to fatty acid ethyl ester of 2:1 and the use of a 13%mol anhydrous K(2)CO(3) catalyst. The optimum reaction temperature was set at 70 degrees C, the optimum reaction time was 2h, and the optimum reaction pressure was 11kPa. The reaction had excellent monoester selectivity. The proportion of monoester (6-monoester+6'-monoester) in the purified products was up to 92-95% via flash column chromatography over silica gel, the ratios of 6-monoester/6'-monoester are 2.1-2.7, and the sucrose monoesters were identified by HPLC-MS, NMR and IR. PMID:19819179

Huang, Dan; Jiang, Xue; Zhu, Hao; Fu, Xiaorong; Zhong, Kangrong; Gao, Weidong

2009-08-23

329

New sucrose esters from the fruits of Physalis solanaceus.  

PubMed

Three new sucrose esters (1-3) along with several known compounds were isolated from the fruits of Physalis solanaceus. The structural elucidation of the isolates was based on their spectroscopic characteristics mainly those of MS and NMR. PMID:22402100

Pérez-Castorena, Ana-Lidia; Luna, Minerva; Martínez, Mahinda; Maldonado, Emma

2012-02-18

330

Production of 1-Kestose in Transgenic Yeast Expressing a Fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus foetidus  

PubMed Central

Sucrose-inducible secretory sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) from Aspergillus foetidus has been purified and subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence determination. The enzyme is extensively glycosylated, and the active form is probably represented by a dimer of identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 180 kDa as judged from mobility in seminative acrylamide gels. The enzyme catalyzes fructosyl transfer from sucrose to sucrose producing glucose and 1-kestose. Oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerization are not obtained with sucrose as the substrate. The cDNA encoding the A. foetidus 1-SST has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence homology was found to be highest to levanases, but no hydrolytic activity was observed when levan was incubated with the enzyme. Expression of the cloned gene in an invertase-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in 1-kestose production, with 6-kestose and neokestose being side products of the reaction. Products were well distinguishable from those formed by yeast transformants expressing a cytosolic invertase.

Rehm, Jochen; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

1998-01-01

331

Sucrose transport into developing seeds of Pisum sativum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of developing pea seeds is characterized by transfer cells present in both coats and cotyledons at the maternal\\/filial interface. To determine the nature and cellular localization of sucrose transporters in pea seeds, a full-length clone of a sucrose\\/H+ symporter (PsSUT1) was isolated from a cotyledon cDNA library. Northern blot analyses of different organs showed that PsSUT1 is expressed

Mechthild Tegeder; Xin-Ding Wang; Wolf B.. Frommer; Christina E.. Offler; John W.. Patrick

1999-01-01

332

Regulation of photosynthetic sucrose synthesis: a role for calcium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated whether changes of the cytosolic free-calcium concentration could regulate photosynthetic sucrose synthesis. Partially purified enzymes from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves were assayed using calcium-EGTA buffers to obtain defined free-calcium concentrations in the low micromolar and submicromolar ranges. These concentrations of calcium did not directly affect sucrose-phosphate synthase activity. They inhibited the cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, acting competitively to

Monika Brauer; Dale Sanders; Mark Stitt

1990-01-01

333

Heat-induced changes in dairy products containing sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to analyse the influence of the variables reaction temperature, casein–sucrose ratio and pH, on the kinetic parameters of gelation reactions, the gelation time and the functionality of casein micelles in concentrated milk systems containing sucrose.Global constant rate reaction order of gelation and were calculated, the first varying between four different orders of magnitude

S. D. Rozycki; M. P. Buera; M. S. Pauletti

2010-01-01

334

Effect of sucrose on the thermodynamic incompatibility of different biopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sucrose on the thermodynamic incompatibility of a number of biopolymers in aqueous solutions has been studied. Three pairs of the biopolymers were chosen: sodium caseinate-ovalbumin, 11S globulin from vicia faba-ovalbumin and sodium caseinate-sodium alginate.The cosolubility of the biopolymers was investigated at different sucrose concentrations in solution (in the range 0–50% w\\/v). A big increase in the cosolubility

A. S. Antipova; M. G. Semenova

1995-01-01

335

Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control.  

PubMed

To determine whether ingestion of sucrose-containing snacks would affect blood glucose (BG) control, 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in a 5-day double-blind study at a diabetes camp. Eight subjects in the sucrose group ate sucrose-sweetened snacks twice a day, and 8 subjects in the control group ingested snacks that were sweetened with aspartame. The percentage of total daily calories derived from added sucrose was 7% for the sucrose group and 1% for the control group. Metabolic control was assessed by daily capillary BG measurements obtained before meals and the bedtime snack and by determination of serum fructosamine (F) concentrations on arrival at camp (day 0) and after 5 days on the study protocol (day 5). No significant difference was seen between the groups on day 0 (sucrose group [mean +/- SD]: BG 9.9 +/- 3.6 mM, F 3.54 +/- 0.38 mM; control group: BG 9.1 +/- 2.8 mM, F 3.74 +/- 0.71 mM) or day 5 (sucrose group: BG 8.8 +/- 2.6 mM, F 2.94 +/- 0.32 mM; control group: BG 7.4 +/- 2.8 mM, F 2.92 +/- 0.59 mM). We conclude that ingestion of sucrose, added to snacks in an amount up to 7% of total energy intake, does not adversely affect short-term BG control. PMID:2659302

Wise, J E; Keim, K S; Huisinga, J L; Willmann, P A

1989-06-01

336

Evolution of Sucrose Synthesis[w  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (Suc). Suc-P synthase, Suc-phosphatase (SPP), and Suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for Suc-P synthase (sps) and Suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena (Nostoc) spp., respectively. An open reading frame in the Synechocystis genome encodes a predicted 27-kD polypeptide that shows homology to the maize (Zea mays) SPP. Heterologous expression of this putative spp gene in Escherichia coli, reported here, confirmed that this open reading frame encodes a functional SPP enzyme. The Synechocystis SPP is highly specific for Suc-6F-P (Km = 7.5 ?m) and is Mg2+ dependent (Ka = 70 ?m), with a specific activity of 46 ?mol min?1 mg?1 protein. Like the maize SPP, the Synechocystis SPP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily of phosphatases/hydrolases. Searches of sequenced microbial genomes revealed homologs of the Synechocystis sps gene in several other cyanobacteria (Nostoc punctiforme, Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT9313, and Synechococcus sp. WH8012), and in three proteobacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Magnetococcus sp. MC1, and Nitrosomonas europaea). Homologs of the Synechocystis spp gene were found in Magnetococcus sp. MC1 and N. punctiforme, and of the Anabaena sus gene in N. punctiforme and N. europaea. From analysis of these sequences, it is suggested that Suc synthesis originated in the proteobacteria or a common ancestor of the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria.

Lunn, John Edward

2002-01-01

337

Transformation of Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

1978-01-01

338

Population Growth in Yeasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the second of two that explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. In the first lesson, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arose during the first lesson and its associated activity, in this lesson students work in small groups to design experiments that will determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

339

Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats 2. Subchronic studies.  

PubMed

Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase (bean and hibiscus extracts) and sucrase (L-arabinose) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels. The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption (so-called "carb blockers") remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose. To estimate CHO absorption, control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose, rice starch, sucrose, or combined rice starch and sucrose. Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours. The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use. No toxic effects (hepatic, renal, hematologic) were evident. Blood chemistries revealed significantly lower circulating glucose levels and a trend toward decreased HbA1C in the nondiabetic rats receiving the natural formulation compared to control. Subchronic administration of enzyme inhibitors was also associated with many metabolic changes including lowered systolic blood pressure and altered fluid-electrolyte balance. We postulate that proper intake of natural amylase and sucrase inhibitors may be useful in the prevention and treatment of many chronic disorders associated with perturbations in glucose-insulin homeostasis secondary to the rapid absorption of refined CHO. PMID:17713601

Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

2007-08-10

340

Inhibition by Natural Dietary Substances of Gastrointestinal Absorption of Starch and Sucrose in Rats 2. Subchronic Studies  

PubMed Central

Acute oral consumption of various natural inhibitors of amylase (bean and hibiscus extracts) and sucrase (L-arabinose) reduce absorption of starch and sucrose respectively in rats and pigs measured by lessened appearance of circulating glucose levels. The present subchronic study was designed to determine whether these selected inhibitors of gastrointestinal starch and sucrose absorption (so-called “carb blockers”) remain effective with continued use and to assess their metabolic influences after prolonged intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged twice daily over nine weeks with either water or an equal volume of water containing a formula that included bean and hibiscus extracts and L-arabinose. To estimate CHO absorption, control and treated Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with either water alone or an equal volume of water containing glucose, rice starch, sucrose, or combined rice starch and sucrose. Circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals over four hours. The ability to decrease starch and sucrose absorption use. No toxic effects (hepatic, renal, hematologic) were evident. Blood chemistries revealed significantly lower circulating glucose levels and a trend toward decreased HbA1C in the nondiabetic rats receiving the natural formulation compared to control. Subchronic administration of enzyme inhibitors was also associated with many metabolic changes including lowered systolic blood pressure and altered fluid-electrolyte balance. We postulate that proper intake of natural amylase and sucrase inhibitors may be useful in the prevention and treatment of many chronic disorders associated with perturbations in glucose-insulin homeostasis secondary to the rapid absorption of refined CHO.

Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

2007-01-01

341

RNA Isolation from Yeast Using Silica Matrices  

PubMed Central

RNA isolation from yeast is complicated by the need to initially break the cell wall. While this can be accomplished by glass bead disruption or enzyme treatment, these approaches result in DNA contamination and/or the need for incubation periods. We have developed a protocol for the isolation of RNA samples from yeast that minimizes degradation by RNases and incorporates two purification steps: acid phenol extraction and binding to a silica matrix. The procedure requires no precipitation steps, facilitating automation, and can be completed in less than 90 min. The RNA quality is ideal for microarray analysis.

Mutiu, A. Irina; Brandl, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

342

Effect of Disruption Methods on the Dead-End Microfiltration Behavior of Yeast Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

High voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) were compared for extracting intracellular compounds from yeasts. The efficiency of cell disruption was evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity, UV-spectroscopy, etc. It was shown that the HPH permits better extraction than HVED. The filtrations of yeast suspension were studied in a dead-end stirred cell. The filtration of untreated, HVED

Dan Liu; Raphaëlle Savoire; Eugène Vorobiev; Jean-Louis Lanoisellé

2010-01-01

343

The effect of milk and sucrose consumption on caries in 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of milk on dental caries was studied on a sample of 6-to-11-year-old Italian schoolchildren. The daily amount of milk consumed and the frequency of consumption of sucrose-containing foods were obtained by a 24-hour dietary diary. In the subsequent oral examination, the level of visible plaque and the number of decayed, extracted and filled teeth (both primary and permanent)

Stefano Petti; Roberto Simonetti; Adele Simonetti D'Arca

1997-01-01

344

Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporter AtSUC1 Is Important for Pollen Germination and Sucrose-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation1[OA  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sucrose transporter AtSUC1 (At1g71880) is highly expressed in pollen; however, its function has remained unknown. Here, we show that suc1 mutant pollen is defective in vivo, as evidenced by segregation distortion, and also has low rates of germination in vitro. AtSUC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to the plasma membrane in pollen tubes. AtSUC1 is also expressed in roots and external application of sucrose increased AtSUC1 expression in roots. AtSUC1 is important for sucrose-dependent signaling leading to anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings. suc1 mutants accumulated less anthocyanins in response to exogenous sucrose or maltose and microarray analysis revealed reduced expression of many genes important for anthocyanin biosynthesis. The results indicate that AtSUC1 is important for sugar signaling in vegetative tissue and for normal male gametophyte function.

Sivitz, Alicia B.; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M.

2008-01-01

345

Sucrose Cycling in Heterotrophic Plant Cell Metabolism: First Step Towards an Experimental Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose is the cornerstone of higher plant metabolism. Produced by photosynthesis, sucrose is the main substrate for respiration and biosynthesis. The emerging idea is that sucrose may act as regulator of its own metabolism, characterized in particular by a permanent process of degradation and formation. This sucrose turnover may control several important physiological functions. Of particular concern is an energy

Claude Roby; Sandra Cortès; Marina Gromova; Jean-Luc Le Bail; Justin K M Roberts

2002-01-01

346

The sucrose-cleaving enzymes of plants are crucial for development, growth and carbon partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sink organs of most plant species are supplied with carbon and energy in the form of sucrose. The channeling of sucrose into sink metabolism requires its cleavage by several isoforms of invertase and sucrose synthase, which are localized in different subcellular compartments. These activities regulate the entry of sucrose into distinct biochemical pathways, such as respiration or biosynthesis of cell

Arnd Sturm; Guo-Qing Tang

1999-01-01

347

Recurrent selection for sucrose has altered assimilate partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose yield in sugarcane is a function of sucrose content of the cane and cane yield. Selection for sucrose content is a high priority in sugarcane breeding programs. Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used a modified recurrent selection program whereby genotypes with high sucrose content ...

348

Nucleic Acid Amplification in Yeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmid DNA from single yeast colonies was efficiently amplified using rolling circle amplification (RCA). The amplified DNA was directly used for restriction digestion, DNA sequencing, and yeast transformation. The RCA of plasmid DNA from single yeast co...

W. Farmerie W. Y. Song X. Ding

2004-01-01

349

Enzymatic, spectrophotometric determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and inulin/oligofructose in foods.  

PubMed

A fast, simple, and accurate method, using only standard laboratory equipment, was developed for the quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and inulin/oligofructose in different food matrixes. Samples were extracted using boiling water and hydrolyzed with sucrase and fructanase. Sugars were determined in the initial extract and in both hydrolysates using an enzymatic, spectrophotometric kit for glucose and fructose determination with hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucose isomerase. Calculations of sucrose and inulin/oligofructose were based only on fructose measurement. Glucose results of the hydrolysates were not used for inulin/oligofructose calculations because of possible interference. Released glucose by the hydrolysis of maltose or by possible partial hydrolysis of other compounds like maltodextrines, starch, lactose, or maltitol could interfere in the measurement of the sucrase and the fructanase hydrolysates. To validate the method, a wide range of different food matrixes and different amounts of inulin/oligofructose (1-54%) were analyzed. Mean recovery +/- relative standard deviation (RSD) for inulin or oligofructose was 96.0 +/- 5.3%. The RSDr for inulin/oligofructose measured on 35 food samples, analyzed in duplicate, was 5.9%. Accuracy and precision of the method were less for samples with large concentrations of sucrose, maltose, maltodextrines, or starch (ratio to inulin/oligofructose >4 to 1). Precision and accuracy were comparable with those of the ion exchange chromatographic method AOAC 997.08 and the enzymatic, spectrophotometric method AOAC 999.03. In contrast to 999.03, this method allows the accurate quantification of both GFn and Fn forms. PMID:15493679

Steegmans, Monique; Iliaens, Saskia; Hoebregs, Hubert

350

Moonlighting Proteins in Yeasts  

PubMed Central

Proteins able to participate in unrelated biological processes have been grouped under the generic name of moonlighting proteins. Work with different yeast species has uncovered a great number of moonlighting proteins and shown their importance for adequate functioning of the yeast cell. Moonlighting activities in yeasts include such diverse functions as control of gene expression, organelle assembly, and modification of the activity of metabolic pathways. In this review, we consider several well-studied moonlighting proteins in different yeast species, paying attention to the experimental approaches used to identify them and the evidence that supports their participation in the unexpected function. Usually, moonlighting activities have been uncovered unexpectedly, and up to now, no satisfactory way to predict moonlighting activities has been found. Among the well-characterized moonlighting proteins in yeasts, enzymes from the glycolytic pathway appear to be prominent. For some cases, it is shown that despite close phylogenetic relationships, moonlighting activities are not necessarily conserved among yeast species. Organisms may utilize moonlighting to add a new layer of regulation to conventional regulatory networks. The existence of this type of proteins in yeasts should be taken into account when designing mutant screens or in attempts to model or modify yeast metabolism.

Gancedo, Carlos; Flores, Carmen-Lisset

2008-01-01

351

Phloem-localized, Proton-coupled Sucrose Carrier ZmSUT1 Mediates Sucrose Efflux under the Control of the Sucrose Gradient and the Proton Motive Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phloem network is as essential for plants as the vascular system is for humans. This network, assembled by nucleus- and vacuole-free interconnected living cells, represents a long distance transport pathway for nutri- ents and information. According to the Munch hypoth- esis, osmolytes such as sucrose generate the hydrostatic pressure that drives nutrient and water flow between the source and

Armando Carpaneto; Dietmar Geiger; Ernst Bamberg; Norbert Sauer; Jorg Fromm; Rainer Hedrich

2005-01-01

352

[Cloning and expression of tryptophan synthetase gene (TRP5) in yeast].  

PubMed

TRP5, one of five genes required for tryptophan synthetase in S. cerevisiae, has been isolated on recombinant plasmids. A genomic DNA bank, containing the entire yeast genome was constructed by complete digestion of yeast 1412-4D DNA with restriction endonuclease BamH1, size fractionated by sucrose gradient (2-4 kb), and insertion of the fragments into the yeast shuttle vector pCN60. 9 recombinants plasmids capable of complementing trp5 mutations were isolated by transformation of yeast cell C9 (alpha, trp5, adel, ade6). The recombinant plasmids, containing 3.2 kb DNA fragments located TRP5 gene, were named pCN60 (TRP5). Tryptophan synthetase activity of transformants was 3-fold higher than that of original strain 1412-4D. PMID:2675471

Yun, D F; Liu, Y F; Cai, J K

1989-06-01

353

Stepwise increase of resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a unique, natural polyphenolic compound with diverse health benefits. In the present study, we attempted to improve resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast by different methods of metabolic engineering. We first mutated and then re-synthesized tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) by replacing the bacteria codons with yeast-preferred codons, which increased translation and improved p-coumaric acid and resveratrol biosynthesis drastically. We then demonstrated that low-affinity, high-capacity bacterial araE transporter could enhance resveratrol accumulation, without transporting resveratrol directly. Yeast cells carrying the araE gene produced up to 2.44-fold higher resveratrol than control cells. For commercial applications, resveratrol biosynthesis was detected in sucrose medium and fresh grape juice using our engineered yeast cells. In collaboration with the Chaumette Winery of Missouri, we were able to produce resveratrol-containing white wines, with levels comparable to the resveratrol levels found in most red wines. PMID:21570474

Wang, Yechun; Halls, Coralie; Zhang, Juan; Matsuno, Michiyo; Zhang, Yansheng; Yu, Oliver

2011-05-10

354

Expression of an Arabidopsis sucrose synthase gene indicates a role in metabolization of sucrose both during phloem loading and in sink organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose synthase, an important enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism, catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP to UDP-glucose and fructose in vitro. To investigate the in vivo function of sucrose synthase, both the gene (Asus1) and a corresponding cDNA from roots of Arabidopsis were isolated. The Asus1 gene has homologies of 67-72% to sucrose synthase genes from other species. Histochemical

Thomas Martin; Wolf B. Frommer; Marcel Salanoubat; Lothar Willmitzer

1993-01-01

355

Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)

1982-03-16

356

Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results

Z. Duvnjak; N. Kosaric; S. Kliza; D. Hayes

1982-01-01

357

Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts.  

PubMed

Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fregilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Result indicate that this row material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. PMID:18546207

Duvnjak, Z; Kosaric, N; Kliza, S; Hayes, D

1982-11-01

358

SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS  

SciTech Connect

Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

Steven C. Huber

2009-05-12

359

Drinking sucrose enhances quinpirole-induced yawning in rats.  

PubMed

Food and drugs can activate brain dopamine systems and sensitivity to the effects of drugs acting on those systems is influenced by amount and content of food consumed. This study examined the effects of drinking sucrose on behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) had free access to water or 10% sucrose and quinpirole dose-response curves (yawning and hypothermia) were generated weekly for 8 weeks. Subsequently, all rats drank water for 8 weeks with quinpirole dose-response curves determined on weeks 9, 10, and 16. In rats drinking sucrose, the ascending (D3 receptor-mediated), but not descending (D2 receptor-mediated), limb of the yawning dose-response curve shifted leftward. The D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the dose-response curve to the right in all rats. When rats that previously drank sucrose drank water, their sensitivity to quinpirole did not return to normal. Quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different between groups. These data show that drinking sucrose increases sensitivity to a dopamine D3, but not D2, receptor-mediated effect and that this change is long lasting. Dopamine receptors mediate the effects of many drugs and the actions of those drugs are likely impacted by dietary factors. PMID:21979833

Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Thomas, Yvonne M; France, Charles P

2011-12-01

360

The mode of sucrose degradation in potato tubers determines the fate of assimilate utilization.  

PubMed

Cytosolic (U-IN-2) or apoplasmic (U-IN-1) targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to a reduction in sucrose and an increase in glucose content, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. Cytosolic expression leads to a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch content and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Recent technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with extensive metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 tubers are characterized by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2 tubers, might be due to sugar signaling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate transporter (GPT) is significantly down-regulated. This leads to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic glucose-6-phosphate ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastid localized pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. Interestingly, a strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilization is coordinated at the level of sucrose degradation. PMID:22639642

Ferreira, Stephanus J; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-02-22

361

The Mode of Sucrose Degradation in Potato Tubers Determines the Fate of Assimilate Utilization  

PubMed Central

Cytosolic (U-IN-2) or apoplasmic (U-IN-1) targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to a reduction in sucrose and an increase in glucose content, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. Cytosolic expression leads to a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch content and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Recent technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with extensive metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 tubers are characterized by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2 tubers, might be due to sugar signaling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate transporter (GPT) is significantly down-regulated. This leads to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic glucose-6-phosphate ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastid localized pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. Interestingly, a strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilization is coordinated at the level of sucrose degradation.

Ferreira, Stephanus J.; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

362

The analgesic properties of intraoral sucrose: an integrative review.  

PubMed

The treatment of pain is an essential component of the clinical and ethical care of infants. Despite evidence-based practice consensus statements recommending that infants receive analgesia during minor painful procedures, numerous studies have shown that procedural pain remains poorly managed in this population. Oral sucrose administration has been associated with calming effects and reductions in observed pain behaviors with preterm and term infants aged up to 1 year. The objective of this integrative review is to synthesize findings from published randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of oral sucrose as a preprocedural intervention for mild to moderate procedural pain in infants. Overall, studies indicate that oral sucrose is an effective, safe, convenient, and immediate-acting analgesic for reducing crying time and significantly decreases biobehavioral pain response following painful procedures with infants. PMID:21730894

Hatfield, Linda A; Chang, Karen; Bittle, Marianne; Deluca, Joanne; Polomano, Rosemary C

2011-04-01

363

Electrogenic Sucrose Transport in Developing Soybean Cotyledons 12  

PubMed Central

Addition of sucrose to a solution bathing an excised developing soybean cotyledon causes a transient depolarization of the membrane potential, as measured using standard electrophysiological techniques. The magnitude of the depolarization is dependent on the concentration of both sucrose and protons in a manner which suggests carrier mediation; this process has an apparent Km for sucrose of about 10 millimolar. Agents interfering with the generation or maintenance of a proton electrochemical gradient eliminate these depolarizations. Electrogenic sugar transport is sensitive to sulfhydryl-modifying reagents; their effect appears to be through a direct interaction with the carrier protein and/or with the process establishing the proton electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate appears to be a selective inhibitor of the carrier-mediated process itself.

Lichtner, Francis T.; Spanswick, Roger M.

1981-01-01

364

Clinical case reports raise doubts about the therapeutic equivalence of an iron sucrose similar preparation compared with iron sucrose originator.  

PubMed

Intravenous iron sucrose has been used to treat iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia associated with different chronic diseases for several decades. Despite the complex structure of iron sucrose, copies called iron sucrose similars (ISSs) have been approved according to the generic approach and therefore, therapeutic equivalence is taken for granted. In February 2011, three patients who previously tolerated well the prescribed iron sucrose originator experienced urticaria, oedema and headache within 1 hour after infusion of an ISS that had been substituted for the originator at the pharmacy level. One patient collapsed due to severe hypovolaemic dysregulation and required hospitalisation. Due to emerging evidence that ISSs differ from the iron sucrose originator in safety and efficacy profiles, it seems prudent for physicians as well as patients who require intravenous (i.v.) iron to have available data on therapeutic equivalence of new ISS preparations versus the originator. This may be especially important in patients who are chronically ill and need iron supplementation on a regular, long-term basis. PMID:22181342

Stein, Jürgen; Dignass, Axel; Chow, Kai Uwe

2012-01-18

365

Genetic Improvement of Baker's Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts have been used for many thousands of years to produce leavened bread. Nowadays the production of baker's yeast biomass represents a highly competitive multi-billion dollar global industry. The environmental conditions that prevail during manufacture and application of baker's yeasts, coupled with the sheer variety of bread making processes and recipes used around the world, place considerable demands on yeasts.

Paul V. Attfield; Philip J. L. Bell

2003-01-01

366

PFGSE-NMR study of the self-diffusion of sucrose fatty acid monoesters in water.  

PubMed

The micellization of pure monosubstituted sucrose fatty acid esters in water, namely sucrose octanoate, sucrose decanoate, sucrose laurate, sucrose dodec-5-cis-enoate, sucrose myristate, and sucrose palmitate, has been investigated by means of two NMR methods, pulsed field gradient spin-echo NMR (PFGSE-NMR), giving access to the self-diffusion coefficients of free molecules and micelles in solution, and the ERETIC method (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations) for the measurement of concentrations by external calibration of a synthetic NMR signal. The early micellar regions and, when possible, the premicellar regions were investigated. By this method, we obtained the hydrodynamic radii of micelles, displaying a linear progression in relation to the chain length and an accurate determination of critical micellar concentration (CMC) for each sucrose ester. The effect of the regiochemistry of fatty chain grafting has been investigated, showing special behavior for 1'-O-sucrose palmitate. PMID:15848439

Molinier, Valérie; Fenet, Bernard; Fitremann, Juliette; Bouchu, Alain; Queneau, Yves

2005-06-01

367

Enzymic Components of Sucrose Accumulation in the Wild Tomato Species Lycopersicon peruvianum  

PubMed Central

Sugar and soluble solids content and invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14) enzyme activities were measured throughout fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the green fruited species Lycopersicon peruvianum. Fruit of L. peruvianum accumulated predominantly sucrose, in contrast with hexose accumulation, which is characteristic of L. esculentum. The percentage of soluble solids in ripe L. peruvianum fruit was more than twice that present in L. esculentum and attributed primarily to the high level of sucrose accumulated in L. peruvianum. Low levels of invertase and sucrose synthase activity were associated with the period of significant sucrose accumulation and storage in L. peruvianum. Increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity was observed during the latter stages of fruit development in sucrose-accumulating fruit but was not coincident with maximum rates of sucrose accumulation.

Stommel, John R.

1992-01-01

368

Non-invasive monitoring of sucrose mobilization from culm storage parenchyma by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Because sucrose stored in mature stalks (in excess of 40% of stalk dry weight) can be wholly mobilized to supply carbon for the growth of heterotrophic tissues, we propose that sucrose mobilization requires a net sink-to-source transition that acts in toto within sett internode storage parenchyma. Based on our data we propose that mobilization of sucrose from culm storage parenchyma requires minimal investment of metabolic resources, and that the mechanism of sucrose mobilization is metabolically neutral. By magnetic resonance spectroscopy and phloem-specific tracer dyes, strong evidence was found that sucrose is mobilized from sett storage parenchyma via phloem to the growing shoot tissue. An analysis of the enzyme activities involved in sucrose metabolism and glycolysis suggested that sucrose synthase activity is downregulated due to the effects of sucrose mobilization. Overall, metabolism in storage parenchyma shifts from futile cycling to a more quiescent state during sucrose mobilization. PMID:23470752

O'Neill, Brian P; Purnell, Matthew P; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Cowin, Gary J; Galloway, Graham J; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2013-03-07

369

TRP channels in yeast.  

PubMed

Microbes have made numerous contributions to the study of biology and medicine. Those contributions also include many original discovery's in the study of ion channels often thought as the province of neuroscientists or cardiophysiologists. Yeast have long been used as a model organism and TRP channel genes and their transmembrane products touted as the "vanguards of the sensory system" can be identified in the genomes of many yeasts. This article aims to review the study of these TRP channels in yeast their discovery, electrophysiological properties and physiological function. PMID:21290303

Kaleta, Marta; Palmer, Christopher

2011-01-01

370

Amperometric biosensors for determination of glucose, maltose, and sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presented paper there are reported some results of the author's research on membranes containing glucose oxidase (GOx), enzymes hydrolyzing maltose and sucrose and on biosensors equipped with these membranes. The results relate to ways of extending the linear range of glucose sensors, influence of composition of the membranes on levels of the output signals of maltose and sucrose (saccharose) sensors, temperature dependence of the sensor's response and on disturbing effects of glucose in the sample on accuracy of determination of the disaccharides.

Zawicki, Ignacy; Filipiak, Marian; Jarzyna, Marta; Laskowska, Janina

1995-06-01

371

Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sucrose (?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

372

Catalytic Properties of Phosphopyruvate Carboxylase from Bakers' Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHOSPHOPYRUVATE (P-EP) carboxylase (systematic name: ATP: oxalacetate carboxy-lyase) (transphosphorylating) is the enzyme responsible for carbon dioxide fixation and oxalacetic acid (OA) synthesis in bakers' yeast1. The enzyme can be extracted soluble from acetone-dried yeast and purified with the procedure summarized in Table 1. P-EP carboxylation was measured at 30° with a spectro-photometrie method. The reaction mixture was made of 0.7

J. J. B. Cannata; A. O. M. Stoppani

1963-01-01

373

Yeast infections (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yeast infections may follow a course of antibiotics that were prescribed for another purpose. The antibiotics change the normal "balance" between organisms in the vagina by suppressing the growth of protective bacteria that normally have an antifungal effect.

374

Mutant yeast on drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing drug-treated and mutant yeast cells with the new tools of genomics enables the identification of drug targets and should improve the odds of developing useful therapeutics (pages 1293–1301).

David J. Lockhart

1998-01-01

375

[Aspects of yeast biodiversity].  

PubMed

Yeast biodiversity represents a dynamic scientific domain characterized by permanent emerging theories and accumulation of new data. Identification of genome structure for a number of yeast species and elucidation of regulatory pathways for species-specific metabolic networks, lead to development of numerous applications of yeasts in industry, biotechnology, therapeutics and bioremediation. The studies of the scientific community were long time focused on Saccharomyces cerevisae due mainly to its use in food production. Therefore, the species belonging to Saccharomyces genus became reference points for genomics and biodiversity studies. During last decades there is a growing interest for yeast species able to produce biomass by assimilating or degrading various compounds such as methanol, hydrocarbons, wood hydrolisates and other residues or by-products from different industries. PMID:23745219

Csutak, Ortansa; Vassu, Tatiana

376

Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit.  

PubMed Central

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.

D'Aoust, M A; Yelle, S; Nguyen-Quoc, B

1999-01-01

377

Biotransformation of vegetable and fruit processing wastes into yeast biomass enriched with selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extracts of cabbage, watermelon, a mixture of residual biomass of green salads and tropical fruits were used for yeast cultivation. These extracts contained from 1420 to 8900 mg\\/l of dissolved organic matter, and from 600 to 1800 mg\\/l of nitrogen. pH of the extracts was in the range from 4.1 to 6.4. Biomass concentration of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEE

Olena Stabnikova; Jing-Yuan Wang; Hong Bo Ding; Joo-HwaTay

2005-01-01

378

Yeast expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts provide attractive expression platforms. They combine ease of genetic manipulations and the option for a simple fermentation\\u000a design of a microbial organism with the capabilities of an eukaryotic organism to secrete and to modify a protein according\\u000a to a general eukaryotic scheme. For platform applications, a range of yeast species has been developed during the last decades.\\u000a We present

Erik Böer; Gerhard Steinborn; Gotthard Kunze; Gerd Gellissen

2007-01-01

379

Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing enzymes of yeasts.

Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

380

Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia  

PubMed Central

Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30?s VI 30?s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior was allocated to sucrose and more reinforcements were obtained from that alternative. Allocation of behavior to wheel running decreased, but obtained wheel-running reinforcement did not change. Overall, the results suggested that food-deprived rats were sensitive to qualitative changes in food supply (sucrose concentration) while continuing to defend a level of physical activity (wheel running). In the second study, 15 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running, wheel-running and wheel-running, and sucrose and sucrose reinforcement. For each pair of reinforcers, substitutability was assessed by the effect of income-compensated price changes on consumption of the two reinforcers. Results showed that, as expected, sucrose substituted for sucrose and wheel running substituted for wheel running. Wheel running, however, did not substitute for sucrose; but sucrose partially substituted for wheel running. We address the implications of the interrelationships of sucrose and wheel running for an understanding of activity anorexia.

Belke, Terry W; Duncan, Ian D; David Pierce, W

2006-01-01

381

Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase activity in Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449.  

PubMed Central

A phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been demonstrated, by an enzyme-coupled reaction and product isolation, in decryptified cell suspensions of the cariogenic microorganism Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449. The apparent sucrose PTS reaction for sucrose-adapted, sucrose-challenged cells displayed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km of 7.14 x 10(-5) M, which was distinct from the Km of the glucose PTS activity of glucose-adapted, glucose-challenged cells. Both the sucrose and the glucose PTS activities appear to be inducible and under separate genetic control. The sucrose PTS reaction demonstrated in decryptified cells had an absolute requirement for phosphoenolpyruvate. Only 2-phosphoglycerate, the immediate glycolytic precursor of phosphoenolpyruvate, was found to substitute for phosphoenolpyruvate in this reaction in the absence of fluoride. The sucrose PTS activity of sucrose-adapted cells was competitively inhibited by raffinose and lactose; these same sugars had no effect on the apparent glucose PTS activity. Fructose was the only carbohydrate tested other than sucrose which elicited an apparent PTS reaction in sucrose-adapted cells. The product of the sucrose PTS reaction was isolated and behaved chromatographically on a Dowex-1-X8 column like a monophosphate ester. Alkaline phosphatase treatment of the presumptive sucrose monophosphate liberated a component which behaved chromatographically like free sucrose. Subsequent acid hydrolysis of this component produced moieties which behaved chromatographically like glucose and fructose.

Slee, A M; Tanzer, J M

1979-01-01

382

Formation of levan and sorbitol from sucrose by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol yields produced by Zymomonas strains from sucrose are significantly lower than from glucose or fructose. The low yield is a consequence of the formation of both levan and sorbitol as by-products. Most of the levan is in a non-precipitable form, indicating low molecular weight. Formation of sorbitol was observed with both the Zymomonas strains studied. The measured amounts of

Liisa Viikari

1984-01-01

383

Synthesis of carbon-13 enriched disaccharides: lactose and sucrose  

SciTech Connect

Disaccharides can be prepared enzymatically and by chemical synthesis. Lactose enriched with carbon-13 at C-1 can be synthesized by reacting K/sup 13/CN with a sugar having a one fewer carbon than the desired product. Thus, a mixture of 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)glucose ((1-/sup 13/C)lactose) and 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)mannose can be synthesized from 3-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose and K/sup 13/CN. (/sup 13/C)Sucrose is conveniently prepared in gram quantities from D-(/sup 13/C)fructose and UDP-glucose in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthetase. This reaction proceeds smoothly at 25/sup 0/ over a period of hours to give an equilibrium mixture which can be separated chromatographically. The glucose portion of sucrose can be labeled using enzymatically-prepared UDP-(/sup 13/C)glucose. Labeled sucrose is important for the preparation of labeled starches to be used for structural and metabolic studies.

Walker, T.E.; Unkefer, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Ehler, D.S.

1986-05-01

384

Stabilization of Lipid Bilayer Vesicles by Sucrose during Freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freeze-induced fusion and leakage of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) of natural and synthetic phosphatidylcholines and the suppression of these processes by sucrose was studied by electron microscopy, by high-resolution NMR, and by ESR techniques. During slow freezing of SUV suspensions in water, the lipid was compressed into a small interstitial volume and transformed into a multilamellar aggregate without vesicular

G. Strauss; H. Hauser

1986-01-01

385

Proinflammatory effects of iron sucrose in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is a central component of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Iron promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory response in animals and promotes progressive CKD. Parenteral iron provokes oxidative stress in patients with CKD; however, its potential to provoke an inflammatory response is unknown. In 20 veterans with CKD, 100 mg iron sucrose was administered intravenously over 5 min and urinary

R Agarwal

2006-01-01

386

Intravenous Iron Sucrose in Chinese Hemodialysis Patients with Renal Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Renal anemia is one of the commonest complications of chronic renal failure. Iron deficiency is the most common factor which affects the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Intravenous (i.v.) iron preparations are commonly used in Western countries, but iron sucrose is seldom used in Chinese patients on maintenance hemodialysis. The aim of the present study was to

Han Li; Shi-xiang Wang

2008-01-01

387

Sucrose deficiency delays lycopene accumulation in tomato fruit pericarp discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is characterized by a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene) as chloroplasts change to chromoplasts. To address the question of the role of sugars in controlling carotenoid accumulation, fruit pericarp discs (mature green fruits) were cultured in vitro in the presence of various sucrose concentrations. A significant difference in soluble sugar content was achieved depending

Nadège Télef; Linda Stammitti-Bert; Anne Mortain-Bertrand; Mickaël Maucourt; Jean Pierre Carde; Dominique Rolin; Philippe Gallusci

2006-01-01

388

Analysis of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters Composition by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two procedures for quantitative analysis of sucrose fatty acid esters composition using HPLC are described. A reversed-phase column (RP-18) was used. The mobile phases consist of: a) methanol (95%) and isopropanol (5%); b) methanol and water (5%) using UV and RI detectors.

V. R. Kaufman; N. Garti

1981-01-01

389

Biodegradation of sucrose poly fatty acid esters in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose polyesters (SPEs) were applied to soil at rates equivalent to 1062 to 1293 kg per hectare and incubated over periods of 100 to 403 days at 20 ± 2°C in darkness and at a soil moisture of 40 % of the maximum water holding capacity. All applied forms of SPEs were aerobically biodegraded to some degree in both American

S. D. Haigh-Baird

1997-01-01

390

Application of sucrose fatty acid esters in transdermal therapeutic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTSs) were studied applying different sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs) as drug delivery agents. Matrix and membrane controlled TTSs were prepared and compared. Membrane was made from a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® NE) of pH independent permeability which can achieve diffusion controlled drug liberation. Model drug was a water soluble ?-blocker, metoprolol, which has short biological half-life, so

G. Csóka; S. Marton; R. Zelko; N. Otomo; I. Antal

2007-01-01

391

Nucleation of amorphous sucrose–corn syrup mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction times for onset of nucleation and nucleation rates were determined for amorphous sugar matrices made with sucrose and corn syrup held at temperatures between 60 and 110°C. Induction times decreased and nucleation rates increased exponentially with increasing temperature. Both the classical nucleation rate equation and the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) equation fit the data. Within the measurement variability, the type of

D. A. Levenson; R. W. Hartel

2005-01-01

392

Sucrose feeding reverses shade-induced kernel losses in maize  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Water limitations can inhibit photosynthesis and change gene expression in ways that diminish or prevent reproductive development in plants. Sucrose fed to the plants can reverse the effects. To test whether the reversal acts generally by replacing the losses from photosynthesis, sucrose was fed to the stems of shaded maize plants (Zea mays) during reproductive development. Methods Shading was adjusted to mimic the inhibition of photosynthesis around the time of pollination in water-limited plants. Glucose and starch were imaged and quantified in the female florets. Sucrose was infused into the stems to vary the sugar flux to the ovaries. Key Results Ovaries normally grew rapidly and contained large amounts of glucose and starch, with a glucose gradient favouring glucose movement into the developing ovary. Shade inhibited photosynthesis and diminished ovary and kernel size, weight, and glucose and starch contents compared with controls. The glucose gradient became small. Sucrose fed to the stem reversed these losses, and kernels were as large as the controls. Conclusions Despite similar inhibition of photosynthesis, the depletion of ovary glucose and starch was not as severe in shade as during a comparable water deficit. Ovary abortion prevalent during water deficits did not occur in the shade. It is suggested that this difference may have been caused by more translocation in shade than during the water deficit, which prevented low sugar contents necessary to trigger an up-regulation of senescence genes known to be involved in abortion. Nevertheless, sucrose feeding reversed kernel size losses and it is concluded that feeding acted generally to replace diminished photosynthetic activity.

Hiyane, Rie; Hiyane, Shinichi; Tang, An Ching; Boyer, John S.

2010-01-01

393

BAM Media M147: Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile Salts-Sucrose ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M147: Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile Salts-Sucrose (TCBS) Agar. January 2001. ... M147 Thiosulfate-Citrate-Bile Salts-Sucrose (TCBS) Agar. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

394

Purification of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids by a Method of Ultrafiltration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sucrose ester product mixture containing glycerides and free fatty acids has been separated into a concentrated sucrose ester fraction and a concentrated glyceride-fatty acid fraction by ultrafilrtration through a polysulfone, anisotropic, microporous, ...

H. J. Zeringue R. O. Feuge

1978-01-01

395

Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Root and Stem Sucrose Metabolism in Loblolly Pine Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We studied root and stem sucrose metabolism in trees excavated from a 9-year-old artificially regenerated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Sucrose synthase (SS) activities in stem and taproot vascular cambial tissues followed similar seasonal pa...

S. J. S. Sung P. P. Kormanik C. C. Black

1996-01-01

396

Isolation and screening of yeasts that ferment D-xylose directly to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural habitats of yeasts were examined for the presence of strains able to produce ethanol from D-xylose. Black knots, insect frass, and tree exudates were screened by enrichment in liquid D-xylose-yeast extract medium. These and each D-xylose-assimilating yeast in a collection from cactus fruits and Drosophila spp. were tested for alcohol production from this sugar. Among the 412 isolates examined,

J. N. Nigam; R. S. Ireland; A. Margaritis; M. A. Lachance

1985-01-01

397

A sensitive enzymatic assay for the determination of sucrose in serum and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sucrose permeability has been suggested as a simple and non-invasive marker of gastric mucosal damage. We here report on a sensitive enzymatic assay using four sequential enzyme reactions coupled with reduced thio-NADPH. Methods: Sucrose is phosphorylated by sucrose phosphorylase (EC2.4.1.7). The subsequent reaction in the presence of phosphoglucomutase (EC5.4.2.2) and glucose-1,6-diphosphate forms glucose-6-phosphate. Sucrose of the monad forms the

Masanori Seimiya; Susumu Osawa; Nobuo Hisae; Tadayuki Shishido; Taketo Yamaguchi; Fumio Nomura

2004-01-01

398

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

399

Novel sucrose lipid produced by Serratia marcescens and its application in enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia marcescens MTCC 86 when grown on sucrose produced a novel sucrose lipid that was different from the amino lipid produced from n-alkane by other strains of S. marcescens. The sucrose lipid isolated by acetone precipitation technique was found to be predominantly a mixture of 3-(3?-hydroxytetradecanoyloxy)\\u000a decanoate and 3-(3?-hydroxyhexadecenoyloxy) decanoate. This sucrose lipid exhibited excellent emulsification activity with\\u000a a wide

Vikas Pruthi; Swaranjit S. Cameotra

2000-01-01

400

Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.  

PubMed

The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry. PMID:17322210

Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

2007-03-01

401

Oxygen requirements of yeasts.  

PubMed

Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly mu max, 0.03 and 0.05 h-1, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth. PMID:2082825

Visser, W; Scheffers, W A; Batenburg-van der Vegte, W H; van Dijken, J P

1990-12-01

402

The Sucrose Transporter of Celery. Identification and Expression during Salt Stress1  

PubMed Central

In celery (Apium graveolens L.), long-distance transport of reduced carbon occurs both in the form of sucrose (Suc) and mannitol. The presence of mannitol has been related to the resistance of celery to salt stress. To investigate the transport events occurring during salt stress, we have cloned the H+/Suc transporter of celery AgSUT1 (A. graveolens Suc uptake transport 1) from a mature leaf cDNA library. The function of the encoded protein was confirmed by expression in yeast. AgSUT1 is a H+/Suc transporter with a high affinity for Suc (Km of 139 ?m). Another closely related cDNA (AgSUT2) was also identified. AgSUT1 is mainly expressed in mature leaves and phloem of petioles, but also in sink organs such as roots. When celery plants were subjected to salt stress conditions (30 d watering with 300 mm NaCl) favoring mannitol accumulation (J.D. Everard, R. Gucci, S.C. Kann, J.A. Flore, W.H. Loescher [1994] Plant Physiol 106: 281–292), AgSUT1 expression was decreased in all organs, but markedly in roots. The results are discussed in relation to the physiology of celery.

Noiraud, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge; Lemoine, Remi

2000-01-01

403

The sucrose transporter of celery. Identification and expression during salt stress.  

PubMed

In celery (Apium graveolens L.), long-distance transport of reduced carbon occurs both in the form of sucrose (Suc) and mannitol. The presence of mannitol has been related to the resistance of celery to salt stress. To investigate the transport events occurring during salt stress, we have cloned the H(+)/Suc transporter of celery AgSUT1 (A. graveolens Suc uptake transport 1) from a mature leaf cDNA library. The function of the encoded protein was confirmed by expression in yeast. AgSUT1 is a H(+)/Suc transporter with a high affinity for Suc (K(m) of 139 microM). Another closely related cDNA (AgSUT2) was also identified. AgSUT1 is mainly expressed in mature leaves and phloem of petioles, but also in sink organs such as roots. When celery plants were subjected to salt stress conditions (30 d watering with 300 mM NaCl) favoring mannitol accumulation (J.D. Everard, R. Gucci, S.C. Kann, J.A. Flore, W.H. Loescher [1994] Plant Physiol 106: 281-292), AgSUT1 expression was decreased in all organs, but markedly in roots. The results are discussed in relation to the physiology of celery. PMID:10759540

Noiraud, N; Delrot, S; Lemoine, R

2000-04-01

404

Temporally regulated expression of a yeast invertase in potato tubers allows dissection of the complex metabolic phenotype obtained following its constitutive expression.  

PubMed

The constitutive cytosolic expression of a yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase within potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) tubers has previously been documented to produce a dramatic metabolic phenotype in which glycolysis, respiration and amino acid synthesis are markedly enhanced at the cost of starch synthesis. These transgenic lines were further characterised by a massive cycle of sucrose degradation and resynthesis via sucrose-phosphate synthase. We have recently developed a B33 patatin driven alc gene construct allowing tight chemical control of gene expression following supply of acetaldehyde with minimal pleiotropic effects of the inducing agent on metabolism. This construct was used for chemical induction of the yeast invertase gene after 10-weeks growth to dissect the complex metabolic phenotype obtained after constitute expression. Inducible expression led to increased invertase activity within 24 h in well-defined areas within growing tubers. Although the sucrose levels were reduced, there was no effect on the levels of starch whilst levels of many amino acids decreased. Labelling experiments revealed that these lines exhibited increased rates of sucrose cycling, whereas rates of glycolysis and of starch synthesis were not substantially changed. From these results we conclude that sucrose cycling is stimulated in response to a short-term increase in the rate of sucrose mobilisation, providing evidence for a role of sucrose cycling as a buffering capacity that regulates the net rate of sucrose usage. In contrast, the dramatic increase in hexose-phosphate levels and the switch from starch synthesis to respiration seen on the constitutive expression of the invertase was not observed in the inducible lines, suggesting that this is the result of cumulative pleiotropic effects that occurred when the transgene was expressed throughout development. PMID:15604730

Junker, Björn H; Wuttke, René; Tiessen, Axel; Geigenberger, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

2004-09-01

405

Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience

Karen Ackroff; Anthony Sclafani

2011-01-01

406

Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

2006-01-01

407

Sucrose uptake by cotyledons of Ricinus communis L.: Characteristics, mechanism, and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledons of Ricinus communis take up externally supplied sucrose at a rate of up to 150 µmol\\/h\\/g fresh weight, which is very high when compared with other sugar transport systems of higher plants. The uptake of sucrose is catalysed with a Km of 25 mmol l-1; at high sucrose concentrations a linear (diffusion) component becomes obvious. Other mono-, di-, or

Ewald Komor; Fachbereich Biologic

1977-01-01

408

Sucrose metabolism: regulatory mechanisms and pivotal roles in sugar sensing and plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose cleavage is vital to multicellular plants, not only for the allocation of crucial carbon resources but also for the initiation of hexose-based sugar signals in importing structures. Only the invertase and reversible sucrose synthase reactions catalyze known paths of sucrose breakdown in vivo. The regulation of these reactions and its consequences has therefore become a central issue in plant

Karen Koch

2004-01-01

409

Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor  

SciTech Connect

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

Lingle, S.E.

1987-08-01

410

Intra-Accumbens Amphetamine Increases the Conditioned Incentive Salience of Sucrose Reward: Enhancement of Reward \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine microinjection into the nucleus accumbens shell enhanced the ability of a Pavlovian reward cue to trigger in- creased instrumental performance for sucrose reward in a pure conditioned incentive paradigm. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets. They were separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue (30 sec light) with free sucrose pellets.

Cindy L. Wyvell; Kent C. Berridge

2000-01-01

411

Effect of ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on sucrose palatability as measured by the taste reactivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taste reactivity test was employed to determine the effect of pre-treatment with ?9-Tetrahyrdrocannabinol THC on sucrose palatability. In Experiment 1, on each of 9 trials, rats were injected with THC or Vehicle prior to receiving a 5 min intraoral infusion of sucrose solution. The concentration of sucrose (2%, 10% or 32%) and the interval between the injection and the

Maegan M. Jarrett; Cheryl L. Limebeer; Linda A. Parker

2005-01-01

412

A Sucrose-rich Diet Induces Mutations in the Rat Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcino- genic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a

Lars O. Dragsted; Bahram Daneshvar; Ulla Vogel; Herman N. Autrup; Håkan Wallin; Lotte Risom; Peter Møller; Anne M. Mølck; Max Hansen; Henrik E. Poulsen; Steffen Loft

2002-01-01

413

Purification of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids by a Method of Ultrafiltration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sucrose ester product mixture containing sucrose esters, glycerides and free fatty acids, all fatty acid groups having carbon chains of 2-22 carbon atoms, has been separated into a concentrated sucrose ester fraction and a concentrated glyceride-fatty a...

H. J. Zeringue R. O. Feuge

1979-01-01

414

Evaluation of water and sucrose diffusion coefficients in potato tissue during osmotic concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water and sucrose effective diffusion coefficients behavior were studied in potato tubers immersed in aqueous sucrose solution, 50% (w\\/w), at 27 °C. Water and sucrose concentration profiles were measured as function of the position for 3, 6 and 12 h of immersion. These were adjusted to a mathematical model for three components that take into account the bulk flow

Maria Aparecida Mauro; Florencia Cecilia Menegalli

2003-01-01

415

Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity  

SciTech Connect

Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with {sup 32}P in the presence of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP. In this in vitro system, {sup 32}P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation.

Huber, J.L.A.; Huber, S.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1989-04-01

416

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

417

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

2008-02-28

418

Yeast killer systems.  

PubMed Central

The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed.

Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

1997-01-01

419

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.  

PubMed

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

2012-01-28

420

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva E Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

421

Methods for yeast characterization from industrial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work compared the efficiency of four methods for the identification of industrial yeast strains and the establishment of a pattern for yeast characterization to be used during industrial fermentation processes, allowing the detection of yeast contaminants. Five strains of yeast currently used in the Brazilian fuel alcohol industry (about 99% of the yeast used for this purpose), and yeast

Luiz H Gomes; Keila M. R Duarte; Juan L Argueso; Sergio Echeverrigaray; Flavio C. A Tavares

2000-01-01

422

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Singh, Arjun (Lakewood, CO); Knoshaug, Eric (Golden, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Jarvis, Eric (Boulder, CO); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN)

2010-12-07

423

Immune activation paired with intraoral sucrose conditions oral rejection.  

PubMed

The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LiCl on conditioned taste aversion acquisition using intraoral infusions as the method of taste delivery was examined. Rats received two pairings of an intraorally delivered sucrose (5 ml) taste with the effects of a systemic injection of LPS, LiCl or NaCl. The magnitude of conditioning was quantified by scoring taste reactivity responses to a brief intraoral infusion of sucrose in the absence of any drug injection. Rats previously conditioned with LiCl or LPS displayed clear evidence of conditioned aversion with increased oral rejection responses relative to saline controls. Our results suggest activation of the immune system with LPS can condition consummatory aspects of ingestion when this conditioning involves intraoral fluid presentation. PMID:15371751

Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Hoshooley, Jennifer S; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2004-10-01

424

Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila.  

PubMed

For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience, and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and are modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability, and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose, but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension, and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

2012-03-01

425

Magnetic birefringence of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles stabilised by sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically induced optical birefringence is used to investigate pharmaceutically important iron-sucrose aqueous suspensions. XRD and TEM measurements of the system of oxyhydroxide particles stabilised by sucrose have shown that this system contains iron oxyhydroxide in the form of 2-5 nm particles. The mineral form of the iron-core is suggested to be akaganeite. Anisotropy of the optical polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of akaganeite nanoparticles are calculated. The permanent dipole moment obtained for the nanoparticles studied was found to be negligible, in agreement with the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour of the magnetic nanoparticles observed at room temperature. The Neel temperature of these nanoparticles is estimated as below 276 K. The results obtained are discussed against a background of the earlier studies of similar nanoscale systems.

Koralewski, M.; Pochylski, M.; Gierszewski, J.

2011-05-01

426

Sucrose esters from the surface lipids of Nicotiana cavicola.  

PubMed

Three sucrose esters were isolated and identified for the first time from the surface lipids of Nicotiana cavicola. They contained acetic acid and such branched short-chain fatty acids as 5-methylhexanoic, 5-methylheptanoic, and 6-methylheptanoic acids. The structures of the sucrose esters were 6-O-acetyl-4-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-4,6-O-diacetyl-3-O-acyl-beta- D- fructofuranoside, 4-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1,4-O-diacetyl-3-O-acyl-beta-D-fructofur anoside and 6-O-acetyl-4-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-4-O-acetyl-3-O- acyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside. PMID:7765608

Ohya, I; Sinozaki, Y; Tobita, T; Takahashi, H; Matsuzaki, T; Koiwai, A

1994-09-01

427

A Wound-Inducible Potato Proteinase Inhibitor Gene Expressed in Non-Tuber-Bearing Species Is Not Sucrose Inducible 1  

PubMed Central

Sequences homologous to a potato cathepsin D inhibitor cDNA, p749, were identified in the genomic DNA of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and of two non-tuber-bearing potato species (Solanum etuberosum and S. brevidens) by means of Southern blot analysis. The expression of these p749 genes in leaves was induced at the RNA level in response to wounding. High levels of p749 transcripts were detected in polyadenylated RNA extracted from locally wounded leaves 12 h after wounding. Systemic induction of the cathepsin D inhibitor gene also occurred in nonwounded leaves of wounded plants. Both potato and tomato leaves treated with the oligosaccharide chitosan showed an induced accumulation of p749 transcripts. Even though the cathepsin D inhibitor genes from tomato and from non-tuber-bearing potato species are wound inducible, they could not be induced in leaf explants cultured on medium containing very high concentrations of sucrose. Only leaf explants from the tuber-bearing potato (S. tuberosum) accumulated p749 transcripts when cultured on high sucrose medium. A sequence related to the 22-kD potato proteinase inhibitor cDNA, p34021, was identified in tomato by means of genomic Southern blot analysis. Northern blot hybridization showed that p34021 transcripts accumulated in potato (S. tuberosum) leaf explants, but not in tomato explants, when cultured on high sucrose medium. This study demonstrates that the expression of a potato cathepsin D inhibitor gene in tomato and in non-tuber-bearing potato species is wound inducible, but not sucrose inducible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Hansen, Joel D.; Hannapel, David J.

1992-01-01

428

Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ?, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ? = ?o exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

2009-03-01

429

Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast.  

PubMed

Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3' tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose, the activity of the "wheat gene" driven by the GAL10 promoter is low and ACCase becomes limiting for growth, a condition expected to enhance transgenic yeast sensitivity to wheat ACCase-specific inhibitors. An aryloxyphenoxypropionate and two cyclohexanediones do not inhibit growth of haploid yeast strains containing the yeast ACC1 gene, but one cyclohexanedione inhibits growth of the gene-replacement strains at concentrations below 0.2 mM. In vitro, the activity of wheat cytosolic ACCase produced by the gene-replacement yeast strain is inhibited by haloxyfop and cethoxydim at concentrations above 0.02 mM. The activity of yeast ACCase is less affected. The wheat plastid ACCase in wheat germ extract is inhibited by all three herbicides at concentrations below 0.02 mM. Yeast gene-replacement strains will provide a convenient system for the study of plant ACCases. PMID:11038571

Joachimiak, M; Tevzadze, G; Podkowinski, J; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P

1997-09-01

430

Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast  

PubMed Central

Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3? tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose, the activity of the “wheat gene” driven by the GAL10 promoter is low and ACCase becomes limiting for growth, a condition expected to enhance transgenic yeast sensitivity to wheat ACCase-specific inhibitors. An aryloxyphenoxypropionate and two cyclohexanediones do not inhibit growth of haploid yeast strains containing the yeast ACC1 gene, but one cyclohexanedione inhibits growth of the gene-replacement strains at concentrations below 0.2 mM. In vitro, the activity of wheat cytosolic ACCase produced by the gene-replacement yeast strain is inhibited by haloxyfop and cethoxydim at concentrations above 0.02 mM. The activity of yeast ACCase is less affected. The wheat plastid ACCase in wheat germ extract is inhibited by all three herbicides at concentrations below 0.02 mM. Yeast gene-replacement strains will provide a convenient system for the study of plant ACCases.

Joachimiak, M.; Tevzadze, G.; Podkowinski, J.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

1997-01-01

431

Conversion of pentoses by yeasts  

SciTech Connect

The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

1983-01-01

432

Yeasts from the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts were isolated from twelve established sites in the North Sea from 1964 to 1966. A percentage frequency of 99% with populations varying from 3000 viable cells\\/L was observed. This mycota was characterized by considerable spatial and temporal fluctuation, with the dominant yeast present being the ascosporogenous species, Debaryomyces hansenii. This taxon, as well as other common North Sea yeasts,

S. P. Meyers; D. G. Ahearn; W. Gunkel; F. J. Roth

1967-01-01

433

Glass Transition and Crystallization of Amorphous Trehalose-sucrose Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to investigate the glass transition and crystallization of trehalose-sucrose mixtures at various moisture contents. Samples were freeze-dried, rehumidified, and scanned with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain Tg values for all mixtures and pure sugars. Amorphous cotton candy samples for crystallization studies were prepared, humidified, and monitored for crystallinity as a function of time using powder X-ray

K. D. Roe; T. P. Labuza

2005-01-01

434

Enhancement of Sucrose Sweetness with Soluble Starch in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soluble starch (acid-modified starch) on taste intensity was investigated in human subjects. Different concentrations of sucrose (Suc), six sweeteners, NaCl, quinine-HCl (QHCl) and citric acid (Cit) were dissolved in either distilled water (DW; standard) or starch solution (test solution). The solutions were presented to naive subjects and each subject was requested to taste and compare the sweetness

Norikazu Kanemaru; Shuitsu Harada; Yasuo Kasahara

2002-01-01

435

Biodistribution and predictive hepatic gene expression of intravenous iron sucrose.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: We have examined iron biodistribution and hepatic gene expression in rats following administration of the generic Iron Sucrose Azad (ISA) or the reference iron sucrose drug Venofer®. METHODS: ISA and Venofer® were administered intravenously to normal, non-anemic, male rats at 15mg/kg (a supra-therapeutic dose-level). To evaluate biodistribution, tissue iron levels were determined over 28days for plasma, liver, spleen, bone marrow, heart, kidney, lung and stomach using a validated ICP-MS method. Hepatic gene expression was evaluated by microarray analysis of mRNA from samples taken 24h after drug administration. RESULTS: Iron concentration/time profiles for plasma and tissues were quantitatively similar for ISA and Venofer. Following administration, circulating iron levels briefly exceeded transferrin binding capacity and there was a transient increase in hepatic iron. Bone marrow iron levels remained elevated throughout the study. No increases in tissue iron levels were observed in the heart, stomach or lungs. Spleen iron levels increased over the course of the study in treated and control rats. Small, transient increases were recorded in the kidneys of treated rats. The effects of ISA and Venofer® on hepatic gene transcription were similar. Principal components analysis showed that there was no systematic effect of either treatment on transcriptional profiles. Only a small number of genes showed significant modulation of expression. No transcriptional pattern matches with toxicity pathways were found in the ToxFX database for either treatment. No modulation of key genes in apoptosis, inflammation or oxidative stress pathways was detected. DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrated that the biodistribution of administered iron is essentially similar for Iron Sucrose Azad and Venofer®, that iron sucrose partitions predominantly into the liver, spleen and bone marrow, and that hepatic gene expression studies did not provide any evidence of toxicity in animals treated at a supra-therapeutic dose-level. PMID:23624021

Elford, Peter; Bouchard, Johanne; Jaillet, Léonore; Pearson, Nick; Rogue, Alexandra; Sabadie, Caroline; Forster, Roy

2013-04-25

436

Model of micropore closure in hard carbon prepared from sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of samples pyrolysed to different temperatures were synthesized from dewatered sucrose. These samples were characterised by wide-angle X-Ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS), BET surface area and CO2 gas adsorption measurements. WAXS and SAXS measurements were used to determine the average number of graphene sheets stacked in a parallel fashion and the average micropore size (8–10 Å

E. R. Buiel; A. E. George; J. R. Dahn

1999-01-01

437

Single-locus control of sucrose octaacetate tasting among mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWR\\/J mice avoid sucrose octaacetate (SOA) solutions at concentrations which other inbred strains do not. This phenotypic difference has been hypothesized to result from variation at a single autosomal locus with two alleles, one dominant (Soaa, aversion) and one recessive (Soaa, blind). Data from reciprocal F1 and F2 crosses of SWR\\/J (taster) and C57BL\\/6J (nontaster) mice and from four generations

Giayde Whitney I; David B. Harder

1986-01-01

438

Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 ..mu..CI of /sup 3/H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the /sup 3/H injected as 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of /sup 3/H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than when invert sugar (65%) or cornstarch (60%) were fed. The recovery of /sup 3/H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol.

Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

1986-03-01

439

Antimicrobial activity of extractives of Solidago microglossa.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from Solidago microglossa roots, essential oil from its aerial part and some isolated compounds was investigated. The oil exhibited concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria and yeasts. PMID:16843619

Morel, A F; Dias, G O; Porto, C; Simionatto, E; Stuker, C Z; Dalcol, I I

2006-05-24

440

Evaluation of YeastIdent and Uni-Yeast-Tek yeast identification systems.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of the new API YeastIdent system and the Flow Laboratories Uni-Yeast-Tek identification kit with an expanded data base was evaluated in comparison to the API 20C yeast identification system by three laboratories. A total of 489 test isolates were used, biased toward yeasts commonly encountered in clinical specimens. Isolates not in a system's data base were not counted in the evaluation of that system. For isolates in their data base, YeastIdent was 55% accurate and Uni-Yeast-Tek was 40% accurate. By the manufacturer's criteria of reliable identification without additional tests, both systems failed to identify many common and uncommon species. The limited number of substrates and difficulties in assessing results obtained with 11 of the API YeastIdent substrates and apparent errors in the expanded Uni-Yeast-Tek data base appeared to be major factors limiting the accuracy of these systems.

Salkin, I F; Land, G A; Hurd, N J; Goldson, P R; McGinnis, M R

1987-01-01

441

In vitro inhibition of Candida albicans growth by plant extracts and essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic Candida albicans yeast strain ATCC 10261 grows at 37 °C and gives germ tubes after 3 h on corn meal agar and blood plasma. It produces chlamydospores and assimilates sucrose, dextrose, galactose, maltose, trehalose and xylose among the tested carbon sources. Other growth characters were also investigated. The agar diffusion cut plug technique revealed that 200 µl of

S. M. Ezzat

2001-01-01

442

The Regulatory Properties of Purified Phaseolus aureus Sucrose Synthetase 1  

PubMed Central

Phaseolus aureus sucrose synthetase, purified to homogeneity, was assayed in the presence of a variety of biological compounds to test for possible regulatory effectors. The oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, as well as indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, and pyrophosphate were found to activate the forward reaction (sucrose degradation) and inhibit the reverse reaction (sucrose synthesis). The reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate antagonizes the effect of the oxidized form. Fructose 1-phosphate and divalent cations inhibit the forward and activate the reverse reaction. Pyrophosphate and fructose 1-phosphate are effective only in the presence of magnesium chloride. Uridine triphosphate inhibits both the forward and reverse reactions. All effectors except gibberellic acid are active only in the millimolar range of concentrations; maximal stimulation for any effector is approximately 2-fold. The effects of combinations of effectors are roughly additive. Using pyrophosphate in the presence of magnesium chloride as an effector, results of kinetic studies offer a model by which an effector can activate an enzymatic reaction in one direction and inhibit in the reverse direction.

Delmer, Deborah Pierson

1972-01-01

443

Accumulation of Phosphate, Sulfate and Sucrose by Excised Phloem Tissues  

PubMed Central

Excised petiolar vascular bundles and excised phloem tissues have been shown to take up phosphate, sulfate and sucrose by a true accumulation process and against high concentration ratios. Phosphate was accumulated principally as inorganic phosphate, and sucrose principally as sucrose. The rates of accumulation of the 3 solutes into the phloem-containing tissues were from 4 to 35 times higher than into comparable parenchyma tissue. It is suggested that this active accumulation mechanism plays an important role in the phenomenon of phloem transport. The excised vascular, phloem and parenchyma tissues show an aging phenomenon: aerating the excised tissues for 18 hours prior to their use causes marked changes in the accumulatory behavior of the tissue. The data suggest that 1 phosphate accumulation system of low affinity but high capacity exists in fresh tissue, and that aging allows the development of a second, additional phosphate accumulation mechanism of high affinity and low capacity. A possible role in the control of phosphate movement is suggested.

Bieleski, R. L.

1966-01-01

444

Sucrose, xylitol, and erythritol increase PMMA permeability for depot antibiotics.  

PubMed

Release of antibiotics from antibiotic-loaded PMMA is dependent on its permeability. Loading PMMA with soluble particulate filler has been proposed to increase permeability and antibiotic release for beads and spacers. We therefore assessed particulate sucrose, xylitol, and erythritol as fillers to increase the permeability and elution kinetics of filler-loaded PMMA. Based on lower solubility, we hypothesized that erythritol would not enhance permeability and elution as much as xylitol and sucrose. We made filler-loaded PMMA beads with each of the three fillers combined with phenolphthalein, and soaked in 0.1% NaOH solution. Permeability was assessed qualitatively by relative depth of phenolphthalein color change caused by penetration of NaOH solution into subsequently split beads. Elution was quantitatively assessed by spectrophotometric light absorption measurements of the eluent. Fluid penetration reached the center of 7-mm beads by day 15, similar for all three materials. Elution of phenolphthalein was greater for xylitol than for the other two materials. Particulate sucrose, xylitol, and erythritol fillers increase PMMA permeability and elution kinetics but relative solubility did not determine the relative degree of enhancement of permeability and elution by these materials. PMID:17549030

McLaren, Alex C; McLaren, Sandra G; Hickmon, Miranda K

2007-08-01

445

Biodegradation of sucrose poly fatty acid esters in soils.  

PubMed

Sucrose polyesters (SPEs) were applied to soil at rates equivalent to 1062 to 1293 kg per hectare and incubated over periods of 100 to 403 days at 20 +/- 2 degrees C in darkness and at a soil moisture of 40% of the maximum water holding capacity. All applied forms of SPEs were aerobically biodegraded to some degree in both American and German soil. However, the mineralization rates varied considerably and were dependent on both SPE and soil type. For example, sucrose octaoleate underwent slow and limited mineralization in the German soils Speyer and Borstel as well as in the American soil Madera, reaching only 6.9-18.4% mineralisation after over 400 days incubation. The same material in the American soils Hollande, Thermal and Uvalde as well as in the German soil Speicherkoog, reached 35-52% after the same incubation period. Of the SPEs most realistic for use in food products, the more liquid (i.e. with the least saturated fatty acids) underwent the most rapid and extensive mineralization. However, the mineralization rates for these materials were distinctly lower than the corresponding ones for sucrose octaoleate. In all cases the extent of mineralization of the SPEs in soil was significantly lower than that of a control fat (synthetic triglyceride mixture HB307), which typically underwent over 50% mineralization in 60 days. PMID:9204543

Figge, K; Haigh-Baird, S D

1997-06-01

446

Intracellular trehalase of a hybrid yeast  

PubMed Central

1. The trehalase found in an extract prepared from a yeast strain that cannot ferment trehalose was studied and characterized. The enzyme is highly specific for trehalose with Km 1·02×10?2m, and an optimum pH of 6·9. 2. It is inhibited by glucose and by trehalose 6-phosphate, and does not facilitate any significant transglucosylations. 3. pK values 7·7 and 5·8 were detected for the groups associated with binding of the non-ionized substrate to the enzyme. 4. The trehalase was found to be highly labile and was inhibited by thiol-binding reagents. 5. The possible role of this enzyme in the trehalose-dissimilation patterns in the yeast cell was evaluated.

Avigad, G.; Ziv, Ofra; Neufeld, Edna

1965-01-01

447

Sucrose cocoate, a component of cosmetic preparations, enhances nasal and ocular peptide absorption.  

PubMed

Sucrose cocoate (SL-40), an emulsifier employed in emollient, skin-moisturizing cosmetic formulations, contains a mixture of sucrose esters of coconut fatty acids in aqueous ethanol solution. In order to determine its potential utility in enhancing nasal and ocular drug delivery, absorption studies were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats with calcitonin and insulin, two distinct therapeutic peptides. Administration of a nasal insulin formulation containing 0.5% sucrose cocoate caused a rapid and significant increase in plasma insulin levels, with a concomitant decrease in blood glucose levels. When insulin was administered ocularly in the presence of 0.5% sucrose cocoate, a smaller increase in plasma insulin levels, and a decrease in blood glucose levels, were observed. Administration of a nasal calcitonin formulation containing 0.5% sucrose cocoate caused a rapid increase in plasma calcitonin levels and a concomitant decrease in plasma calcium levels. Mass spectrometric analyses were used to characterize the nature of the sucrose fatty acid esters in the mixture. The most abundant sucrose ester in sucrose cocoate was sucrose monododecanoate, with smaller amounts of sucrose monodecanoate and sucrose monotetradecanoate. In vivo experiments confirmed that this ester was an effective enhancer of nasal peptide drug absorption. PMID:12527189

Ahsan, Fakhrul; Arnold, John J; Meezan, Elias; Pillion, Dennis J

2003-01-30

448

Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation. [Spinacia oleracea  

SciTech Connect

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25{degrees}C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg{sup 2+} and was relatively insensitive to Ca{sup 2+} and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with ({sup 32}P)Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate.

Huber, J.L. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Huber, S.C. (Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh, NC (United States) North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Hite, D.R.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States))

1991-01-01

449

Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

2004-01-01

450

Biosynthesis of yeast mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethidium bromide selectively inhibits growth of the petite negative yeast Kluyveromyces fragilis on a non-fermentable carbon source. In short term experiments, when growth in ethidium is continued for about 11 generations, this inhibition is accompanied by a loss of cyanide sensitive respiration and particulate cytochromes, an initial phase of microcolony production, and an inhibition of mitochondrial DNA synthesis. The loss

A. A. Luha; P. A. Whittaker; R. C. Hammond

1974-01-01

451

Effect of dietary copper and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla  

SciTech Connect

The severity of copper (Cu) deficiency in the rat is enhanced by dietary sucrose. Possible interactive effects of Cu status and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet containing either glucose or sucrose, as compared with respective Cu-adequate controls. Catecholamines were analyzed by an HPLC method using 3,4-dihydroxybenxylamine as the internal standard. Cu deficiency caused pronounced decreases in norepinephrine and epinephrine, with no significant effect on dopamine, as expressed in nmoles/mg tissue. Dietary sucrose showed no appreciable effect on catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands were markedly enlarged in Cu-deficient rats, whether fed glucose or sucrose. Adrenal weights were not affected by dietary sucrose. Data indicate that the increased severity of copper deficiency due to sucrose feeding is not associated with changes in adrenal catecholamine output.

Koo, S.I.; Peterson, D.F.; Mason, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States) KCOM, Kirksville, MO (United States) Air Force/SAM/RZP, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

1991-03-11

452

Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.  

PubMed

The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-05-15

453

Effect of sugars on the development of oxidative stress induced by hypothermia in potato plants expressing yeast invertase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sugars on the development of oxidative stress induced by hypothermia was investigated in the leaves of two\\u000a genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in vitro on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. We used wild-type plants of potato, cv.\\u000a Désirée, and potato plants expressing a yeast invertase gene under the control of the

A. N. Deryabin; M. S. Sin’kevich; I. M. Dubinina; E. A. Burakhanova; T. I. Trunova

2007-01-01

454

Identification and nuclear localization of yeast pre-messenger RNA processing components: RNA2 and RNA3 proteins  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive mutations in the RNA2 through RNA11 genes of yeast prevent the processing of nuclear pre-mRNAs. We have raised antisera that detect the RNA2 and RNA3 proteins in immunoblots of extracts of yeast containing high copy number RNA2 and RNA3 plasmids. Subcellular fractionation of yeast cells that overproduce the RNA2 and RNA3 proteins has revealed that these proteins are enriched in nuclear fractions. Indirect immunofluorescence results have indicated that these proteins are localized in yeast nuclei. These localization results are consistent with the fact that these genes have a role in processing yeast pre-mRNA.

1986-01-01

455

Enzymic Activities in Pre-Rigor and Post-Rigor Sarcoplasmic Extracts of Chicken Pectoral Muscles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was confirmed that myogen (extracted in hypotonic salt solutions) and sarcoplasm (obtained by gentle homogenization in hypertonic sucrose solutions) from chicken pectoral muscle differ in content of certain cationic components. One of the proteins redu...

J. M. Neelin D. J. Ecobichon

1965-01-01

456

L-arabinose fermenting yeast  

DOEpatents

An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

2013-02-12

457

Effect and mechanism of action of aphidicolin on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases.  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic aphidicolin inhibited in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis catalyzed by crude yeast extracts and by partially purified yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerases. The mechanism of action of aphidicolin on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I was noncompetitive with deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, and deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate and was of the mixed type with deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate. The relative ratio of enzyme to the template-initiator complex was important for detecting the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic. The inhibition of in vitro deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by aphidicolin was reversible, and the effect on yeast deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase might have been partially mediated by some supplementary factor(s).

Plevani, P; Badaracco, G; Ginelli, E; Sora, S

1980-01-01

458

Binding kinetics of magnetic nanoparticles on latex beads and yeast cells studied by magnetorelaxometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion exchange mediated binding of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to modified latex spheres and yeast cells was quantified using magnetorelaxometry. By fitting subsequently recorded relaxation curves, the kinetics of the binding reactions was extracted. The signal of MNP with weak ion exchanger groups bound to latex and yeast cells scales linearly with the concentration of latex beads or yeast cells whereas that of MNP with strong ion exchanger groups is proportional to the square root of concentration. The binding of the latter leads to a much stronger aggregation of yeast cells than the former MNP.

Eberbeck, Dietmar; Bergemann, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz

2005-03-01

459

Sucrose is metabolised by sucrose synthase and glycolysis within the phloem complex of Ricinus communis L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolites and enzyme activities were measured in the phloem sap exuding from a cut hypocotyl of germinating castor-bean (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings. The sap contained considerable quantities of adenine nucleotides, uridine nucleotides, uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPGlc), all the major phosphorylated metabolites required for glycolysis, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and pyrophosphate. Supplying 200 mM glucose instead of sucrose to the cotyledons resulted in high concentrations

Peter Geigenberger; Silke Langenberger; Ingo Wilke; Dieter Heineke; Hans W. Heldt; Mark Stitt

1993-01-01

460

Insulin Activity: Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon and Brewer’s Yeast as Influenced by Albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamon and Brewer’s yeast extracts have been shown to potentiate the action of insulin in isolated adipocytes. In this study, isolated rat epididymal adipocytes were used to evaluate the influence of bovine serum albumin on insulin activity as affected by cinnamon and Brewer’s yeast extracts. Albumin at 0.01-0.1 % decreased the insulin stimulatory effects of cinnamon from 11.8-to 5.3-fold and

Lincoln F. Berrio; Marilyn M. Polansky; Richard A. Anderson

1992-01-01

461

Antioxidant activities and anticancer effects of red yeast rice grown in the medium containing garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture time on antioxidant and anticancer activities of red yeast rice-garlic (RYRG) ethanol extracts were\\u000a investigated. RYRG is a product of red yeast rice (Monascus pilosus) grown in medium containing garlic for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of RYRG extracts\\u000a were increasing with the length of culture periods.

Hye-Jin Park; In-Sook Kim

2011-01-01

462

The influence of sucrose, 2,4-D, and kinetin on the growth, fine structure, and lignin content of cultured sycamore cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When suspensions of sycamore cells are cultured in a synthetic medium containing 1.0 mg\\/l 2,4-D and 0.25 mg\\/l kinetin, maximum cell yield is obtained with an initial concentration of 6 per cent sucrose. There is a progressive increase in dry weight per cell, decline in extractive-free weight as a percentage of cell dry weight and increase in lignin content

Marta Carceller; M. R. Davey; M. W. Fowler

1971-01-01

463

Enhancing oral moisture using an extract of Capparis masaikai Levl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Capparis masaikai Levl. extract on enhancing oral moisture. Solutions of Capparis masaikai extract, citric acid, sodium chloride, and sucrose were dropped on the tongue dorsum of 20 healthy subjects aged 23–34 years. After swallowing each solution, the oral moisture was measured for 60min using a saliva wetness tester

K. Kitada; M. Ishikawa; K. Shibuya; T. Nakasugi; T. Oho

2008-01-01

464

Characteristics of Sucrose Transport and Sucrose-Induced H+ Transport on the Tonoplast of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose-induced changes of the energization state of the red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) vacuolar membrane were observed with the fluorescent dyes 6-chloro-9-{[4-(diethylamino)- 1-methylbutyl]-amino}-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride, as a pH monitor, and 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine (ACMA). Consequently, transient acidification of the surrounding suspension medium could be measured with a pH electrode. This signal was specific for Suc and was not seen for sorbitol, mannitol, or maltose. Sucrose-induced medium acidification was sensitive to the same inhibitors that were efficient in inhibiting sucrose transport, including the monoclonal antibodies TNP56-12 and C50-5-3. It was seen with vacuoles and vesicles energized with MgATP before sucrose was added but also with vacuoles not artificially energized previously. Using bafilomycin A1 for the inhibition of the vacuolar ATPase of vacuoles previously energized by MgATP, apparent Km values for H+ export from the vacuoles to the medium could be calculated taking into account the passive proton leak. Apparent Km values for H+ export determined from data obtained with pH measurements in the medium and with ACMA corresponded to those obtained previously for sucrose uptake. Comparing sucrose uptake rates with corresponding H+ export rates at the respective sucrose concentrations and at Km, a stoichiometry of approximately one proton per transported sucrose was estimated.

Getz, H. P.; Klein, M.

1995-01-01

465

Moulds, yeasts and aerobic plate counts in ginseng supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty six ginseng supplement samples including Siberian ginseng root, Chinese ginseng herb and root, and American ginseng root and extract were purchased from retail in the Washington, DC area and from Penn Herb Co. (Philadelphia, PA) and tested for mould and yeast (MY) contamination and the pres